The human rights of people with mental disordersGenocide preventionThe development of secular BuddhismThe fist Nuremberg trial
This book defines genocide, distinguishing it from mass murder, war crimes, and other atrocities; allows readers to grasp the magnitude of the crime of genocide across time and throughout human civilization; and facilitates an understanding of new and potential cases of genocide as they occur.
Recently, the topic of intervention against genocide has received attention in global politics and the national political discourse of major countries. The challenges in confronting genocide and attempting to make a positive change are manifold. Simply establishing an agreement on the legal definition of genocide—and distinguishing it from genocidal massacres, war crimes, and other crimes against humanity—is problematic. This book provides a valuable resource for students, scholars, and journalists when public awareness of, and interest in, genocide has reached unprecedented levels. Written in an accessible way for a broad readership, the book makes use of case studies to enable an understanding of emerging and potential genocide with the necessary depth of coverage to evaluate critically the ways in which the United Nations and national governments engage them.
Readers will understand the essential ingredients of genocide, from antiquity to the present, and grasp the extent of the crime across human history. A variety of case studies provides a means to measure genocidal magnitudes in terms of their intent and motive, geographical extent, pace, method, participants, outcomes, legacies, punishments, and reparations. A unique and crucial feature of the book is that it gives as much attention to the differences among genocides—for example, between a large-scale genocide like the Holocaust and the extermination of a 500-person Amazonian tribe—while still treating both within a single conceptual framework of genocide, without "discounting" the smaller case.
Neoliberalism has now failed, so can a social democratic resurgence replace it? This book retrieves the political thought of Swedish politician Ernst Wigforss to explore the unrealised potential of social democracy. Wigforss drew on many schools of thought to produce an alternative social democratic strategy. It outflanked economic liberalism, allowed his party to dominate Swedish politics for a half-century, and his country to achieve affluence and social equity as converging rather than competing objectives. OECD economies have since evolved political capacities the welfare state, corporatist regulation, expanded citizen entitlements, civic amenity far in excess of pessimistic evaluations offered by mainstream analyses. This book suggests that such developments confirm Wigforsss ideas, confounding conventional pessimism. Full employment, social equity, economic democracy, new political institutions, and transformative economic management are now more imaginable than ever in western countries. But their achievement depends on a radical reformist political mobilisation of the kind that Wigforss inspired, one which integrates these aspirations as mutually reinforcing goals.
Secular Buddhism is coalescing today in response to two main factors. First, it rejects the incoherence of Buddhist modernism, a protean formation that accommodates elements as far afield as ancestral Buddhism and psychotherapies claiming the Buddhist brand. Second, it absorbs the cultural influence of modern secularity in the West. Historically understood, secularity has constituted a centuries-long religious development, not a victory of "science" over "religion." Today's secularity marks a further stage in the cultural decline of "enchanted" truth-claims and the intellectual eclipse of metaphysics, especially under the aegis of phenomenology. In Buddhism as in Christianity, secularity brings forth a new humanistic approach to ethical-spiritual life and creative this-worldly practices.
In recent years insight (vipassana) practice in Australia has diversified in content and spawned new institutions that present a more secular face. These changes exemplify the development of global Buddhism elsewhere rather than some local, sui generis divergence from international trends. Nonetheless, the unusual prominence of Buddhist migrants in the Australian population has influenced the interaction between traditional and western Buddhists, and thus the emergence of the new trends. In interpreting the transformations in question, we make heuristic use both of Martin Baumanns periodization of Buddhist history, with its characterization of the present stage as global, and Stephen Batchelors distinction between religious Buddhism and dharma practice. The Australian experience highlights the value of the earlier interaction between migrant and locally-born Buddhists, and the formative effect their later separation has on lay practice. This experience also points to the salience of forms of association when secular Buddhist practice melds with the Western values of inclusiveness and equality, not least in gender relations.
Organizational analysts have remarked on the retreat from hard regulation by nation-states and the formal international bodies they have ratified, in favour of soft regulation, particularly in the form of standards issued by transnational bodies whose au
Higgins, W. 2006, 'Globalisation and Neo-Liberal Rule', Journal of Australian Political Economy: special edition on the free trade agreement with the USA, vol. 57, no. June, pp. 5-29.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Higgins, J.W. 2017, 'Can the American alliance stop colluding in genocide?' in Marczak, N. & Shields, K. (eds), Genocide Perspectives V: A Global Crime, Australian Voices, UTS ePress, Australia, pp. 207-229.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The concept of genocide, and outspoken abhorrence for what it stands for,
have arisen over the last hundred years on the back ofWestern sensibilities and
legal initiatives. Yet since the end of World War Two, Western countries have
typically failed to take action against actual or impending genocides, in spite
of the growth of explicit legal and moral obligations to do so. Some Western
countries have even avoided denouncing genocidal regimes, and failed to
withdraw their economic and diplomatic privileges from them. In some cases
Western countries have colluded with these regimes in ways that go beyond
bystanderism, even if bystanderism remains the most ubiquitous and effective
form of collusion in virtually all historical genocides.
In this essay I probe this gap between pious recoil from genocide in the abstract
on the one hand, and passive and active practical collusion in genocide
on the other. I will extend the concept of active collusion to include self-interested
(overt and covert) overseas incursions, ones that sow the seeds of
genocide by unleashing mayhem on a grand scale, and subvert the long-term
project of creating an international rule of law, of which the prevention of
genocide forms an integral part. I look at the provenance of the contradiction
between pious recoil and practical collusion, and at the challenge of closing
the gap between sanctimonious self-preening and effective responses to genocide.
Genocidaires commonly commit cognate crimes, such as starting wars,
and crimes against humanity like routinised torture.
Higgins, W. 2012, 'Human Rights Development: Provenance, Ambit and Effect' in Dudley, M., Silove, D. & Gale, F. (eds), mental health and human rights: vision, praxis and courage, Oxford University Press, UK, pp. 55-68.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The 19451946 trial of major German perpetrators before the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg has often been called the greatest trial in history. More than the prominence the major protagonists, the principles at stake guaranteed its historical importance. For the very first time the entrenched principles of state sovereignty and raison détat came under challenge. In Nuremberg, state functionaries faced prosecution stripped of the impunity that had hitherto attached to state crimes. And they were forced to answer for actions that had hitherto self-evidently constituted prerogatives of a sovereign state, above all starting wars and massacring their own subjectsactions now declared so felonious as to attract the ultimate penalty. Nor were the orders of state functionaries any longer able to shield perpetrators from criminal liability.
Bubna-Litic, D.C. & Higgins, W. 2011, 'The emergence of Secular Insight Practice in Australia' in Rocha, C. & Baker, M. (eds), Buddhism In Australia: Traditions in Change, Routledge, Oxford, UK, pp. 23-35.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In Australia over the last three decades, secular insight (vipassana) meditation practice has increasingly drawn away from its Theravadin origins, thus exemplifying a wider trend in western Buddhist circles over the second half of the last century, to loosen ties with their Asian traditions of origin. In 1998 Batchelor articulated the divergence by drawing a contrast between 'religious Buddhism' and 'dharma practice' in his Buddhism without Beliefs (Batchelor 1998a), a contrast with resonances in the changes now unfolding in Australia. He elaborated his key concepts, not least the 'deep agnosticism' he discerned in the Buddha's own teaching, in other writings published in the same year (Batchelor 1998b; 1998c). The contrast acknowledges a strong tendency towards secularization in the re-rendering of Buddhism in culturally appropriate terms for westerners who, from the 1970s, began to practise meditation seriously in this tradition in significant numbers.
Bubna-Litic, D.C. & Higgins, W. 2010, 'The emergence of secular insight practice in Australia' in Barker, M. & Rocha, C. (eds), Buddhism in Australia: Traditions of Change, Routledge, Abington, Oxon, pp. 23-35.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Explores the development of secular Buddhism in the insight tradition and the evolution of related Buddhist institutions in Australia.
In this chapter, I want to bring recent changes back to their true proportion. Unfashionably, I will start with George Santayana's truth that those who do not learn from history will be forced to relive it. For around four centuries, since the issue first began to make itself felt, leading minds in the West have grappled with the relationship between private enterprise, on the one hand, and, on the other, the kind of society that supports it. In particular, generations of Western Jilinke:rs hav" wondelced how this relationship can be sustained in the long term.
Higgins, W. 2006, 'Could it Happen Again? The Holocaust and the National Dimension' in Tatz, C., Arnold, P. & Tatz, S. (eds), Genocide Perspectives III: Essays on the Holocaust and Other Genocides, Brandl & Scheslinger with the Australian Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Sydney, Australia, pp. 54-77.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Bubna-Litic, D.C. & Higgins, W. 2003, 'Emptiness in organisation theory', "The Pleasure of Periphery/ the Malady of Marginality": SCOS 2003 Conference Symposium, Symposium for the Standing Conference on Organizational Symbolism, Standing Conference on Organizational Symbolism, Cambridge, UK, pp. 1-20.View/Download from: UTS OPUS