Dr Yongjian Ke is a Senior Lecturer in Project Management in the School of Built Environment at UTS. He received a Ph.D. in Management Science and Engineering and a B.Eng. in Project Management from Tsinghua University, China in 2010 and 2005 respectively. Prior to joining UTS in September 2016, he worked as a Lecturer at University of Newcastle from June 2013 to August 2016, and a Research Fellow at National University of Singapore from July 2010 to May 2013.
Placing emphasis on the implicit rather than the explicit where contracts between professionals and patrons are concerned, Dr Yongjian Ke is seeking to ensure the longevity, safety, and productivity of Asia Pacific's burgeoning construction industry. He has built an enviable publication and citation track record, which demonstrates his productivity and leadership in conducting advanced research relevant to construction project management. Several of his papers were ranked in the most cited papers in some first-tier journals such as ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. His research has won several awards such as Best Paper Award at the 2015 CIB International Symposium: Going North for Sustainability, 2014 Highly Commended Paper Award from Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, 2010 Highly Commended Award of Emerald/EFMD Outstanding Doctoral Research, and 2009 National Excellent Paper from Architectural Society of China.
Can supervise: YES
The research interests of Dr Ke in general fall into project delivery and management, contracting behaviours, social acceptance and sustainability of urban infrastructures including transport, aged care, smart cities. Dr Ke is a big believer in sharing – sharing responsibilities, sharing risks and sharing values. Placing emphasis on the implicit rather than the explicit where contracts are concerned, he is seeking to ensure the safety, productivity, and sustainability of the burgeoning construction industry.
Procurement and Delivery of Urban Infrastructure
Main approaches to project delivery of urban infrastructures include Traditional Contracting (such as Design-Bid-Build and Design-Build), Relational Contracting (such as Alliance in Australia) and Public-Private Partnership (PPP). Dr Ke has and will continue to investigate the application of PPP in infrastructure development (e.g. transport, aged care, health, smart cities) with a focus on delivery models, risk management, social sustainability, and value creation.
Risk Allocation and Management
Public-Private Partnership (PPP) financing modality has the ability to alleviate the budgetary pressure to the government, fulfil the infrastructure development need, and improve the operation efficiency. However, the negotiations between the government and the investors are time-consuming and costly. Disputes often arise during the concession period because of changes in various risks or non-performance of its obligations. Only a few PPP projects in China could perform successfully.
Relational Contracting in Megaprojects
Relational contracting (RC), which is based on the recognition of mutual benefits and win-win scenarios and involves cooperative relationships between contracting parties, has the potential to provide significant performance advantages in complex projects. Such emphasis on collaboration and coordination has been realized through two main types of RC approaches: the first is a contractually structured way to an “all sink-or-swim-together” scenario and the second is not a procurement choice per se, but an enacted philosophy to be applied to any other procurement forms. Relational contracting behaviours (RCBs) in the first type approach are more explicit and specific than those in the second approach, and importantly, are generally written in contracts.
Social Acceptance and Sustainability
The notion of sustainable development has come to guide the pursuit of reforms by both public and private sectors. It is customary to characterize sustainable development in a familiar typology comprising three pillars: environmental, economic, and social sustainability. The relationships among these dimensions are generally assumed to be compatible and mutually supportive. However, there is a significant growing concern in several areas that the social dimension is missing. Social sustainability – the forgotten pillar – is widely perceived to be more difficult to define and operationalise than the other two sustainability pillars. It is very difficult to perceive and measure the achievement of social sustainability due to its characteristics such as long term, complex, and diverse nature. Social acceptance is then considered as one of the ingredients of, or a prerequisite to, social sustainability. For a project to be deemed socially sustainable, it should at minimum enjoy wider social acceptance.
Education in Project Management
Being the Acting Director of Postgraduate Project Management Programs at UTS, Dr Ke is keen to look at the development of formal education in project management. Unlike training as short courses to develop specific skills, formal education in project management can offer structured programs to impart knowledge and develop competence, which is hence an essential part of the development of the profession of project management. However, there are many issues facing educators such as differences in culture, values and language in project management, practical relevance of the education program, and work-readiness of project management graduates. New modes of teaching and learning have been discussed and piloted, such as flipped class, online teaching, intensive blocks, blended teaching, etc. UTS Project Management team is currently using intensive block mode to create a simulated project environment so that students can work in small groups to develop solutions to project problems.
Dr Ke is looking after and teaching the Postgraduate Project Management Programs (including Master of Project Management, Graduate Certificate in Project Management, Master of Property Development and Project Management) at UTS. The intensive block teaching is used at UTS, which involves an intensive four-days of study in workshops from Monday to Thursday. The subjects that he teaches are:
15115 Advances in Project Management – Offered in Spring Semester
This subject is designed to enhance the research awareness and capability of the students. It focuses on new developments stemming from research in the project management discipline. The subject enables students to understand how research is done in the discipline, covers the main trends, and provides fresh insights from some of the leading thinkers in the discipline. Students also develop skills to support the initiation of research investigations in the discipline.
15317 Advanced Project Risk Management – Offered in Autumn Semester
The subject focuses on the specialised management of project risk in different industry sectors. It is aimed at developing an understanding of the importance of managing risk from an organisational and situational perspective when implementing a project. Evaluation of risk and alignment to the delivery of value while exploiting market opportunities extends existing knowledge of risk management techniques.
15319 Project Risk, Procurement and Quality Management – Offered in Autumn & Spring Semesters
This subject explores and develops the key concepts and techniques necessary to understand and practise the core project management competencies of risk, quality and procurement management. Topics in risk management include planning for and identifying risks, performing risk analysis, and responding to and controlling risks. Topics in procurement management include planning, conducting, controlling and closing procurement activities. Topics in quality management include planning for quality, performing quality assurance and controlling. Students work independently and in small groups on a range of assessment tasks. This subject contributes to the graduate attributes of critical thinking, communication and an ability to apply tools and techniques and adapt project management knowledge to meet contextual demands, relative to industry practice.
15327 Managing Project Complexity – Offered in Autumn Semester
This is a scenario and problem-based subject that is delivered through an intensive workshop. It explores sources of complexity in projects; how complexity manifests in projects; relevant theory informing management decisions; implications for managing risk, schedule, budget; procurement; governance; capabilities needed for management of complex projects; and tools and methods for managing different kinds of complexity in industry settings.
Ke, Y & Ye, J 2018, Public-Private Partnerships in Australia, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, China.
The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter outlines the definition and connotation of Australia's infrastructure and PPP. The second chapter introduces the development of PPP model in Australia from the origin and drive, analyzes the current investment environment and application status, and discusses Prospects for the PPP model; Chapter 3 outlines Australia's PPP policy framework and institutional framework; Chapter 4 further describes the operational aspects of the Australian PPP model, including key steps in project investment procurement, key steps in project operations, and project operations. The main points of attention, etc.; Chapter 5 selects seven Australian infrastructure projects, including five success stories and two failure cases, to explore the key success factors of PPP projects from different perspective
Li, Y & Song, W 2018, Public-Private Partnerships in Canada, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, China.
Peng, P 2018, Public-Private Partnerships in Singapore, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, China.
Song, W, Zhang, C, Tang, X, Wang, K & Si, H 2018, Public-Private Partnerships in Japan, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, China.
Ke, Y & Wang, SQ 2011, Concession Project Financing (PPP): Risk Allocation and Management, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, China.
Wang, SQ & Ke, Y 2008, Concession Project Financing (PPP/BOT/PFI), Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, China.
Cheng, Z, Ke, Y, Yang, Z, Cai, J & Wang, H 2020, 'Diversification or convergence: An international comparison of PPP policy and management between UK, India and China', Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print, no. ahead-of-print.View/Download from: Publisher's site
PurposeAs an innovation model for infrastructure and public service delivery, public–private partnership (PPP) has been widely adopted around the world. The knowledge spillover effect and policy diffusion mechanism have played an important role in promoting the development of PPP in the context of globalization. A comparative evaluation of the policy and management of PPP in different countries will help to understand the development of PPP, provide decision-making reference for PPP policy embedded with specific national conditions of each country, and also contribute to the global PPP knowledge body.Design/methodology/approachBased on the principle of comparability and representativeness, this study selected three countries, namely, China, India, and the United Kingdom for comparative analysis. This study first introduced the policy process and key institutions of PPP in three countries. Secondly, a comparative analysis of the development characteristics and application of PPP was conducted based on the official database of three countries. Finally, the differences, influencing factors and development trends of international PPP development were analyzed based on the comparative research results, and suggestions for PPP policy and management were put forward.FindingsThe research results indicate the development fluctuation and unbalanced spatial distribution of PPPs are a common phenomenon in the three countries. The UK has a significant impact on the policy and development of PPP in other countries. However, under the combined influence of factors such as economic, urbanization, political regime and social culture, there are significant differences in the PPP institution, application, and pro...
Mwelu, N, Davis, P, Ke, Y, Jefferies, M & Watundu, S 2020, 'Success Factors for Implementing Uganda’s Public Road Construction Projects', The International Journal of Construction Management.
© 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: The propose of this study is to focus on the mediating role of compliance with procurement regulatory frameworks in implementing public road construction projects. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional research design was adopted. Structured questionnaires were developed in a three-step process including generating items, purifying measurement items and validating measurement items. Variables were anchored on a five-point Likert scale because it is an efficient unidimensional scale that ensures all items measure the same thing and widely applicable in construction research. Findings: The findings show that compliance with a public procurement regulatory framework significantly mediates the relationship between familiarity with a public procurement regulatory framework, monitoring activities, sanction on staff and contractors’ resistance to non-compliance and public road construction project success. However, compliance with a public procurement regulatory framework does not mediate the relationship between the professionalism of staff and perceived inefficiency with public road construction projects’ success. Research limitations/implications: Limited mediation studies and examples in the public road construction subsector affected this study to comprehensively investigate and compare study findings. Furthermore, the study adopted a cross-sectional research design that limits responses to one point in time. Finally, the study missed out other participants in different organizations and departments that could have had relevant information. Social implications: The study contributes to public procurement and construction management research fields by uncovering this strong mediating role of compliance with a public procurement regulatory framework that collectively would help the government to implement public road construction projects successfully. Because no single factor can reliably attain objectives, blend...
Yuan, J, Li, X, Ke, Y, Xu, W, Xu, Z & Skibniewski, M 2020, 'Developing a building information modeling–based performance management system for public–private partnerships', Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: Effective performance management (PM) in public–private partnership (PPP) projects is critical to realizing value for money (VFM). This study aims to provide an in-depth understanding of problems existing in PPP PM and possible avenues for improvement, presenting an experimental system to verify that building information modeling (BIM) and other information communication technologies can improve PPP PM. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed research method adopted in this study combined empirical research with experimental research. Semistructured interviews were used to ascertain the current situation of PPP PM with the help of Nvivo software. A BIM-based performance management system (BPMS), which combines BIM with Web and Cloud technology, was then constructed to achieve performance monitoring, performance measurement, and performance-based payment. Finally, a case study was introduced to explain the function application of the proposed system. Findings: The case demonstration verified is found to verify that the developed BIM-based execution framework for PPP PM can effectively guide stakeholders toward achieving mixed PM, promote effective PM, and improve work efficiency with the support of BIM and other information and communication technologies. Originality/value: Through the development of a BPMS for PPP projects, the effectiveness and efficiency of PM are improved. Practical PM applications are also provided to different stakeholders, through which the key performance indicators and the behaviors of the government and private-sector partners can be monitored to form a more comprehensive and reasonable PM mechanism and promote the realization of VFM in PPP projects.
Zhao, X, Ke, Y, Zuo, J, Xiong, W & Wu, P 2020, 'Evaluation of Sustainable Transport Research In 2000-2019', Journal of Cleaner Production.
Cheng, Z, Wang, H, Song, J & Ke, Y 2019, 'Does Spatial Governance Matter to PPPs? An Exploration of the PPP Spatial Governance Mechanism in China', Regulation Review, vol. In press.
Du, Y, Fang, J, Ke, Y, Philbin, SP & Zhang, J 2019, 'Developing a revenue sharing method for an operational transfer-operate-transfer project', Sustainability (Switzerland), vol. 11, no. 22.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 by the authors. The transfer-operate-transfer (TOT) project model is used widely as a commercial framework for public-private-partnerships to support provision of infrastructure and enable the delivery of services. However, operational delivery of such projects can encounter certain challenges, such as the need for improved revenue sharing between governmental and private partners. The purpose of this paper is to design a revenue sharing method (RSM) that satisfies the revenue-sharing forecast in the contract design stage and the realized revenue sharing in the contract execution period for an operational TOT project. This approach identifies the impact of external uncertainty and effort level as well as the input ratio on revenue sharing of participants, distributes and reasonably minimizes the project revenue uncertainty among the participants, and achieves an improved matching of the participants' revenue sharing with their risk-sharing, resource input and effort level. The paper utilizes the fuzzy-payoffs Shapley value method for revenue distribution for an operational TOT project, where the fuzzy alliance and input ratio coefficient are adopted to gradually optimize the Shapley value and form the RSM of an operational TOT project. The RSM allows prediction of the revenue sharing of participations under uncertain conditions of project revenue and supports improved decision-making by participants.
Ke, Y, Ling, F, Ning, Y & Zhang, Z 2019, 'Managing Relationships in Large Public Projects: Comparative Study of China and Singapore', Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 348-363.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ma, L, Li, J, Jin, R, Ke, Y & Yuan, J 2019, 'A holistic review of public-private partnership literature published between 2008 and 2018', Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2019.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Liang Ma et al. Adopting a holistic approach in the review of the public-private partnership (PPP) literature published since 2008 by incorporating scientometric analysis and further systematic analysis, this study aims to provide the big picture of the state-of-the-art research in PPP by addressing major issues and suggesting research trends in PPP. Following a three-step research methodology, this study started from a bibliometric analysis with science mapping to provide the state-of-the-art information on PPP research keywords, scholars, journal articles, institutions, and countries. A further systematic review was also conducted to identify future research directions of PPP in project management. The review of the existing literature in PPP revealed that there had been insufficient systematic approach in summarizing the research topics and proposing new research trends in PPP-related project management. It was further indicated that sustainability and innovation in PPP could be further studied, such as integrating building information modeling with PPP. Factors related to barriers in PPP implementation would continue growing. Future research directions in PPP were also proposed following the systematic review, for example, comparative studies of PPP practice between developing and developed countries. The current study provides a comprehensive approach by integrating bibliometric analysis, science mapping, and qualitative analysis in the latest PPP research. It reveals the contemporary research themes in PPP and provides directions for near-future directions of PPP research in project management.
Osei-Kyei, R, Chan, A, Yu, Y, Chen, C, Ke, Y & Tijani, B 2019, 'Social Responsibility Initiatives for Public-Private Partnership Projects: A Comparative Study between China and Ghana', Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1338-1338.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sustainability is a global issue and its enhancement through modern forms of procurements, such as public-private partnership (PPP), has become topical considering the huge impact of PPP activities on society, the economy, and the environment. However, one way of promoting sustainability thorough PPPs is the adoption of social responsibility (SR) initiatives/factors. This paper aims to empirically investigate the SR factors in PPPs through a comparative study between China and Ghana. An empirical questionnaire survey was conducted in both China and Ghana. Further, the mean score ranking, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance, and Mann-Whitney U test were used for data analysis. Results show that SR factors related to the economic efficiency of PPP projects and climate change adaptation are critical in China, whereas in Ghana, SR factors directly related to job creation and environmental protection are critical. The outputs of this study inform investors of the critical SR initiatives to consider when engaging in PPPs in Asia and Africa. In addition, they provide a solid knowledge base for the continuous international debate on how sustainability could be enhanced through PPP policy.
Yuan, J, Li, X, Ke, Y, Xu, W, Xu, Z & Skibnewski, M 2019, 'Developing a BIM-based Performance Management System for PPPs', Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management.
Wang, K, Ke, Y & Sankaran, S 2019, 'Public-private partnerships in non-profit hospitals: Case study of China.', The International journal of health planning and management, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. e1862-e1898.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The gap between supply and demand for health care services is expanding rapidly in China. In order to resolve this problem, the government has implemented supply-side reforms in the health care sector by inviting private capital to increase supply quantity and improve quality. However, health care institutions have high complexity and particular needs, while non-profit hospitals have very strong public interests. This gives rise to complications in the implementation of public-private partnerships (PPPs) for health care services. In this paper, the authors have selected one case each from three different models of non-profit hospital PPP projects in the national PPP project database, operated by the Ministry of Finance, and compared how these projects were operated to identify the differences among them. A content analysis of the vital project documents is the primary analysis technique used for this comparison. Key issues investigated include reasons for model selection, requirements for private sectors and market competition level in different models, risk identification and sharing, design of payment mechanism, operation supervision, and performance appraisal of the project. Based on the comparison, some key lessons and recommendations are discussed to act as a useful reference for future non-profit hospital PPP projects in China.
Ke, Y 2018, 'Formation of optimal private involvement in urban rail public-private partnership projects in China', International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 268-286.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Subnational governments in China are suffering from urgent urban development demands and severe fiscal pressure, public-private partnerships (PPPs) are hence strongly promoted to attract private investors to participate in the development and operation of urban rail projects. However, there is no formal assessment to determine the degree of private involvement in a PPP project. This question is more critical in the sector of urban rail, in which the huge investment cannot rely on the private sector alone. This study hence aimed to develop a five-stage systematic procedural framework to determine the optimal private involvement in an urban rail PPP project in China. The findings add to the current knowledge base by summarising an appropriate and systematic procedural framework for the allocation of involvement in a PPP project. They are also beneficial for the industry practitioners as a management framework to determine the appropriateness of private involvement.
Mwelu, N, Davis, PR, Ke, Y & Watundu, S 2018, 'Compliance within a Regulatory Framework in Implementing Public Road Construction Projects', Construction Economics and Building, vol. 18, no. 4.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The construction industry faces a lack of compliance with policy that in Uganda public road construction projects affects the attainment of Government goals and disrupts infrastructure project delivery. For decades, public entities have been known for a lack of compliance that manifest in: poor performance, poor personnel management, poor resource utilization and unprofessionalism. In Uganda, this has resulted in several restructures aimed at improving service delivery. Despite this, compliance remains an issue. The purpose of this study is to establish factors affecting compliance within a public procurement regulatory framework in public road construction projects and foster economic development. A cross-sectional research design including a structured self-administered questionnaire survey and PLS-SEM data analysis by SmartPLS3 was conducted. The research reveals that three factors positively affect compliance with a regulatory framework that govern public road construction projects; sanctions on staff, inefficiency of the public procurement regulatory framework and contractors’ resistance to non-compliance. While a further three factors have little positive effect on compliance; familiarity, monitoring activities and professionalism. Hence, the research contributes to construction management by showing that sanctions, perceived inefficiency and contractors’ resistance significantly enhance compliance within a public procurement regulatory framework.
Wang, K & Ke, Y 2018, 'Problems and Countermeasures of Public Hospital Public-Private Partnership Projects in China', Chinese Journal of Hospital Administration, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 894-899.
Wang, K & Ke, Y 2018, 'Public-Private Partnerships in the Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure in China: An Illustrative Case Study', Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2018.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Kun Wang and Yongjian Ke. Effective supply of charging infrastructure is a necessary support for the development of electric vehicle and also an important strategic measure to promote energy consumption revolution and green development. The construction and operation of charging infrastructure in China is unfortunately not smooth, lagging behind the actual demand. Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) may offer a promising way forward and accelerate the development of charging infrastructure by tapping the private sectors' financial resources and professional skills. However, PPP has not been commonly adopted in this sector yet. This paper hence studied an illustrative case of Anqing Project in China to demonstrate how governments structure a PPP deal in the electric vehicle charging infrastructures. A content analysis was conducted on the important project documents to investigate key elements including the planning, construction, risk sharing, profit distribution, and supervision during the execution stage. Based on the illustration, some key lessons and recommendations were provided to offer a reference for future charging infrastructure PPP projects in China.
Cheng, Z, Ke, Y & Lin, J 2017, 'An Assessment of PPP Fever in China from 2014', Urban and Local Governance Review, no. 1, pp. 18-33.
Davis, PR, Jefferies, M & Ke, Y 2017, 'Psychological Contracts: Framework for Relationships in Construction Procurement', JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT, vol. 143, no. 8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ke, Y, Hao, W, Ding, H & Wang, Y 2017, 'Factors Influencing the Private Involvement in Urban Rail Public-Private Partnership Projects in China', Construction Economics and Building, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 90-106.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Private investors have been encouraged to participate in the development and operation of urban rail projects in China through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs), given the fact that subnational governments are suffering from urgent development demands and severe fiscal pressure. However, there is no formal assessment to determine the private involvement in a PPP project. This problem is particularly critical in the sector of urban rail, in which the huge investment cannot rely on the private sector alone. This study hence aimed to uncover and identify the influencing factors. Multiple research methods, including content analysis, case study and focus group discussion were adopted to achieve the research purpose. Seven types of influencing factors were identified, including project financial model, government fiscal commitment, risk allocation, public accountability, efficiency considerations, policy and regulations, and organisational marketing strategies. The findings add to the current knowledge base by uncovering the drivers behind private involvement in a PPP project. They are also beneficial for industry practitioners as a basis/checklist to determine the private involvement.
Cheng, Z, Ke, Y, Lin, J, Yang, Z & Cai, J 2016, 'Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Public-Private Partnership Projects in China', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1242-1251.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Public Private Partnership (PPP) has been widely applied in developing infrastructures around the world. In this research, a large database of PPP projects in China was firstly built to explore the spatio-temporal evolution in terms of regional differentiation, sectors, investors and contract types. It was found that China's PPP projects have undergone four stages with the characteristics of fluctuations along with time series, spatial differentiation and paradox of application. The mechanism behind these changes mainly include the momentum of economic development and impact of national policies, local settings, especially the local governments' motivation, preference, competency and reliability, as well as the feasibility and management of PPP projects. This paper tries to make its contribution in providing Chinese cases for international comparison, while helping Chinese national and local governments make customized policies, as well as laying foundation for further in-depth empirical and theoretical PPP research.
Ke, Y, Davis, P & Jefferies, M 2016, 'A conceptual model of psychological contracts in construction projects', Construction Economics and Building, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 20-37.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The strategic importance of relationship style contracting is recognised in the construction industry. Both public and private sector clients are stipulating more integrated and collaborative forms of procurement. Despite relationship and integrated contractual arrangement being available for some time, it is clear that construction firms have been slow to adopt them. Hence it is timely to examine how social exchanges, via unwritten agreement and behaviours, are being nurtured in construction projects. This paper adopted the concept of Psychological Contracts (PC) to describe unwritten agreement and behaviours. A conceptual model of the PC is developed and validated using the results from a questionnaire survey administered to construction professionals in Australia. The results uncovered the relationships that existed amongst relational conditions and relational benefits, the PC and the partners’ satisfaction. The results show that all the hypotheses in the conceptual model of the PC are supported, suggesting the PC model is important and may have an effect on project performance and relationship quality among contracting parties. A validated model of the PC in construction was then developed based on the correlations among each component. The managerial implications are that past relationships and relationship characteristics should be taken into account in the selection of procurement partners and the promise of future resources, support and tangible relational outcomes are also vital. It is important for contracting parties to pay attention to unwritten agreements (the PC) and behaviours when managing construction projects.
Zhang, S, Chan, APC, Feng, Y, Duan, H & Ke, Y 2016, 'Critical review on PPP Research - A search from the Chinese and International Journals', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 597-612.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A significant number of literatures have concentrated on diverse issues related to Public–Private Partnership (PPP) both in China and abroad. However, there is no systematic analysis on the PPP research progress and status in Chinese journals, which is worth investigating because China is one of the largest PPP markets globally. In addition, there are many PPP publications in international journals based on the context of China. A comparative study is still missing between the PPP publications in Chinese journals and international journals. This paper hence aims to conduct a critical review of PPP publications from selected first tier Chinese journals and international journals. Based on a three-stage literature review research framework, 615 and 70 high quality research papers on PPP topics were selected from Chinese and international journals in the last decade between 2005 and 2014, respectively. Main research methods, research topics and research findings were then identified through content analysis and statistical analysis methods. It is found that in these two journals the frequently adopted research methods are case study, literature review, modeling, questionnaire survey and comparison; and the popular research topics include PPP models and their application, risk management, financing and economic issues, legal and procurement issues, government regulation and guarantee. Comparison analysis results show that in terms of order of popularity, there are more similarities in the research topics than research methods in Chinese and international journals. The outcomes of this paper contribute to the PPP body of knowledge through summarizing PPP research in Chinese journals and international journals in the context of China. In addition, the findings are valuable for Chinese researchers to embark future research on PPP. This paper also breaks the language barrier and enriches western researchers a better understanding of the research status of PPP in the cont...
Chan, APC, Lam, PTI, Wen, Y, Ameyaw, EE, Wang, SQ & Ke, Y 2015, 'Cross-sectional analysis of critical risk factors for PPP water projects in China', Journal of Infrastructure Systems, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 04014031-04014031.View/Download from: Publisher's site
During the past decades in China, the traditional state monopoly has experienced difficulties in meeting the huge demand for new infrastructure and improvement in service levels, engendering the growth of different forms and degrees of private sector involvement. Since the 1990s, China has started experimenting with the public-private partnership (PPP) delivery method in the water supply sector. However, many problems stemming from unsuccessful risk management have been encountered in PPP applications that have eventually led to project failure. This paper aims to identify and evaluate typical risks associated with PPP projects in the Chinese water supply sector. A literature review, a Delphi survey, and face-to-face interviews were used to achieve these objectives. Finally, a register of 16 critical risk factors (CRFs) of water PPP projects in China was established. The findings revealed that completion risk, inflation, and price change risk have a higher impact on Chinese water PPP projects, whereas government corruption, an imperfect law and supervision system, and a change in market demand have a lower impact on the water supply sector. The findings can help project stakeholders to improve the efficiency of privatization in public utility service and provide private investors with a better understanding while they participate in the enormous Chinese water market through the PPP mode.
Hao, W, Ding, H, Ke, Y & Wang, Y 2015, 'Are Relational Contracting Approaches Applicable to Public Projects in China?', Frontiers of Engineering Management, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 358-363.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Rising complexities in construction projects management has boosted the importance of relational contracting (RC) in the field. RC is based on recognition of mutual benefits and win-win scenarios gained through more cooperative relationships between contracting parties. There have been a range of RC initiatives across many countries towards deeper collaborative relationships; however, such formal RC approaches are not yet well established in China. In this paper, the feasibility of implementing RC in the China’s public construction projects is investigated. The results indicate that RC is highly feasible for implementation in China due to its theoretical benefits, its alignment to Chinese culture, and its behaviors in past public construction projects. Three strategies for facilitating the implementation of RC in China are proposed.
Ke, Y, Ling, FYY & Zou, PXW 2015, 'Effects of contract strategy on interpersonal relations and project outcomes of public-sector construction contracts in Australia', Journal of Management in Engineering, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 04014062-04014062.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hitherto, it is not known if the integration of relationship concepts into traditional public-sector construction contracts would improve project performance. This study hence examines the effects of contract strategies on project outcomes and relationship quality in the context of public-sector construction projects in Sydney, Australia. It also identifies the relational contracting (RC) practices that are in place when certain contract strategies are adopted. Using a two-pronged research design, data were first collected from public owners and private contractors and consultants through a questionnaire survey. The data were analyzed and the results were then validated by interviews. Correlation analysis shows that cost performance, client satisfaction, and relationship quality among contracting parties are significantly correlated with contract strategies. The findings indicate the important role that contract strategies play in project outcomes and interpersonal relationship. Among the 20 RC practices that are significantly correlated with contract strategies, 16 of them are related to clients and consultants, suggesting their important role in setting the tone of the relationship in a project.
Ke, Y 2014, 'Is public-private partnership a panacea for infrastructure development? the case of Beijing National Stadium', International Journal of Construction Management, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 90-100.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Public–private partnership (PPP) is such a hot concept that nowadays it is discussed everywhere be it a public sector management journal or a public sector management conference. Governments subject to severe fiscal pressure in developing countries like China, where PPP law is not in place yet, regard it as a panacea or fixed solution for infrastructure development. This paper hence attempts to provide reference to this point by investigating the Beijing National Stadium. There was a significant change in the Project Company on 20 August 2009. Three main reasons for the contract change were (1) wrong identification of the retractable roof as one of the output specifications, (2) adoption of PPP without a careful feasibility study and (3) strong government interference like suspension of selling name-right and prohibition of holding small-scale or small events. It was found that PPP would not be more appropriate than conventional procurement in this project. It was therefore proved that PPP is not a panacea for infrastructure development. It is expected that a review of the Beijing National Stadium can provide valuable information for when and how to implement PPPs. More considerations on receiving value for money in the whole project lifecycle (including the operation) should be taken in a PPP project.
Ke, Y, Jefferies, M, Shrestha, A & Jin, X 2014, 'Public Private Partnership in China: Where to from Here', Organization, Technology & Management in Construction: An international Journal, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1156-1162.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The Chinese government has shown an active attitude in encouraging and supporting the participation of private investors in the provision of public infrastructure and services. There is a huge investment opportunity for Public Private Partnership (PPP) in China. However, China has immature regulatory and institutional PPP frameworks. This paper hence aims to review the application of PPP in China and consequently draw lessons for future references. It was found that China has a wealth of experience with PPP under the strong support of central and subnational governments. Given the tremendous economic growth and immense demand for infrastructure, China will continue to have a massive demand for future PPP projects. This paper is important as its contribution is to summarize the application of PPP in China in terms of opportunities, current usage and future trends.
Ling, FYY, Ke, Y, Kumaraswamy, MM & Wang, SQ 2014, 'Key relational contracting practices affecting performance of public construction projects in China', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 140, no. 1, p. 04013034.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ling, FYY, Ong, SY, Ke, Y, Wang, SQ & Zou, P 2014, 'Drivers and barriers to adopting relational contracting practices in public projects: Comparative study of Beijing and Sydney', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 275-285.View/Download from: Publisher's site
When contracting parties adopt relational contracting (RC) as opposed to formal contracting stance, the construction project may achieve good outcomes. However, public projects usually face more constraints in adopting RC, as close relationships may lead to allegations of corruption. The aim of this study is to undertake a comparative analysis of drivers and barriers to adopting RC practices in public construction projects in two different markets viz. a centrally planned economy and a free market economy by investigating practices in Beijing and Sydney. The survey research design was adopted and data of public construction projects in Beijing and Sydney were collected using a structured questionnaire. The results revealed that relationship quality and level of harmony among contracting parties are significantly good in both cities. In Sydney, the level of inter-personal relations between contractors and consultants is significantly higher than in Beijing. It was found that the same 18 factors drive contracting parties in Beijing and Sydney to adopt RC practices, and in 6 instances, these are significantly greater drivers in Sydney. The barriers to adopting RC practices are totally dissimilar in both cities. Contracting parties in Beijing could not adopt more RC practices because of a lack of training in relational arrangement and public clients lack initiative in adopting RC practices. The conservative industry culture that encourages preservation of the status quo is also prevalent in Beijing. In Sydney, the only significant barrier is public sector accountability concerns. To cultivate readiness to embrace RC practices, it is suggested that industry professionals and the government adopt recommendations highlighted in this study according to the type of market structure.
Wu, M, Tang, WC, Ke, Y & Luo, CM 2014, 'An environmental study on the collapse of a tenement building in HK', Advanced Materials Research, vol. 838-841, pp. 2208-2211.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ke, Y, Ling, FYY & Ning, Y 2013, 'Public construction project delivery process in Singapore, Beijing, Hong Kong and Sydney', Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 6-25.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ & Chan, APC 2013, 'Risk Misallocation in Public-Private Partnership Projects in China', International Public Management Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 438-460.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article attempts to compare the preferred and actual risk allocation and then to evaluate the impact of risk misallocation (if any) on project performance. The results show a significantly negative relationship between project performance and risk misallocation. The smaller the degree of risk misallocation was, the more successful the project would be. One group of three risks (including “Corruption,” “Government's intervention,” and “Government's reliability”) and the other group of three risks (including “Approval and permit,” “Immature juristic system,” and “Land acquisition”) were found to contribute considerably to the prediction of project performance. This article provides information on the impact of risk misallocation on project performance in China's public–private partnership (PPP) projects. To enter and perform well in China's PPP market, private firms should pay particular attention to the identified risks.
Ling, FYY, Ning, Y, Ke, Y & Kumaraswamy, MM 2013, 'Modeling relational transaction and relationship quality among team members in public projects in Hong Kong', Automation in Construction, vol. 36, pp. 16-24.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Prior studies have found that relational contracting (RC) practices are helpful in nurturing good relationships among project team members. These empirical studies, however, did not differentiate by project type (i.e., public or private projects). In reality, the situation faced in public projects would be different from that of private projects since for example, some public sector participants may be indifferent to, concerned about or indeed opposed to, building close relationships with private sector counterparts. In the context of public construction projects, this study aims to develop models to explain the association between relationship quality and the extent to which RC practices are adopted. Data were collected via a questionnaire survey in Hong Kong, China. Using Multiple Linear Regression and Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), models for predicting the relationship quality among project team members were developed. The mathematical equations were validated by a case study. The models show that the relationship quality among project team members can be predicted by the extent to which these RC practices are implemented: (i) adoption of flexible strategies; (ii) readiness to compromise on unclear issues; (iii) willingness to commit on a long-term basis; (iv) attitude towards teamwork; (v) trust among team members; (vi) sharing of project information; (vii) understanding among team members; and (viii) alignment of the objectives of different parties. The models are recommended to public clients, consultants and contractors that aim to achieve good relationships in public projects.
Sheng, H, Liang, W, Wang, SQ & Ke, Y 2013, 'PPP project risk relationships based on the interpretive structure model', Advances in Information Sciences and Service Sciences, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 618-627.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Risk management is important for public-private partnerships (PPP). A clear comprehension about the relationships among the risk factors involved in PPP projects will be helpful to manage these risks more effectively. This article, firstly establishes a risk system involving 20 risk factors for PPP projects through identification of risk factors and analysis of the interrelationships between each pair of them, and then employs the interpretive structure model (ISM) system structure analysis method to analyse the risk system. Based on the analysis, this article proposes a risk system structural model showing the relations among all the 20 risk factors and, pursuant to the model’s characteristics, classifying them into three categories: dominating factors, transferring factors and indicating factors. The article finally proposes some suggestions on managing the risks in each category by considering their specific attributes.
Cheung, E, Chan, APC, Lam, PTI, Chan, DWM & Ke, Y 2012, 'A comparative study of critical success factors for public private partnerships (PPP) between Mainland China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region', Facilities, vol. 30, no. 13, pp. 647-666.View/Download from: Publisher's site
– This paper aims to explore the critical success factors (CSFs) necessary for adopting public private partnerships (PPPs) in both Mainland China and Hong Kong.
– An empirical questionnaire survey was conducted with relevant experienced practitioners in Mainland China and Hong Kong.
– Both Mainland China and Hong Kong have been keen to deliver more infrastructure service projects through PPP mode, with the former aiming to meet its rapidly growing infrastructure demand and the latter uplifting its efficiency further. The results indicate that Hong Kong does not regard multi‐benefit objectives as importantly as Mainland China. Mainland China on the contrary felt more concerned with an equitable risk sharing mechanism, which is understandable given the problems affecting the financial market in Mainland China.
– It is anticipated that the results presented in this paper will assist both the public and private sectors to deliver PPP projects more successfully.
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ & Chan, APC 2012, 'Risk management practice in China's Public-Private Partnership projects', Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 675-684.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Project risks were not properly managed in the many past Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects in China. Although numerous research studies have been conducted on risk management in China's PPP projects, the realization of risk management in China's construction industry especially in PPP projects with high risk exposure and complicated contract structure has hitherto not been well studied. This paper therefore attempted to examine the current use of risk management in China's PPP projects by an empirical survey. The results indicated that the use of risk management was inadequate; qualitative risk analysis methods were preferred to quantitative and semi-quantitative methods; risk management usage in the execution was found to be much higher than in the planning, conceptual or termination stage; interviewees were unfamiliar with most of the risk identification and assessment tools. All above could be partly due to the project nature, but more fundamentally due to the local industrial culture. The absence of risk management culture was found to be the dominant factor which limited the implementation of risk management in practice. Recommendations to alleviate the difficulties of risk management were thereafter provided in this paper.
Sheng, H, Wang, SQ & Ke, Y 2012, 'Study of risk management of private enterprises' involvement in BOT projects: a case study of a sludge treatment project', Tumu Gongcheng Xuebao/China Civil Engineering Journal, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 142-147.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chan, APC, Yeung, JFY, Yu, CCP, Wang, SQ & Ke, Y 2011, 'Empirical study of risk assessment and allocation of public-private partnership projects in China', Journal of Management in Engineering, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 136-148.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Earlier research studies on public-private partnership (PPP) indicated that an objective, reliable, and practical risk assessment model for PPP projects and an equitable risk allocation mechanism among different parties are crucial to the successful implementation of these PPP projects. However, actual empirical research works in this research area are limited. This paper reports the first stage of a research study, which aims to identify and assess the principal risks for the delivery of PPP projects in China and to address their proper risk allocation between the private and public sectors. An empirical questionnaire survey was designed to examine the relative importance of different risk factors and to analyze the allocation of risk factors to different parties in PPP projects. A total of 580 questionnaires were sent out, and a total of 105 valid responses were obtained for data analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test is employed to investigate whether significant difference in perception existed first between the private and public sectors and second between industrial practitioners and academics in China. The empirical findings show that the three most important risk factors for PPP projects in China are (1) government intervention; (2) government corruption; and (3) poor public decision-making processes. These findings reveal that the Chinese government intervention and corruption may be the major obstacles to the success of PPP projects in China. A major cause for these risks may be attributed to inefficient legislative and supervisory systems for PPP projects in China. After conducting the Mann-Whitney U test on the 105 survey respondents, the empirical findings indicate that the perceptions of all 34 risk factors in China between the private and public sectors were not significantly different. Similarly, there were no significant differences between academics and industrial practitioners except that the former perceived the problem of government corruption to ...
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ & Chan, APC 2011, 'Equitable risks allocation of projects inside China: Analyses from Delphi survey studies', Chinese Management Studies, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 298-310.View/Download from: Publisher's site
– The purpose of this paper is to validate and elaborate on the preferred risk allocations for Chinese public‐private partnership (PPP) projects.
– A previous two‐round Delphi survey was carried out to identify the preferred risk allocations in Chinese PPP projects. A series of face‐to‐face interviews was subsequently conducted to collect actual risk allocations in some recently completed PPP projects. By comparing the preferred and actual allocations and discovering the reasons behind the differences, an equitable risk allocation scheme was then obtained.
– The comparative analysis showed a great degree of conformity between the two allocation schemes. These interviews effectively reinforce the rationale of the preferred risk allocations, so that they can be considered as equitable for PPP projects in China.
– Equitable risk allocation is critical to the success of a PPP project. The findings in this paper are hence important to investors for a better understanding of the risks of PPP projects in China.
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ, Chan, APC & Cheung, E 2011, 'Understanding the risks in China's PPP projects: Ranking of their probability and consequence', Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 481-496.View/Download from: Publisher's site
– Based on the Chinese government's increased public‐private partnership (PPP) experience in the last decade, they have made a lot of efforts to improve the investment environment. This paper hence aims to conduct a more up‐to‐date evaluation of the potential risks in China's PPP projects.
– As part of a comprehensive research looking at implementing PPP, a two‐round Delphi survey was conducted with experienced practitioners to identify the key risks that could be encountered in China's PPP projects. The probability of occurrence and severity of the consequence for the selected risks were derived from the surveys and used to calculate their relative risk significance index score.
– The results showed that the top ten risks identified according to their risk significance index score are: government's intervention; poor political decision making; financial risk; government's reliability; market demand change; corruption; subjective evaluation; interest rate change; immature juristic system; and inflation. Further analysis was conducted on these risks so that the possible consequence, the most impacted parties, and the preferred allocation are discussed. Recommendations on commercial principles or contract terms between the Chinese government and private consortium are also provided.
– These up‐to‐date findings concerning the probability and consequence of key risks would provide a valuable reference for private investors who are planning to invest in infrastructure projects in China.
Chan, APC, Lam, PTI, Chan, DWM, Cheung, E & Ke, Y 2010, 'Critical success factors for PPPs in infrastructure developments: Chinese perspective', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. 484-494.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chan, APC, Lam, PTI, Chan, DWM, Cheung, E & Ke, Y 2010, 'Potential obstacles to successful implementation of public-private partnerships in Beijing and the Hong Kong special administrative region', Journal of Management in Engineering, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 30-40.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ & Chan, APC 2010, 'Risk allocation in public-private partnership infrastructure projects: Comparative study', Journal of Infrastructure Systems, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 343-351.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ, Chan, APC & Lam, PTI 2010, 'Preferred risk allocation in China's public-private partnership (PPP) projects', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 482-492.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Xu, Y, Yeung, JFY, Chan, APC, Chan, DWM, Wang, SQ & Ke, Y 2010, 'Developing a risk assessment model for PPP projects in China-A fuzzy synthetic evaluation approach', Automation in Construction, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 929-943.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chan, APC, Lam, PTI, Chan, DWM, Cheung, E & Ke, Y 2009, 'Drivers for adopting public private partnerships-empirical comparison between China and Hong Kong special administrative region', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 135, no. 11, pp. 1115-1124.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, T, Ke, Y, Li, Z & Wang, SQ 2009, 'Comparative Analysis on Governments' Administration in PPP Model Between China and Other Countries', Project Management Technology, no. 1, pp. 9-13.
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ & Chan, APC 2009, 'Government incentives for private sector involvement in infrastructure PPP projects', Qinghua Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Tsinghua University, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1480-1483.
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ & Teng, T 2009, 'Risk Management of International Joint Venture', Overseas Investment and Export Credit, no. 2, pp. 36-39.
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ, Chan, APC & Cheung, E 2009, 'Research trend of public-private partnership in construction journals', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 135, no. 10, pp. 1076-1086.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ke, Y, Zhao, X, Wang, Y & Wang, SQ 2009, 'Investment Decision-making Model for Private Enterprises in Developing Infrastructure Projects', Project Management Technology, no. 2, pp. 9-14.
Ke, Y, Zhao, X, Wang, Y & Wang, SQ 2009, 'SWOT analysis of domestic private enterprises in developing infrastructure projects in China', Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 152-170.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Qi, X, Ke, Y & Wang, SQ 2009, 'Analysis of Critical Risk Factors Causing the Failures of China's PPP Projects', China Soft Science, no. 5, pp. 107-113.
Chan, APC, Lam, PTI, Chan, DWM, Cheung, E & Ke, Y 2008, 'Comparative Study of Different Financial Modalities in Infrastructure Development in Hong Kong', Construction Economy, no. 10, pp. 89-92.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ke, Y & Wang, SQ 2008, 'Application of EPC Model in International Construction Market', International Project Contracting and Labor Services, no. 10, pp. 6-7.
Ke, Y, Liu, X & Wang, S 2008, 'Equitable financial evaluation method for public-private partnership projects', Tsinghua Science and Technology, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 702-707.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ke, Y, Liu, X & Wang, SQ 2008, 'Equitable Financial Evaluation Method for Public-Private Partnership Projects', Tsinghua Science and Technology, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 702-707.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ & Chan, APC 2008, 'Revelation of the Channel Tunnel's failure to risk allocation in Public-Private Partnership projects', Tumu Gongcheng Xuebao/China Civil Engineering Journal, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 97-102.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wang, SQ & Ke, Y 2008, 'Application and Experience of BOT/PPP in China', Invest Beijing, no. 10, pp. 82-83.
Zhao, X, Wang, Y, Ke, Y & Wang, SQ 2008, 'Investment Strategies of Private Enterprises in Developing Infrastructure Projects', Construction Economy, no. 7, pp. 58-61.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ke, Y & Wang, SQ 2006, 'Risk Management Framework Using a Linguistic Variable-based Belief Network for Construction Projects', Chinese Journal of Management Science, vol. 14, no. S, pp. 211-215.
Wang, SQ, Ke, Y & Teng, T 2006, 'Risk Management of International Construction Joint Venture', International Project Contracting and Labor Services, no. 10, pp. 4-7.
Wang, SQ, Ke, Y, Li, Z, Liu, X & Liu, S 2005, 'Discussion on PPP at the first International Project Finance Workshop', International Project Contracting and Labor Services, no. 6, pp. 54-57.
Ke, Y & Wang, SQ 2016, 'Public private partnership development in China' in Akintoye, A, Beck, M & Kumaraswamy, MM (eds), Public Private Partnerships: A Global Review, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 74-88.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Xie, J, Wang, SQ, Jefferies, M & Ke, Y 2016, 'Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) in China: the past, present and future' in Jefferies, M & Rowlinson, S (eds), New Forms of Procurement: PPP and Relational Contracting in the 21st Century, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 216-234.
Ke, Y 2014, 'Project Financing' in Liu, J (ed), Construction Management Research Fronts and Trends, China City Press, Beijing, China, pp. 48-68.
Wang, SQ, Ke, Y & Xie, J 2012, 'Public-Private Partnership Implementation in China' in Winch, GM, Onishi, M & Schmidt, S (eds), Taking Stock of PPP and PFI Around the World, Certified Accountants Educational Trust, London, pp. 29-36.
Wang, SQ & Ke, Y 2009, 'Laibin B Power Project - the First State-Approved BOT Project in China' in Alfen, HW (ed), Public Private Partnerships in Infrastructure Development - Case Studies from Asia and Europe, Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, Weimar, Germany, pp. 101-129.
Ke, Y, Cheng, Z & Liu, L 2019, 'Defining Public-Private Partnership from the Wittgenstein Family-Resemblance Philosophy', CIB World Building Congress 2019 - Constructing Smart Cities, Hong Kong, China.
Zhang, B, Wang, S, Ke, Y & Feng, K 2019, 'Drivers of Private Sector Participation in PPP: Impact of Contract Characteristics in China', CIB World Building Congress 2019 - Constructing Smart Cities, Hong Kong, China.
Sankaran, S, Ke, Y, Mangioni, V & Devkar, G 2019, 'Responsible Leadership of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) Adopted in Infrastructure Projects', PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN THE EMERGING WORLD OF DISRUPTION, PMI India Research & Academic Conference, Project Management Institute, IIMK, Kozhikode, India, pp. 196-215.
Increased attention has been paid to the leadership role of a project manager in the project management literature since 2000 covering transactional, transformational, servant, distributed, authentic and balanced leadership (Müller et al. 2018). Waldman and Gavin (2008)have observed that the leadership descriptors in the general leadership literature do not cover a leader’s responsibility. While a project manager’s responsibility is defined in practice, research in responsible leadership in projects is only just beginning to emerge (Clarke 2018).Pless (2007) defines responsible leadership as ‘a social and moral phenomenon that was pushed onto the agenda not only by recent scandals and the pressing issues that affect life on our planet, but also by the realization that multinational corporations and their leaders have an enormous potential for contributing to the betterment of the world’.Failures such as the collapse of BHP Billiton’s Samarco dam in Brazil can severely affect the organization’s reputation. Projects also deliver benefits to society. Therefore, what is good for MNCs applies to projects as well. This paper examines the need for responsible leadership in projects. The context for this study is that of PPPs in infrastructure projects as the authors have been working in this area.The authors would like to propose a framework of responsible project leadership based on the literature and interviews conducted with a purposeful sample of project leaders involved in infrastructure projects in three countries (India, China and Australia) for this paper.
Ke, Y, Jefferies, M & Davis, P 2016, 'A Comparison of Public Private Partnership Environment between Australia and China', CRIOCM 2016 21st International Conference on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate, Springer, Hong Kong, China, pp. 35-43.View/Download from: Publisher's site
China is currently catching Public Private Partnership (PPP) fever and considered as the largest PPP market. PPP projects have enjoyed significant success in Australia, one of the most mature PPP markets globally. Hence, this paper aims to compare the environment for PPPs between Australia and China and consequently identify trends and potential innovations. It was found that although the overall environment is still evolving, China has a wealth of experience with PPPs. Given the tremendous economic growth and immense demand for infrastructure, China will continue to have a massive demand for future PPP projects. In Australia, the need for significant private investment in the nation’s infrastructure is expected to result in the emergence of a variety of innovative funding and financing models. However, notwithstanding the maturity of the Australian PPP market, very little has been done to confirm PPP performance during the operational phase. This paper makes an important contribution by comparing the two PPP markets and the findings will provide a better understanding of PPPs to industry practitioners in order to deliver cost-effective infrastructure. It could also offer a starting point for Australia to enter the Chinese PPP market based on its huge technical, financial and legal PPP expertise.
Xu, X, Sankaran, S, Ke, Y & Liu, J 2018, 'Opportunism Forms of Public-Private Partnership Projects in China: Principal-Agent Relationship Perspective', International Research Network on Organizing by Projects, Melbourne, Australia.
Ke, Y 2017, 'Psychological Contracts in Construction: Two Case Studies', 2017 International Conference on Innovative Production and Construction, Perth, Australia.
Devkar, G, Sankaran, S & Ke, Y 2017, 'Evaluation of PPP projects in Australia and India: An Information Asymmetry Perspective', Accelerating Development: Harnessing the Power of Project Management, PMI India Research & Academic Conference, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, pp. 225-234.
Public private Partnership (PPP) model has been widely used for infrastructure delivery across the globe. However, the practice of PPP indicates mixed results, showing on the one hand, much hyped and glorified success on model PPP projects, while on the other hand failed and jinxed PPP projects also exist. This scenario stresses the need to identify and analyse the reasons behind the divergence of the PPP model from its much expected theoretical benefits. In this context, a research study was undertaken evaluate failed PPP transportation projects in Australia and India with the primary focus to understand why these projects failed to attain the expected theoretical benefits. In this paper, we evaluated six PPP projects through the theoretical lens of "information symmetry" – as provided by principal agent theory. We adopted the qualitative research methodology for this study involving collection and analysis of secondary data pertaining to these PPP projects. the findings show that the information asymmetry during the procurement stage of PP projects manifests into problems like adverse selection, total hazard and hold up. These problems are very evident at the procurement stage but have been neglected and sidelined by the government, financiers and decision makers. We conclude this paper with various propositions that have to be verified with further in-depth research procedure.
Jefferies, M, Davis, PR & Ke, Y 2015, 'An investigation of psychological contracts in construction procurement', Going north for sustainability: Leveraging knowledge and innovation for sustainable construction and development: CIB International Conference Proceedings, International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) Meetings, Workshops, Symposia, Conferences, South Bank University, London, UK, pp. 70-80.
Purpose: A psychological contract (PC) is an unwritten contract with mutual obligations as the central issue and it fills the gaps in a relationship and shapes employee behaviour. To date, there has been limited research that has examined PC with respect to procurement methods in construction projects. There is a lot written about PCs, as a theoretical framework in areas such as strategic supplier partnering and relationships, but little research has been undertaken within a construction management context. An increased understanding of PC would enable procurement teams to identify the nuances associated with relationships in procurement and stakeholder selection. Aim/Objectives: This research aims to examine social exchanges in construction contracts so that partners can better manager their relationships in projects. Specific objectives of the broader research are to: identify the presence of psychological contracts in construction projects; identify and catalogue the affect that the PC’s has on the teams in various procurement models currently utilised within construction management and deliver a conceptual model of the PC in traditional and relationships style procurement scenarios. Method: This paper reports on the first stage of a broader research project. To check and maintain currency of the topic, focus groups are held with key industry players and this is followed by the development of a survey instrument administered to a large sample of construction professionals involved with project delivery (n=100). Results: PCs are clearly present in the construction delivery team and they have considerable effect on the interaction between the project stakeholders. It appears that the PC variables underpin behaviours to a considerable extent. The next stage of the research is to use the output from the triangulated survey to develop a conceptual model of the PC in traditional and relationships style procurement scenarios.
Jin, X, Zhang, G, Ke, Y & Xia, B 2015, 'Factors Influencing Transaction Costs in Construction Projects: A Critical Review', 2015 20th International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate (CRIOCM), Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
Ke, Y, Gajendran, T & Davis, PR 2015, 'Relational contracting in the construction industry: Mapping practice to theory', Proceedings for AEI 2015: Birth and Life of the Integrated Building, Architectural Engineering Institute Conference, ASCE, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, pp. 175-184.
There has been an increasing interest in the concept of relational contracting (RC) in
the construction industry. The performance of RC approaches in construction
projects, especially in highly complex and/or time-constrained infrastructure
construction projects, is not very satisfying, although there have been sporadic
improvements. Hence, this paper aims to map the practices of three main RC
contractual arrangements (i.e. project partnering, alliance contracting, and integrated
project delivery) to Relational Contract Theory (RCT). The comparative analysis of
these three RC contractual arrangements is undertaken to illustrate how different
arrangements are weighted in different key elements derived from RCT. Following
this study researchers can proceed to investigate situational variables that will make a
particular RC approach most suitable. Industrial practitioners can use the findings as
a description of the concept and a starting point to facilitate the RC practices at the
procurement phase of a RC project.
Ling, FYY, Ke, Y & Ning, Y 2015, 'Motivating and Hindering Factors to Adopt Relational Norms in Public Projects: A Comparative Study of Australia and Singapore', 2015 RICS COBRA AUBEA, RICS, Sydney, Australia.
Xia, B, Zuo, J, Wu, P & Ke, Y 2014, 'Sustainable Construction Trends in Journal Papers', 2014 19th International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate (CRIOCM), Springer, Chongqing, China, pp. 169-179.
Jefferies, M, Rowlinson, S, Kumaraswamy, MM & Ke, Y 2014, 'Using Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) for the Procurement of Public Hospitals', CIB W055, W065, W089, W118, TG76, TG78, TG81 - Construction in a Changing World, CIB, Heritance Kandalama, Sri Lanka, pp. 0-0.
Jin, X, Zuo, J, Xia, B & Ke, Y 2014, 'A theoretical framework for reducing tendering costs in the procurement of infrastructure projects', ICEC 2014 - IX World Congress: Re-Engineering Total Cost Management, ICEC, Italy, pp. 1-15.
Ke, Y, Hao, W & Wang, Y 2014, 'A feasibility study of the implementation of relational contracting in China's public projects', 8th China Engineering Management Forum, China Engineering Management Forum, Beijing, China, pp. 61-63.
Ke, Y, Ling, FYY & Wang, SQ 2013, 'Effects of Relationships on Public Project Delivery Process in China: A Case Study', The 38th Australian Universities Building Education Association Conference, Australian Universities Building Education Association Conference, Australasian Universities Building Education Association (AUBEA), Auckland, New Zealand.
The significance of relationships among contracting parties to a private project has long been recognised. However, it has not been established if public projects can enjoy the full advantages of relationships. This paper reports a case study of the first upgrading project in China’s mass transit rail system, which provides valuable information on how relationships affect the project procurement and project management in a large public project in China. It was found that past good relationship with the client could actually improve the chance of winning a bid in this project, and existing collaboration with the client could also increase the chance of undertaking more work. There was no significant difference in project performance between companies with past collaboration and those without past relationships. However, the project management styles were different. It is suggested that concerted effort should be taken to improve relationships in publically funded construction projects, as relationships do have significant effects.
Ke, Y, Ling, FYY, Wang, SQ, Zou, PXW, Kumaraswamy, MM & Ning, Y 2013, 'Relationships among contracting parties and their effects on outcomes of public construction projects in china', 2013 Architectural Engineering Institute Conference, Architectural Engineering Institute Conference, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA, pp. 73-82.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Adherence to clear and equitable contract documents does not guarantee project success. Many other contributors such as attitudes of the contracting parties and their relationships are also considered important. Hitherto, it is not known if relationships among contracting parties in public construction projects in China have a significant effect on project performance. This study aims to investigate relationship quality among contracting parties and their effects on project performance in China's public construction projects. Using a questionnaire survey, 59 sets of data of completed projects were collected from public owners and private contractors and consultants in Beijing. The data were analysed using correlation analysis and one-sample t test. The results show that public construction projects to have achieved significantly good quality performance and client satisfaction but not in budget nor schedule performance. The results also that higher quality of relationships during project implementation stage always leads to significantly good project quality and client satisfaction with the project. In addition, the results show that relationships among contracting parties play an important role in successful project outcomes. It is suggested that concerted effort should be taken to improve relationships in publically funded construction projects, as this will lead to better project outcomes.
Ke, Y, Ling, FYY, Zou, PXW, Wang, SQ & Kumaraswamy, MM 2012, 'Positive and Negative Factors Influencing the Implementation of Relational Contracting in Public Construction Projects in Australia', Joint CIB International Symposium of W055, W065, W089, W118, TG76, TG78, TG81 and TG84 International Congress on Construction Management Research, International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) Meetings, Workshops, Symposia, Conferences, Birmingham City University, Montreal, Canada, pp. 1-10.
Ke, Y, Ling, FYY, Kumaraswamy, MM, Wang, SQ, Zou, PXW & Ning, Y 2011, 'Are relational contracting principles applicable to public construction projects?', Proceedings of the 2011 RICS Conference, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Salford, United Kingdom, pp. 1364-1374.
The need for relational contracting in the construction industry is high because of the barriers
arising from its highly fragmented nature. While relational contracting principles are less difficult to
apply in private sector projects, it is not known if public sector projects can enjoy the full benefits
of relational contracting. This paper aims to provide answers to this question. Difficulties of
implementing relational contracting principles in public construction projects were firstly discussed.
A theoretical framework including a basic model, an integrated stakeholder network, and three
categories of measurement items were then identified. Although the theoretical framework and
accompanying hypotheses are still required to be tested by a following survey, the proposed
findings would guide the application of relational contracting in public projects, thus contributing to
better relationships in the construction contracting environment, and thereby boosting project
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ & Chan, APC 2011, 'Equitable Risk Allocation in Chinese Public–Private Partnership Power Projects', International Conference on Sustainable Construction and Risk Management, Springer, pp. 131-138.View/Download from: Publisher's site
It is important for the public and private sectors to establish effective risk
allocation strategies for PPP projects in order to achieve a more efficient process
of contract negotiation. This paper has studied the equitable allocation of risks in
China’s PPP power projects based on a comparative analysis of preferred and actual
risk allocations. According to the analysis, three risks, namely, “Change in law”,
“Competition (Exclusive right)” and “Organization and coordination risk” had
different allocations. Reasons behind the differences were analyzed and more
appropriate allocations for the three risks were also discussed. The preferred and
actual allocation for other risks would also be reported in this paper.
Ling, FYY, Chua, MH & Ke, Y 2011, 'Diversity management: managing migrant construction workers on construction sites in Singapore', MISBE2011 - Proceedings of the international Conference on Management and Innovation for a Sustainable Built Environment, Management and Innovation for a Sustainable Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 1-10.
It is not sustainable for construction projects in Singapore to rely merely on a Singaporean workforce due to the low participation rate of indigenous workers. A typical construction site in Singapore thus comprises migrant workers from several countries. This gives rise to the need for diversity management on construction sites to ensure social sustainability. The aim of this research is to examine styles that project managers adopt when managing multi-cultural migrant workers in construction projects. The specific objectives are to: investigate the socially sustainable managerial practices adopted by project managers when dealing with migrant construction workers from China, India and Thailand; and identify if there are any differences in management practices when dealing with migrant construction workers from different countries. The research method is questionnaire survey, and data were collected from project managers who had managed migrant workers in Singapore. In-depth interviews were also conducted to confirm the statistical results. The research found that project managers tend to use task-oriented more than relation-oriented management style to achieve social sustainability. The management practices that are significantly implemented include requiring workers to be punctual, giving assertive instructions, providing close supervision and enforcing rules so that social sustainability can be maintained on construction sites
Chan, APC, Lam, PTI, Chan, DWM, Cheung, E, Wen, Y & Ke, Y 2010, 'A Comparative Analysis of Critical Risk Factors for China's PPP Projects', 2010 CIB World Building Congress, CIB, The Lowry, Salford Quays, UK, pp. 1-12.
Chan, APC, Lam, PTI, Chan, DWM, Cheung, E & Ke, Y 2009, 'Privileges and Attractions for Private Sector Involvement in PPP Projects - A Comparison between China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region', Fifth International Structural Engineering and Construction Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, pp. 751-755.
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ & Chan, APC 2009, 'Public-Private Partnerships in China's Infrastructure Development: Lessons Learnt', CIB W096, W104, TG53 - Changing roles: new roles, new challenges, Noordwijk ann Zee, The Netherlands, pp. 177-188.
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ & Chan, APC 2009, 'Risk Allocation and Management of PPP Infrastructure Projects', 8th China - International Construction Project Management Summit Meeting, China Construction Industry Association, Jinan, China, pp. 99-107.
Chan, APC, Lam, PTI, Chan, DWM, Cheung, E & Ke, Y 2008, 'Measures that Enhance the Achievement of Value-for-Money in PPP projects', CIB W092, W107, TG63 - Building abroad: procurement of construction and reconstruction projects in the international context, Montreal, Canada, pp. 101-110.
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ, Chan, APC & Li, Z 2008, 'Changes of Political Risks in China's PPP Projects', 6th National Civil Engineering Forum for Graduate Students, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, pp. 279-279.
Wang, SQ & Ke, Y 2008, 'Risk Management of Infrastructure Projects in China with Case Study of the National Stadium', Inaugural Conference on Construction Law and Economics Circle in Asia and Pacific, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 101-114.
Ke, Y, Wang, SQ & Chan, APC 2007, 'Developing a Quantitative Risk Allocation Mechanism for Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in the PRC: a Research Framework', 2007 International Conference on Concession Public/Infrastructural Projects, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China, pp. 305-311.
Ling, FYY, Teo, A, Ke, Y & Ning, Y National University of Singapore 2013, Boosting Public Construction Project Outcomes through Relational Transactions, Singapore.
Ke, Y 2018, 'Public-Private Partnerships in Australia: History and Application'.
Ke, Y 2018, 'Public-Private Partnerships in Australia: Regulatory Framework'.
Ke, Y 2018, 'What is a True Public-Private Partnership Project?'.
Ke, Y, Zhang, L & Zhou, B 2018, 'A Cross-Country Comparison of Public-Private Partnerships Environment and Applications'.
Bannister, P & Ke, Y 2017, 'A Review of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in NSW Australia: Are PPPs Really Value for Money?'.
Ke, Y 2010, 'Equitable Risk Allocation for Public-Private Partnership Projects in China'.
Ke, Y & Wang, SQ 2009, 'Current implementation of risk management in China's PPP projects'.
Wang, SQ & Ke, Y 2009, 'Reasons and Revelation of Taiwan High Speed Rail's Failure'.
Ke, Y 2005, 'Comparison of Financial Evaluation Methods for PPP/BOT Projects'.