Gu, X, Yu, Y, Li, Y, Li, J, Askari, M & Samali, B 2019, 'Experimental study of semi-active magnetorheological elastomer base isolation system using optimal neuro fuzzy logic control', Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 119, pp. 380-398.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper, a “smart” base isolation strategy is proposed in this study utilising a semi-active magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator whose stiffness can be controlled in real-time and reversible fashion. By modulating the applied current, the horizontal stiffness of the MRE isolator can be controlled and thus the control action can be generated for the isolated structure. To overcome the inherent nonlinearity and hysteresis of the MRE isolator, radial basis function neural network based fuzzy logic control (RBF-NFLC) was developed due to its inherent robustness and capability in coping with uncertainties. The NFLC was optimised by a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm type II (NSGA-II) for better suited fuzzy control rules as well as most appropriate parameters for the membership functions. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed smart base isolation system, four scenarios are tested under various historical earthquake excitations, i.e. bare building with no isolation, passive isolated structure, MRE isolated structure with Bang-Bang control, MRE isolated structure with proposed NFLC. A three-storey shear building model was adopted as the testing bed. Through the testing results, limited performance of passive isolation system was revealed. In contrast, the adaptability of the proposed isolation strategy was demonstrated and it is proven that the smart MRE base isolation system is able to provide satisfactory protection for both structural and non-structural elements of the system over a wide range of hazard dynamic loadings.
Yu, Y, Li, Y, Li, J, Gu, X & Royel, S 2018, 'Nonlinear Characterization of the MRE Isolator using Binary-Coded Discrete CSO and ELM', International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, vol. 18, no. 8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 World Scientific Publishing Company Magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator has been proved as a promising semi-active control device for structural vibration control. For its engineering application, developing an accurate and robust model is definitely necessary and also a challenging task. Most of the present models, belonging to parametric models, need to identify various model parameters and sometimes are not capable of perfectly capturing the unique characteristics of the device. In this work, a novel nonparametric model is proposed to characterize the inherent dynamics of the MRE isolator with the features of hysteresis and nonlinearity. Initially, dynamic tests are conducted to evaluate the performance of the isolator under various loading conditions, including harmonic, random, and seismic excitations. Then, on the basis of the captured experimental results, a hybrid learning method is designed to forecast the nonlinear responses of the device with known external inputs. In this method, a type of single hidden layer feed-forward network, called extreme learning machine (ELM), is developed to forecast the nonlinear responses (shear force) of the device with captured velocity, displacement, and current level. To obtain optimal performance of the developed model, an improved binary-coded discrete cat swarm optimization (BCDCSO) method is adopted to select optimal inputs and neuron number in the hidden layer for the network development. The performance of the proposed method is verified through the comparison between experimental results and model predictions. Due to the noise influence in the practical condition, the robustness of the proposed method is also validated via adding noise disturbance into the supplying currents. The results show that the proposed method outperforms the standard ELM in terms of characterization of the MRE isolator, even though the captured responses are polluted with external measurement noises.
Chen, X, Li, Y, Li, J & Gu, X 2018, 'A dual-loop adaptive control for minimizing time response delay in real-time structural vibration control with magnetorheological (MR) devices', Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1-20.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Time delay is a challenge issue faced by the real-time control application of the magnetorheological (MR) devices. Not to deal with it properly may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control, even lead to instability of the control system or catastrophic failure. This paper proposes a dual-loop adaptive control to address the response time delay associated with MR devices. In the proposed dual-loop control, the inner loop is designed to compensate the time delay of MR device induced by the PWM current driver. While the outer loop control can be any structural control algorithm with aims to reducing structural responses of a building during extreme loadings. Here an adaptive control strategy is adopted. To verify the proposed dual-loop control, a smart base isolation system employing magnetorheological elastomer base isolators is used as an example to illustrate the control effect. Numerical study is then conducted using a 5 -storey shear building model equipped with smart base isolation system. The result shows that with the implementation of the inner loop, the control current can instantly follow the control command which reduce the possibility of instability caused by the time delay. Comparative studies are conducted between three control strategies, i.e. dual-loop control, Lyapunov's direct method based control and optimal passive base isolation control. The results of the study have demonstrated that the proposed dual-loop control strategy can achieve much better performance than the other two control strategies.
Gu, X, Yu, Y, Li, J & Li, Y 2017, 'Semi-active control of magnetorheological elastomer base isolation system utilising learning-based inverse model', Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 406, pp. 346-362.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) base isolations have attracted considerable attention over the last two decades thanks to its self-adaptability and high-authority controllability in semi-active control realm. Due to the inherent nonlinearity and hysteresis of the devices, it is challenging to obtain a reasonably complicated mathematical model to describe the inverse dynamics of MRE base isolators and hence to realise control synthesis of the MRE base isolation system. Two aims have been achieved in this paper: i) development of an inverse model for MRE base isolator based on optimal general regression neural network (GRNN); ii) numerical and experimental validation of a real-time semi-active controlled MRE base isolation system utilising LQR controller and GRNN inverse model. The superiority of GRNN inverse model lays in fewer input variables requirement, faster training process and prompt calculation response, which makes it suitable for online training and real-time control. The control system is integrated with a three-storey shear building model and control performance of the MRE base isolation system is compared with bare building, passive-on isolation system and passive-off isolation system. Testing results show that the proposed GRNN inverse model is able to reproduce desired control force accurately and the MRE base isolation system can effectively suppress the structural responses when compared to the passive isolation system.
Gu, X, Yu, Y, Li, J, Li, Y & Alamdari, M 2016, 'Semi-active storey isolation system employing MRE isolator with parameter identification based on NSGA-II with DCD', Earthquake and Structures, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1101-1121.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Base isolation, one of the popular seismic protection approaches proven to be effective in practical applications, has been widely applied worldwide during the past few decades. As the techniques mature, it has been recognised that, the biggest issue faced in base isolation technique is the challenge of great base displacement demand, which leads to the potential of overturning of the structure, instability and permanent damage of the isolators. Meanwhile, drain, ventilation and regular maintenance at the base isolation level are quite difficult and rather time- and fund- consuming, especially in the highly populated areas. To address these challenges, a number of efforts have been dedicated to propose new isolation systems, including segmental building, additional storey isolation (ASI) and mid-storey isolation system, etc. However, such techniques have their own flaws, among which whipping effect is the most obvious one. Moreover, due to their inherent passive nature, all these techniques, including traditional base isolation system, show incapability to cope with the unpredictable and diverse nature of earthquakes. The solution for the aforementioned challenge is to develop an innovative vibration isolation system to realise variable structural stiffness to maximise the adaptability and controllability of the system. Recently, advances on the development of an adaptive magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE) vibration isolator has enlightened the development of adaptive base isolation systems due to its ability to alter stiffness by changing applied electrical current. In this study, an innovative semi-active storey isolation system inserting such novel MRE isolators between each floor is proposed. The stiffness of each level in the proposed isolation system can thus be changed according to characteristics of the MRE isolators. Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm type II (NSGA-II) with dynamic crowding distance (DCD) is utilised for the optimisation of the para...
Yu, Y, Li, Y, Li, J & Gu, X 2016, 'A hysteresis model for dynamic behaviour of magnetorheological elastomer base isolator', Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In recent years, an adaptively tuned magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator for a base isolation system has been designed and tested with the benefits of low power cost, fail safe manner and fast responses. To make full use of this striking device for design of smart structures, a highly precise model should be developed to effectively and accurately forecast the shear force of the device in real-time so as to adopt a proper control strategy to improve the responses of the protected structures. In this work, a novel mechanical model is presented to characterize this nonlinear hysteresis for its implementation in structural vibration control. This model employs the displacement and velocity of the device as well as the applied current as the inputs and just has the limited constant parameters to be identified compared with some classical hysteretic models such as Bouc–Wen, improved Dahl and LuGre models. Performance evaluation of this novel hysteresis model has been conducted based on the testing data from an MRE base isolator. The results show that the proposed model has high modelling accuracy and is able to perfectly portray the unique and complicated behaviours of the device with various excitations.
Yu, Y, Li, Y, Li, J & Gu, X 2016, 'Self-adaptive step fruit fly algorithm optimized support vector regression model for dynamic response prediction of magnetorheological elastomer base isolator', Neurocomputing, vol. 211, pp. 41-52.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Parameter optimization of support vector regression (SVR) plays a challenging role in improving the generalization ability of machine learning. Fruit fly optimization algorithm (FFOA) is a recently developed swarm optimization algorithm for complicated multi-objective optimization problems and is also suitable for optimizing SVR parameters. In this work, parameter optimization in SVR using FFOA is investigated. In view of problems of premature and local optimum in FFOA, an improved FFOA algorithm based on self-adaptive step update strategy (SSFFOA) is presented to obtain the optimal SVR model. Moreover, the proposed method is utilized to characterize magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) base isolator, a typical hysteresis device. In this application, the obtained displacement, velocity and current level are used as SVR inputs while the output is the shear force response of the device. Experimental testing of the isolator with two types of excitations is applied for model performance evaluation. The results demonstrate that the proposed SSFFOA-optimized SVR (SSFFOA_SVR) has perfect generalization ability and more accurate prediction accuracy than other machine learning models, and it is a suitable and effective method to predict the dynamic behaviour of MRE isolator.
Yu, Y, Li, Y, Li, J, Gu, X, Royel, S & Pokhrel, A 2016, 'Nonlinear and hysteretic modelling of magnetorheological elastomer base isolator using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system', Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 846, pp. 258-263.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) base isolator is a semi-active control device which has currently obtained increasing attention in the field of vibration control of civil structures. However, the inherent nonlinear and hysteretic response of the device is regarded as a challenge
aspect for using the smart device to realize the high performance. Therefore, an accurate and robust
model is essential to make full use of these unique features for its engineering applications. In this
paper, to solve this issue, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is utilized to characterize
the dynamic behavior of the device. In this proposed model, the inputs are historical displacements
and applied current of the device while the output is the shear force generated. To validate its forecast performance, the ANFIS model is also compared with some conventional models. Finally, the result verifies that ANFIS has the best perfection ability among existing MRE-based device models.
Askari, M, Li, J, Samali, B & Gu, X 2016, 'Experimental forward and inverse modelling of magnetorheological dampers using an optimal Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy scheme', Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 904-914.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© The Author(s) 2015. An evolving encoding scheme is presented in this article for a fuzzy-based nonlinear system identification scheme, using the subtractive fuzzy C-mean clustering and a modified version of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. This method is able to automatically select the best inputs as well as the structure of the fuzzy model such as rules and membership functions. Moreover, three objective functions are considered to satisfy both accuracy and compactness of the model. The developed method is then employed to identify both forward and inverse models of a highly nonlinear structural control device, that is, magnetorheological damper. Experimental results showed that the proposed evolving Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy model can identify and grasp the nonlinear behaviour of magnetorheological damper very well with minimal number of inputs and fuzzy rules.
Chen, X, Li, J, Li, Y & Gu, X 2016, 'Lyapunov-based Semi-active Control of Adaptive Base Isolation System employing Magnetorheological Elastomer base isolators', Earthquake and Structures, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1077-1099.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
One of the main shortcomings in the current passive base isolation system is lack of adaptability. The recent research and development of a novel adaptive seismic isolator based on magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) material has created an opportunity to add adaptability to base isolation systems for civil structures. The new MRE based base isolator is able to significantly alter its shear modulus or lateral stiffness with the applied magnetic field or electric current, which makes it a competitive candidate to develop an adaptive base isolation system. This paper aims at exploring suitable control algorithms for such adaptive base isolation system by developing a close-loop semi-active control system for a building structure equipped with MRE base isolators. The MRE base isolator is simulated by a numerical model derived from experimental characterization based on the Bouc-Wen Model, which is able to describe the forcedisplacement response of the device accurately. The parameters of Bouc-Wen Model such as the stiffness and the damping coefficients are described as functions of the applied current. The state-space model is built by analyzing the dynamic property of the structure embedded with MRE base isolators. A Lyapunov-based controller is designed to adaptively vary the current applied to MRE base isolator to suppress the quakeinduced vibrations. The proposed control method is applied to a widely used benchmark base-isolated structure by numerical simulation. The performance of the adaptive base isolation system was evaluated through comparison with optimal passive base isolation system and a passive base isolation system with optimized base shear. It is concluded that the adaptive base isolation system with proposed Lyapunov-based semi-active control surpasses the performance of other two passive systems in protecting the civil structures under seismic events.
Gu, X, Li, J, Li, Y & Askari, M 2016, 'Frequency control of smart base isolation system employing a novel adaptive magneto-rheological elastomer base isolator', Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 849-858.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In the past decades, base isolation techniques have become increasingly popular for seismic protection of civil structures owing to its capability of decoupling buildings from harmful ground motion. However, it has been recognised recently that the traditional passive base isolation technique could encounter a serious problem during earthquakes due its incapability in adjusting the isolation frequency to cope with the unpredictability and diversity of earthquakes. To address this challenge, a great deal of research efforts have been conducted to improve traditional base isolation systems, most of which focused on hybrid supplementary devices (passive, active and semi-active types) for the isolators to control displacement or to dissipate seismic energy. On the other hand, the most effective approach to address the aforementioned challenge should lay on varying isolator stiffness in real-time to achieve real-time spontaneous decoupling. A recent advance of the development of an adaptive magneto-rheological elastomer base isolator has brought such idea to reality as the new magneto-rheological elastomer base isolator is capable to alter its stiffness significantly in real-time. In this article, an innovative smart base isolation system employing such magneto-rheological elastomer isolator is proposed and a novel frequency control algorithm is developed to shift the fundamental frequency of the structure away from the dominant frequency range of earthquakes. Such design enables the building to avoid resonant state in real-time according to the on-coming spectrum of the earthquakes. Extensive simulation has been conducted using a five-storey benchmark model with the isolation system, and testing results indicate that the proposed control system is able to significantly suppress both the floor accelerations and inter-storey drifts simultaneously under different earthquakes.
Gu, X, Li, Y & Li, J 2016, 'Investigations on response time of magnetorheological elastomer isolator for real-time control implementation', Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 25, no. 11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Utilising the unique features of MRE materials for vibration isolators has been intensively studied over the last several years. Real-time control of the MRE isolators holds the key to unlock MRE materials' unique characteristics, i.e. instantly changeable shear modulus in continuous and reverse fashion. However, one of the critical issues for the applications of real-time control is the response time delay of MRE vibration isolators, which has not yet been fully addressed and studied. This paper identified the inherent response time of the MRE isolator and explored two feasible approaches to minimise the response time delay. Experiments were designed and conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches on minimising time delay on: (i) the transient response of current of a large coil that generates magnetic field and (ii) the transient response of shear force from the MRE isolator. The results show that the proposed approaches are effective and promising. For example, the proposed approach is able to reduce the force response time from 421 ms to 52 ms at rising and from 400 ms to 48 ms falling edges respectively. Such level of short response time of the MRE isolators demonstrates the feasibility of application of real-time control and hence is the essential step on the realisation of real-time control of vibration suppression system based on MRE isolator.
Yu, Y, Li, Y, Li, J, Gu, X & Royel, S 2016, 'Dynamic modeling of magnetorheological elastomer base isolator based on extreme learning machine', Mechanics of Structures and Materials: Advancements and Challenges - Proceedings of the 24th Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, ACMSM24 2016, Australian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, CRC press, Perth, Australia, pp. 703-708.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London. This paper presents a novel modeling method to describe the nonlinear and hysteretic characteristics of Magnetorheological Elastomer (MRE) isolator, which is a semi-active control device and used in vibration control of engineering structures such as vehicle suspension system, offshore platform and built infrastructure. In the proposed method, a new single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network algorithm named Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is adopted to set up the model, in which the captured responses such as displacement and velocity of the device together with applied current level are employed as model inputs while the model output is the shear force generated according to the external excitation. Finally, the experimental data are utilized to validate the performance of the proposed method.
Hazber, MAG, Li, R, Gu, X, Xu, G & Li, Y 2015, 'Semantic SPARQL Query in a Relational Database Based on Ontology Construction', Proceedings - 2015 11th International Conference on Semantics, Knowledge and Grids, SKG 2015, International Conference on Semantics Knowledge and Grid, IEEE, China, pp. 25-32.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 IEEE.Constructing an ontology from RDBs and its query through ontologies is a fundamental problem for the development of the semantic web. This paper proposes an approach to extract ontology directly from RDB in the form of OWL/RDF triples, to ensure its availability at semantic web. We automatically construct an OWL ontology from RDB schema using direct mapping rules. The mapping rules provide the basic rules for generating RDF triples from RDB data even for column contents null value, and enable semantic query engines to answer more relevant queries. Then we rewriting SPARQL query from SQL by translating SQL relational algebra into an equivalent SPARQL. The proposed method is demonstrated with examples and the effectiveness of the proposed approach is evaluated by experimental results.
Gu, X, Li, J & Li, Y 2014, 'Innovative semi-active storey isolation system utilising novel magnetorheological elastomer base isolators', Proceedings of the 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Southern Cross University, Byron Bay, Australia, pp. 925-930.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Seismic base isolation has been a widely adopted technique for earthquake protection of civil infrastructures. As the technology matures, new innovative designs of the base isolation systems become increasingly attractive to researchers, especially storey base isolation systems due to its design flexibility and better performance for seismic protection. Moreover, considering the unpredictable and diverse nature of earthquakes, the conventional base isolation systems have reached their limit due to their inherent passive nature which is incapable to adjust their isolation frequencies according to the characteristics of the earthquakes. A recent advance on the development of an adaptive magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE) base isolator provides an opportunity for the research and development on new adaptive base isolation systems. In this paper, an innovative semi-active storey isolation system utilising the novel magneto-rheological elastomer base isolator has been proposed. The proposed isolation system design incorporates adaptive magneto-rheological elastomer isolators under each storey of the structure instead of being only installed beneath of the entire structure. Such innovative system allows high authority semiactive control of storey responses by instantly changing stiffness of the isolator. Extensive simulation has been conducted to investigate such system using 5-storey international benchmark model under four benchmark earthquakes.
Li, GH, Huang, XG, Gu, XY & Wang, J 2013, 'Fabrication and mechanical properties study of the magnetorheological elastomer', Applied Mechanics and Materials, pp. 148-152.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) is a novel kind of magnetorheological materials and has been successfully used to control the structure vibration due to its property of variable stiffness under different magnetic field. In order to improve the properties of MRE, it urgently needs to investigate the preparation methods of MRE and build a corresponding test system to evaluate the performance of MRE in different operating modes. In this paper, different magnetic devices for preparing MRE were studied and designed, and the material was fabricated by the permanent magnets with additional permeability equipment at last. Then, according to the SDOF principle, a novel test system was built in order to investigate the mechanical properties of MRE, and exact close-form expressions of the stiffness, loss factor and other mechanical parameters of MRE, under different magnetic field, have been calculated to analyze the properties of MRE. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
Gu, X & Li, Y 2013, 'Comprehensive Investigations on Magnetic Field Distribution in a Solenoid', ASME 2013 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, ASME, Snowbird, Utah, USA, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Finding engineering applications for a new class of smart material, magnetorheological elastomer (MRE), has been a major task for researchers in this field. Novel MRE devices, such as vibration absorbers and vibration isolators, have been proposed and fabricated to pioneer its engineering applications. In civil engineering, the author has proposed a novel MRE based isolator to be used in the base isolation system for mitigating the devastating effects of earthquakes on civil structures. For any MRE-based device, electromagnetic coil is evitable involved to provide magnetic field for the MRE materials. Comparing with magnetic circuit design in magnetorheological fluid (MRF) device, i.e. MR damper, MRE devices normally need a larger coil to energize the MRE materials, particularly for a large-scale MRE device. Therefore, investigation of the solenoid on the magnetic field distribution is of great importance for the design and development of MRE based device. In particular, provision of sufficient and uniform magnetic field is essential towards the success in designing MRF/MRE devices. To understand the mechanism of magnetic field generation in a solenoid is the key for device design and optimization. The main objective of this paper is to analytically investigate and experimentally validate the magnetic field distribution in a solenoid. The theoretical investigation starts from the analysis on an ideally thin cylindrical solenoid in order to obtain analytical results.
Jiang, X, Gu, X & Wang, J 2012, 'Piezoelectric wafer-stack energy harvesting from large force vibration', 23rd International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies, ICAST 2012.
Piezoelectric (PZT) vibration-based harvesters have received explosive attention over the last decade due to the ever-increasing demand for self-powering portable and wireless electronics with extended lifespan. Typically, the most commonly used configuration in PZT harvester is the rectangular cantilever bean because this structure makes straining of the material easily and fits for normal ambient vibration. Unlike the normal cantilever beam structure, this paper presents a novel piezoelectric harvester based on the wafer stack configuration, which is appropriated for large force vibration conditions, to convert the external vibration into usable electrical energy. Firstly, two electromechanical models (without and with a rectified circuit), considering both the mechanical and electrical factors of the harvester, were built to characterize the harvested electrical power across the external loadings. Exact closed-form expressions of the electromechanical models have been given to analyze conditions for maximum harvested power. Finally, a shake table experimental testing was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the presented PZT wafer-stack harvester under standard sinusoidal loadings. Test results show that the harvester can generate a maximum 16mW DC electrical power for sinusoidal loading with 40mm amplitude and 2Hz frequency, also the harvested electrical power is proportional to the strength of exciting vibrations.