Dr. Cao is a Research Fellow in Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology at University of Technology Sydney (UTS). He was conferred a dual PhD program in Information Technology from UTS, and Electrical and Control Engineering from National Chiao Tung University (NCTU). He received the Master degree in The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) and Bachelor degree in Northeastern University (NEU). Currently, he is mainly focusing on the capacity of the human brain communicating and interacting with the computer and environment, at assisting and augmenting human cognition. His research interests cover signal processing, data mining, brain-computer interface, bioinformatics, fuzzy systems, neural networks, machine learning, cognitive neuroscience, optimisation and clinical applications.
IEEE Access (IF=3.6)
Advances in Robotics & Automation (IF=1.6)
International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications (IF=0.7)
Swarm and Evolutionary Computation (IF=3.8) - “Evolutionary Data Mining for Big Data”
IEEE Access (IF=3.6) - “Integrating Informatics and Their Applications in Health and Neural Engineering”
Neurocomputing (IF=3.3) - “Fuzzy Learning and Their Applications in Neural Engineering”
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks (IF=1.7) - “Multi-Sensor Information Fusion”
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine, IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computational Intelligence, IEEE Access, Neurocomputing, NeuroImage, Human Brain Mapping, Cephalalgia, Journal of Headache Pain, Frontiers in Neuroscience and Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
IEEE-GlobalSIP (2018), IEEE-FUZZY (2017), IJCNN (2015), BME Annual Conference of Taiwan (2015).
He served as a Co-Chief Investigator for two projects funded by Australia Defence Science and Technology Group and Australia NSW Defence Innovation Network Project. He also served as a Research Associate of several research projects funded by the Australia Research Council, US Army Research Lab and Ministry of Science and Technology, R.O.C. He holds Innovation Patents in Taiwan and China.
Key member of China Australia Millennial Project (2018), UTS CAI Best Paper (2017), UTS FEIT Publication Award (2017), Finalist Award of ‘Win in Suzhou’ Innovation and Entrepreneurship Competition (2017), UTS FEIT&CAI Travel Fund (2017), UTS Post-Thesis Scholarship (2017), UTS President Scholarship (2015), NCTU&Songshanhu Scholarship (2013), CUHK Outstanding Graduate (2013), NEU College Scholarships (2010-2012).
Can supervise: YES
Signal Processing, Data Mining, Brain Computer Interface, Bioinformatics, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Cognitive Neuroscience and Clinical Applications
SONFIN Training Courses - Defence Science and Technology Group, Adelaide (April/August, 2018)
Industry Study 1 - Cooperation with Westpac (32933/ Spring 2018, UTS)
Research Project - Wearable Devices for Health (48410/ Spring 2018, UTS)
Engineering Introduction (32933/ Autumn 2018, UTS)
Technology Research Preparation (32144/ Autumn 2017, UTS)
Cognitive Neuro-Engineering (Spring 2015, NCTU)
Signal Processing (Autumn 2014, NCTU)
Fuzzy Systems and Neural Networks (Spring 2014, NCTU)
He, T, Cai, L, Meng, T, Chen, L, Deng, Z & Cao, Z 2018, 'Parallel Community Detection Based on Distance Dynamics for Large-Scale Network', IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 42775-42789.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2013 IEEE. Data mining task is a challenge on finding a high-quality community structure from large-scale networks. The distance dynamics model was proved to be active on regular-size network community, but it is difficult to discover the community structure effectively from the large-scale network (0.1-1 billion edges), due to the limit of machine hardware and high time complexity. In this paper, we proposed a parallel community detection algorithm based on the distance dynamics model called P-Attractor, which is capable of handling the detection problem of large networks community. Our algorithm first developed a graph partitioning method to divide large network into lots of sub-networks, yet maintaining the complete neighbor structure of the original network. Then, the traditional distance dynamics model was improved by the dynamic interaction process to simulate the distance evolution of each sub-network. Finally, we discovered the real community structure by removing all external edges after evolution process. In our extensive experiments on multiple synthetic networks and real-world networks, the results showed the effectiveness and efficiency of P-Attractor, and the execution time on 4 threads and 32 threads are around 10 and 2 h, respectively. Our proposed algorithm is potential to discover community from a billion-scale network, such as Uk-2007.
Cao, Z & Lin, CT 2018, 'Inherent Fuzzy Entropy for the Improvement of EEG Complexity Evaluation', IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 1032-1035.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. In recent years, the concept of entropy has been widely used to measure the dynamic complexity of signals. Since the state of complexity of human beings is significantly affected by their health state, developing accurate complexity evaluation algorithms is a crucial and urgent area of study. This paper proposes using inherent fuzzy entropy (Inherent FuzzyEn) and its multiscale version, which employs empirical mode decomposition and fuzzy membership function (exponential function) to address the dynamic complexity in electroencephalogram (EEG) data. In the literature, the reliability of entropy-based complexity evaluations has been limited by superimposed trends in signals and a lack of multiple time scales. Our proposed method represents the first attempt to use the Inherent FuzzyEn algorithm to increase the reliability of complexity evaluation in realistic EEG applications. We recorded the EEG signals of several subjects under resting condition, and the EEG complexity was evaluated using approximate entropy, sample entropy, FuzzyEn, and Inherent FuzzyEn, respectively. The results indicate that Inherent FuzzyEn is superior to other competing models regardless of the use of fuzzy or nonfuzzy structures, and has the most stable complexity and smallest root mean square deviation.
Cao, Z, Lai, K-L, Lin, C-T, Chuang, C-H, Chou, C-C & Wang, S-J 2018, 'Exploring resting-state EEG complexity before migraine attacks.', Cephalalgia: an international journal of headache, pp. 333102417733953-333102417733953.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Objective Entropy-based approaches to understanding the temporal dynamics of complexity have revealed novel insights into various brain activities. Herein, electroencephalogram complexity before migraine attacks was examined using an inherent fuzzy entropy approach, allowing the development of an electroencephalogram-based classification model to recognize the difference between interictal and preictal phases. Methods Forty patients with migraine without aura and 40 age-matched normal control subjects were recruited, and the resting-state electroencephalogram signals of their prefrontal and occipital areas were prospectively collected. The migraine phases were defined based on the headache diary, and the preictal phase was defined as within 72 hours before a migraine attack. Results The electroencephalogram complexity of patients in the preictal phase, which resembled that of normal control subjects, was significantly higher than that of patients in the interictal phase in the prefrontal area (FDR-adjusted p<0.05) but not in the occipital area. The measurement of test-retest reliability (n=8) using the intra-class correlation coefficient was good with r1=0.73 ( p=0.01). Furthermore, the classification model, support vector machine, showed the highest accuracy (76±4%) for classifying interictal and preictal phases using the prefrontal electroencephalogram complexity. Conclusion Entropy-based analytical methods identified enhancement or "normalization" of frontal electroencephalogram complexity during the preictal phase compared with the interictal phase. This classification model, using this complexity feature, may have the potential to provide a preictal alert to migraine without aura patients.
Chuang, C-H, Cao, Z, King, J-T, Wu, B-S, Wang, Y-K & Lin, C-T 2018, 'Brain Electrodynamic and Hemodynamic Signatures Against Fatigue During Driving.', Frontiers in neuroscience, vol. 12, p. 181.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Fatigue is likely to be gradually cumulated in a prolonged and attention-demanding task that may adversely affect task performance. To address the brain dynamics during a driving task, this study recruited 16 subjects to participate in an event-related lane-departure driving experiment. Each subject was instructed to maintain attention and task performance throughout an hour-long driving experiment. The subjects' brain electrodynamics and hemodynamics were simultaneously recorded via 32-channel electroencephalography (EEG) and 8-source/16-detector functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The behavior performance demonstrated that all subjects were able to promptly respond to lane-deviation events, even if the sign of fatigue arose in the brain, which suggests that the subjects were fighting fatigue during the driving experiment. The EEG event-related analysis showed strengthening alpha suppression in the occipital cortex, a common brain region of fatigue. Furthermore, we noted increasing oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) of the brain to fight driving fatigue in the frontal cortex, primary motor cortex, parieto-occipital cortex and supplementary motor area. In conclusion, the increasing neural activity and cortical activations were aimed at maintaining driving performance when fatigue emerged. The electrodynamic and hemodynamic signatures of fatigue fighting contribute to our understanding of the brain dynamics of driving fatigue and address driving safety issues through the maintenance of attention and behavioral performance.
Ding, W, Lin, C-T & Cao, Z 2018, 'Deep Neuro-Cognitive Co-Evolution for Fuzzy Attribute Reduction by Quantum Leaping PSO With Nearest-Neighbor Memeplexes.', IEEE transactions on cybernetics.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Attribute reduction with many patterns and indicators has been regarded as an important approach for large-scale data mining and machine learning tasks. However, it is extremely difficult for researchers to inadequately extract knowledge and insights from multiple overlapping and interdependent fuzzy datasets from the current changing and interconnected big data sources. This paper proposes a deep neuro-cognitive co-evolution for fuzzy attribute reduction (DNCFAR) that contains a combination of quantum leaping particle swarm optimization with nearest-neighbor memeplexes. A key element of DNCFAR resides in its deep neuro-cognitive cooperative co-evolution structure, which is explicitly permitted to identify interdependent variables and adaptively decompose them in the same neuro-subpopulation, with minimizing the complexity and nonseparability of interdependent variables among different fuzzy attribute subsets. Next DNCFAR formalizes to the different types of quantum leaping particles with nearest-neighbor memeplexes to share their respective solutions and deeply cooperate to evolve the assigned fuzzy attribute subsets. The experimental results demonstrate that DNCFAR can achieve competitive performance in terms of average computational efficiency and classification accuracy while reinforcing noise tolerance. Furthermore, it can be well applied to clearly identify different longitudinal surfaces of infant cerebrum regions, which indicates its great potential for brain disorder prediction based on fMRI.
Ding, W, Lin, CT, Prasad, M, Cao, Z & Wang, JD 2018, 'A Layered-Coevolution-Based Attribute-Boosted Reduction Using Adaptive Quantum Behavior PSO and Its Consistent Segmentation for Neonates Brain Tissue', IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
IEEE The main challenge of attribute reduction in large data applications is to develop a new algorithm to deal with large, noisy, and uncertain large data linking multiple relevant data sources, structured or unstructured. This paper proposes a new and efficient layered-coevolution-based attribute-boosted reduction algorithm (LCQ-ABR*) using adaptive quantum behavior particle swarm optimization (PSO). First, the quantum rotation angle of an evolutionary particle is updated by a dynamic change of self-adapting step size. Second, a self-adaptive partitioning strategy is employed to group particles into different memeplexes, and the quantum-behavior mechanism with the particles & #x0027; states depicted by the wave function cooperates to achieve superior performance in their respective memeplexes. Third, a new layered co-evolutionary model with multi-agent interaction is constructed to decompose a complex attribute set, and it can self-adapt the attribute sizes among different layers and produce the reasonable decompositions by exploiting any interdependency among multiple relevant attribute subsets. Fourth, the decomposed attribute subsets are evolved to compute the positive region and discernibility matrix by using their best quantum particles, and the global optimal reduction set is induced successfully. Finally, extensive comparative experiments are provided to illustrate that LCQ-ABR* has better feasibility and effectiveness of attribute reduction on large-scale and uncertain dataset problems with complex noise, compared with representative algorithms. Moreover, LCQ-ABR* can be successfully applied in the consistent segmentation for neonatal brain 3D-MRI, and the consistent segmentation results further demonstrate its stronger applicability.
Lin, C, Liu, Y-T, Wu, S-L, Cao, Z, Wang, Y, Huang, C-S, King, J-T, Chen, S-A, Lu, S-W & Chuang, C 2017, 'EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interfaces: A Novel Neurotechnology and Computational Intelligence Method', IEEE Systems Man and Cybernetics Magazine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 16-26.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article presents the latest BCI-related research done in our group. Our previous work applied computational intelligence technology in BCIs to inspire detailed investigations of practical issues in real-life applications. Novel EEG devices featuring dry electrodes facilitate and speed up electrode positioning before recording and allow subjects to move freely in operational environments. We also demonstrate the feasibility of applying CCA, RBFNs, effective connectivity measurements, and D-S theory to help BCIs extract informative knowledge from brain signals. Two recent trends in research in the computational and artificial intelligence community, big data and deep learning, are expected to impact the direction and development of BCIs.
Lin, CT, Chuang, CH, Cao, Z, Singh, AK, Hung, CS, Yu, YH, Nascimben, M, Liu, YT, King, JT, Su, TP & Wang, SJ 2017, 'Forehead EEG in Support of Future Feasible Personal Healthcare Solutions: Sleep Management, Headache Prevention, and Depression Treatment', IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 10612-10621.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2013 IEEE. There are current limitations in the recording technologies for measuring EEG activity in clinical and experimental applications. Acquisition systems involving wet electrodes are time-consuming and uncomfortable for the user. Furthermore, dehydration of the gel affects the quality of the acquired data and reliability of long-term monitoring. As a result, dry electrodes may be used to facilitate the transition from neuroscience research or clinical practice to real-life applications. EEG signals can be easily obtained using dry electrodes on the forehead, which provides extensive information concerning various cognitive dysfunctions and disorders. This paper presents the usefulness of the forehead EEG with advanced sensing technology and signal processing algorithms to support people with healthcare needs, such as monitoring sleep, predicting headaches, and treating depression. The proposed system for evaluating sleep quality is capable of identifying five sleep stages to track nightly sleep patterns. Additionally, people with episodic migraines can be notified of an imminent migraine headache hours in advance through monitoring forehead EEG dynamics. The depression treatment screening system can predict the efficacy of rapid antidepressant agents. It is evident that frontal EEG activity is critically involved in sleep management, headache prevention, and depression treatment. The use of dry electrodes on the forehead allows for easy and rapid monitoring on an everyday basis. The advances in EEG recording and analysis ensure a promising future in support of personal healthcare solutions.
Cao, Z, Lin, C-T, Chuang, C-H, Lai, K-L, Yang, AC, Fuh, J-L & Wang, S-J 2016, 'Resting-state EEG power and coherence vary between migraine phases.', The journal of headache and pain, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 102.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Migraine is characterized by a series of phases (inter-ictal, pre-ictal, ictal, and post-ictal). It is of great interest whether resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) is differentiable between these phases.We compared resting-state EEG energy intensity and effective connectivity in different migraine phases using EEG power and coherence analyses in patients with migraine without aura as compared with healthy controls (HCs). EEG power and isolated effective coherence of delta (1-3.5 Hz), theta (4-7.5 Hz), alpha (8-12.5 Hz), and beta (13-30 Hz) bands were calculated in the frontal, central, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions.Fifty patients with episodic migraine (1-5 headache days/month) and 20 HCs completed the study. Patients were classified into inter-ictal, pre-ictal, ictal, and post-ictal phases (n=22, 12, 8, 8, respectively), using 36-h criteria. Compared to HCs, inter-ictal and ictal patients, but not pre- or post-ictal patients, had lower EEG power and coherence, except for a higher effective connectivity in fronto-occipital network in inter-ictal patients (p<.05). Compared to data obtained from the inter-ictal group, EEG power and coherence were increased in the pre-ictal group, with the exception of a lower effective connectivity in fronto-occipital network (p<.05). Inter-ictal and ictal patients had decreased EEG power and coherence relative to HCs, which were "normalized" in the pre-ictal or post-ictal groups.Resting-state EEG power density and effective connectivity differ between migraine phases and provide an insight into the complex neurophysiology of migraine.
Cao, Z, Prasad, M & Lin, CT 2017, 'Estimation of SSVEP-based EEG complexity using inherent fuzzy entropy', IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, IEEE, Naples, Italy.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. This study considers the dynamic changes of complexity feature by fuzzy entropy measurement and repetitive steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) stimulus. Since brain complexity reflects the ability of the brain to adapt to changing situations, we suppose such adaptation is closely related to the habituation, a form of learning in which an organism decreases or increases to respond to a stimulus after repeated presentations. By a wearable electroencephalograph (EEG) with Fpz and Oz electrodes, EEG signals were collected from 20 healthy participants in one resting and five-times 15 Hz SSVEP sessions. Moreover, EEG complexity feature was extracted by multi-scale Inherent Fuzzy Entropy (IFE) algorithm, and relative complexity (RC) was defined the difference between resting and SSVEP. Our results showed the enhanced frontal and occipital RC was accompanied with increased stimulus times. Compared with the 1st SSVEP session, the RC was significantly higher than the 5th SSVEP session at frontal and occipital areas (p < 0.05). It suggested that brain has adapted to changes in stimulus influence, and possibly connected with the habituation. In conclusion, effective evaluation of IFE has a potential EEG signature of complexity in the SSEVP-based experiment.
Cao, ZH, Ko, LW, Lai, KL, Huang, SB, Wang, SJ & Lin, CT 2015, 'Classification of migraine stages based on resting-state EEG power', Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IEEE, Killarney, Ireland.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 IEEE. Migraine is a chronic neurological disease characterized by recurrent moderate to severe headaches during a period like one month often in association with symptoms in human brain and autonomic nervous system. Normally, migraine symptoms can be categorized into four different stages: inter-ictal, pre-ictal, ictal, and post-ictal stages. Since migraine patients are difficulty knowing when they will suffer migraine attacks, therefore, early detection becomes an important issue, especially for low-frequency migraine patients who have less than 5 times attacks per month. The main goal of this study is to develop a migraine-stage classification system based on migraineurs' resting-state EEG power. We collect migraineurs' O1 and O2 EEG activities during closing eyes from occipital lobe to identify pre-ictal and non-pre-ictal stages. Self-Constructing Neural Fuzzy Inference Network (SONFIN) is adopted as the classifier in the migraine stages classification which can reach the better classification accuracy (66%) in comparison with other classifiers. The proposed system is helpful for migraineurs to obtain better treatment at the right time.
- Asia: China - Northeast University, Hunan University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Southwest University, Chongqing University, Guizhou University; Hong Kong - The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Taiwan - National Chiao Tung University, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei Veterans General Hospital
- Oceania: Australia - Australia Defence and Science Technology Group, University of Sydney, University of New South Wales.