Dr Xanthe Spindler completed a Bachelor of Science (Forensic)(Honours) at the University of Newcastle, Australia (2006). This was followed by a PhD (Applied Chemistry) at the University of Canberra (in collaboration with the Centre for Forensic Science at UTS), investigating methods to improve the detection of latent fingermarks. In 2010, Xanthe joined the UTS Faculty of Science as a sessional academic before securing a Chancellor's Postdoctoral Research Fellowship with the UTS Centre for Forensic Science in 2012. In 2016, Xanthe accepted a lectureship in the Centre for Forensic Science and School of Mathematical & Physical Sciences.
Xanthe's research focuses on understanding the methods of detecting latent fingermarks on forensic evidence and at crime scenes, and the different factors that affect the success rates of detection processes. Her research also aims to develop better methods to capture fingermarks that may be missed by current processes, using new biomolecular and chemical technologies. Xanthe supervises a collaborative and enthusiastic group of research students working on a multitude of forensic science problems that span from fingermark detection and fingerprint identification to criminalistics and questioned document examination.
Xanthe is an invited member of the International Fingerprint Research Group and a member of the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society. Her research has led to successful collaborations with the Australian Federal Police, NSW Police, Victoria Police, international universities, and funding from the Australian Research Council.
- Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society
- International Fingerprint Research Group
Can supervise: YES
- Fingermark detection
- Fingerprint identification
- Physical / impression evidence
- Fingermark detection
- Criminalistics / trace evidence
- Physical Evidence
- Organic chemistry
- Applied spectroscopy
Phan, K, Barash, M, Spindler, X, Gunn, P & Roux, C 2020, 'Retrieving forensic information about the donor through bacterial profiling.', International Journal of Legal Medicine, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 21-29.View/Download from: Publisher's site
When fingermarks are left on a surface, bacteria originating from the donor's skin are also deposited. The skin microbiome is believed to be extremely diverse between individuals, allowing for potential matching between the bacterial communities and touched objects, known as "bacterial profiling". This study stepped further and investigated how the bacterial profile could be used as an indicator of donor characteristics of potential forensic intelligence interest. Forty-five participants were asked to touch DNA-free playing cards with their dominant and non-dominant hands. Cards were swabbed and bacterial communities determined through 16S rRNA sequencing. Diversity and abundance of bacteria were compared to donor characteristics of gender, age, ethnicity, handedness, home location, sample location, occupation, diet type, use of moisturisers, use of hand sanitisers and use of public transport. Correlations between the bacterial profile with gender, ethnicity, diet type and hand sanitiser use were found. Specifically, the absence of Lactococcus indicated a primarily Chinese diet, while the absence of Alloiococcus indicated female gender, Asian ethnicity and hand sanitiser use. Testing of the prediction models demonstrated highest accuracy for gender estimation, while the prediction of other characteristics showed lower success. This study showed a correlation between the presence of certain bacterial species on donor's hands and personal characteristics of potential forensic relevance, thus demonstrating a novel application of microbiome genotyping in forensic science.
Kanodarwala, FK, Moret, S, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2019, 'Nanoparticles used for fingermark detection—A comprehensive review', Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Forensic Science, vol. 1, no. 5.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lee, PLT, Kanodarwala, FK, Lennard, C, Spindler, X, Spikmans, V, Roux, C & Moret, S 2019, 'Latent fingermark detection using functionalised silicon oxide nanoparticles: Method optimisation and evaluation.', Forensic science international, vol. 298, pp. 372-383.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The application of nanoparticles for latent fingermark detection has been reported in the literature over the past two decades. One of the nanoparticles that shows promise to become a routine technique is functionalised silicon oxide nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). In a recent optimisation of the technique, the use of carboxyl-functionalised SiO2 NPs doped with luminescent ruthenium complex was proposed as a breakthrough for latent fingermark detection. In this study, the aforementioned functionalised SiO2 NPs were extensively evaluated. Modification and optimisation of the original detection parameters were performed to enhance detection quality and improve applicability. Various detection parameters were evaluated and assessed. A lower concentration of the functionalised nanoparticles used in the colloidal dispersion was determined to offer improved detection effectiveness. A combination of increased bath temperature and reduced immersion time was found to produce good overall results. A set of modified detection parameters was suggested for the use of the functionalised SiO2 NPs to detect latent fingermarks. Performance of the modified detection parameters was compared against that of the published detection method. Comparison experiments were carried out on fingermark specimens deposited on aluminium foil, transparent polypropylene plastic and green polyethylene plastic. Three donors (weak, average and strong) and two age intervals (ten days and three months) were considered in the comparison study. Evaluation of the results suggested that the overall performance of the modified method for latent fingermark detection was superior to that obtained using the previously published detection parameters.
Moret, S, Lee, PLT, de la Hunty, M, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2019, 'Single metal deposition versus physical developer: A comparison between two advanced fingermark detection techniques.', Forensic science international, vol. 294, pp. 103-112.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Single metal deposition (SMD II) is a fingermark detection technique based on the use of colloidal gold. The technique has been simplified and optimised over the years to become more reliable, sensitive and user-friendly. Physical developer (PD) is a well-established detection method based on silver deposition from a redox solution. This study presents an extensive comparison of SMD II against PD for fingermark detection on porous substrates. The two techniques were compared as (i) standalone methods, (ii) in sequence after the application of routine amino acids reagents (1,2-indanedione/zinc followed by ninhydrin), and (iii) after the substrates have been wet. More than 1000 fingermark specimens were processed. Overall, the performance of SMD II was judged to be inferior to that of PD; therefore, SMD II cannot be recommended as a valid replacement for fingermark detection on porous substrates. Indanedione/zinc and ninhydrin application negatively impacts on SMD II performance and the technique gave inconsistent results across the selected range of porous substrates. Moreover, the detected fingermarks lacked contrast making their visualisation difficult. However, even if PD remains the technique of choice, SMD II showed significant potential. It proved to be less affected by donor variability and it can be applied on both porous and non-porous substrates. It did not lead to uncontrolled background staining that commonly occurs with PD. If contrast and consistency issues can be addressed in future research, SMD II may become a viable alternative to PD.
Chadwick, S, Moret, S, Jayashanka, N, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2018, 'Investigation of some of the factors influencing fingermark detection.', Forensic Science International, vol. 289, pp. 381-389.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The primary aims of fingermark detection research are to improve the quality and increase the rate of detection of identifiable impressions. This is usually performed through the development of new methods and technologies to provide alternatives to or improve current procedures. While research of this nature is important to pursue, it fails to address the underlying question related to the factors that affect the detection of a latent fingermark. There has been significant research that has examined the differences between techniques, donors and fingermark age, as well as the composition of latent fingermarks. However, they tend not to focus on determining how these factors influence the quality of the developed mark. This study involved the development and evaluation of over 14,000 natural fingermarks deposited on a variety of surfaces to examine the effect of substrate, age, donor variability (both inter- and intra-), depletions and type of finger on fingermark development. Fingermarks were deposited on four substrates (two non-porous and two porous) and developed with either indanedione-zinc (IND-Zn) or cyanoacrylate followed by rhodamine 6G staining (CA+R6G). Three independent assessors graded each mark on the quality of development using an absolute scale proposed by the UK Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST). The data generated from these assessments were then analysed for trends or other useful insights. The results from this work reaffirm that individual substrate characteristics (and the choice of development technique) play a significant role in determining the number and quality of marks developed. It was found that fingermarks were more likely to be detected on porous substrates and to also be of a higher quality than on non-porous. The effect of fingermark donor variability was also explored, with significant differences observed between donors and within donors. This research shows that current detection techniques do not detect all av...
De La Hunty, MA, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2018, 'An effective Physical Developer (PD) method for use in Australian laboratories', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 50, no. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Khuu, A, Chadwick, S, Moret, S, Spindler, X, Gunn, P & Roux, C 2018, 'Impact of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate treatment on subsequent DNA analysis.', Forensic science international, vol. 286, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fingermarks can be exploited for both their ridge detail and touch DNA. One-step luminescent cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming techniques used for fingermark enhancement, such as PolyCyano UV (Foster+Freeman Ltd) and Lumicyano™ (Crime Science Technology), claim to be compatible with DNA analysis as they reduce the need for post-staining to increase contrast of the developed fingermark. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that these one-step luminescent cyanoacrylates have on DNA analysis and how they compare to conventional CA techniques. Four donors each deposited five sets of natural fingermarks, to which a known amount of washed saliva cells was dispensed onto half of each set of fingermarks. Each set was treated with either a conventional CA technique or a one-step luminescent CA technique prior to collection and processing of DNA, with one set left as a non-fumed control. It was found that DNA was still recoverable and detectable following each of the treatments. Lumicyano™ had a similar impact on DNA profiles as conventional CA fuming and with post-stain, however, the degradation effect of PolyCyano UV on DNA was greater than the conventional treatments. For quantities of DNA such as that from touch DNA, the use of PolyCyano UV to enhance fingermarks may impact subsequent DNA analysis by causing allele drop out at larger fragment sizes.
Moret, S, Scott, E, Barone, A, Liang, K, Lennard, C, Roux, C & Spindler, X 2018, 'Metal-Organic Frameworks for fingermark detection - A feasibility study.', Forensic science international, vol. 291, pp. 83-93.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline structures, currently used as sensors, separation membranes, and as catalysts. Due to their physicochemical and optical properties, they have been recently proposed for fingermark detection. This study further explored their potential for fingermark detection. Natural fingermarks, as well as charged and protein-enriched marks, were used to test the efficiency of the technique. Various parameters, such as precursor concentration, pH, immersion time and detection protocols, were investigated and optimised. The performance of the optimised MOF-based method was then compared to that of routinely used techniques. The results obtained indicated that MOFs can effectively detect fingermarks, especially protein-rich marks such as marks contaminated with body fluids. However, after comparison and evaluation against benchmark techniques, results were judged to be inferior to those from currently employed detection methods. However, with further research and optimisation MOFs may be promising as an alternative to current powder suspension techniques.
Morelato, M, Barash, M, Blanes, L, Chadwick, S, Dilag, J, Kuzhiumparambil, U, Nizio, KD, Spindler, X & Moret, S 2017, 'Forensic Science: Current State and Perspective by a Group of Early Career Researchers', Foundations of Science, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 799-825.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Forensic science and its influence on policing and the criminal justice system have increased since the beginning of the twentieth century. While the philosophies of the forensic science pioneers remain the pillar of modern practice, rapid advances in technology and the underpinning sciences have seen an explosion in the number of disciplines and tools. Consequently, the way in which we exploit and interpret the remnant of criminal activity are adapting to this changing environment. In order to best exploit the trace, an interdisciplinary approach to both research and investigation is required. In this paper, nine postdoctoral research fellows from a multidisciplinary team discuss their vision for the future of forensic science at the crime scene, in the laboratory and beyond. This paper does not pretend to be exhaustive of all fields of forensic science, but describes a portion of the postdoctoral fellows' interests and skills.
Chadwick, S, Neskoski, M, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2017, 'Effect of hand sanitizer on the performance of fingermark detection techniques.', Forensic Science International, vol. 273, pp. 153-160.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hand sanitizers have seen a rapid increase in popularity amongst the general population and this increased use has led to the belief that hand sanitizers may have an effect on subsequent fingermark detection. Based on this hypothesis, three alcoholic and two non-alcoholic hand sanitizers were evaluated to determine the effect they had on the detection of fingermarks deposited after their use. The following fingermark detection methods were applied: 1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, physical developer (porous substrate); and cyanoacrylate, rhodamine 6G, magnetic powder (non-porous substrate). Comparison between hand sanitized fingermarks and non-hand sanitized fingermarks showed that the alcohol-based hand sanitizers did not result in any visible differences in fingermark quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, however, improved the quality of fingermarks developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc and ninhydrin, and marginally improved those developed with magnetic powder. Different parameters, including time since hand sanitizer application prior to fingermark deposition and age of deposited mark, were tested to determine the longevity of increased development quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitized marks showed no decrease in quality when aged for up to two weeks. The time since sanitizer application was determined to be an important factor that affected the quality of non-alcoholic hand sanitized fingermarks. It was hypothesized that the active ingredient in non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, benzalkonium chloride, is responsible for the increase in fingermark development quality observed with amino acid reagents, while the increased moisture content present on the ridges resulted in better powdered fingermarks.
Lee, R, Comber, B, Abraham, J, Wagner, M, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2017, 'Supporting fingerprint identification assessments using a skin stretch model - A preliminary study.', Forensic Science International, vol. 272, pp. 41-49.View/Download from: Publisher's site
To support fingerprint expert opinion, this research proposes an approach that combines subjective human analysis (as currently applied by fingerprint practitioners) with a statistical test of the result. This approach relies on the hypothesis that there are limits to the distortion caused by skin stretch. Such limits can be modelled by applying a multivariate normal probability density function to the distances and angle formed by a marked ridge characteristic and the two closest neighbouring minutiae. This study presents a model tested on 5 donors in total. The "expected range" of distortion in a within-source comparison using 10 minutiae was determined and compared to between-source comparisons. The expected range of log probability densities for within-source comparisons marked with 10 minutiae was determined to be from -33.4 to -60.0, with all between-source data falling outside this range, between -83 and -305. These results suggest that the proposed generated metric could be a powerful tool for the assessment of fingerprint expert opinion in operational casework.
Khuu, A, Chadwick, S, Spindler, X, Lam, R, Moret, S & Roux, C 2016, 'Authors' response to comments on "Evaluation of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming''', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 268, pp. E25-E26.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Khuu, A, Chadwick, S, Spindler, X, Lam, R, Moret, S & Roux, C 2016, 'Evaluation of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 263, pp. 126-131.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lam, R, Hofstetter, O, Lennard, C, Roux, C & Spindler, X 2016, 'Evaluation of multi-target immunogenic reagents for the detection of latent and body fluid-contaminated fingermarks', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 264, pp. 168-175.View/Download from: Publisher's site
de la Hunty, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2015, 'Understanding physical developer (PD): Part I - Is PD targeting lipids?', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 257, pp. 481-487.View/Download from: Publisher's site
de la Hunty, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2015, 'Understanding Physical Developer (PD): Part II - Is PD Targeting Eccrine Constituents?', Forensic Science International, vol. 257, pp. 488-495.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Moret, S, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2015, 'Microscopic examination of fingermark residues: Opportunities for fundamental studies', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 255, pp. 28-37.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Spindler, X, Shimmon, R, Roux, C & Lennard, C 2015, 'Visualising substrate-fingermark interactions: Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of amino acid reagent development on cellulose substrates', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 250, pp. 8-16.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chadwick, SR, Xiao, LH, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2014, 'PolyCyano UV: an investigation into a one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming process', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1-14.View/Download from: Publisher's site
PolyCyano UV (Foster?+?Freeman Ltd) is a new one-step process for developing luminescent fingermarks using cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming without the need for further chemical treatment. In this study, conditions including the amount of PolyCyano UV powder, the humidity level of the fuming chamber, and the time and temperature of the fuming process were optimised. A variety of different surfaces were tested and aged fingermark samples were also examined. The PolyCyano-UV-developed fingermarks were compared with conventional CA-developed fingermarks and subsequently stained with rhodamine 6G. PolyCyano UV was able to develop high-quality fingermarks on the surfaces tested. However, when examined under UV light, the luminescence of PolyCyano-UV-developed fingermarks was found to be weaker than conventional CA-developed fingermarks that were stained with rhodamine 6G. When used in sequence with rhodamine 6G, PolyCyano UV was found to give significantly improved contrast compared with conventional CA-developed fingermarks stained with rhodamine 6G.
de la Hunty, M, Spindler, X, Chadwick, S, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2014, 'Synthesis and application of an aqueous nile red microemulsion for the development of fingermarks on porous surfaces', Forensic Science International, vol. 244, pp. e48-e55.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Marriott, C, Lee, R, Wilkes, Z, Comber, B, Spindler, X, Roux, C & Lennard, C 2014, 'Evaluation of fingermark detection sequences on paper substrates', Forensic Science International, vol. 236, pp. 30-37.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Braasch, K, de la Hunty, MA, Deppe, J, Spindler, X, Cantu, AA, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2013, 'Nile red: Alternative to physical developer for the detection of latent fingermarks on wet porous surfaces?', Forensic Science International, vol. 230, no. 1-3, pp. 74-80.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper describes the application of a luminescent lipid stain, nile red, for the development of latent fingermarks on porous surfaces. An optimised formulation is presented that provides rapid development of latent fingermarks on porous surfaces that are or have been wet. A comparison with physical developer (PD), the method of choice to enhance such fingermarks, indicated that nile red was a simpler and more stable technique for the development of fingermarks. The nile red formulation showed similar performance to PD across a range of substrates and ageing conditions, although PD still showed greater sensitivity on five-year-old examination booklets used in a pseudo-operational study. The pseudo-operational trial also indicated that nile red consistently developed different fingermarks to those enhanced by PD, suggesting that it preferentially targets a different fraction of the latent fingermark deposit. Significantly, the compatibility of nile red in a detection sequence with indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin and PD is reported.
Wood, M, Maynard, PJ, Spindler, X, Roux, CP & Lennard, CJ 2013, 'Selective targeting of fingermarks using immunogenic techniques', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 211-226.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Latent fingermark detection remains one of the most commonly utilised forensic practices when dealing with scenes of crime or related items. Although many options are available to detect and visualise these marks, the quest for techniques with greater sensitivity and selectivity continues. This has led to many improvements in detection methods and also numerous new techniques being developed. However, these have largely only led to incremental advancements despite the desire for transformational improvements. The use of immunology in the detection of latent fingermarks is an area that has been investigated more recently as a possible proposal to provide these transformational improvements, specifically to overcome sensitivity and selectivity issues currently seen with existing methods. This paper reviews the attempts to harness the detection capabilities of immunology and utilise them in the field of latent fingermark detection. Results achieved to date have highlighted many advantages and possibilities in detection and visualisation of latent marks, including the possibility of gaining `intelligence from the marks themselves. This paper also presents a brief introduction to the use of aptamers as the next logical step in immunogenic techniques for investigation.
Chadwick, SR, Maynard, PJ, Kirkbride, KP, Lennard, CJ, McDonagh, AM, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2012, 'Styryl dye coated metal oxide powders for the detection of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces', Forensic Science International, vol. 219, no. 1-3, pp. 208-214.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Conventional fingermark powders rely on contrast induced by absorption/reflection (e.g. black powder) or luminescence in the visible region (e.g. Blitz GreenÂ®). In most cases, these powders provide sufficient contrast; however, in some circumstances surface characteristics can interfere with the visualisation of powdered fingermarks. Visualisation in the near infra-red (NIR) region, however, has been shown to eliminate interferences commonly encountered in the visible region. In this study, a mixture of rhodamine 6G and the NIR laser dye styryl 11 (STaR 11) was coated onto an aluminium oxide nanopowder and then mixed with silver magnetic powder to develop and visualise fingermarks in the NIR. When compared to Blitz GreenÂ®, it was determined that the STaR 11 magnetic powder was better suited for marks deposited on textured surfaces and for older marks, whereas Blitz GreenÂ® performed better on smooth glossy surfaces. The ability of the STaR 11 mixed dye formulation to be visualised in both the visible and NIR regions also provides a significant advantage over conventional luminescent fingermark powders.
Montgomery, LN, Spindler, X, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2012, 'Pretreatment strategies for the improved cyanoacrylate development of dry latent fingerprints on nonporous surfaces', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 517-542.
Cyanoacrylate fuming is a popular technique commonly used by evidence examiners for the development of latent fingermarks on nonporous surfaces. The process involves the preferential formation of hard, white polycyanoacrylate along the ridgelines of the fingerprint as opposed to the substrate background. This preferential deposition results in contrast between the fingerprint and substrate. This contrast may be further enhanced through the use of staining techniques such as rhodamine 6G. Because the cyanoacrylate mechanism is believed to be initiated by fingerprint constituents and catalyzed by moisture, it follows that fingerprints subjected to harsh conditions (e.g., heat, low humidity, or UV light) often produce poorly developed results. This study aimed to further investigate and validate the use of 10 percent w/v methylamine as a pretreatment strategy to overcome the limitations associated with the cyanoacrylate development of dry fingerprints and to compare the results with those obtained using previously proposed pretreatment solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed treatment was demonstrated on samples similar to those encountered in casework, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the treated fingerprints confirmed the rejuvenation of the dry latent deposits through a qualitative assessment of the polymer morphology
Wood, M, Maynard, P, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2012, 'Visualization of Latent Fingermarks Using an Aptamer-Based Reagent', ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, vol. 51, no. 49, pp. 12272-12274.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wood, M, Maynard, PJ, Spindler, X, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2012, 'Visualization of latent fingermarks using an aptamer-based reagent', Angewandte Chemie, vol. 124, no. 49, pp. 12438-12440.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Don't touch! Aptamers selected against lysozyme are transformed into aptamer-based reagents, with which latent fingermarks can be developed with high selectivity and sensitivity. The design of aptamers targeting components of latent fingermarks opens up a new range of detection methods that previously have not been explored.
Chadwick, SR, Maynard, PJ, Kirkbride, KP, Lennard, CJ, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2011, 'Use of Styryl 11 and STaR 11 for the luminescence enhancement of cyanoacrylate-developed fingermarks in the visible and near-infrared regions', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1505-1513.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In current casework, most post-cyanoacrylate stains rely on luminescence emission in the visible region (400-700 nm). While traditional stains such as rhodamine 6G work well under most circumstances, some surfaces may generate background luminescence under the same conditions. Detection in the near-infrared region (NIR > 700 nm) has shown to be effective in minimizing the interferences from such surfaces. The laser dye styryl 11 generated strongly luminescent fingermarks when applied after cyanoacrylate fuming on all surfaces tested. When compared to rhodamine 6G, the dye was superior only when viewed in the NIR. Styryl 11 was subsequently combined with rhodamine 6G, and the mixed stain formulation (named StaR 11 by the authors) induced stronger luminescence compared with styryl 11 alone with an ability to visualize in both the visible and NIR regions. Reliable and consistent results were obtained when using either styryl 11 alone or the STaR 11 mixture. The enhancement achieved did not otherwise vary depending on the source of the fingermark secretions. With visualization possible in both the visible and NIR regions, the styryl 11/rhodamine 6G mixture showed significant potential as a post-cyanoacrylate stain.
Fung, TC, Grimwood, KM, Shimmon, R, Spindler, X, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2011, 'Investigation of hydrogen cyanide generation from the cyanoacrylate fuming process used for latent fingermark detection', Forensic Science International, vol. 212, no. 1-3, pp. 143-149.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cyanoacrylate fuming is one of the most common techniques employed for the detection of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces such as plastic and glass. The technique is generally applied by exposing items of interest to the vapours generated by heating a suitable quantity of commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive. In this study, the potential for highly toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to be generated from the overheating of cyanoacrylate was investigated. Two commercial cyanoacrylate adhesives and two quantitative methods for the determination of HCN were employed: (i) the sodium picrate method; and (ii) the picrateresorcinol method. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was used to confirm the presence of cyanide. In addition, the thermal decomposition of cyanoacrylate was studied using simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGADTA). It was determined that detectable and quantifiable amounts of HCN were generated from the thermal decomposition of cyanoacrylate monomer and polymer at temperatures as low as 200 8C. Using an optimised picrateresorcinol method, it was shown that around 10 mg of HCN could be generated from the heating of 1 g of cyanoacrylate monomer at 200 8C. For one of the adhesives tested, this increased to above 100 mg of HCN when 1 g of cyanoacrylate monomer was heated at 280 8C. Recommendations are provided that, if followed, should ensure that the cyanoacrylate fuming process can be safely applied with minimal risk to the operator.
Spindler, X, Hofstetter, O, McDonagh, AM, Roux, CP & Lennard, CJ 2011, 'Enhancement of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces using anti-l-amino acid antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles', Chemical Communications, vol. 47, no. 19, pp. 5602-5604.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Enantioselective anti-L-amino acid antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles are shown to facilitate the detection of latent fingermarks by interacting with amino acids present in friction ridge secretions. This antibody-based system is particularly effective for the enhancement of aged and dried fingermarks on non-porous surfaces, an area unexploited by current techniques.
Spindler, X, Shimmon, R, Roux, CP & Lennard, CJ 2011, 'The effect of zinc chloride, humidity and the substrate on the reaction of 1,2-indanedione-zinc with amino acids in latent fingermark secretions', Forensic Science International, vol. 212, no. 1-3, pp. 150-157.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Anecdotal evidence from forensic practitioners and studies conducted under controlled conditions have indicated that the reaction between 1,2-indanedione and the amino acids present in latent fingermark deposits is highly susceptible to ambient humidity. The addition of catalytic amounts of zinc chloride to the 1,2-indanedione working solution usually in the order of 1:25 to 1:4 molar ratio (indanedione:zinc) significantly improves the colour and luminescence of fingermarks treated under dry conditions but appears to have a negligible effect on fingermarks treated in humid environments. The results presented in this paper confirmed that zinc(II) ions added to the 1,2-indanedione working solution act as a Lewis acid catalyst, stabilising a key intermediate during a rate-limiting hydrolysis step. Furthermore, studying the reaction using a chromatography-grade cellulose substrate method previously reported confirmed that cellulose substrates play a major role in facilitating the indanedione-amino acid reaction by acting as a surface catalyst in the early stages of the reaction and by directing the formation of the desired luminescent product (Joullie´ s Pink).
Chan, J, Spindler, X, Brust, A, Shimmon, R, Maynard, P, Lennard, C, Stoilovic, M & Roux, C 2010, 'Evaluation of DFO and 1,2-indanedione formulations under two different Australian conditions', Science & Justice, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 38-38.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chan, JH, Shimmon, R, Spindler, X, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP & Stuart, BH 2010, 'An investigation of isatin as a potential reagent for latent fingermark detection on porous surfaces', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 320-336.
This study investigated isatin as a potential fingermark enhancement reagent for use on porous surfaces. A number of parameters were investigated, including concentration, solvent system, pH of the solution, and optimization of the development conditions. It was determined that isatin at a concentration of 0.05% (w/v) provided the optimum balance between the luminescence of the fingermark ridges and background. A carrier solvent of dioxane mixed with acetone [12.5% (v/v)] produced the most intense luminescence. It was determined that the optimum pH for the development of fingermarks was 5.0 and that this could be reached by the addition of 4% (vlv) sodium carbonate buffer. The use of a dry heat press at 180°C for 10 s provided optimal development conditions.
Spindler, X, Hofstetter, O, Wuhrer, R, McDonagh, A, Roux, C & Lennard, C 2010, 'Targeting amino acids in latent fingermarks using bioconjugated gold-citrate self-assembled monolayer nanoparticles', Science & Justice, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 42-43.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Spindler, X, Stoilovic, M, Lennard, C & Lennard, A 2009, 'Spectral variations for reaction products formed between different amino acids and latent fingermark detection reagents on a range of cellulose-based substrates', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 308-324.
Ninhydrin, 1,2-indanedione, 1,2-indanedione-zinc, and l,8-diazafluoren-9- one (DFO) are reagents used worldwide for latent fingermark detection on paper substrates. Although research groups have concentrated on optimization studies and improvements in reagent formulations, mechanistic studies and comparisons against the different amino acid constituents in eccrine secretions are rare in the literature. It is known from studies undertaken in different geographic areas that these reagents produce varied results on different paper substrates under different environmental conditions; however, such observations have not been quantified. In this study, ninhydrin, indanedione, indanedione-zinc, and DFO reagents have been used to enhance deposits of nine major amino acids on three types of cellulose-based media: ashless filter paper, 10% recycled copy paper, and cellulose-coated TLC plates. Absorption and luminescence spectra were recorded for the resulting reaction products. The results provide some insight into the activity of these fingermark detection reagents with respect to the different amino acids present in eccrine deposits. References.
Chadwick, S, Moret, S, Jayashanka, N, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2017, 'INSIDE KNOWLEDGE OF THE FACTORS INFLUENCING FINGERMARK DETECTION', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 59-60.
Chadwick, S, Neskoski, M, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2017, 'INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF HAND SANITIZERS ON LATENT FINGERMARKS', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 61-61.
Khuu, A, Chadwick, S, Spindler, X, Moret, S, Gunn, P & Roux, C 2017, 'Impact of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate treatment on subsequent DNA analysis', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences, ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 246-246.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fingermarks can be exploited for both their ridge detail and touch DNA. One-step luminescent cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming techniques used for fingermark enhancement, such as PolyCyano UV (Foster+Freeman Ltd) and Lumicyano™ (Crime Science Technology), claim to be compatible with DNA analysis as they reduce the need for post‐staining to increase contrast of the developed fingermark. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that these one-step luminescent cyanoacrylates have on DNA analysis and how they compare to conventional CA techniques. Four donors each deposited five sets of natural fingermarks, to which a known amount of washed saliva cells was dispensed onto half of each set of fingermarks. Each set was treated with either a conventional CA technique or a one‐step luminescent CA technique prior to collection and processing of DNA, with one set left as a non-fumed control. It was found that DNA was still recoverable and detectable following each of the treatments. Lumicyano™ had a similar impact on DNA profiles as conventional CA fuming and with post‐stain, however, the degradation effect of PolyCyano UV on DNA was greater than the conventional treatments. For quantities of DNA such as that from touch DNA, the use of PolyCyano UV to enhance fingermarks may impact subsequent DNA analysis by causing allele drop out at larger fragment sizes.
Lam, R, Ruscito, A, Derosa, MC, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2017, 'FINGERMARK-SELEX: A NOVEL APPROACH TO DEVELOP DNA APTAMERS FOR FINGERMARK DETECTION', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 52-52.
Lee, PL, Moret, S, de la Hunty, M, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2017, 'SINGLE METAL DEPOSITION VS. PHYSICAL DEVELOPER, A COMPARISON OF TWO FINGERMARK DETECTION TECHNIQUES', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 191-191.
Lee, R, Comber, B, Abraham, J, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2017, 'SUPPORTING FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION ASSESSMENTS USING A SKIN STRETCH MODEL', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 3-3.
Mccabe, R, Spikmans, V, Spindler, X, Wuhrer, R & Lennard, C 2017, 'INDANEDIONE METHODS FOR FINGERMARK DETECTION: NORMAL TREATMENT, VACUUM DEVELOPMENT AND DRY-TRANSFER.', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 163-163.
Moret, S, Lee, PL, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2017, 'LUMINESCENT SILICON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES FOR FINGERMARK DETECTION', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 232-232.
Spindler, X, Lau, V & Roux, C 2017, 'WHEN ARE FIBRES RELEVANT: DAILY ACTIVITY AND BACKGROUND EXTRANEOUS FIBRES ON T-SHIRTS', Forensic Science International, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), Elsevier, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 58-58.
Spindler, X, Scott, E, Barone, A, Liang, K, Roux, C, Moret, S & Lennard, C 2017, 'THE DETECTION OF LATENT FINGERMARKS USING LUMINESCENT METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 61-61.
Chan, JH, Stuart, BH, Roux, CP, Shimmon, R, Lennard, CJ & Spindler, X 2010, 'The synthesis of 1,4-anthraquinones and their application as fingermark detection reagents on porous surfaces', 20th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences Abstract Book, 20th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Sydney.
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