X-ray diffraction (XRD)
X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a characterisation technique used for examining the fine structure of matter. It is used in the determination of crystal structure, qualitative phase identification, quantitative phase analysis, particle size and strain measurements, and the study of preferred orientation in crystals. The MAU is equipped with a Bruker D8 Discover diffractometer that facilitates automatic measurement of up to 30 samples which is particularly suitable for routine analysis of a large number of samples. In addition to this, the instrument is equipped with a capillary stage for small amounts of sample, an XYZ stage for larger solid objects and a non ambient temperature stage that has a range of -196 C to 1600 C.
Parallel beam geometry is also available on this diffractometer which allows measurements of thin films, surfaces and multilayers.
Data analysis capabilities for XRD include the use of the ICDD-JCPDS CD-ROM database consisting of more than 340,000 patterns for qualitative phase identification, as well as the Topas software package (Rietveld refinement method) for crystal structure determination and quantitative phase analysis.