Dr Guo is currently working as a Professor at University of Technology Sydney (UTS). She is also a core member in Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater (CTWW) at UTS and her research focuses on the innovative water and wastewater treatment and reuse technologies. Her expertise and practical experience cover the areas of water and wastewater engineering such as membrane technologies, advanced biological wastewater treatment technologies, physico-chemical separation technologies, solid waste management, environmental assessment and desalination. Her current research is in the areas of green technologies for resource and energy recovery, waste-to-energy, water-waste-energy nexus and climate change mitigation.
- Member of International Water Association (IWA)
- Life Member of International Forum on Industrial Bioprocesses (IFIBiop)
- Member of Australian Water Association (AWA)
- Member of American Chemical Society (ACS)
- Member of American Association of Science for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Professional Development Activities
- Editor of Bioresource Technology Report, Elsevier, 2017-2019 (ISSN: 2589-014X)
- Editor of Journal of Water Sustainability (ISSN 1839-1516, 1839-1524, 2012–present)
- Associate Editor of Journal of Hazardous, Toxic & Radioactive Waste, ASCE, USA (ISSN 2153-5493, 2016–present)
- Editorial Board Member of Bioresource Technology, Elsevier, 2017-2020 (IF = 5.651)
- Editorial Board Member, Journal of Chemistry, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, USA (IF = 1.300, 2012–present)
- Leading Guest Editor, Special issue on “Challenges in Biological Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery”, Bioresource Technology Report, Elsevier, 2019
- Invited Speaker, International Conference on New Horizons in Biotechnology (NHBT-2019), 20-24 November, Trivandrum, Kerala, India, 2019
- Guest Editor for Bioresource Technology BITE-MBR special issue, Elsevier, 2018
- Guest Editor for Bioresource Technology, Elsevier, Vol. 210, 2016 (CESE-2015 Special Issue)
- Guest Editor, Special issue on "Renewable Energy", the 2nd International Conference on Bioenergy, Environment and Sustainable Technologies (BEST2015)
- Invited Speaker, 2nd International Conference on Bioresource Technology for Bioenergy, Bioproducts & Environmental Sustainability (BIORESTEC 2018), 16 - 19 September, Melia Sitges, Spain, 2018
- International Conference Secretariat and Organizing Committee Member, International Symposium on Advanced Membrane Bioreactors for Environment Sustainability (IBA-AMBRES), 15-18 April, Tianjin, China, 2018
- International Conference Secretariat, the International Conference on Green Technologies for Sustainable Water (GTSW2017), 13-16 October, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2017
- Scientific Committee Member, the 7th International Forum on Industrial Bioprocesses (IFIBiop 2017), Wuxi, China, 21-14 May, 2017
- Scientific and Technical Committee Member, the 3rd International Conference on Advances in Civil Engineering (ICACE-2016), Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, 21-23 Dec., 2016
- Organizing Committee Member, The 2nd Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Workshop, MBRC, Tongji University, Shanghai, China, 15-17 Jul., 2016
- Chair of Conference Management and Selection Committee, the 8th International Conference on Challenges in Environmental Science and Engineering (CESE-2015), Sydney, Australia, 28 Sep.-2 Oct., 2015
- Keynote Speaker and Scientific Committee Member, The 1st Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Workshop, MBRC, Tianjin Polytechnic University, China, 8-9 Apr., 2015
- Scientific Committee Member and Session Chair, the 4th IWA Regional Conference on Membrane Technology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 3-6 Dec., 2014
- Journal Manager for Journal of Water Sustainability, 2011-2012
- Guest Editor for ASCE Journal of Hazardous, Toxic and Radioactive Waste, CESE-2012 Special Issue
- Scientific Committee Member, the 5th International Conference on Challenges in Environmental Science and Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, 2012
- Guest Editor for Membrane Water Treatment, CESE-2011 Special Issue
- Scientific Committee Member and Session Chair, the 4th International Conference on Challenges in Environmental Science and Engineering, Tainan, Taiwan, 2011
- Session Chair, IWA Cities of the Future Xi’an, Xi’an, China, 2011
- Scientific Committee Member and Session Chair, the 3rd International Conference on Challenges in Environmental Science and Engineering, Cairns, Australia, 2010
- Member of UTS Research & Research Training Committee, 2008
- Invited speaker, Submerged membrane bioreactors in wastewater treatment for reuse. MBR Forum, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, 2007
Can supervise: YES
- Green technologies for resource and energy recovery
- Mmembrane technologies (e.g. sponge based membrane bioreactor, anaerobic membrane bioreactor, membrane hybrid system etc.)
- Advanced biological wastewater treatment technologies (e.g. attached growth reactors and hybrid reactors)
- Physico-chemical separation technologies
- Solid waste management
- Environmental assessment
- Waste-to-energy, water-waste-energy nexus and climate change mitigation
1) 42012 Green technologies: Water-Waste-Energy Nexus
2) 48350 Environmental and Sanitation Engineering
3) 48860 Pollution Control and Waste Management
4) 48310 Introduction to Civil and Environmental Engineering
5) 41009 Renewable Energy Technology
© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. Sponsored by the Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Engineering Committee of the Environmental Council of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers Green Technologies for Sustainable Water Management describes science-based principles and technological advances behind green technologies that can be effective solutions to pressing environmental problems. Today's challenge for sustainable water management is to develop environmentally friendly, economically viable, and energy-efficient processes for treating and preserving the world's limited water resources. Successful approaches will provide a high removal-efficiency of pollutants and nutrient recovery while also reducing the carbon footprint, minimizing waste, and protecting human health and the environment. Following an overview of water as a valuable resource, this 28-chapter book provides in-depth information on current various green technologies associated with sustainable water and wastewater management. It considers various aspects of pollution prevention, control, remediation, and restoration. The applications of these technologies toward a sustainable society are considered, and needs for future research and development are identified. Researchers, students, scientists, engineers, government officials, and process managers will find this book an excellent source of comprehensive, state-of-the-art material on green technologies for sustainable water management.
Jeong, SY, Chang, SW, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Nghiem, LD, Banu, JR, Jeon, B-H & Dinh, DN 2019, 'Influence of thermal hydrolysis pretreatment on physicochemical properties and anaerobic biodegradability of waste activated sludge with different solids content', WASTE MANAGEMENT, vol. 85, pp. 214-221.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Khan, MA, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liu, Y, Nghiem, LD, Chang, SW, Nguyen, DD, Zhang, S, Luo, G & Jia, H 2019, 'Optimization of hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate for volatile fatty acid production from low strength wastewater in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 271, pp. 100-108.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study aims to investigate the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from low strength wastewater at various hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) in a continuous anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) using glucose as carbon source. This experiment was performed without any selective inhibition of methanogens and the reactor pH was maintained at 7.0 ± 0.1. 48, 24, 18, 12, 8 and 6 h-HRTs were applied and the highest VFA concentration was recorded at 8 h with an overall VFA yield of 48.20 ± 1.21 mg VFA/100 mg CODfeed. Three different ORLs were applied (350, 550 and 715 mg CODfeed) at the optimum 8 h-HRT. The acetic and propanoic acid concentration maximums were (1.1845 ± 0.0165 and 0.5160 ± 0.0141 mili-mole/l respectively) at 550 mg CODfeed. The isobutyric acid concentration was highest (0.3580 ± 0.0407 mili-mole/l) at 715 mg CODfeed indicating butyric-type fermentation at higher organic loading rate.
Nguyen, LN, Nguyen, AQ, Johir, MAH, Guo, W, Hao, HN, Chaves, A & Nghiem, LD 2019, 'Application of rumen and anaerobic sludge microbes for bio harvesting from lignocellulosic biomass', CHEMOSPHERE, vol. 228, pp. 702-708.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Thi, KLN, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Chang, SW, Dinh, DN, Long, DN, Liu, Y, Ni, B & Hai, F 2019, 'Insight into greenhouse gases emissions from the two popular treatment technologies in municipal wastewater treatment processes', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 671, pp. 1302-1313.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wu, Y, Song, K, Sun, X, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Nghiem, LD & Wang, Q 2019, 'Mechanisms of free nitrous acid and freezing co-pretreatment enhancing short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation', Chemosphere, pp. 536-543.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd Free nitrous acid (FNA) or freezing has been recently utilized as an efficient pretreatment method to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) yield from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation (AF). But until now, the performances and mechanisms of the co-pretreatment for SCFAs production are unknown. This research aimed to investigate the AF mechanisms through studying its influence on sludge solubilization and related bioprocesses. WAS was pretreated for 48 h with FNA (1.07 mg N/L), freezing (−5 °C) and combination of FNA and freezing (0.53–2.13 mg N/L FNA at −5 °C), respectively, then conducted batch AF. Experimental results indicated that the optimal total SCFAs yield of 391.19 ± 5.54 mg COD/g VSS was achieved after 1.07 mg N/L FNA + freezing pretreatment at 9 days of AF, which was 2.2, 1.6 and 1.3-fold of the blank, freezing and FNA pretreated samples, respectively. The mechanisms analysis showed that co-pretreatment showed synergetic effects on sludge disintegration and solubilization, which could release more soluble substrates for SCFAs production. The co-pretreatment resulted in slight inhibition to hydrolysis and negligible inhibition to acidogenesis but severe inhibition to methanogenesis, maybe due to less endurance of methanogens.
Ye, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Chang, SW, Dinh, DN, Liu, Y, Long, DN, Zhang, X & Wang, J 2019, 'Effect of organic loading rate on the recovery of nutrients and energy in a dual-chamber microbial fuel cell', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 281, pp. 367-373.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Liu, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Peng, L, Wang, D & Ni, B 2019, 'The roles of free ammonia (FA) in biological wastewater treatment processes: A review.', Environment international, vol. 123, pp. 10-19.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Free ammonia (FA) can pose inhibitory and/or biocidal effects on a variety of microorganisms involved in different biological wastewater treatment process, which is widely presented in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to the high levels of ammonium in the systems. This review article gives the up-to-date status on several essential roles of FA in biological wastewater treatment processes: the impacts of FA, mechanisms of FA roles, modeling of FA impacts, and implications of FA for wastewater treatment. Specifically, the impacts of FA on both wastewater and sludge treatment lines were firstly summarized, including nitrification, denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), enhanced biological phosphorus removal and anaerobic processes. The involved mechanisms were then analyzed, which indicated FA inhibition can slow specific microbial activities or even reconfigure the microbial community structure, likely due to negative impacts of FA on intracellular pH, specific enzymes and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), thus causing cell inactivation/lysis. Mathematical models describing the impact of FA on both wastewater and sludge treatment processes were also explored to facilitate process optimization. Finally, the key implications of FA were identified, that is FA can be leveraged to substantially enhance the biodegradability of secondary sludge, which would further improve biological nutrient removal and enhance renewable energy production.
Pan, Y, Liu, Y, Peng, L, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Wei, W, Wang, D & Ni, B-J 2019, 'Substrate Diffusion within Biofilms Significantly Influencing the Electron Competition during Denitrification.', Environmental science & technology, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 261-269.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A common and long-existing operational issue of wastewater denitrification is the unexpected accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) that could suppress the activity of various microorganisms involved in biological wastewater treatment process and nitrous oxide (N2O) that could emit as a potent greenhouse gas. Recently, it has been confirmed that the accumulation of these denitrification intermediates in biological wastewater treatment process is greatly influenced by the electron competition between the four denitrification steps. However, little is known about this in biofilm systems. In this work, we applied a mathematical model that links carbon oxidation and nitrogen reduction processes through a pool of electron carriers, to assess electron competition in denitrifying biofilms. Simulations were performed comprehensively at seven combinations of electron acceptor addition scheme (i.e., simultaneous addition of one, two or three among nitrate (NO3-), NO2-, and N2O) to compare the effect of electron competition on NO3-, NO2- and N2O reduction. Overall, the effects of substrate loading, biofilm thickness and effective diffusion coefficients on electron competition are not always intuitive. Model simulations show that electron competition was intensified due to the substrate load limitation (from 120 to 20 mg COD/L) and increasing biofilm thicknesses (from 0.1 to 1.6 mm) in most cases, where electrons were prioritized to nitrite reductase because of the insufficient electron donor availability in the biofilm. In contrast, increasing effective diffusion coefficients did not pose a significant effect on electron competition and only increased electrons distributed to nitrite reductase when both NO2- and N2O are added.
Peng, L, Huu, HN, Song, S, Xu, Y, Guo, W, Liu, Y, Wei, W, Chen, X, Wang, D & Ni, B-J 2019, 'Heterotrophic denitrifiers growing on soluble microbial products contribute to nitrous oxide production in anammox biofilm: Model evaluation', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, vol. 242, pp. 309-314.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Vo, HNP, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Nguyen, TMH, Liu, Y, Liu, Y, Nguyen, DD & Chang, SW 2019, 'A critical review on designs and applications of microalgae-based photobioreactors for pollutants treatment.', The Science of the total environment, vol. 651, no. Pt 1, pp. 1549-1568.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The development of the photobioreactors (PBs) is recently noticeable as cutting-edge technology while the correlation of PBs' engineered elements such as modellings, configurations, biomass yields, operating conditions and pollutants removal efficiency still remains complex and unclear. A systematic understanding of PBs is therefore essential. This critical review study is to: (1) describe the modelling approaches and differentiate the outcomes; (2) review and update the novel technical issues of PBs' types; (3) study microalgae growth and control determined by PBs types with comparison made; (4) progress and compare the efficiencies of contaminants removal given by PBs' types and (5) identify the future perspectives of PBs. It is found that Monod model's shortcoming in internal substrate utilization is well fixed by modified Droop model. The corroborated data also remarks an array of PBs' types consisting of flat plate, column, tubular, soft-frame and hybrid configuration in which soft-frame and hybrid are the latest versions with higher flexibility, performance and smaller foot-print. Flat plate PBs is observed with biomass yield being 5 to 20 times higher than other PBs types while soft-frame and membrane PBs can also remove pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) up to 100%. Looking at an opportunity for PBs in sustainable development, the flat plate PBs are applicable in PB-based architectures and infrastructures indicating an encouraging revenue-raising potential.
Ye, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liu, Y, Chang, SW, Dinh, DN, Ren, J, Liu, Y & Zhang, X 2019, 'Feasibility study on a double chamber microbial fuel cell for nutrient recovery from municipal wastewater', CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, vol. 358, pp. 236-242.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Cheng, DL, Ngo, HH, Guo, WS, Chang, SW, Nguyen, DD & Kumar, SM 2019, 'Microalgae biomass from swine wastewater and its conversion to bioenergy.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 275, pp. 109-122.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ever-increasing swine wastewater (SW) has become a serious environmental concern. High levels of nutrients and toxic contaminants in SW significantly impact on the ecosystem and public health. On the other hand, swine wastewater is considered as valuable water and nutrient source for microalgae cultivation. The potential for converting the nutrients from SW into valuable biomass and then generating bioenergy from it has drawn increasing attention. For this reason, this review comprehensively discussed the biomass production, SW treatment efficiencies, and bioenergy generation potentials through cultivating microalgae in SW. Microalgae species grow well in SW with large amounts of biomass being produced, despite the impact of various parameters (e.g., nutrients and toxicants levels, cultivation conditions, and bacteria in SW). Pollutants in SW can effectively be removed by harvesting microalgae from SW, and the harvested microalgae biomass elicits high potential for conversion to valuable bioenergy.
Ding, A, Lin, D, Zhao, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Bai, L, Luo, X, Li, G, Ren, N & Liang, H 2019, 'Effect of metabolic uncoupler, 2,4‑dinitrophenol (DNP) on sludge properties and fouling potential in ultrafiltration membrane process.', The Science of the total environment, vol. 650, no. Pt 2, pp. 1882-1888.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Energy uncoupling technology was applied to the membrane process to control the problem of bio-fouling. Different dosages of uncoupler (2,4‑dinitrophenol, DNP) were added to the activated sludge, and a short-term ultrafiltration test was systematically investigated for analyzing membrane fouling potential and underlying mechanisms. Ultrafiltration membrane was used and made of polyether-sulfone with a molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 150 kDa. Results indicated that low DNP concentration (15-30 mg/g VSS) aggravated membrane fouling because more soluble microbial products were released and then rejected by the membrane, which significantly increased cake layer resistance compared with the control. Conversely, a high dosage of DNP (45 mg/g VSS) retarded membrane fouling owing to the high inhibition of extracellular polymeric substances (proteins and polysaccharides) of the sludge, which effectively prevented the formation of cake layer on the membrane surface. Furthermore, analyses of fouling model revealed that a high dosage of DNP delayed the fouling model from pore blocking transition to cake filtration, whereas this transition process was accelerated in the low dosage scenario.
Khan, MA, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Chang, SW, Dinh, DN, Varjani, S, Liu, Y, Deng, L & Cheng, C 2019, 'Selective production of volatile fatty acids at different pH in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 283, pp. 120-128.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Nguyen, TT, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Wang, XC, Ren, N, Li, G, Ding, J & Liang, H 2019, 'Implementation of a specific urban water management - Sponge City.', The Science of the total environment, vol. 652, pp. 147-162.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Climate change, rapid urbanization and inappropriate urban planning policies in many countries have resulted in urban water-related problems, such as flooding disasters, water pollution and water shortages. To tackle these issues, the specific urban water management strategy known as Sponge City has been implemented in China since 2013. This is a complex method and one involving many challenges. This paper critically assesses the approaches associated with conventional urban water management. The Sponge City concept and its adoption are then scrutinized to comprehensively assess the limitations and opportunities. It emerges that Sponge City has four main principles, these being: urban water resourcing, ecological water management, green infrastructures, and urban permeable pavement. The uncertainties in Sponge City design and planning, and financial insufficiencies are the most serious problems that can risk the failure of the Sponge City concept. While significant barriers exist, the opportunities for implementing a Sponge City are evident. To obtain multi-ecosystem services of Sponge City, it should be implemented at the watershed scales and be flexible, depending on different decision levels or catchment characteristics. It is essential to apply an intelligent decision-making mechanism and consider the need for close cooperation between various agencies with which the central government can work. A suitable sized and harmonious Sponge City, ensuring a good balance between socio-economic development and environmental conservation, is the ideal.
Song, Z, Zhang, X, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Song, P, Zhang, Y, Wen, H & Guo, J 2019, 'Zeolite powder based polyurethane sponges as biocarriers in moving bed biofilm reactor for improving nitrogen removal of municipal wastewater', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 651, pp. 1078-1086.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Song, Z, Zhang, X, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Wen, H & Li, C 2019, 'Occurrence, fate and health risk assessment of 10 common antibiotics in two drinking water plants with different treatment processes', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 674, pp. 316-326.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wu, Y, Wu, Z, Chu, H, Li, J, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Zhang, N & Zhang, H 2019, 'Comparison study on the performance of two different gas-permeable membranes used in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 658, pp. 1219-1227.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Deng, L, Huu-Hao, N, Guo, W & Zhang, H 2019, 'Pre-coagulation coupled with sponge-membrane filtration for organic matter removal and membrane fouling control during drinking water treatment', WATER RESEARCH, vol. 157, pp. 155-166.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ding, X, Wei, D, Guo, W, Wang, B, Meng, Z, Feng, R, Du, B & Wei, Q 2019, 'Biological denitrification in an anoxic sequencing batch biofilm reactor: Performance evaluation, nitrous oxide emission and microbial community', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 285.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Guo, H, Hu, J, Li, J, Gao, MT, Wang, Q, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2019, 'Systematic insight into the short-term and long-term effects of magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles on critical flux in membrane bioreactors', Journal of Membrane Science, pp. 284-288.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2019 This study aims to systematically investigate the short-term and long-term effects of magnetic microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) on critical flux in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Comparison among six MBRs was carried out with different activated sludge samples. Results showed that the short-term adsorption and flocculation contributed only minimally, however, the long-term magnetic induced bio-effect improved the critical flux by conditioning sludge properties. Additional molecular weight distribution of soluble microbial product (SMP) indicated that long-term magnetic induced bio-effect declined the content of macromolecules (>500 kDa and 300–500 kDa), but promoted the content of small molecules (<100 kDa), consequently reduced the free energy of SMP gelling foulants, and further promoted the higher critical flux. Moreover, the magnetic MPs presented the better performance than NPs. This study illustrated that sufficient pre-acclimatization of magnetic activated sludge is significantly necessary to improve the critical flux in MBRs.
Kang, Y, Xie, H, Li, B, Zhang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Gun, Z, Kong, Q, Liang, S, Liu, J, Cheng, T & Zhang, L 2019, 'Performance of constructed wetlands and associated mechanisms of PAHs removal with mussels', CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, vol. 357, pp. 280-287.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Li, Y, Huang, C, Ngo, HH, Pang, J, Zha, X, Liu, T & Guo, W 2019, 'In situ reconstruction of long-term extreme flooding magnitudes and frequencies based on geological archives', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 670, pp. 8-17.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Nguyen, DD, Jeon, BH, Jeung, JH, Rene, ER, Banu, JR, Ravindran, B, Vu, CM, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Chang, SW 2019, 'Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of model organic wastes: Evaluation of biomethane production and multiple kinetic models analysis', Bioresource Technology, pp. 269-276.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd The main aim of this work was to test various organic wastes, i.e. from a livestock farm, a cattle slaughterhouse and agricultural waste streams, for its ability to produce methane under thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) conditions. The stability of the digestion, potential biomethane production and biomethane production rate for each waste were assessed. The highest methane yield (110.83 mL CH 4 /g VS added day) was found in the AD of crushed animal carcasses on day 4. The experimental results were analyzed using four kinetic models and it was observed that the Cone model described the biomethane yield as well as the methane production rate of each substrate. The results from this study showed the good potential of model organic wastes to produce biomethane.
Nguyen, XC, Chang, SW, Tran, TCP, Nguyen, TTN, Hoang, TQ, Banu, JR, Al-Muhtaseb, AH, La, DD, Guo, W, Ngo, HH & Nguyen, DD 2019, 'Comparative study about the performance of three types of modified natural treatment systems for rice noodle wastewater', Bioresource Technology, pp. 163-170.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd In this study, three semi-pilot scale systems (vertical flow constructed wetland, multi-soil layering, and integrated hybrid systems) for treating real rice noodle wastewater were operated parallelly for the first time in a tropical climate at a loading rate of 50 L/(m 2 ·d) for more than 7 months to determine the optimal conditions and to compare their treatment performance. The results demonstrated that these systems were appropriate for the removal of organics, suspended solids, and total coliform (Tcol). The highest reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD Cr , 73.2%), phosphorus (PO 4 -P, 54%), and Tcol (4.78 log MPN/100 mL inactivation) were obtained by the integrated hybrid system, while the highest removal efficiencies of ammonium (NH 4 -N, 60.64%) and suspended solids (80.49%) were achieved in the vertical-flow-constructed wetland and multi-soil layering systems respectively.
Su, D, Zhang, QH, Ngo, HH, Dzakpasu, M, Guo, WS & Wang, XC 2019, 'Development of a water cycle management approach to Sponge City construction in Xi'an, China', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 685, pp. 490-496.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2019 In recent years, climate change, population growth, and inefficient use of water have exacerbated the water resources scarcity problems around the world. Hence, this paper establishes a new approach of Sponge City construction (SCC) based on water cycle management (WCM) for the sustainable exploitation of groundwater, recycled wastewater and rainwater in the Xi'an Siyuan University. The University is located in an isolated area that is far away from the city center so that no centralized water supply system could be utilized. To mitigate water scarcity problems in the University, 39% of the annual rainfall is harvested and stored from impervious surfaces and grasslands by using the Curve Number (CN) method. This stored water is reused for non-potable purposes: 40% for toilet flushing and 60% as miscellaneous water. According to findings, the available rainwater of500–700 m3/d accounts for 16–23% of the non-potable water from April to December. Moreover, the utilization rate of water resources increases from 204% to 227%. With the minimum volume of large-scale rainwater harvesting cistern of 52,760 m3, the environment could be adequately watered while improving the expansion and development conditions on the campus. Furthermore, water scarcity problems could be mitigated through optimization of the water resources utilization system. This study demonstrates that this new approach of SCC based on WCM could alleviate water resources scarcity problems in Xi'an Siyuan University effectively. It is hoped that this study will provide a model and example of the new approach for future applications.
Ansari, AJ, Hai, FI, Price, WE, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Nghiem, LD 2018, 'Assessing the integration of forward osmosis and anaerobic digestion for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery.', Bioresource technology, vol. 260, pp. 221-226.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study assessed the performance and key challenges associated with the integration of forward osmosis (FO) and anaerobic digestion for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Using a thin film composite polyamide FO membrane, maximising the pre-concentration factor (i.e. system water recovery) resulted in the enrichment of organics and salinity in wastewater. Biomethane potential evaluation indicated that methane production increased correspondingly with the FO pre-concentration factor due to the organic retention in the feed solution. At 90% water recovery, about 10% more methane was produced when using NaOAc compared with NaCl because of the contribution of biodegradable reverse NaOAc flux. No negative impact on anaerobic digestion was observed when wastewater was pre-concentrated ten-fold (90% water recovery) for both draw solutes. Interestingly, the unit cost of methane production using NaOAc was slightly lower than NaCl due to the lower reverse solute flux of NaOAc, although NaCl is a much cheaper chemical.
Asif, MB, Hai, FI, Dhar, BR, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Jegatheesan, V, Price, WE, Nghiem, LD & Yamamoto, K 2018, 'Impact of simultaneous retention of micropollutants and laccase on micropollutant degradation in enzymatic membrane bioreactor', Bioresource Technology, vol. 267, pp. 473-480.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 This study systematically compares the performance of ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) based enzymatic membrane bioreactors (EMBRs) for the degradation of five micropollutants, namely atrazine, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac and oxybenzone to elucidate the impact of effective membrane retention of micropollutants on their degradation. Based on the permeate quality, NF-EMBR achieved 92–99.9% micropollutant removal (i.e., biodegradation + membrane retention), while the removal of these micropollutants by UF-EMBR varied from 20 to 85%. Mass balance analysis revealed that micropollutant degradation was improved by 15–30% in NF-EMBR as compared to UF-EMBR, which could be attributed to the prolonged contact time between laccase and micropollutants following their effective retention by the NF membrane. A small decline in permeate flux was observed during EMBR operation. However, the flux could be recovered by flushing the membrane with permeate.
Cheng, D, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liu, Y, Chang, SW, Nguyen, DD, Nghiem, LD, Zhou, J & Ni, B 2018, 'Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for antibiotic wastewater treatment: Performance and membrane fouling issues.', Bioresource technology, vol. 267, pp. 714-724.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Antibiotic wastewater has become a major concern due to the toxicity and recalcitrance of antibiotics. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) are considered alternative technology for treating antibiotic wastewater because of their advantages over the conventional anaerobic processes and aerobic MBRs. However, membrane fouling remains the most challenging issue in the AnMBRs' operation and this limits their application. This review critically discusses: (i) antibiotics removal and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in different types of AnMBRs and the impact of antibiotics on membrane fouling and (ii) the integrated AnMBRs systems for fouling control and removal of antibiotics. The presence of antibiotics in AnMBRs could aggravate membrane fouling by influencing fouling-related factors (i.e., sludge particle size, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), soluble microbial products (SMP), and fouling-related microbial communities). Conclusively, integrated AnMBR systems can be a practical technology for antibiotic wastewater treatment.
Do, MH, Ngo, HH, Guo, WS, Liu, Y, Chang, SW, Nguyen, DD, Nghiem, LD & Ni, BJ 2018, 'Challenges in the application of microbial fuel cells to wastewater treatment and energy production: A mini review.', The Science of the total environment, vol. 639, pp. 910-920.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wastewater is now considered to be a vital reusable source of water reuse and saving energy. However, current wastewater has multiple limitations such as high energy costs, large quantities of residuals being generated and lacking in potential resources. Recently, great attention has been paid to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) due to their mild operating conditions where a variety of biodegradable substrates can serve as fuel. MFCs can be used in wastewater treatment facilities to break down organic matter, and they have also been analysed for application as a biosensor such as a sensor for biological oxygen which demands monitoring. MFCs represent an innovation technology solution that is simple and rapid. Despite the advantages of this technology, there are still practical barriers to consider including low electricity production, current instability, high internal resistance and costly materials used. Thus, many problems must be overcome and doing this requires a more detailed analysis of energy production, consumption, and application. Currently, real-world applications of MFCs are limited due to their low power density level of only several thousand mW/m2. Efforts are being made to improve the performance and reduce the construction and operating costs of MFCs. This paper explores several aspects of MFCs such as anode, cathode and membrane, and in an effort to overcome the practical challenges of this system.
Jiang, Q, Ngo, HH, Nghiem, LD, Hai, FI, Price, WE, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Deng, L & Guo, W 2018, 'Effect of hydraulic retention time on the performance of a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system for micropollutants removal from municipal wastewater.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 247, pp. 1228-1232.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study evaluated micropollutants removal and membrane fouling behaviour of a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system at four different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (24, 18, 12 and 6h). The results revealed that HRT of 18h was the optimal condition regarding the removal of most selected micropollutants. As the primary removal mechanism in the hybrid system was biodegradation, the attached growth pattern was desirable for enriching slow growing bacteria and developing a diversity of biocoenosis. Thus, the efficient removal of micropollutants was obtained. In terms of membrane fouling propensity analysis, a longer HRT (e.g. HRTs of 24 and 18h) could significantly mitigate membrane fouling when compared with the shortest HRT of 6h. Hence, enhanced system performance could be achieved when the MBBR-MBR system was operated at HRT of 18h.
Khan, MA, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liu, Y, Chang, SW, Nguyen, DD, Nghiem, LD & Liang, H 2018, 'Can membrane bioreactor be a smart option for water treatment?', Bioresource Technology Reports, vol. 4, pp. 80-87.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The gradual increase of organic and inorganic micropollutants in natural and drinking watercourses has posed a greater challenge for current water treatment technologies. Currently established water treatment processes such as activated sludge, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, adsorption, carbon nanotube etc. have a limited range of application, low energy recovery, and cost-intensive operation. Membrane bioreactor has already been utilized as a useful option to remove soluble organics, nutrients, and micropollutants from wastewater. Although currently established Membrane Bioreactors have few limitations, recent developments on this technology have improved its energy efficiency and reduced the operating and maintenance cost. Implementing these research findings in full-scale operation can make this process a favorable option in industrial wastewater treatment.
Luo, W, Xie, M, Song, X, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Zhou, JL & Nghiem, LD 2018, 'Biomimetic aquaporin membranes for osmotic membrane bioreactors: Membrane performance and contaminant removal.', Bioresource technology, vol. 249, pp. 62-68.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, we investigated the performance of an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) enabled by a novel biomimetic aquaporin forward osmosis (FO) membrane. Membrane performance and removal of 30 trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) were examined. Results show that the aquaporin FO membrane had better transport properties in comparison with conventional cellulose triacetate and polyamide thin-film composite FO membranes. In particular, the aquaporin FO membrane exhibited much lower salt permeability and thus smaller reverse salt flux, resulting in a less severe salinity build-up in the bioreactor during OMBR operation. During OMBR operation, the aquaporin FO membrane well complemented biological treatment for stable and excellent contaminant removal. All 30 TrOCs selected here were removed by over 85% regardless of their diverse properties. Such high and stable contaminant removal over OMBR operation also indicates the stability and compatibility of the aquaporin FO membrane in combination with activated sludge treatment.
Peng, L, Ngo, HH, Guo, WS, Liu, Y, Wang, D, Song, S, Wei, W, Nghiem, LD & Ni, BJ 2018, 'A novel mechanistic model for nitrogen removal in algal-bacterial photo sequencing batch reactors.', Bioresource technology, vol. 267, pp. 502-509.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A comprehensive mathematical model was constructed to evaluate the complex substrate and microbial interaction in algal-bacterial photo sequencing batch reactors (PSBR). The kinetics of metabolite, growth and endogenous respiration of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, nitrite oxidizing bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were coupled to those of microalgae and then embedded into widely-used activated sludge model series. The impact of light intensity was considered for microalgae growth, while the effect of inorganic carbon was considered for each microorganism. The integrated model framework was assessed using experimental data from algal-bacterial consortia performing sidestream nitritation/denitritation. The validity of the model was further evaluated based on dataset from PSBR performing mainstream nitrification. The developed model could satisfactorily capture the dynamics of microbial populations and substrates under different operational conditions (i.e. feeding, carbon dosing and illuminating mode, light intensity, influent ammonium concentration), which might serve as a powerful tool for optimizing the novel algal-bacterial nitrogen removal processes.
Phan, HV, Wickham, R, Xie, S, McDonald, JA, Khan, SJ, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Nghiem, LD 2018, 'The fate of trace organic contaminants during anaerobic digestion of primary sludge: A pilot scale study.', Bioresource technology, vol. 256, pp. 384-390.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A pilot-scale study was conducted to investigate the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) during anaerobic digestion of primary sludge. Of the 44 TrOCs monitored, 24 were detected in all primary sludge samples. Phase distribution of TrOCs was correlated well with their hydrophobicity (>67% mass in the solid phase when LogD > 1.5). The pilot-scale anaerobic digester achieved a steady performance with a specific methane yield of 0.39-0.92 L/gVSremoved and methane composition of 63-65% despite considerable variation in the primary sludge. The fate of TrOCs in the aqueous and solid phases was governed by their physicochemical properties. Biotransformation was significant (>83%) for five TrOCs with logD < 1.5 and electron donating functional groups in molecular structure. The remaining TrOCs with logD < 1.5 were persistent and thus accumulated in the aqueous phase. Most TrOCs with logD > 1.5 were poorly removed under anaerobic conditions. Sorption onto the solid phase appears to impede the biodegradation of these TrOCs.
Song, X, Luo, W, Hai, FI, Price, WE, Guo, W, Ngo, HH & Nghiem, LD 2018, 'Resource recovery from wastewater by anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Opportunities and challenges', Bioresource Technology, vol. 270, pp. 669-677.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 This review examines the potential of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to serve as the core technology for simultaneous recovery of clean water, energy, and nutrient from wastewater. The potential is significant as AnMBR treatment can remove a board range of trace organic contaminants relevant to water reuse, convert organics in wastewater to biogas for subsequent energy production, and liberate nutrients to soluble forms (e.g. ammonia and phosphorus) for subsequent recovery for fertilizer production. Yet, there remain several significant challenges to the further development of AnMBR. These challenges evolve around the dilute nature of municipal wastewater, which entails the need for pre-concentrating wastewater prior to AnMBR, and hence, issues related to salinity build-up, accumulation of substances, membrane fouling, and membrane stability. Strategies to address these challenges are proposed and discussed. A road map for further research is also provided to guide future AnMBR development toward resource recovery.
Song, X, Luo, W, McDonald, J, Khan, SJ, Hai, FI, Guo, W, Ngo, HH & Nghiem, LD 2018, 'Effects of sulphur on the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor: Biological stability, trace organic contaminant removal, and membrane fouling.', Bioresource technology, vol. 250, pp. 171-177.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigated the impact of sulphur content on the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) with an emphasis on the biological stability, contaminant removal, and membrane fouling. Removal of 38 trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) that are ubiquitously present in municipal wastewater by AnMBR was evaluated. Results show that basic biological performance of AnMBR regarding biomass growth and the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was not affected by sulphur addition when the influent COD/SO42- ratio was maintained higher than 10. Nevertheless, the content of hydrogen sulphate in the produced biogas increased significantly and membrane fouling was exacerbated with sulphur addition. Moreover, the increase in sulphur content considerably affected the removal of some hydrophilic TrOCs and their residuals in the sludge phase during AnMBR operation. By contrast, no significant impact on the removal of hydrophobic TrOCs was noted with sulphur addition to AnMBR.
Cheng, DL, Ngo, HH, Guo, WS, Liu, YW, Zhou, JL, Chang, SW, Nguyen, DD, Bui, XT & Zhang, XB 2018, 'Bioprocessing for elimination antibiotics and hormones from swine wastewater.', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 621, pp. 1664-1682.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Antibiotics and hormones in swine wastewater have become a critical concern worldwide due to the severe threats to human health and the eco-environment. Removal of most detectable antibiotics and hormones, such as sulfonamides (SAs), SMs, tetracyclines (TCs), macrolides, and estrogenic hormones from swine wastewater utilizing various biological processes were summarized and compared. In biological processes, biosorption and biodegradation are the two major removal mechanisms for antibiotics and hormones. The residuals in treated effluents and sludge of conventional activated sludge and anaerobic digestion processes can still pose risks to the surrounding environment, and the anaerobic processes' removal efficiencies were inferior to those of aerobic processes. In contrast, membrane bioreactors (MBRs), constructed wetlands (CWs) and modified processes performed better because of their higher biodegradation of toxicants. Process modification on activated sludge, anaerobic digestion and conventional MBRs could also enhance the performance (e.g. removing up to 98% SMs, 88.9% TCs, and 99.6% hormones from wastewater). The hybrid process combining MBRs with biological or physical technology also led to better removal efficiency. As such, modified conventional biological processes, advanced biological technologies and MBR hybrid systems are considered as a promising technology for removing toxicants from swine wastewater.
Khan, MA, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liu, Y, Zhang, X, Guo, J, Chang, SW, Nguyen, DD & Wang, J 2018, 'Biohydrogen production from anaerobic digestion and its potential as renewable energy', Renewable Energy, vol. 129, pp. 754-768.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017. The current demand-supply scenario for fossil fuels requires an alternative energy source with cleaner combustion products whilst production of hydrogen from anaerobic digestion involves the utilization of waste materials and zero emission of greenhouse gasses. However, large scale industrial application has yet not been implemented due to numerous challenges in its production, storage, and transportation. This review study demonstrates that production of hydrogen from anaerobic digestion is potentially a worthy alternative regarding energy density, environmental impact, and cost. Moreover, dependence on fossil fuel systems in the future could be minimized when biohydrogen production is feasible from renewable energy sources.
Liu, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Peng, L, Chen, X, Wang, D, Pan, Y & Ni, B-J 2018, 'Modeling electron competition among nitrogen oxides reduction and N2 O accumulation in hydrogenotrophic denitrification.', Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 978-988.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hydrogenotrophic denitrification is a novel and sustainable process for nitrogen removal, which utilizes hydrogen as electron donor, and carbon dioxide as carbon source. Recent studies have shown that nitrous oxide (N2 O), a highly undesirable intermediate and potent greenhouse gas, can accumulate during this process. In this work, a new mathematical model is developed to describe nitrogen oxides dynamics, especially N2 O, during hydrogenotrophic denitrification for the first time. The model describes electron competition among the four steps of hydrogenotrophic denitrification through decoupling hydrogen oxidation and nitrogen reduction processes using electron carriers, in contrast to the existing models that couple these two processes and also do not consider N2 O accumulation. The developed model satisfactorily describes experimental data on nitrogen oxides dynamics obtained from two independent hydrogenotrophic denitrifying cultures under various hydrogen and nitrogen oxides supplying conditions, suggesting the validity and applicability of the model. The results indicated that N2 O accumulation would not be intensified under hydrogen limiting conditions, due to the higher electron competition capacity of N2 O reduction in comparison to nitrate and nitrite reduction during hydrogenotrophic denitrification. The model is expected to enhance our understanding of the process during hydrogenotrophic denitrification and the ability to predict N2 O accumulation.
Ye, Y, Liu, W, Jiang, W, Kang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Liu, Y 2018, 'Defluoridation by magnesia-pullulan: Surface complexation modeling and pH neutralization of treated fluoride water by aluminum', JOURNAL OF THE TAIWAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS, vol. 93, pp. 625-631.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ye, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liu, Y, Chang, SW, Nguyen, DD, Liang, H & Wang, J 2018, 'A critical review on ammonium recovery from wastewater for sustainable wastewater management.', Bioresource technology, vol. 268, pp. 749-758.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The growing global population's demand for ammonium has triggered an increase in its supply, given that ammonium plays a crucial role in fertilizer production for the purpose of food security. Currently, ammonia used in fertilizer production is put through what is known as the industrial Haber Bosch process, but this approach is substantially expensive and requires much energy. For this reason, looking for effective methods to recover ammonium is important for environmental sustainability. One of the greatest opportunities for ammonium recovery occurs in wastewater treatment plants due to wastewater containing a large quantity of ammonium ions. The comprehensively and critically review studies on ammonium recovery conducted, have the potential to be applied in current wastewater treatment operations. Technologies and their ammonium recovery mechanisms are included in this review. Furthermore the economic feasibility of such processes is analysed. Possible future directions for ammonium recovery from wastewater are suggested.
Ye, Y, Yang, J, Jiang, W, Kang, J, Hu, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Liu, Y 2018, 'Fluoride removal from water using a magnesia-pullulan composite in a continuous fixed-bed column.', Journal of environmental management, vol. 206, pp. 929-937.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A magnesia-pullulan composite (MgOP) was previously shown to effectively remove fluoride from water. In the present study, a continuous fixed-bed column was used to examine the application of the composite at an industrial scale. The influencing parameters included bed mass (4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 g), influent flow rate (8, 16 and 32 mL/min), inlet fluoride concentration (5, 10 and 20 mg/L), reaction temperature (20, 30 and 40 °C), influent pH (4, 7 and 10) and other existing anions (HCO3-, SO42-, Cl- and NO3-), through which the breakthrough curves could be depicted for the experimental data analysis. The results indicated that MgOP is promising for fluoride removal with a defluoridation capacity of 16.6 mg/g at the bed mass of 6.0 g, influent flow rate of 16 mL/min and inlet fluoride concentration of 10 mg/L. The dynamics of the fluoride adsorption process were modeled using the Thomas and Yan models, in which the Yan model presented better predictions for the breakthrough curves than the Thomas model. Moreover, the concentration of magnesium in the effluent was monitored to determine Mg stability in the MgOP composite. Results indicated the effluent concentration of Mg2+ ions could be kept at a safe level. Calcination of fluoride-loaded MgOP effectively regenerated the material.
Zhao, J, Wang, D, Liu, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Yang, Q & Li, X 2018, 'Novel stepwise pH control strategy to improve short chain fatty acid production from sludge anaerobic fermentation.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 249, pp. 431-438.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study reports an innovative strategy known as stepwise pH fermentation, developed to enhance the production of short chain volatile fatty acids (SCFA) from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation. Experimental results confirmed the optimal pH for WAS disruption and acidification was 11 and 9, respectively, and corresponding optimal time was, respectively, 5 d and 2 d. In this scenario, the optimal SCFA yield was 2356 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L, which was much higher than that derived from alkaline fermentation system. Investigation of the mechanism indicated that pH 11 could accelerate the disruption of WAS and inhibit the activities of methanogens; furthermore, pH 9 was beneficial to the activity of acid-producing bacteria, resulting in more SCFA production. Stepwise pH fermentation integrated with sodium chloride (NaCl) present in WAS had synergistic impacts on WAS anaerobic fermentation.
Bach, QV, Le, VT, Yoon, YS, Bui, XT, Chung, W, Chang, SW, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Nguyen, DD 2018, 'A new hybrid sewage treatment system combining a rolled pipe system and membrane bioreactor to improve the biological nitrogen removal efficiency: A pilot study', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 178, pp. 937-946.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd A new hybrid pilot plant configuration based on a modularized rolled pipe system (RPS) combined with a submerged flat sheet membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated to enhance the sewage treatment and membrane performance. The system was operated under actual conditions for more than four months, that is, at a constant flow rate of 30 m³/d and with two internal recycling ratios. The results indicate that the hybrid system produces an excellent effluent quality and considerably mitigated membrane fouling. The average concentrations of SS, COD, TN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, and PO43--P remained below 2.81, 8.29, 8.77, 0.15, 8.17, and 1.49 mg/L, respectively. It was estimated that the periodic chemical cleaning of the membrane could be extended to approximately six months. The MBR and RPS can virtually complete nitrification and denitrification, respectively. The highest average denitrification rate of the RPS is 116.95 mg NO3-N/(g MLVSS d), with a hydraulic retention time of 1.05 h. Therefore, the RPS–MBR hybrid system has potential to improve the sewage treatability. The emerging RPS technique can obtain high rates of denitrification coupled with a compact design, ease of installation, and small footprint.
Chen, C, Guo, WS, Ngo, HH, Chang, SW, Nguyen, DD, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Guo, JB & Zhang, XB 2018, 'Effects of C/N ratio on the performance of a hybrid sponge-assisted aerobic moving bed-anaerobic granular membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 247, pp. 340-346.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of C/N ratio on the performance of a hybrid sponge-assisted aerobic moving bed-anaerobic granular membrane bioreactor (SAAMB-AnGMBR) in municipal wastewater treatment. The results showed that organic removal efficiencies were above 94% at all C/N conditions. Nutrient removal was over 91% at C/N ratio of 100/5 but was negatively affected when decreasing C/N ratio to 100/10. At lower C/N ratio (100/10), more noticeable membrane fouling was caused by aggravated cake formation and pore clogging, and accumulation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the mixed liquor and sludge cake as a result of deteriorated granular quality. Foulant analysis suggested significant difference existed in the foulant organic compositions under different C/N ratios, and humic substances were dominant when the fastest fouling rate was observed. The performance of the hybrid system was found to recover when gradually increasing C/N ratio from 100/10 to 100/5.
Chen, Z, Wang, D, Sun, M, Hao Ngo, H, Guo, W, Wu, G, Jia, W, Shi, L, Wu, Q, Guo, F & Hu, H-Y 2018, 'Sustainability evaluation and implication of a large scale membrane bioreactor plant.', Bioresource technology, vol. 269, pp. 246-254.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is receiving increasing attention in wastewater treatment and reuse. This study presents an integral sustainability evaluation of a full scale MBR plant. The plant is capable of achieving prominent technical performance in terms of high compliance rate, low variation in effluent quality and high removal efficiency during long term operation. It is also more responsive to the new local standard with rigorous limits. However, electricity consumption is found to be the dominant process resulting in elevated life cycle environmental impacts and costs, accounting for 51.6% of the costs. As such, it is suggested to optimize energy use in MBR unit and implement sludge treatment and management. The prolonged membrane life span could also contribute largely to reduced life cycle environmental concerns and expenses. This study is of great theoretical significance and applicable value in guaranteeing the performance and sustainability of large scale MBR schemes.
Cheng, DL, Ngo, HH, Guo, WS, Chang, SW, Nguyen, DD, Kumar, SM, Du, B, Wei, Q & Wei, D 2018, 'Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater.', Bioresource technology, vol. 263, pp. 642-653.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts.
Cui, Z, Wang, J, Zhang, H, Ngo, HH, Jia, H, Guo, W, Gao, F, Yang, G & Kang, D 2018, 'Investigation of backwashing effectiveness in membrane bioreactor (MBR) based on different membrane fouling stages.', Bioresource technology, vol. 269, pp. 355-362.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study the effect of different fouling stages of hollow fiber membranes on effective backwashing length in MBR has been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is imported to simulate backwashing process. A multi-physics coupling model for free porous media flow, convective mass transfer and diluted species transport was established. The laser bijection sensors (LBS) were imported to monitor the backwashing solution position inside fiber lumen. Simulation results indicated that membrane fouling degree could change the velocity of backwash solution inside fiber lumen and make a further effect on effective backwash length. The signal variations of LBS are in accordance with the simulation results. The backwashing process can only play an active role when the filtration pressure is below the critical TMP. It can be concluded that backwash duration in industrial applications need to be set based on changes in TMP.
Deng, L, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Wang, J & Zhang, H 2018, 'Evaluation of a new sponge addition-microbial fuel cell system for removing nutrient from low C/N ratio wastewater', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 338, pp. 166-175.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 This study developed a new microbial fuel cell (MFC) system (Sponge-MFC), which consisted of a cathodic chamber with an added sponge and two anodic chambers, for low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) wastewater treatment. When operating in the closed-circuit state, the Sponge-MFC(C) demonstrated its superior electrochemical performance compared to the closed-circuit MFC. This superiority took the form of higher coulombic efficiencies, voltage outputs, current densities and power densities. Adding a sponge could reduce the cathode's charge transfer resistance and solution resistance, and improve its capacitance, thus increasing cathodic reaction rate and power outputs. Simultaneous nitrification denitrification (SND) and bioelectrochemical denitrification processes on the cathode coupled with the sponge's SND process were responsible for efficient removal of nitrogen from the Sponge-MFC(C). Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that nitrifying bacteria and highly diversified denitrifying bacteria were distributed at the cathode's outer layer and inner layer, respectively. Higher phosphorus removal efficiencies (82.06 ± 1.21%) in the Sponge-MFC(C) than that in the MFC(C) (53.97 ± 2.32%) could be ascribed to biological phosphorus removal and precipitation of phosphate salts on the cathode. These results suggested the Sponge-MFC(C) could accomplish better electrochemical behaviors and nutrient removal due to sponge addition when treating wastewater with low C/N ratio.
Guo, Y, Xie, H, Zhang, J, Wang, W, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Kang, Y & Zhang, B 2018, 'Improving nutrient removal performance of surface flow constructed wetlands in winter using hardy submerged plant-benthic fauna systems', RSC Advances, vol. 8, no. 73, pp. 42179-42188.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A novel hardy submerged plant-benthic fauna systems to enhance the performance of surface flow constructed wetlands in winter.
Han, F, Wei, D, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Xu, W, Du, B & Wei, Q 2018, 'Performance, microbial community and fluorescent characteristic of microbial products in a solid-phase denitrification biofilm reactor for WWTP effluent treatment.', Journal of environmental management, vol. 227, pp. 375-385.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Microbial products, i.e. extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and soluble microbial product (SMP), have a significant correlation with microbial activity of biologically based systems. In present study, the spectral characteristics of two kinds of microbial products were comprehensively evaluated in a solid-phase denitrification biofilm reactor for WWTP effluent treatment by using poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) as carbon source. After the achievement of PBS-biofilm, nitrate and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were high of 97.39 ± 1.24% and 96.38 ± 1.1%, respectively. The contents of protein and polysaccharide were changed different degrees in both LB-EPS and TB-EPS. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) implied that protein-like substances played a significant role in the formation of PBS-biofilm. High-throughput sequencing result implied that the proportion of denitrifying bacteria, including Simplicispira, Dechloromonas, Diaphorobacter, Desulfovibrio, increased to 9.2%, 7.4%, 4.8% and 3.6% in PBS-biofilm system, respectively. According to EEM-PARAFAC, two components were identified from SMP samples, including protein-like substances for component 1 and humic-like and fulvic acid-like substances for component 2, respectively. Moreover, the fluorescent scores of two components expressed significant different trends to reaction time. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) implied that some new organic matters were produced in the effluent of SP-DBR due to biopolymer degradation and denitrification processes. The results could provide a new insight about the formation and stability of solid-phase denitrification PBS-biofilm via the point of microbial products.
Huang, L, Li, M, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Xu, W, Du, B, Wei, Q & Wei, D 2018, 'Spectroscopic characteristics of dissolved organic matter from aquaculture wastewater and its interaction mechanism to chlorinated phenol compound', Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 263, pp. 422-427.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 In present study, the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from aquaculture wastewater and its interaction to 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was evaluated via a spectroscopic approach. According to EEM-PARAFAC analysis, two components were derived from the interaction samples between DOM and 4-CP, including humic-like and fulvic-like substances for component 1 and protein-like substances for component 2, respectively. The fluorescence intensity scores of two PARAFAC-derived components decreased with increasing 4-CP concentration. Synchronous fluorescence coupled to two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) implied that DOM fractions quenched different degrees and occurred in the order of fulvic-like and humic-like fractions > protein-like fraction. Moreover, the quenching mechanisms were mainly caused by static quenching process. It was also found from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy that the main functional groups for interaction between 4-CP and DOM were O–H stretching and C[dbnd]O stretching vibration. The obtained results provided a spectroscopic approach for characterizing the interaction between organic pollutant and DOM from aquaculture wastewater.
Huang, L, Li, M, Si, G, Wei, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Xu, W, Du, B, Wei, Q & Wei, D 2018, 'Assessment of microbial products in the biosorption process of Cu(II) onto aerobic granular sludge: Extracellular polymeric substances contribution and soluble microbial products release', Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 527, pp. 87-94.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 In the present study, the responses of microbial products in the biosorption process of Cu(II) onto aerobic granular sludge were evaluated by using batch and spectroscopic approaches. Batch experimental data showed that extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) contributed to Cu(II) removal from an aqueous solution, especially when treating low metal concentrations, whereas soluble microbial products (SMPs) were released under the metal stress during biosorption process. A three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) identified four main fluorescence peaks in the EPS, i.e., tryptophan protein-like, aromatic protein-like, humic-like and fulvic acid-like substances, and their fluorescence intensities decreased gradually in the presence of Cu(II) during the sorption process. Particularly, tryptophan protein-like substances quenched the Cu(II) binding to a much higher extent through a static quenching process with less than one class of binding sites. According to the synchronous fluorescence spectra, the whole fluorescence intensity of released SMP samples expressed an increased trend with different degrees along with contact time. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) suggested that the fulvic-like fluorescence fraction might be more susceptible to metal exposure than other fractions. The result of molecular weight distribution demonstrated that the SMPs released from the biosorption process differed significantly according to contact time. The result obtained could provide new insights into the responses of microbial products from aerobic granular sludge with heavy metal treatment.
Jia, H, Liu, W, Wang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Zhang, H 2018, 'Optimization of sensing performance in an integrated dual sensors system combining microbial fuel cells and upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor', Chemosphere, vol. 210, pp. 931-940.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Two bio-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) are integrated to construct a UASB-MFC dual sensors system, developed to solve the problems of low accuracy and less information about the single sensor system. The bio-cathode MFC is developed as the biosensor for UASB operation performance and online monitoring. Owing to the biosorption of anaerobic microbes, the MFC in the suspended layer is more suitable for effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) real-time monitoring, and the MFC in the sludge layer is more suitable for total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) real-time monitoring. Electrochemical analysis discovers that the lower electron transfer resistance determines the higher sensitivity of MFC in the suspended layer. The difference in species abundance indicates that TVFA has a stronger inhibitory effect on MFC in the sludge layer. The novel UASB-MFC dual sensors system shows promising potential for COD and TVFA simultaneous online monitoring, which can enhance the reliability of anaerobic reaction.
Kang, Y, Zhang, J, Li, B, Zhang, Y, Sun, H, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Xie, H, Hu, Z & Zhao, C 2018, 'Improvement of bioavailable carbon source and microbial structure toward enhanced nitrate removal by Tubifex tubifex', CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, vol. 353, pp. 699-707.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Li, J, Wei, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liu, H, Du, B, Wei, Q & Wei, D 2018, 'Characterization of soluble microbial products in a partial nitrification sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating high ammonia nitrogen wastewater.', Bioresource technology, vol. 249, pp. 241-246.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In present study, the characterization of soluble microbial products (SMP) was evaluated in a partial nitrification sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR). During the stable operation of SBBR, the NH4+-N removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation ratio were 96.70±0.41% and 93.77±1.04%, respectively. According to excitation-emission matrix (EEM), the intensities of protein-like substances were reduced under anoxic and aerobic phases, whereas humic-like substances had little change during the whole cycle. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) further indentified two components and their fluorescence intensity scores were both reduced. Synchronous fluorescence spectra revealed that the fluorescence intensity of protein-like fraction decreased with reaction time. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) further demonstrated that protein-like fraction might decrease earlier than the other fractions. The information obtained in present study is of fundamental significance for understanding the key components in SMP and their changes in partial nitrification system by using a spectral approach.
Li, J, Ye, W, Wei, D, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Qiao, Y, Xu, W, Du, B & Wei, Q 2018, 'System performance and microbial community succession in a partial nitrification biofilm reactor in response to salinity stress.', Bioresource technology, vol. 270, pp. 512-518.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The system performance and microbial community succession in a partial nitrification biofilm reactor in response to salinity stress was conducted. It was found that the NH4+-N removal efficiency decreased from 98.4% to 42.0% after salinity stress increased to 20 g/L. Specific oxygen uptake rates suggested that AOB activity was more sensitive to the stress of salinity than that of NOB. Protein and polysaccharides contents showed an increasing tendency in both LB-EPS and TB-EPS after the salinity exposure. Moreover, EEM results indicated that protein-like substances were the main component in LB-EPS and TB-EPS as self-protection in response to salinity stress. Additionally, humic acid-like substances were identified as the main component in the effluent organic matter (EfOM) of partial nitrification biofilm, whereas fulvic acid-like substances were detected at 20 g/L salinity stress. Microbial community analysis found that Nitrosomonas as representative species of AOB were significantly inhibited under high salinity condition.
Liu, Y, Li, J, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Hu, J & Gao, M-T 2018, 'Use of magnetic powder to effectively improve the performance of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) in municipal wastewater treatment.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 248, no. Part B, pp. 135-139.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study aims to investigate the effect of adding magnetic powder in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on the reactor performance and microbial community. Results indicated that, the magnetic activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (MAS-SBR) had 7.76% and 4.76% higher ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies than that of the conventional SBR (C-SBR). The MAS-SBR also achieved 6.86% sludge reduction compared with the C-SBR. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the dominant phyla of both SBRs (present as ≥1% of the sequence reads) were Protebacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Saccharibacteria, Chlorobi, Firmicutes, Actinobactoria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and unclassified_Bacteria. The relative abundance of Protebacteria and Bacteroidetes simultaneously declined whereas the other 8 phyla increased following the addition of magnetic powder. Adding magnetic powder in the SBR significantly affected the microbial diversity and richness of activated sludge, consequently affecting the reactor performance.
Liu, Y, Liu, Q, Li, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Hu, J, Gao, M-T, Wang, Q & Hou, Y 2018, 'Effect of magnetic powder on membrane fouling mitigation and microbial community/composition in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment.', Bioresource technology, vol. 249, pp. 377-385.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study aims to investigate the usefulness of magnetic powder addition in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for membrane fouling mitigation and its effect on microbial community and composition. The comparison between the two MBRs (one with magnetic powder (MAS-MBR) and one without magnetic powder (C-MBR)) was carried out to treat synthetic municipal wastewater. Results showed that bioflocculation and adsorption of magnetic powder contributed only minimally to membrane fouling mitigation while the slower fouling rate might be ascribed to magnetic bio-effect. The macromolecules (larger than 500 kDa and 300-500 kDa) of soluble microbial product from the MAS-MBR were reduced by 24.06% and 11.11%, respectively. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated the most abundant genera of biofilm sludge indicated lower abundance in bulk sludge from the MAS-MBR compared to the C-MBR. It is possible that less membrane fouling is connected to reductions in large molecules and pioneer bacteria from bulk sludge.
Liu, Y, Zhang, X, Hao Ngo, H, Guo, W, Wen, H, Deng, L, Li, Y & Guo, J 2018, 'Specific approach for membrane fouling control and better treatment performance of an anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactor.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 268, pp. 658-664.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper investigated a strategy to minimize membrane fouling and increase treatment efficiency through an investigation of a specific approach by adding sponges into a conventional submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (CAnSMBR). During the operation, the protein-based soluble microbial products as the main factor affecting the membrane fouling could be reduced by sponge addition in the CAnSMBR (SAnSMBR). Furthermore, reducing HRT from 18 h to 12 h could shorten the membrane fouling cycle to 62% and 87% in CAnSMBR and SAnSMBR, respectively. At the initial of COD/NO3 ratio ranges from 5 to 4, only 88% of nitrogen in CAnSMBR was removed, while the SAnSMBR could remove more than 90%. TOC removal efficiency could reach more than 95% under a good stirring scenario. It is evident that the SAnSMBR is a promising solution for improving overall CAnSMBR performance and substantially mitigating membrane fouling.
Nguyen, NC, Chen, S-S, Jain, S, Nguyen, HT, Ray, SS, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Lam, NT & Duong, HC 2018, 'Exploration of an innovative draw solution for a forward osmosis-membrane distillation desalination process.', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 5203-5211.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Forward osmosis (FO) has emerged as a viable technology to alleviate the global water crisis. The greatest challenge facing the application of FO technology is the lack of an ideal draw solution with high water flux and low reverse salt flux. Hence, the objective of this study was to enhance FO by lowering reverse salt flux and maintaining high water flux; the method involved adding small concentrations of Al2(SO4)3 to a MgCl2 draw solution. Results showed that 0.5 M MgCl2 mixed with 0.05 M of Al2(SO4)3 at pH 6.5 achieved a lower reverse salt flux (0.53 gMH) than that of pure MgCl2 (1.55 gMH) using an FO cellulose triacetate nonwoven (CTA-NW) membrane. This was due possibly to the flocculation of aluminum hydroxide in the mixed draw solution that constricted membrane pores, resulting in reduced salt diffusion. Moreover, average water fluxes of 4.09 and 1.74 L/m(2)-h (LMH) were achieved over 180 min, respectively, when brackish water (5 g/L) and sea water (35 g/L) were used as feed solutions. Furthermore, three types of membrane distillation (MD) membranes were selected for draw solution recovery; of these, a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane with a pore size of 0.45 μm proved to be the most effective in achieving a high salt rejection (99.90%) and high water flux (5.41 LMH) in a diluted draw solution.
Nguyen, NC, Chen, SS, Nguyen, HT, Chen, YH, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Ray, SS, Chang, HM & Le, QH 2018, 'Applicability of an integrated moving sponge biocarrier-osmotic membrane bioreactor MD system for saline wastewater treatment using highly salt-tolerant microorganisms', Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 198, pp. 93-99.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier B.V.Osmotic membrane bioreactors (OsMBRs) are a recent breakthrough technology designed to treat wastewater. Nevertheless, their application in high-salinity wastewater treatment is not widespread because of the effects of saline conditions on microbial community activity. In response, this study developed an integrated sponge biocarrier-OsMBR system using highly salt-tolerant microorganisms for treating saline wastewater. Results showed that the sponge biocarrier-OsMBR obtained an average water flux of 2L/m2 h during a 92-day operation when 1M MgCl2 was used as the draw solution. The efficiency in removing dissolved organic compounds from the proposed system was more than 99%, and nutrient rejection was close to 100%, indicating excellent performance in simultaneous nitrification and denitrification processes in the biofilm layer on the carriers. Moreover, salt-tolerant microorganisms in the sponge biocarrier-OsMBR system worked efficiently in salt concentrations of 2.4%. A polytetrafluoroethylene MD membrane (pores=0.45μm) served to regenerate the diluted draw solution in the closed-loop system and produce high-quality water. The moving sponge biocarrier-OsMBR/MD hybrid system demonstrated its potential to treat salinity wastewater treatment, with 100% nutrient removal and 99.9% conductivity rejection.
Vo Hoang Nhat, P, Ngo, HH, Guo, WS, Chang, SW, Nguyen, DD, Nguyen, PD, Bui, XT, Zhang, XB & Guo, JB 2018, 'Can algae-based technologies be an affordable green process for biofuel production and wastewater remediation?', Bioresource technology, vol. 256, pp. 491-501.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Algae is a well-known organism that its characteristic is prominent for biofuel production and wastewater remediation. This critical review aims to present the applicability of algae with in-depth discussion regarding three key aspects: (i) characterization of algae for its applications; (ii) the technical approaches and their strengths and drawbacks; and (iii) future perspectives of algae-based technologies. The process optimization and combinations with other chemical and biological processes have generated efficiency, in which bio-oil yield is up to 41.1%. Through life cycle assessment, algae bio-energy achieves high energy return than fossil fuel. Thus, the algae-based technologies can reasonably be considered as green approaches. Although selling price of algae bio-oil is still high (about $2 L-1) compared to fossil fuel's price of $1 L-1, it is expected that the algae bio-oil's price will become acceptable in the next coming decades and potentially dominate 75% of the market.
Vo, T-D-H, Bui, X-T, Nguyen, D-D, Nguyen, V-T, Ngo, H-H, Guo, W, Nguyen, P-D, Nguyen, C-N & Lin, C 2018, 'Wastewater treatment and biomass growth of eight plants for shallow bed wetland roofs.', Bioresource technology, vol. 247, pp. 992-998.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wetland roof (WR) could bring many advantages for tropical cities such as thermal benefits, flood control, green coverage and domestic wastewater treatment. This study investigates wastewater treatment and biomass growth of eight local plants in shallow bed WRs. Results showed that removal rates of WRs were 21-28 kg COD ha-1 day-1, 9-13 kg TN ha-1 day-1 and 0.5-0.9 kg TP ha-1 day-1, respectively. The plants generated more biomass at lower hydraulic loading rate (HLR). Dry biomass growth was 0.4-28.1 g day-1 for average HLR of 247-403 m3 ha-1 day-1. Green leaf area of the plants was ranging as high as 67-99 m2 leaves per m2 of WR. In general, the descent order of Kyllinga brevifoliaRottb (WR8), Cyperus javanicus Houtt (WR5) and Imperata cylindrical (WR4) was suggested as effective vegetations in WR conditions in terms of wastewater treatment, dry biomass growth and green coverage ratio.
Wei, D, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Xu, W, Du, B & Wei, Q 2018, 'Partial nitrification granular sludge reactor as a pretreatment for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox): Achievement, performance and microbial community.', Bioresource technology, vol. 269, pp. 25-31.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Partial nitrification granular sludge was successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor as a pretreatment for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) through shortening settling time. After 250-days operation, the effluent NH4+-N and NO2--N concentrations were average at 277.5 and 280.5 mg/L with nitrite accumulation rate of 87.8%, making it as an ideal influent for Anammox. Simultaneous free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) played major inhibitory roles on the activity of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). The MLSS and SVI30 of partial nitrification reactor were 14.6 g/L and 25.0 mL/g, respectively. Polysaccharide (PS) and protein (PN) amounts in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from granular sludge were about 1.3 and 2.8 times higher than from seed sludge. High-throughput pyrosequencing results indicated that Nitrosomonas affiliated to the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was the predominant group with a proportion of 24.1% in the partial nitrification system.
Wei, D, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Xu, W, Du, B, Khan, MS & Wei, Q 2018, 'Biosorption performance evaluation of heavy metal onto aerobic granular sludge-derived biochar in the presence of effluent organic matter via batch and fluorescence approaches.', Bioresource technology, vol. 249, pp. 410-416.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In present study, the biosorption process of Cu(II) onto aerobic granular sludge-derived biochar was evaluated in the absence and presence of effluent organic matter (EfOM) by using batch and fluorescence approaches. It was found that EfOM gave rise to enhancement of Cu(II) removal efficiency onto biochar, and the sorption data were better fitted with pseudo-second order model and Freundlich equation, in despite of the absence and presence of EfOM. According to excitation-emission matrix (EEM), EfOM was mainly comprised by humic-like substances and fulvic-like substances and their intensities were reduced in the addition of biochar and Cu(II) from batch biosorption process. Synchronous fluorescence spectra coupled to two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) further implied that a successive fluorescence quenching was observed in various EfOM fractions with the increasing Cu(II) concentration. Moreover, fulvic-like fraction was more susceptibility than other fractions for fluorescence quenching of EfOM.
Wu, H, Fan, J, Zhang, J, Ngo, HH & Guo, W 2018, 'Large-scale multi-stage constructed wetlands for secondary effluents treatment in northern China: Carbon dynamics.', Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), vol. 233, pp. 933-942.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Multi-stage constructed wetlands (CWs) have been proved to be a cost-effective alternative in the treatment of various wastewaters for improving the treatment performance as compared with the conventional single-stage CWs. However, few long-term full-scale multi-stage CWs have been performed and evaluated for polishing effluents from domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This study investigated the seasonal and spatial dynamics of carbon and the effects of the key factors (input loading and temperature) in the large-scale seven-stage Wu River CW polishing domestic WWTP effluents in northern China. The results indicated a significant improvement in water quality. Significant seasonal and spatial variations of organics removal were observed in the Wu River CW with a higher COD removal efficiency of 64-66% in summer and fall. Obvious seasonal and spatial variations of CH4 and CO2 emissions were also found with the average CH4 and CO2 emission rates of 3.78-35.54 mg m-2 d-1 and 610.78-8992.71 mg m-2 d-1, respectively, while the higher CH4 and CO2 emission flux was obtained in spring and summer. Seasonal air temperatures and inflow COD loading rates significantly affected organics removal and CH4 emission, but they appeared to have a weak influence on CO2 emission. Overall, this study suggested that large-scale Wu River CW might be a potential source of GHG, but considering the sustainability of the multi-stage CW, the inflow COD loading rate of 1.8-2.0 g m-2 d-1 and temperature of 15-20 °C may be the suitable condition for achieving the higher organics removal efficiency and lower greenhouse gases (GHG) emission in polishing the domestic WWTP effluent. The obtained knowledge of the carbon dynamics in large-scale Wu River CW will be helpful for understanding the carbon cycles, but also can provide useful field experience for the design, operation and management of multi-stage CW treatments.
Yan, T, Ye, Y, Ma, H, Zhang, Y, Guo, W, Du, B, Wei, Q, Wei, D & Ngo, HH 2018, 'A critical review on membrane hybrid system for nutrient recovery from wastewater', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 348, pp. 143-156.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Wastewater has been investigated as a source for nutrient recovery for two reasons: firstly it contains a high concentration of nutrients; and secondly, it exists in large quantities. Recovering nutrient from wastewater can minimize the environmental footprint of wastewater treatment; simultaneously, the recovered nutrient can be added to fertilizer production to ensure food security. The membrane technique integrated with chemical and biological processes as a membrane hybrid system is a promising method to recover nutrient from wastewater since the membrane can enrich nutrient. It can subsequently increase the technical and economic feasibility of the nutrient recovery process. For this reason, this paper comprehensively and critically reviews the current state of the membrane hybrid system for nutrient recovery from wastewater. Membrane hybrid systems consisting of membrane-based hybrid systems and membrane bioreactor (MBR)-based hybrid systems are explained with reference to their general features, such as mechanisms and processes. Furthermore the advantages and challenges of the membrane hybrid systems are compared as well as their economic feasibility. Future research avenues into membrane hybrid systems are suggested and what can the system more accessible.
Yu, Z, Zhang, X, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Wen, H, Deng, L, Li, Y & Guo, J 2018, 'Removal and degradation mechanisms of sulfonamide antibiotics in a new integrated aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor system', Bioresource Technology, vol. 268, pp. 599-607.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd A novel laboratory-scale aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor integrating sponge-plastic biocarriers (SPSMBR) was conducted to study the removal and degradation mechanisms of sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs). Experimental results indicated that SPSMBR had a better removal of sulfadiazine (91% SDZ) and sulfamethoxazole (88% SMZ) than that of a conventional aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (CSMBR) (76% SDZ and 71% SMZ, respectively). Material balance calculations suggested that biodegradation is the primary removal mechanism of SDZ and SMZ. Protein (tyrosine-like materials) significantly affected the removal of SAs. Moreover, the SPSMBR exhibited its better performance in removing SAs due to more abundance of tyrosine-like materials. The 16S rRNA sequencing showed that biocarriers could promote the enrichment of slow growing bacteria, especially Thermomonas, associated with the removal of SAs. Valuable insights into the removal and degradation mechanisms of SAs in the SPSMBR systems are documented here.
Zhang, X, Hu, Z, Ngo, HH, Zhang, J, Guo, W, Liang, S & Xie, H 2018, 'Simultaneous improvement of waste gas purification and nitrogen removal using a novel aerated vertical flow constructed wetland.', Water Research, vol. 130, pp. 79-87.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Insufficient oxygen supply is identified as one of the major factors limiting organic pollutant and nitrogen (N) removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). This study designed a novel aerated vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) using waste gas from biological wastewater treatment systems to improve pollutant removal in CWs, its potential in purifying waste gas was also identified. Compared with unaerated VFCW, the introduction of waste gas significantly improved NH4+-N and TN removal efficiencies by 128.48 ± 3.13% and 59.09 ± 2.26%, respectively. Furthermore, the waste gas ingredients, including H2S, NH3, greenhouse gas (N2O) and microbial aerosols, were remarkably reduced after passing through the VFCW. The removal efficiencies of H2S, NH3 and N2O were 77.78 ± 3.46%, 52.17 ± 2.53%, and 87.40 ± 3.89%, respectively. In addition, the bacterial and fungal aerosols in waste gas were effectively removed with removal efficiencies of 42.72 ± 3.21% and 47.89 ± 2.82%, respectively. Microbial analysis results revealed that the high microbial community abundance in the VFCW, caused by the introduction of waste gas from the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), led to its optimized nitrogen transformation processes. These results suggested that the VFCW intermittently aerated with waste gas may have potential application for purifying wastewater treatment plant effluent and waste gas, simultaneously.
Zhang, X, Hu, Z, Zhang, J, Fan, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Zeng, C, Wu, Y & Wang, S 2018, 'A novel aerated surface flow constructed wetland using exhaust gas from biological wastewater treatment: Performance and mechanisms.', Bioresource technology, vol. 250, pp. 94-101.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, a novel aerated surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) using exhaust gas from biological wastewater treatment was investigated. Compared with un-aerated SFCW, the introduction of exhaust gas into SFCW significantly improved NH4+-N, TN and COD removal efficiencies by 68.30 ± 2.06%, 24.92 ± 1.13% and 73.92 ± 2.36%, respectively. The pollutants removal mechanism was related to the microbial abundance and the highest microbial abundance was observed in the SFCW with exhaust gas because of the introduction of exhaust gas from sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and thereby optimizing nitrogen transformation processes. Moreover, SFCW would significantly mitigate the risk of exhaust gas pollution. SFCW removed 20.00 ± 1.23%, 34.78 ± 1.39%, and 59.50 ± 2.33% of H2S, NH3 and N2O in the exhaust gas, respectively. And 31.32 ± 2.23% and 32.02 ± 2.86% of bacterial and fungal aerosols in exhaust gas were also removed through passing SFCW, respectively.
Zheng, Y, Dzakpasu, M, Wang, X, Zhang, L, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Zhao, Y 2018, 'Molecular characterization of long-term impacts of macrophytes harvest management in constructed wetlands', Bioresource Technology, vol. 268, pp. 514-522.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd There is little understanding of constructed wetlands (CWs) microbial community patterns in response to harvest management. Therefore, long-term impacts of harvesting Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel annually in November on the activity and community structure of microorganisms critical to the treatment efficiency of CW are elucidated. Findings show exponential increases in P. australis density and biomass with continuous harvesting, up to three times over unharvested CW. High-throughput pyrosequencing analysis demonstrates that plants harvesting improves the microbial community diversity and richness significantly, and more particularly, the relative abundance of Flavobacterium, Paenisporosarcina, and Povalibacter, which are extensively associated with CW performance. Consequently, increased plants biomass resulted in enhanced plants nutrients uptake in harvested (56.5 g N/m 2 , 5.5 g P/m 2 ) than unharvested CWs (17.5 g N/m 2 , 1.8 g P/m 2 ), whereas improved rhizosphere microclimates significantly enhanced nutrients removals in harvested CW (TN 109.9 g/m 2 vs 67.4 g/m 2 , TP 18.0 g/m 2 vs 13.0 g/m 2 ).
Liu, X, Ni, S-Q, Guo, W, Wang, Z, Ahmad, HA, Gao, B & Fang, X 2018, 'N2O emission and bacterial community dynamics during realization of the partial nitrification process', RSC ADVANCES, vol. 8, no. 43, pp. 24305-24311.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wu, H, Zhang, J, Guo, W, Liang, S & Fan, J 2018, 'Secondary effluent purification by a large-scale multi-stage surface-flow constructed wetland: A case study in northern China.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 249, pp. 1092-1096.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Assessment of treatment performance in the large-scale constructed wetland (CW) for secondary effluent purification remains limited. The aim of this case study was to therefore to investigate the long-term treatment capacity of organics and ammonium pollutants in a large-scale multi-stage surface-flow (SF) CW fed with secondary effluents from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in northern China. The results for two-and-half-year study period indicated that the water quality parameters including chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium (NH4+-N) met the Chinese Grade III of Environmental Quality Standards. The mass reductions of COD and NH4+-N were 53% (4032 kg ha-1 y-1) and 72% (511 kg ha-1 y-1), respectively. However, there was a significant positive correlation between influent loads and treatment performance. The optimal loading of 2.5 g m-2 d-1 for COD and 0.3 g m-2 d-1 for NH4+-N could be recommended for designing the sustainable large-scale multi-stage SF CW wastewater treatments.
Yang, S, Phan, HV, Bustamante, H, Guo, W, Ngo, HH & Nghiem, LD 2017, 'Effects of shearing on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion with recuperative thickening.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 234, pp. 439-447.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recuperative thickening can intensify anaerobic digestion to produce more biogas and potentially reduce biosolids odour. This study elucidates the effects of sludge shearing during the thickening process on the microbial community structure and its effect on biogas production. Medium shearing resulted in approximately 15% increase in biogas production. By contrast, excessive or high shearing led to a marked decrease in biogas production, possibly due to sludge disintegration and cell lysis. Microbial analysis using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that medium shearing increased the evenness and diversity of the microbial community in the anaerobic digester, which is consistent with the observed improved biogas production. By contrast, microbial diversity decreased under either excessive shearing or high shearing condition. In good agreement with the observed decrease in biogas production, the abundance of Bacteroidales and Syntrophobaterales (which are responsible for hydrolysis and acetogenesis) decreased due to high shearing during recuperative thickening.
Zuthi, MFR, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Nghiem, DL, Hai, FI, Xia, S, Li, J, Li, J & Liu, Y 2017, 'New and practical mathematical model of membrane fouling in an aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 238, pp. 86-94.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study aimed to develop a practical semi-empirical mathematical model of membrane fouling that accounts for cake formation on the membrane and its pore blocking as the major processes of membrane fouling. In the developed model, the concentration of mixed liquor suspended solid is used as a lumped parameter to describe the formation of cake layer including the biofilm. The new model considers the combined effect of aeration and backwash on the foulants' detachment from the membrane. New exponential coefficients are also included in the model to describe the exponential increase of transmembrane pressure that typically occurs after the initial stage of an MBR operation. The model was validated using experimental data obtained from a lab-scale aerobic sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR), and the simulation of the model agreed well with the experimental findings.
Abdolali, A, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Zhou, JL, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Chang, SW, Nguyen, DD & Liu, Y 2017, 'Application of a breakthrough biosorbent for removing heavy metals from synthetic and real wastewaters in a lab-scale continuous fixed-bed column.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 229, pp. 78-87.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A continuous fixed-bed study was carried out utilising a breakthrough biosorbent, specifically multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) for removing cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. The effect of operating conditions, i.e. influent flow rate, metal concentration and bed depth was investigated at pH 5.5±0.1 for a synthetic wastewater sample. Results confirmed that the total amount of metal adsorption declined with increasing influent flow rate and also rose when each metal concentration also increased. The maximum biosorption capacities of 38.25, 63.37, 108.12 and 35.23mg/g for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively, were achieved at 31cm bed height, 10mL/min flow rate and 20mg/L initial concentration. The Thomas model better described the whole dynamic behaviour of the column rather than the Dose Response and Yoon-Nelson models. Finally, desorption studies indicated that metal-loaded biosorbent could be used after three consecutive sorption, desorption and regeneration cycles by applying a semi-simulated real wastewater.
Ahmed, M, Guo, W, Zhou, J, Johir, M & Ngo, H 2017, 'Competitive sorption affinity of sulfonamides and chloramphenicol antibiotics toward functionalized biochar for water and wastewater treatment', Bioresource Technology.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Competitive sorption of sulfamethazine (SMT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfathiazole (STZ) and chloramphenicol (CP) toward functionalized biochar (fBC) was highly pH dependent with maximum sorption at pH ∼4.0-4.25. Equilibrium data were well represented by the Langmuir and Freundlich models in the order STZ > SMX > CP > SMT. Kinetics data were slightly better fitted by the pseudo second-order model than pseudo first-order and intra-particle-diffusion models. Maximum sorptive interactions occurred at pH 4.0-4.25 through H-bonds formations for neutral sulfonamides species and through negative charge assisted H-bond (CAHB) formation for CP, in addition to π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions. EDA was the main mechanism for the sorption of positive sulfonamides species and CP at pH < 2.0. Sorption of negative sulfonamides species and CP at pH > 7.0 was regulated by H-bond formation and proton exchange with water by forming CAHB, respectively. The results suggested fBC to be highly efficient in removing antibiotics mixture.
Ahmed, M, zhou, J, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Johir, M & Kiressan, S 2017, 'Nano-Fe0 Immobilized onto Functionalized Biochar Gaining Excellent Stability during Sorption and Reduction of Chloramphenicol via Transforming to Reusable Magnetic Composite', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 322, pp. 571-581.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The widely used nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI or nFe0) particles and their composite material lose reductive nature during application, and the stability of transformed composite material for repeatable application is not addressed to date. To shed light on this, nZVI was synthesized from scrap material and immobilized on functionalized biochar (fBC) to prepare nZVI-fBC composite. Comparative study between nZVI and nZVI-fBC composite on the removal of chlorinated antibiotic chloramphenicol from different water types was conducted. The results suggested that nZVI was solely responsible for reduction of chloramphenicol. Whereas nZVI-fBC could be applied once, within a few hours, for the reduction of chloramphenico (29–32.5%) and subsequently sorption (67.5–70.5%) by transforming to a fully magnetic composite (nFe3O4-fBC) gaining stability with synergistic sorption performance. In both cases, two reduction by-products were identified namely 2-chloro-N-[1,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-aminophenyl)propan-2-yl]acetamide (m/z 257) and dechlorinated N-[1,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-aminophenyl)propan-2-yl]acetamide (m/z 223). The complete removal of 3.1 µM L−1 of chloramphenicol in different water was faster by nZVI-fBC (∼12–15 h) than by stable nFe3O4-fBC composite (∼18 h). Both nZVI-fBC and nFe3O4-fBC composites removed chloramphenicol in the order: deionized water > lake water > synthetic wastewater. nFe3O4-fBC showed excellent reusability after regeneration, with the regenerated nFe3O4-fBC composite (after 6 cycles of application) showing significant performance for methylene blue removal (∼287 mg g−1). Therefore, the transformed nFe3O4-fBC composite is a promising and reusable sorbent for the efficient removal of organic contaminants.
Ahmed, MB, Johir, MAH, Zhou, JL, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Sornalingam, K 2017, 'Photolytic and Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic UV Filters in Contaminated Water', Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, vol. 6, pp. 85-92.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
UV filters as emerging contaminants are of great concern and their wide detection in aquatic environments indicates their chemical stability and persistence. This review summarized the photolytic and photocatalytic degradation of UV filters in contaminated water. The findings indicated that limited research has been conducted on the photolysis and photocatalysis of UV filters. Photolysis of UV filters through UV irradiation in natural water was a slow process, which was accelerated by the presence of photosensitisers e.g. triplet state of chromaphoric dissolved organic matter (3CDOM*) and nutrients but reduced by salinity, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and divalent cations. UV Photocatalysis of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor and 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid was very effective with 100% removal within 30 min and 90 min using medicated TiO2/H2O2 and TiO2, respectively. The radiation source, type of catalyst and oxygen content were key factors. Future research should focus on improved understanding of photodegradation pathways and by-products of UV filters.
Ahmed, MB, Zhou, JL, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Johir, MAH & Sornalingam, K 2017, 'Single and competitive sorption properties and mechanism of functionalized biochar for removing sulfonamide antibiotics from water', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 311, pp. 348-358.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Single and competitive sorption of ionisable sulphonamides sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole and sulfathiazole on functionalized biochar was highly pH dependent. The equilibrium data were well represented by both Langmuir and Freundlich models for single solutes, and by the Langmuir model for competitive solutes. Sorption capacity and distribution coefficient values decreased as sulfathiazole > sulfamethoxazole > sulfamethazine. The sorption capacity of each antibiotic in competitive mode is about three times lower than in single solute sorption. The kinetics data were best described by the pseudo second-order (PSO) model for single solutes, and by PSO and intra-particle diffusion models for competitive solutes. Adsorption mechanism was governed by pore filling through diffusion process. The findings from pH shift, FTIR spectra and Raman band shift showed that sorption of neutral sulfonamide species occurred mainly due to strong H-bonds followed by π+-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA), and by Lewis acid-base interaction. Moreover, EDA was the main mechanism for the sorption of positive sulfonamides species. The sorption of negative species was mainly regulated by proton exchange with water forming negative charge assisted H-bond (CAHB), followed by the neutralization of –OH groups by H+ released from functionalized biochar surface; in addition π-π electron-acceptor-acceptor (EAA) interaction played an important role.
Ahmed, MB, Zhou, JL, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Thomaidis, NS & Xu, J 2017, 'Progress in the biological and chemical treatment technologies for emerging contaminant removal from wastewater: A critical review.', Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 323, pp. 274-298.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This review focuses on the removal of emerging contaminants (ECs) by biological, chemical and hybrid technologies in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Results showed that endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) were better removed by membrane bioreactor (MBR), activated sludge and aeration processes among different biological processes. Surfactants, EDCs and personal care products (PCPs) can be well removed by activated sludge process. Pesticides and pharmaceuticals showed good removal efficiencies by biological activated carbon. Microalgae treatment processes can remove almost all types of ECs to some extent. Other biological processes were found less effective in ECs removal from wastewater. Chemical oxidation processes such as ozonation/H2O2, UV photolysis/H2O2 and photo-Fenton processes can successfully remove up to 100% of pesticides, beta blockers and pharmaceuticals, while EDCs can be better removed by ozonation and UV photocatalysis. Fenton process was found less effective in the removal of any types of ECs. A hybrid system based on ozonation followed by biological activated carbon was found highly efficient in the removal of pesticides, beta blockers and pharmaceuticals. A hybrid ozonation-ultrasound system can remove up to 100% of many pharmaceuticals. Future research directions to enhance the removal of ECs have been elaborated.
Liu, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Zhou, J, Peng, L, Wang, D, Chen, X, Sun, J & Ni, B-J 2017, 'Optimizing sulfur-driven mixotrophic denitrification process: System performance and nitrous oxide emission', CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, vol. 172, pp. 414-422.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Liu, Y, Zhang, Y, Zhao, Z, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Zhou, J, Peng, L & Ni, B-J 2017, 'A modeling approach to direct interspecies electron transfer process in anaerobic transformation of ethanol to methane.', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 855-863.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recent studies have shown that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) plays an important part in contributing to methane production from anaerobic digestion. However, so far anaerobic digestion models that have been proposed only consider two pathways for methane production, namely, acetoclastic methanogenesis and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, via indirect interspecies hydrogen transfer, which lacks an effective way for incorporating DIET into this paradigm. In this work, a new mathematical model is specifically developed to describe DIET process in anaerobic digestion through introducing extracellular electron transfer as a new pathway for methane production, taking anaerobic transformation of ethanol to methane as an example. The developed model was able to successfully predict experimental data on methane dynamics under different experimental conditions, supporting the validity of the developed model. Modeling predictions clearly demonstrated that DIET plays an important role in contributing to overall methane production (up to 33 %) and conductive material (i.e., carbon cloth) addition would significantly promote DIET through increasing ethanol conversion rate and methane production rate. The model developed in this work will potentially enhance our current understanding on syntrophic metabolism via DIET.
MB Ahmed, JunLiang Zhou, Huu Hao Nog, Wenshan Guo, MAH Johir, K. Sornalingram & MS Rahman 2017, 'Chloramphenicol interaction with functionalized biochar in water: sorptive mechanism, molecular imprinting effect and repeatable application', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 609, pp. 885-895.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Biochar and functionalized biochar (fBC-1 and fBC-2) were prepared and applied to remove antibiotic chloramphenicol
from deionized water, lake water and synthetic wastewater. Results showed that chloramphenicol removal
on biochar was pH dependent and maximum sorption occurred at pH 4.0–4.5. The sorption data of
chloramphenicol fitted better with the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich isotherm model with the
maximum Langmuir sorption capacity of 233 μM g−1 using fBC-2. Chloramphenicol sorption on fBC-2 followed
the trend: deionized water N lake water N synthetic wastewater. The presence of humic acid decreased the
sorption distribution coefficient (Kd) while the presence of low ionic strength and soil in solution increased Kd
value significantly. The mechanism of sorption on fBC mainly involved electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions
at pH b 2.0; formation of charge assisted hydrogen bond (CAHB) and hydrogen bonds in addition to EDA
in the pH 4.0–4.5; and CAHB and EDA interactions at pH N 7.0. Additionally, solvent and thermal regeneration
of fBC-2 for repeatable applications showed excellent sorption of chloramphenicol under the same condition,
due to the creation of a molecular imprinting effect in fBC-2. Consequently, fBC-2 can be applied with excellent
reusability properties to remove chloramphenicol and other similar organic contaminants.
Narottam Saha, M. Safiur Rahman, Ahmed, M, ZHou, Ngo & Guo 2017, 'Industrial metal pollution in water and probabilistic assessment of human health risk', Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 185, pp. 70-78.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Concentration of eight heavy metals in surface and groundwater around Dhaka Export Processing Zone
(DEPZ) industrial area were investigated, and the health risk posed to local children and adult residents
via ingestion and dermal contact was evaluated using deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Metal
concentrations (except Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) in Bangshi River water were above the drinking water quality
guidelines, while in groundwater were less than the recommended limits. Concentration of metals in
surface water decreased as a function of distance. Estimations of non-carcinogenic health risk for surface
water revealed that mean hazard index (HI) values of As, Cr, Cu, and Pb for combined pathways (i.e.,
ingestion and dermal contact) were >1.0 for both age groups. The estimated risk mainly came from the
ingestion pathway. However, the HI values for all the examined metals in groundwater were <1.0,
indicating no possible human health hazard. Deterministically estimated total cancer risk (TCR) via
Bangshi River water exceeded the acceptable limit of 1 104 for adult and children. Although, probabilistically
estimated 95th percentile values of TCR exceeded the benchmark, mean TCR values were less
than 1 104
. Simulated results showed that 20.13% and 5.43% values of TCR for surface water were
>1 104 for adult and children, respectively. Deterministic and probabilistic estimations of cancer risk
through exposure to groundwater were well below the safety limit. Overall, the population exposed to
Bangshi River water remained at carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health threat and the risk was
higher for adults. Sensitivity analysis identified exposure duration (ED) and ingestion rate (IR) of water as
the most relevant variables affecting the probabilistic risk estimation model outcome.
Chen, C, Guo, WS, Ngo, HH, Liu, Y, Du, B, Wei, Q, Wei, D, Nguyen, DD & Chang, SW 2017, 'Evaluation of a sponge assisted-granular anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SG-AnMBR) for municipal wastewater treatment', RENEWABLE ENERGY, vol. 111, pp. 620-627.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Liu, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Sun, J, Wang, D, Peng, L & Ni, B-J 2017, 'Modeling aerobic biotransformation of vinyl chloride by vinyl chloride-assimilating bacteria, methanotrophs and ethenotrophs.', Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 332, pp. 97-103.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recent studies have investigated the potential of enhanced groundwater Vinyl Chloride (VC) remediation in the presence of methane and ethene through the interactions of VC-assimilating bacteria, methanotrophs and ethenotrophs. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to describe aerobic biotransformation of VC in the presence of methane and ethene for the first time. It examines the metabolism of VC by VC-assimilating bacteria as well as cometabolism of VC by both methanotrophs and ethenotrophs, using methane and ethene respectively, under aerobic conditions. The developed model was successfully calibrated and validated using experimental data from microcosms with different experimental conditions. The model satisfactorily describes VC, methane and ethene dynamics in all microcosms tested. Modeling results describe that methanotrophic cometabolism of ethene promotes ethenotrophic VC cometabolism, which significantly enhances aerobic VC degradation in the presence of methane and ethene. This model is expected to be a useful tool to support effective and efficient processes for groundwater VC remediation.
Ye, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liu, Y, Li, J, Liu, Y, Zhang, X & Jia, H 2017, 'Insight into chemical phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater.', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 576, pp. 159-171.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Phosphate plays an irreplaceable role in the production of fertilizers. However, its finite availability may not be enough to satisfy increasing demands for the fertilizer production worldwide. In this scenario, phosphate recovery can effectively alleviate this problem. Municipal wastewater has received high priority to recover phosphate because its quantity is considerable. Therefore, phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater can bring many benefits such as relieving the burden of increasing production of fertilizers and reduction in occurrence of eutrophication caused by the excessive concentration of phosphate in the released effluent. The chemical processes are the most widely applied in phosphate recovery in municipal wastewater treatment because they are highly stable and efficient, and simple to operate. This paper compares chemical technologies for phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater. As phosphate in the influent is transferred to the liquid and sludge phases, a technical overview of chemical phosphate recovery in both phases is presented with reference to mechanism, efficiency and the main governing parameters. Moreover, an analysis on their applications at plant-scale is also presented. The properties of recovered phosphate and its impact on crops and plants are also assessed with a discussion on the economic feasibility of the technologies.
Chen, C, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Chang, SW, Duc Nguyen, D, Dan Nguyen, P, Bui, XT & Wu, Y 2017, 'Impact of reactor configurations on the performance of a granular anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment', International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, vol. 121, pp. 131-138.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd This study compared overall performance of an external granular anaerobic membrane bioreactor and a submerged granular anaerobic membrane bioreactor (EG-AnMBR and SG-AnMBR, respectively), to determine which type of G-AnMBRs is more preferred for munici pal wastewater treatment. Both systems presented similar COD removal efficiencies (over 91%) and methane yield of 160 mL CH 4 (STP) (g COD removed ) −1 although volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation was found in the SG-AnMBR. Membrane direct incorporation into the SG-AnMBR significantly affected the concentration and properties of microbial products (e.g. soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)) in the cake layer, mixed liquor and granular sludge, as well as granular sludge size and settleability. The EG-AnMBR demonstrated less SMP and EPS in the mixed liquor and cake layer, which might reduce the cake layer resistance and lower the fouling rate. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis of foulant revealed that biopolymers along with low molecular weight neutrals and acids and building blocks were responsible for higher fouling propensity in the SG-AnMBR. It is evident that compared to the SG-AnMBR, the EG-AnMBR serves as a better G-AnMBR configuration for municipal wastewater treatment due to less fouling propensity and superior granule quality.
Gong, W, Luo, L, Li, W, Luo, X, Liang, H, Ngo, HH & Guo, W 2017, 'Using Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) as a pretreatment option for anaerobic digestate from cattle manure digestion system', Water, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 by the authors. Anaerobic digestate from cattle manure fermentation may pose a threat to the environment. How to stabilize the digestate's characteristics so that they do not disturb the bio-system is a critical issue for digestate management. Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) was investigated as a pretreatment option for digestate treatment. The performance of CEPT for digestate management was carried out under rapid mixing (200 r/min) and slow stirring (40 r/min), respectively. The optimal dosage of ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) was 40 mg/L. The combination of FeCl 3 and anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) had no obvious influence on TP removal, while COD removal efficiency was improved by 15.4%. The digestate pH and temperature remained stable for CEPT application and required no adjustment. The results indicate that CEPT was effective and feasible in enhancing the removal of COD and TP for digestate pretreatment by using FeCl 3 and APAM.
Guadie, A, Tizazu, S, Melese, M, Guo, W, Ngo, HH & Xia, S 2017, 'Biodecolorization of textile azo dye using Bacillus sp. strain CH12 isolated from alkaline lake', Biotechnology Reports, vol. 15, pp. 92-100.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 The Authors Textile azo dye decolorizing bacteria were isolated from alkaline Lakes Abaya and Chamo using Reactive Red 239 (RR239) dye. Through subsequent screening process, strain CH12 was selected to investigate the effects of nutrient supplement, DO, pH, temperature, dye concentration and types on decolorization. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CH12 was identified as Bacillus sp. Decolorization efficiencies were significantly enhanced with carbon (≥98%) and organic nitrogen (∼100%) supplements. Complete decolorization was also observed under anoxic and anaerobic conditions, and at the temperature of 30 °C and the pH of 10. However, the azo dye decolorization efficiency of strain CH12 was significantly reduced when NaNO 3 (1–8%) was supplemented or under aerobic culturing condition (≤6%), indicating that RR239 was less preferred electron acceptor. Overall, strain CH12 can be a promising candidate for decolorization applications due to its potential to effectively decolorize higher RR239 concentrations (50−250 mg/L) and six additional dyes.
Jia, H, Yang, G, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Zhang, H, Gao, F & Wang, J 2017, 'Enhancing simultaneous response and amplification of biosensor in microbial fuel cell-based upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor supplemented with zero-valent iron', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 327, pp. 1117-1127.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. The development of a convenient and sensitive sensor such as a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to monitor the operation of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) is indispensable. However, the biosensor's properties were affected due to excessive acidification and suffocation of the electron transport. In this study, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was applied to restrain excessive acidification and improve the sensing performance. According to the results, the response rate of electrical signal accumulated with the addition of ZVI compared to the control reactor. As well as the electrical signal amplified and the subsidence rate maximum reached 0.059 V/h with 30 mg/L ZVI added that 883% higher than the control one during the stage (COD concentration 500 mg/L–1000 mg/L). With the electrochemical analysis, the internal resistance of ZVI-UASB-MFC decreased and redox activity promoted effectively with ZVI added. During the overloading phase, the fractional content of butyric acid changed from 53% to 31%, while that of acetic acid rose from 18% to 39% after 30 mg/L ZVI addition. These results indicated that adding ZVI to the digestion could retard excessive acidification by promoting butyric acid conversion and accumulating direct interspecies electron transfer simultaneous for enhancing the biosensor's performance. According to the Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ of effluent were 2.25 mg/L and 0.39 mg/L with 50 mg/L ZVI addition, moderate amount of ZVI was effective for system and safety to the environment. It might helpfully provide a promising way to enhance biosensing.
Kang, Y, Zhang, J, Xie, H, Guo, Z, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Liang, S 2017, 'Enhanced nutrient removal and mechanisms study in benthic fauna added surface-flow constructed wetlands: The role of Tubifex tubifex.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 224, pp. 157-165.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study designed a combined benthic fauna-T. orientalis-substrate-microbes surface-flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) through the addition of T. tubifex. Results showed that, the removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus in the tested SFCWs achieved 81.14±4.16% and 70.49±7.60%, which were 22.27% and 27.35% higher than that without T. tubifex. Lower nitrate (2.11±0.79mg/L) and ammonium (0.75±0.64mg/L) were also observed in the tested SFCWs, which were 3.46mg/L and 0.52mg/L lower than that without T. tubifex. Microbial study confirmed the increased denitrifiers with T. tubifex. The lower nitrogen in effluent was also attributed to higher contents of nitrogen storage in sediment and T. orientalis due to the bioturbation of T. tubifex. Furthermore, with T. tubifex, higher proportions of particulate (22.66±3.96%) and colloidal phosphorus (20.57±3.39%) observed promoted phosphorus settlement and further absorption by T. orientalis. The outcomes of this study provides an ecological and economical strategy for improving the performance of SFCWs.
Li, J, Jiang, B, Liu, Y, Qiu, C, Hu, J, Qian, G, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2017, 'Preparation and adsorption properties of magnetic chitosan composite adsorbent for Cu2+ removal', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 158, pp. 51-58.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Water pollution caused by Cu2+ ions poses a significant threat to the ecosystem and human health, hence the development of highly cost-effective, highly operation-convenient and highly efficient natural polymer-based adsorbents is urgently needed. To overcome this serious problem, a novel cost-effective magnetic chitosan composite adsorbent (CsFeAC) was prepared with magnetic macroparticles and highly porous activated carbon carrier using the sol-gel method. Several methods, namely SEM, BET, FTIR, XRD, TGA and VSM, were applied to characterize the adsorbent. Batch tests were conducted to investigate Cu2+ adsorption properties of CsFeAC at different pH values, contact time, initial Cu2+ concentrations and temperatures. The adsorption fits better to the Langmuir isotherm and follows the pseudo-second-order model, suggesting that it is a monolayer adsorption and the rate-limiting step is the chemical chelating reaction. The saturated adsorption capacity is found to be 216.6 mg/g. Thermodynamics analysis suggests that the adsorption process is endothermic, with increasing entropy and spontaneous in nature. BET and XRD tests confirm that the higher specific surface area and lower crystallinity of CsFeAC significantly improve the absorption capacity and rate. FTIR spectra reveal that the amino and hydroxyl groups play an important role in the chelating adsorption. The supermagnetic property of CsFeAC facilitates its easy separation characteristic. Further recycling experiments show that CsFeAC still retains 95% of the original adsorption following the 5th adsorption-desorption cycle. All these results demonstrate that CsFeAC is a promising recyclable adsorbent for removing Cu2+.
Li, M, Wu, H, Zhang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Kong, Q 2017, 'Nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide emission in surface flow constructed wetlands for treating sewage treatment plant effluent: Effect of C/N ratios.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 240, pp. 157-164.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In order to design treatment wetlands with maximal nitrogen removal and minimal nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, the effect of influent C/N ratios on nitrogen removal and N2O emission in surface flow constructed wetlands (SF CWs) for sewage treatment plant effluent treatment was investigated in this study. The results showed that nitrogen removal and N2O emission in CWs were significantly affected by C/N ratio of influent. Much higher removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N (98%) and TN (90%) was obtained simultaneously in SF CWs at C/N ratios of 12:1, and low N2O emission (8.2mg/m(2)/d) and the percentage of N2O-N emission in TN removal (1.44%) were also observed. These results obtained in this study would be utilized to determine how N2O fluxes respond to variations in C/N ratios and to improve the sustainability of CWs for wastewater treatment.
Li, X, Mo, Y, Li, J, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2017, 'In-situ monitoring techniques for membrane fouling and local filtration characteristics in hollow fiber membrane processes: A critical review', Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 528, pp. 187-200.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Membrane fouling is the most serious challenge in the hollow fiber microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) processes. A number of in-situ monitoring techniques including optical and non-optical probes have been developed so that membrane fouling is better understood and controlled. This will help advance the membrane technology. In addition, the local filtration hydrodynamics wield a great influence on the membrane fouling formation and system operation stability. State-of-the-art in-situ monitoring techniques for membrane fouling and local filtration characteristics in hollow fiber MF/UF processes are critically reviewed. The principles and applications of these techniques are addressed in order to assess their strengths. This study demonstrated that the real-time observation techniques mainly focus on idealized laboratory apparatus and little on commercial membrane modules. Consequently, more attention should be paid to the development of simple and effective methods or integrated detecting technology so as to satisfy the real status of hollow fiber filtration processes and the optimization of membrane module. On the basis of this review, future analyses considering practical requirements are suggested as R&D priorities.
Luo, L, Duan, N, Wang, XC, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2017, 'New thermodynamic entropy calculation based approach towards quantifying the impact of eutrophication on water environment', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 603-604, pp. 86-93.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Although the eutrophication phenomenon has been studied for a long time, there are still no quantifiable parameters available for a comprehensive assessment of its impacts on the water environment. As contamination alters the thermodynamic equilibrium of a water system to a state of imbalance, a novel method was proposed, in this study, for its quantitative evaluation. Based on thermodynamic analyses of the algal growth process, the proposed method targeted, both theoretically and experimentally, the typical algae species encountered in the water environment. By calculating the molar enthalpy of algae biomass production, the heat energy dissipated in the photosynthetic process was firstly evaluated. The associated entropy production (ΔS) in the aquatic system could be then obtained. For six algae strains of distinct molecular formulae, the heat energy consumed for the production of a unit algal biomass was found to proportionate to the mass of nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) uptake through photosynthesis. A proportionality relationship between ΔS and the algal biomass with a coefficient circa 44 kJ/g was obtained. By the principle of energy conservation, the heat energy consumed in the process of algae biomass production is stored in the algal biomass. Furthermore, by measuring the heat of combustion of mature algae of Microcystis flos-aquae, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Chlorella vulgaris, the proportionality relationships between the heat energy and the N and P contents were validated experimentally at 90% and 85% confidence levels, respectively. As the discharge of excess N and P from domestic wastewater treatment plants is usually the main cause of eutrophication, the proposed impact assessment approach estimates that for a receiving water body, the ΔS due to a unit mass of N and P discharge is 268.9 kJ/K and 1870.1 kJ/K, respectively. Consequently, P discharge control would be more important for environmental water protection.
Manjunath, SV, Kumar, SM, Ngo, HH & Guo, W 2017, 'Metronidazole removal in powder-activated carbon and concrete-containing graphene adsorption systems: Estimation of kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic parameters and optimization of adsorption by a central composite design.', Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, vol. 52, no. 14, pp. 1269-1283.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Metronidazole (MNZ) removal by two adsorbents, i.e., concrete-containing graphene (CG) and powder-activated carbon (PAC), was investigated via batch-mode experiments and the outcomes were used to analyze the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of MNZ adsorption. MNZ sorption on CG and PAC has followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the thermodynamic parameters revealed that MNZ adsorption was spontaneous on PAC and non-spontaneous on CG. Subsequently, two-parameter isotherm models, i.e., Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Elovich models, were applied to evaluate the MNZ adsorption capacity. The maximum MNZ adsorption capacities ([Formula: see text]) of PAC and CG were found to be between 25.5-32.8 mg/g and 0.41-0.002 mg/g, respectively. Subsequently, the effects of pH, temperature and adsorbent dosage on MNZ adsorption were evaluated by a central composite design (CCD) approach. The CCD experiments have pointed out the complete removal of MNZ at a much lower PAC dosage by increasing the system temperature (i.e., from 20°C to 40°C). On the other hand, a desorption experiment has shown 3.5% and 1.7% MNZ removal from the surface of PAC and CG, respectively, which was insignificant compared to the sorbed MNZ on the surface by adsorption. The overall findings indicate that PAC and CG with higher graphene content could be useful in MNZ removal from aqueous systems.
Nguyen, DD, Yeop, JS, Choi, J, Kim, S, Chang, SW, Jeon, B-H, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2017, 'A new approach for concurrently improving performance of South Korean food waste valorization and renewable energy recovery via dry anaerobic digestion under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.', Waste Management, vol. 66, pp. 161-168.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Dry semicontinuous anaerobic digestion (AD) of South Korean food waste (FW) under four solid loading rates (SLRs) (2.30-9.21kg total solids (TS)/m(3)day) and at a fixed TS content was compared between two digesters, one each under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Biogas production and organic matter reduction in both digesters followed similar trends, increasing with rising SLR. Inhibitor (intermediate products of the anaerobic fermentation process) effects on the digesters' performance were not observed under the studied conditions. In all cases tested, the digesters' best performance was achieved at the SLR of 9.21kg TS/m(3)day, with 74.02% and 80.98% reduction of volatile solids (VS), 0.87 and 0.90m(3) biogas/kg VSremoved, and 0.65 (65% CH4) and 0.73 (60.02% CH4) m(3) biogas/kg VSfed, under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Thermophilic dry AD is recommended for FW treatment in South Korea because it is more efficient and has higher energy recovery potential when compared to mesophilic dry AD.
Nguyen, DD, Yoon, YS, Bui, XT, Kim, SS, Chang, SW, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2017, 'Influences of operational parameters on phosphorus removal in batch and continuous electrocoagulation process performance', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 24, no. 32, pp. 25441-25451.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany. Performance of an electrocoagulation (EC) process in batch and continuous operating modes was thoroughly investigated and evaluated for enhancing wastewater phosphorus removal under various operating conditions, individually or combined with initial phosphorus concentration, wastewater conductivity, current density, and electrolysis times. The results revealed excellent phosphorus removal (72.7–100%) for both processes within 3–6 min of electrolysis, with relatively low energy requirements, i.e., less than 0.5 kWh/m 3 for treated wastewater. However, the removal efficiency of phosphorus in the continuous EC operation mode was better than that in batch mode within the scope of the study. Additionally, the rate and efficiency of phosphorus removal strongly depended on operational parameters, including wastewater conductivity, initial phosphorus concentration, current density, and electrolysis time. Based on experimental data, statistical model verification of the response surface methodology (RSM) (multiple factor optimization) was also established to provide further insights and accurately describe the interactive relationship between the process variables, thus optimizing the EC process performance. The EC process using iron electrodes is promising for improving wastewater phosphorus removal efficiency, and RSM can be a sustainable tool for predicting the performance of the EC process and explaining the influence of the process variables.
Nguyen, DD, Yoon, YS, Nguyen, ND, Bach, QV, Bui, XT, Chang, SW, Le, HS, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2017, 'Enhanced efficiency for better wastewater sludge hydrolysis conversion through ultrasonic hydrolytic pretreatment', Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 71, pp. 244-252.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers.The major requirements for accelerating the process of anaerobic digestion and energy production are breaking the structure of waste activated sludge (WAS), and transforming it into a soluble form suitable for biodegradation. This work investigated and analysed a novel bench-scale ultrasonic system for WAS disruption and hydrolysis using ultrasonic homogenization. Different commercial sonoreactors were used at low frequencies under a variety of operating conditions (intensity, density, power, sonication time, and total suspended solids) to evaluate the effects of the equipment on sludge hydrolysis and to generate new insights into the empirical models and mechanisms applicable to the real-world processing of wastewater sludge. A relationship was established between the operating parameters and the experimental data. Results indicated an increase in sonication time or ultrasonic intensity correlated with improved sludge hydrolysis rates, sludge temperature, and reduction rate of volatile solids (33.51%). It also emerged that ultrasonication could effectively accelerate WAS hydrolysis to achieve disintegration within 5-10 min, depending on the ultrasonic intensity. This study also determined multiple alternative parameters to increase the efficiency of sludge treatment and organic matter reduction, and establish the practicality of applying ultrasonics to wastewater sludge pretreatment.
Nguyen, TT, Bui, XT, Luu, VP, Nguyen, PD, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2017, 'Removal of antibiotics in sponge membrane bioreactors treating hospital wastewater: Comparison between hollow fiber and flat sheet membrane systems', Bioresource Technology, vol. 240, pp. 42-49.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd.Hollow fiber (HF) and flat sheet (FS) Sponge MBRs were operated at 10-20 LMH flux treating hospital wastewater. Simultaneous nitrification denitrification (SND) occurred considerably with TN removal rate of 0.011-0.020mg TN mgVSS-1 d-1. Furthermore, there was a remarkable removal of antibiotics in both Sponge MBRs, namely Norfloxacin (93-99% (FS); 62-86% (HF)), Ofloxacin (73-93% (FS); 68-93% (HF)), Ciprofloxacin (76-93% (FS); 54-70% (HF)), Tetracycline (approximately 100% for both FS and HF) and Trimethoprim (60-97% (FS); 47-93% (HF). Whereas there was a quite high removal efficiency of Erythromycin in Sponge MBRs, with 67-78% (FS) and 22-48% (HF). Moreover, a slightly higher removal of antibiotics in FS than in HF achieved, with the removal rate being of 0.67-32.40 and 0.44-30.42μgmgVSS-1 d-1, respectively. In addition, a significant reduction of membrane fouling of 2-50 times was achieved in HF-Sponge MBR for the flux range.
Phan, TN, Van Truong, TT, Ha, NB, Nguyen, PD, Bui, XT, Dang, BT, Doan, VT, Park, J, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2017, 'High rate nitrogen removal by ANAMMOX internal circulation reactor (IC) for old landfill leachate treatment', Bioresource Technology, vol. 234, pp. 281-288.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a high rate nitrogen removal lab-scale ANAMMOX reactor, namely Internal Circulation (IC) reactor, for old landfill leachate treatment. The reactor was operated with pre-treated leachate from a pilot Partial Nitritation Reactor (PNR) using a high nitrogen loading rate ranging from 2 to 10 kg N m−3 d−1. High rate removal of nitrogen (9.52 ± 1.11 kg N m−3 d−1) was observed at an influent nitrogen concentration of 1500 mg N L−1. The specific ANAMMOX activity was found to be 0.598 ± 0.026 gN2-N gVSS−1 d−1. Analysis of ANAMMOX granules suggested that 0.5–1.0 mm size granular sludge was the dominant group. The results of DNA analysis revealed that Candidatus Kueneniastuttgartiensis was the dominant species (37.45%) in the IC reactor, whereas other species like uncultured Bacteroidetes bacterium only constituted 5.37% in the system, but they were still responsible for removing recalcitrant organic matter.
Tran, VS, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Ton-That, C, Li, J, Li, J & Liu, Y 2017, 'Removal of antibiotics (sulfamethazine, tetracycline and chloramphenicol) from aqueous solution by raw and nitrogen plasma modified steel shavings.', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 601-602, pp. 845-856.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The removal of sulfamethazine (SMT), tetracycline (TC) and chloramphenicol (CP) from synthetic wastewater by raw (M3) and nitrogen plasma modified steel shavings (M3-plN2) was investigated using batch experiments. The adsorption kinetics could be expressed by both pseudo-first-order kinetic (PFO) and pseudo-second-order kinetic (PSO) models, where correlation coefficient r(2) values were high. The values of PFO rate constant k1p and PSO rate constant k2p decreased as SMT-M3>SMT-M3-plN2>TC-M3-plN2>TC-M3>CP-M3>CP-M3-plN2 and SMT-M3>SMT-M3-plN2>TC-M3>TC-M3-plN2>CP-M3>CP-M3-plN2, respectively. Solution pH, adsorbent dose and temperature exerted great influences on the adsorption process. The plasma modification with nitrogen gas cleaned and enhanced 1.7-fold the surface area and 1.4-fold the pore volume of steel shavings. Consequently, the removal capacity of SMT, TC, CP on the adsorbent rose from 2519.98 to 2702.55, 1720.20 to 2158.36, and 2772.81 to 2920.11μg/g, respectively. Typical chemical states of iron (XPS in Fe2p3 region) in the adsorbents which are mainly responsible for removing antibiotics through hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and non- electrostatic interactions and redox reaction were as follows: Fe3O4/Fe(2+), Fe3O4/Fe(3+), FeO/Fe(2+) and Fe2O3/Fe(3+).
Wei, D, Zhang, K, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Wang, S, Li, J, Han, F, Du, B & Wei, Q 2017, 'Nitrogen removal via nitrite in a partial nitrification sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating high strength ammonia wastewater and its greenhouse gas emission.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 230, pp. 49-55.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In present study, the feasibility of partial nitrification (PN) process achievement and its greenhouse gas emission were evaluated in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR). After 90days' operation, the average effluent NH4(+)-N removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation rate of PN-SBBR were high of 98.2% and 87.6%, respectively. Both polysaccharide and protein contents were reduced in loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) during the achievement of PN-biofilm. Excitation-emission matrix spectra implied that aromatic protein-like, tryptophan protein-like and humic acid-like substances were the main compositions of both kinds of EPS in seed sludge and PN-biofilm. According to typical cycle, the emission rate of CO2 had a much higher value than that of N2O, and their total amounts per cycle were 67.7 and 16.5mg, respectively. Free ammonia (FA) played a significant role on the inhibition activity of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and the occurrence of nitrite accumulation.
Wu, H, Zhang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Liang, S 2017, 'Evaluating the sustainability of free water surface flow constructed wetlands: Methane and nitrous oxide emissions', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 147, pp. 152-156.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as a green technology to treat various wastewaters for several decades, and greenhouse gases production in these systems attracted increasing attention considering the contributions of methane and nitrous oxide emissions to global warming. However, the detailed knowledge about the contribution of CWs to methane and nitrous oxide emissions in treating sewage treatment plant effluent are still limited in particular for a better understanding of the sustainability of CWs. The fluxes of methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from free water surface (FWS) CWs in northern China were measured continuously using the static-stationary chamber technique from 2012 to 2013. The results showed that CWs were the significant source of CH 4 and N 2 O emissions. Average emission rates of CH 4 and N 2 O ranged from −30.2 μg m −2 h −1 to 450.9 μg m −2 h −1 , and -58.8 μg m −2 h −1 to 1251.8 μg m −2 h −1 , respectively. Obvious annual and seasonal variations of CH 4 and N 2 O emissions were observed over the 2-year period. In addition, temperatures and plant species had an impact on CH 4 and N 2 O emissions. The obtained results showed that FWS CWs, improving water quality but emitting lower CH 4 and N 2 O, could be the alternative method for sewage treatment plant effluent.
Wu, Y, Yang, Q, Zeng, Q, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Zhang, H 2017, 'Enhanced low C/N nitrogen removal in an innovative microbial fuel cell (MFC) with electroconductivity aerated membrane (EAM) as biocathode', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 316, pp. 315-322.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Elsevier B.V. A novel microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed to enhance simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) by employing electrons from the anode. The cathode chamber of the reactor consisted of a membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) which was made of an electroconductivity aerated membrane. The maximum power density of 4.20 ± 0.12 W m −3 was obtained at a current density of 4.10 ± 0.11 A m −2 (external resistance = 10 Ω). Compared with an open-circuit system, the removal rates of NH 4 + -N and TN were improved by 9.48 ± 0.33% and 19.80 ± 0.84%, respectively, which could be ascribed to the electrochemical denitrification. The anode (chemical oxygen demand, COD) and cathode (NO 3 − ) chambers reached the maximum coulombic efficiencies (CEs) of 40.67 ± 1.05% and 42.84 ± 1.14%, respectively. It suggested that the electroconductivity MABR has some advantages in controlling aeration intensity, thus improving SND and CEs. Overall, EAM-MFC could successfully generate electricity from wastewater whilst showing high capacity for removing nitrogen at a low COD/N ratio of 2.8 ± 0.07 g COD g −1 N.
Zhang, C, Guo, J, Lian, J, Lu, C, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Song, Y & Guo, Y 2017, 'Characteristics of electron transport chain and affecting factors for thiosulfate-driven perchlorate reduction.', Chemosphere, vol. 185, pp. 539-547.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The mechanism for perchlorate reduction was investigated using thiosulfate-driven (T-driven) perchlorate reduction bacteria. The influences of various environmental conditions on perchlorate reduction, including pH, temperature and electron acceptors were examined. The maximum perchlorate removal rate was observed at pH 7.5 and 40 °C. Perchlorate reduction was delayed due to the coexistence of perchlorate-chlorate and perchlorate-nitrate. The mechanism of the T-driven perchlorate reduction electron transport chain (ETC) was also investigated by utilizing different inhibitors. The results were as follows: firstly, the NADH dehydrogenase was not involved in the ETC; secondly, the FAD dehydrogenase and quinone loop participated in the ETC; and thirdly, cytochrome oxidase was the main pathway in the ETC. Meanwhile, microbial consortium structure analysis indicated that Sulfurovum which can oxidize sulfur compounds coupled to the reduction of nitrate or perchlorate was the primary bacterium in the T-driven and sulfur-driven consortium. This study generates a better understanding of the mechanism of T-driven perchlorate reduction.
Zhang, J, Sun, H, Wang, W, Hu, Z, Yin, X, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Fan, J 2017, 'Enhancement of surface flow constructed wetlands performance at low temperature through seasonal plant collocation.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 224, pp. 222-228.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In the present study, a novel seasonal plant collocation system (SPCS), specifically the Potamogeton crispus and Phragmites australis series system, was investigated to enhance the performance of surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) at low temperature. Results of a year-round experiment showed that SPCS conquered the adverse effect of low temperature and achieved sustainable nutrients removal. In addition, during winter, removal efficiencies of NH4-N, TP, COD, and TN in SPCS were 18.1%, 17.6%, 10.1% and 5.2% higher than that in the control, respectively. P. crispus and P. australis complemented each other in terms of plant growth and plant uptake during the experiment period. Furthermore, it emerged that P. crispus could increase the quantity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria by 10.2%, due to its high oxygen enrichment ability. It is suggested that seasonal plant collocation has a promising future in SFCWs of areas being affected by climate change, e.g. northern China.
Zhang, X, Song, Z, Guo, W, Lu, Y, Qi, L, Wen, H & Ngo, HH 2017, 'Behavior of nitrogen removal in an aerobic sponge based moving bed biofilm reactor', Bioresource Technology, vol. 245, no. PART A, pp. 1282-1285.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd This study aims to investigate the behavior of nitrogen removal in an aerobic sponge based moving bed biofilm reactor by evaluating nitrification and denitrification rates of sponge biocarriers from three aerobic moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) with filling ratios of 10% (R-10), 20% (R-20) and 30% (R-30). Results showed that the highest removal efficiencies of total nitrogen in three reactors were 84.5% (R-10), 93.6% (R-20) and 95.3% (R-30). Correspondingly, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification rate (SND) was 90.9%, 97.6% and 100%, respectively. Although R-20 had the highest attached-growth biomass (AGB) per gram of sponge compared to the other two reactors, R-30 showed the maximum ammonium oxidation rate (AOR) (2.1826 ± 0.0717 mg NH 4 + -N/g AGB/h) and denitrification rate (DNR) (5.0852 ± 0.0891 mg NO 3 − -N/g AGB/h), followed by R-20 and R-10. These results indicated AOR, DNR and AGB were affected by the filling ratio under the same operation mode.
Guo, W, Ai, Y, Men, B & Wang, S 2017, 'Adsorption of phenanthrene and pyrene by biochar produced from the excess sludge: experimental studies and theoretical analysis', International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1889-1896.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017, Islamic Azad University (IAU). A biochar derived from the pyrolysis of excess sludge of sewage treatment plant at 700 °C was used to remove phenanthrene and pyrene from aqueous solution. The adsorption equilibrium for phenanthrene and pyrene was achieved within 7.5 and 15 h, respectively. The adsorption kinetics of phenanthrene and pyrene were well fitted to pseudo-second-order model, and the isotherms were well fitted to Freundlich adsorption isotherm model (R2 > 0.96). The effect of variation of pH on the adsorption of the biochar was observed to be insignificant. The hydrophobic action and pore filling might be the main mechanisms of the adsorption of phenanthrene and pyrene on the biochar. The density functional theory calculations confirmed that the adsorption depended mainly on the biochar structure and the molecular volumes of phenanthrene and pyrene. Phenanthrene molecule is smaller than the pyrene molecule and therefore showed better adsorption characteristics with the biochar than the pyrene molecule.
Ansari, AJ, Hai, FI, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Price, WE & Nghiem, LD 2016, 'Factors governing the pre-concentration of wastewater using forward osmosis for subsequent resource recovery', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 566, pp. 559-566.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Khan, MA, Ngo, HH, Guo, WS, Liu, Y, Nghiem, LD, Hai, FI, Deng, LJ, Wang, J & Wu, Y 2016, 'Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 219, pp. 738-748.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Luo, W, Hai, FI, Price, WE, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Yamamoto, K & Nghiem, LD 2016, 'Phosphorus and water recovery by a novel osmotic membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis system', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 200, pp. 297-304.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Luo, W, Phan, HV, Hai, FI, Price, WE, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Yamamoto, K & Nghiem, LD 2016, 'Effects of salinity build-up on the performance and bacterial community structure of a membrane bioreactor', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 200, pp. 305-310.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Song, X, McDonald, J, Price, WE, Khan, SJ, Hai, FI, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Nghiem, LD 2016, 'Effects of salinity build-up on the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor regarding basic water quality parameters and removal of trace organic contaminants', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 216, pp. 399-405.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Xie, S, Hai, FI, Zhan, X, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Price, WE & Nghiem, LD 2016, 'Anaerobic co-digestion: A critical review of mathematical modelling for performance optimization', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 222, pp. 498-512.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Biochars (BCs) are widely produced and used for the remediation of environmental contaminants as bio-sorbents. In this review, statistical analysis of different BC physico–chemical properties was conducted. It was observed that woody materials are the most suitable for preparing BCs, among many other potential raw materials such as food wastes and agricultural materials. Currently BCs are produced through a variety of thermal treatment processes between 300 and 900 °C, among which slow pyrolysis is widely used due to its moderate operating conditions and optimization of BC yields. Hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) is also an effective approach for BC production under certain conditions. As pyrolysis temperature is increased, the carbon content, ash content, surface area, and pore volume tend to be increased while the yield, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen content, and H/C and O/C molar ratios tend to decrease. The economic feasibility of BCs depends on a range of factors from raw material price to efficient production technologies. Thus, the overall cost equation of a pilot BC production plant together with the cost equation for BC regeneration has been proposed. The future research directions of BCs are also elaborated
Ahmed, MB, Zhou, JL, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Chen, M 2016, 'Progress in the preparation and application of modified biochar for improved contaminant removal from water and wastewater', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 214, pp. 836-851.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Khan, MA, Ngo, HH, Guo, WS, Liu, YW, Zhou, JL, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Ni, BJ, Zhang, XB & Wang, J 2016, 'Comparing the value of bioproducts from different stages of anaerobic membrane bioreactors', Bioresource Technology, vol. 214, pp. 816-825.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Abstract The anaerobic digestion process in anaerobic membrane bioreactors is an effective way for waste management, energy sustainability and pollution control in the environment. This digestion process basically involves the production of volatile fatty acids and biohydrogen as intermediate products and methane as a final product. This paper compares the value of bioproducts from different stages of anaerobic membrane bioreactors through a thorough assessment. The value was assessed in terms of technical feasibility, economic assessment, environmental impact and impact on society. Even though the current research objective is more inclined to optimize the production of methane, the intermediate products could also be considered as economically attractive and environment friendly options. Hence, this is the first review study to correlate the idea into an anaerobic membrane bioreactor which is expected to guide future research pathways regarding anaerobic process and its bioproducts.
Liu, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Peng, L, Pan, Y, Guo, J, Chen, X & Ni, B-J 2016, 'Autotrophic nitrogen removal in membrane-aerated biofilms: Archaeal ammonia oxidation versus bacterial ammonia oxidation', CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, vol. 302, pp. 535-544.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Liu, Y, Peng, L, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Wang, D, Pan, Y, Sun, J & Ni, B-J 2016, 'Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide Emission from Sulfide- and Sulfur-Based Autotrophic Denitrification Processes', ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 50, no. 17, pp. 9407-9415.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ye, Y, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Liu, Y, Zhang, X, Guo, J, Ni, B-J, Chang, SW & Dinh, DN 2016, 'Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 218, pp. 874-881.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Abdolali, A, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Lu, S, Chen, S-S, Nguyen, CN, Zhang, X, Wang, J & Wu, Y 2016, 'A breakthrough biosorbent in removing heavy metals: Equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic and mechanism analyses in a lab-scale study', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 542, pp. 603-611.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bui, XT, Vo, TPT, Ngo, HH, Guo, WS & Nguyen, TT 2016, 'Multicriteria assessment of advanced treatment technologies for micropollutants removal at large-scale applications', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 563-564, pp. 1050-1067.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Elsevier B.V. With the introduction and discharge of thousands of new micropollutants (MPs) every year, traditional water and wastewater treatment plants may be incapable of tackling them all. With their low concentrations and diversity in nature, MP removal encounters numerous challenges. Although some MPs are effectively eliminated via conventional treatment methods, most of them can easily escape and are retained in the discharged effluent. Therefore, advanced methods such as (i) adsorption, (ii) oxidation and advanced oxidation processes (O3 and O3-based advanced oxidation processes, UV/H2O2), (iii) membrane processes, and (iv) membrane bioreactors, become an inevitable approach. Despite the unsurprisingly vast number of papers on MP treatment available at present, most of these studies were carried out at a laboratory scale while only a few pilot- and full-scale studies have experimented. Nevertheless, an in-depth assessment of real-world MP treatment methods is extremely crucial for practitioners. To date, no paper has been dedicated to look at this issue. Therefore, this paper aims to review these large-scale treatment methods. First, the paper goes through the regulations and standards which deal with MPs in water courses. It will then assess these methods in various case-studies with reference to different criteria towards serving as a reference for further practical applications.
Chen, C, Guo, W & Ngo, H 2016, 'Advances in granular growth anaerobic membrane bioreactor (G-AnMBR) for low strength wastewater treatment', Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability, vol. 1, pp. 77-83.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chen, C, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Lee, DJ, Tung, KL, Jin, P, Wang, J & Wu, Y 2016, 'Challenges in biogas production from anaerobic membrane bioreactors', Renewable Energy, vol. 98, pp. 120-134.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016. Spectacular applications of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) are emerging due to the membrane enhanced biogas production in the form of renewable bioresources. They produce similar energy derived from the world's depleting natural fossil energy sources while minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. During the last decade, many types of AnMBRs have been developed and applied so as to make biogas technology practical and economically viable. Referring to both conventional and advanced configurations, this review presents a comprehensive summary of AnMBRs for biogas production in recent years. The potential of biogas production from AnMBRs cannot be fully exploited, since certain constraints still remain and these cause low methane yield. This paper addresses a detailed assessment on the potential challenges that AnMBRs are encountering, with a major focus on many inhibitory substances and operational dilemmas. The aim is to provide a solid platform for advances in novel AnMBRs applications for optimized biogas production.
Deng, L, Guo, W, Huu, HN, Zhang, X, Wang, XC, Zhang, Q & Chen, R 2016, 'New functional biocarriers for enhancing the performance of a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 208, pp. 87-93.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Deng, L, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Du, B, Wei, Q, Tran, NH, Nguyen, NC, Chen, S-S & Li, J 2016, 'Effects of hydraulic retention time and bioflocculant addition on membrane fouling in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor.', Bioresource Technology, vol. 210, pp. 11-17.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The characteristics of activated sludge and membrane fouling were evaluated in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (6.67, 5.33 and 4.00h). At shorter HRT, more obvious membrane fouling was caused by exacerbated cake layer formation and aggravated pore blocking. Activated sludge possessed more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) due to excessive growth of biomass and lower protein to polysaccharide ratio in soluble microbial products (SMP). The cake layer resistance was aggravated by increased sludge viscosity together with the accumulated EPS and biopolymer clusters (BPC) on membrane surface. However, SMP showed marginal effect on membrane fouling when SSMBRs were operated at all HRTs. The SSMBR with Gemfloc® addition at the optimum HRT of 6.67h demonstrated superior sludge characteristics such as larger floc size, less SMP in mixed liquor with higher protein/polysaccharide ratio, less SMP and BPC in cake layer, thereby further preventing membrane fouling.
Deng, L, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Zhang, H, Wang, J, Li, J, Xia, S & Wu, Y 2016, 'Biofouling and control approaches in membrane bioreactors', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 221, pp. 656-665.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Dinh, DN, Chang, SW, Jeong, SY, Jeung, J, Kim, S, Guo, W & Huu, HN 2016, 'Dry thermophilic semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste: Performance evaluation, modified Gompertz model analysis, and energy balance', ENERGY CONVERSION AND MANAGEMENT, vol. 128, pp. 203-210.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Duc Nguyen, D, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Nguyen, TT, Chang, SW, Jang, A & Yoon, YS 2016, 'Can electrocoagulation process be an appropriate technology for phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater?', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 563–564, pp. 549-556.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper evaluated a novel pilot scale electrocoagulation (EC) system for improving total phosphorus (TP) removal from municipal wastewater. This EC system was operated in continuous and batch operating mode under differing conditions (e.g. flow rate, initial concentration, electrolysis time, conductivity, voltage) to evaluate correlative phosphorus and electrical energy consumption. The results demonstrated that the EC system could effectively remove phosphorus to meet current stringent discharge standards of less than 0.2 mg/L within 2 to 5 min. This target was achieved in all ranges of initial TP concentrations studied. It was also found that an increase in conductivity of solution, voltages, or electrolysis time, correlated with improved TP removal efficiency and reduced specific energy consumption. Based on these results, some key economic considerations, such as operating costs, cost-effectiveness, product manufacturing feasibility, facility design and retrofitting, and program implementation are also discussed. This EC process can conclusively be highly efficient in a relatively simple, easily managed, and cost-effective for wastewater treatment system.
Fan, J, Zhang, J, Huu, HN, Guo, W & Yin, X 2016, 'Improving low-temperature performance of surface flow constructed wetlands using Potamogeton crispus L. plant', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 218, pp. 1257-1260.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Guo, J, Wang, S, Lian, J, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Liu, Y & Song, Y 2016, 'Rapid start-up of the anammox process: Effects of five different sludge extracellular polymeric substances on the activity of anammox bacteria', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 220, pp. 641-646.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Jia, H, Yang, G, Wang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Zhang, H & Zhang, X 2016, 'Performance of a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for online monitoring in an integrated system combining microbial fuel cell and upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 218, pp. 286-293.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Johir, MAH, Nguyen, TT, Mahatheva, K, Pradhan, M, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Vigneswaran, S 2016, 'Removal of phosphorus by a high rate membrane adsorption hybrid system', Bioresource Technology, vol. 201, pp. 365-369.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Membrane adsorption hybrid system (MAHS) was evaluated for the removal of phosphate from a high rate membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) effluent. The HR-MBR was operated at permeate flux of 30L/m2 h. The results indicated that the HR-MBR could eliminate 93.1±1.5% of DOC while removing less than 53% phosphate (PO4-P). Due to low phosphate removal by HR-MBR, a post-treatment of strong base anion exchange resin (Dowex*21K-XLT), and zirconium (IV) hydroxide were used as adsorbent in MAHS for further removal of phosphate from HR-MBR effluent. It was found that the MAHS enabled to eliminate more than 85% of PO4-P from HR-MBR effluent. Hence, HR-MBR followed by MAHS lead to simultaneous removal of organics and phosphate in a reliable manner. The experiments were conducted only for a short period to investigate the efficiency of these resins/adsorbents on the removal of phosphorus and high rate MBR for organic removal.
Liu, H, Hu, Z, Zhang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liang, S, Fan, J, Lu, S & Wu, H 2016, 'Optimizations on supply and distribution of dissolved oxygen in constructed wetlands: A review', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 214, pp. 797-805.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Lu, S, Chen, F, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Feng, C, Wu, J & Zheng, B 2016, 'Effect of straw and polyacrylamide on the stability of land/water ecotone soil and the field implementation', ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING, vol. 94, pp. 12-21.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Luo, L, Wang, XC, Ngo, HH & Guo, W 2016, 'Thermodynamic entropy of organic oxidation in the water environment: experimental evaluation compared to semi-empirical calculation', ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 21350-21359.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Nguyen, CN, Hau, TN, Chen, S-S, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Chan, WH, Ray, SS, Li, C-W & Hsu, H-T 2016, 'A novel osmosis membrane bioreactor-membrane distillation hybrid system for wastewater treatment and reuse', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 209, pp. 8-15.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Nguyen, CN, Hau, TN, Ho, S-T, Chen, S-S, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Ray, SS & Hsu, H-T 2016, 'Exploring high charge of phosphate as new draw solute in a forward osmosis-membrane distillation hybrid system for concentrating high-nutrient sludge', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 557, pp. 44-50.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Nguyen, NC, Chen, SS, Nguyen, HT, Ray, SS, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Lin, PH 2016, 'Innovative sponge-based moving bed–osmotic membrane bioreactor hybrid system using a new class of draw solution for municipal wastewater treatment.', Water Research, vol. 91, pp. 305-313.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
For the first time, an innovative concept of combining sponge-based moving bed (SMB) and an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OsMBR), known as the SMB-OsMBR hybrid system, were investigated using Triton X-114 surfactant coupled with MgCl2 salt as the draw solution. Compared to traditional activated sludge OsMBR, the SMB-OsMBR system was able to remove more nutrients due to the thick-biofilm layer on sponge carriers. Subsequently less membrane fouling was observed during the wastewater treatment process. A water flux of 11.38 L/(m(2) h) and a negligible reverse salt flux were documented when deionized water served as the feed solution and a mixture of 1.5 M MgCl2 and 1.5 mM Triton X-114 was used as the draw solution. The SMB-OsMBR hybrid system indicated that a stable water flux of 10.5 L/(m(2) h) and low salt accumulation were achieved in a 90-day operation. Moreover, the nutrient removal efficiency of the proposed system was close to 100%, confirming the effectiveness of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in the biofilm layer on sponge carriers. The overall performance of the SMB-OsMBR hybrid system using MgCl2 coupled with Triton X-114 as the draw solution demonstrates its potential application in wastewater treatment.
Sivagurunathan, P, Kumar, G, Kim, S-H, Kobayashi, T, Xu, K-Q, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2016, 'Enhancement Strategies for Hydrogen Production from Wastewater: A Review', CURRENT ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 20, no. 26, pp. 2744-2752.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Thanh, TN, Xuan, TB, Minh, DP, Guo, W & Huu, HN 2016, 'Effect of Tris-(hydroxymethyl)-amino methane on microalgae biomass growth in a photobioreactor', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 208, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Thanh-Tin, N, Xuan-Thanh, B, Thi-Dieu-Hien, V, Duy-Dat, N, Phuoc-Dan, N, Hong-Lan-Chi, D, Huu-Hao, N & Guo, W 2016, 'Performance and membrane fouling of two types of laboratory-scale submerged membrane bioreactors for hospital wastewater treatment at low flux condition', SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY, vol. 165, pp. 123-129.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wang, J, Bi, F, Ngo, H-H, Guo, W, Jia, H, Zhang, H & Zhang, X 2016, 'Evaluation of energy-distribution of a hybrid microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) for cost-effective wastewater treatment', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 200, pp. 420-425.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wang, Q, Xie, H, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Zhang, J, Liu, C, Liang, S, Hu, Z, Yang, Z & Zhao, C 2016, 'Microbial abundance and community in subsurface flow constructed wetland microcosms: role of plant presence.', Environmental science and pollution research international, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 4036-4045.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this research, the role of plants in improving microorganism growth conditions in subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) microcosms was determined. In particular, microbial abundance and community were investigated during summer and winter in Phragmites australis-planted CW microcosms (PA) and unplanted CW microcosms (control, CT). Results revealed that the removal efficiencies of pollutants and microbial community structure varied in winter with variable microbial abundance. During summer, PA comprised more dominant phyla (e.g., Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes), whereas CT contained more Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic bacteria. During winter, the abundance of Proteobacteria was >40 % in PA but dramatically decreased in CT. Moreover, Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic bacterial dominance in CT decreased. In both seasons, bacteria were more abundant in root surfaces than in sand. Plant presence positively affected microbial abundance and community. The potential removal ability of CT, in which Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic bacteria were abundant during summer, was more significantly affected by temperature reduction than that of PA with plant presence.
Wang, S, Guo, J, Lian, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liu, Y & Song, Y 2016, 'Rapid start-up of the anammox process by denitrifying granular sludge and the mechanism of the anammox electron transport chain', BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, vol. 115, pp. 101-107.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wei, D, Dong, H, Wu, N, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Du, B & Wei, Q 2016, 'A Fluorescence Approach to Assess the Production of Soluble Microbial Products from Aerobic Granular Sludge Under the Stress of 2,4-Dichlorophenol', SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wei, D, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Xu, W, Zhang, Y, Du, B & Wei, Q 2016, 'Biosorption of effluent organic matter onto magnetic biochar composite: Behavior of fluorescent components and their binding properties', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 214, pp. 259-265.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wu, H, Fan, J, Zhang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Hu, Z & Lv, J 2016, 'Optimization of organics and nitrogen removal in intermittently aerated vertical flow constructed wetlands: Effects of aeration time and aeration rate', International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, vol. 113, pp. 139-145.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, to optimize aeration for the enhancement of organics and nitrogen removal in intermittently aerated vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF CWs) for treating domestic wastewater, the experimental VF CWs were operated at different aeration time (1 h d-1, 2 h d-1, 4 h d-1, 6 h d-1, 8 h d-1 and 10 h d-1) and aeration rate (0.1 L min-1, 0.2 L min-1, 0.5 L min-1, 1.0 L min-1 and 2.0 L min-1) to investigate the effect of artificial aeration on the removal efficiency of organics and nitrogen. The results showed that the optimal aeration time and aeration rate were 4 h d-1 and 1.0 L min-1, which could create the appropriate aerobic and anoxic regions in CWs with the greater removal of COD (97.2%), NH4 +-N (98.4%) and TN (90.6%) achieved simultaneously during the experiment. The results demonstrate that the optimized intermittent aeration is reliable option to enhance the treatment performance of organics and nitrogen at a lower operating cost.
Wu, H, Fan, J, Zhang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liang, S, Lv, J, Lu, S, Wu, W & Wu, S 2016, 'Intensified organics and nitrogen removal in the intermittent-aerated constructed wetland using a novel sludge-ceramsite as substrate', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 210, pp. 101-107.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wu, Y, Wang, J, Zhang, H, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Zhang, N 2016, 'The impact of gas slug flow on microfiltration performance in an airlift external loop tubular membrane reactor', RSC ADVANCES, vol. 6, no. 110, pp. 109067-109075.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Yin, X, Zhang, J, Hu, Z, Xie, H, Guo, W, Wang, Q, Ngo, HH, Liang, S, Lu, S & Wu, W 2016, 'Effect of photosynthetically elevated pH on performance of surface flow-constructed wetland planted with Phragmites australis', ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 15524-15531.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zhang, J, Jia, W, Wang, R, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Xie, H & Liang, S 2016, 'Microbial community characteristics during simultaneous nitrification-denitrification process: effect of COD/TP ratio', ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 2557-2565.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zhang, QH, Jin, PK, Ngo, HH, Shi, X, Guo, WS, Yang, SJ, Wang, XC, Wang, X, Dzakpasu, M, Yang, WN & Yang, L 2016, 'Transformation and utilization of slowly biodegradable organic matters in biological sewage treatment of anaerobic anoxic oxic systems', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 218, pp. 53-61.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zhang, QH, Yang, WN, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Jin, PK, Dzakpusa, M, Yang, SJ, Wang, Q, Wang, XC & Ao, D 2016, 'Current status of urban wastewater treatment plants in China', Environment International, vol. 92-93, pp. 11-22.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the perspective of treatment technologies, pollutant removals, operating load and efﬂuent discharge standards. By the end of 2013, 3508 WWTPs have been built in 31 provinces and cities in China with a total treatment ca- pacity of 1.48 × 108 m3/d. The uneven population distribution between China's east and west regions has resulted in notably different economic development outcomes. The technologies mostly used in WWTPs are AAO and ox- idation ditch, which account for over 50% of the existing WWTPs. According to statistics, the efﬁciencies of COD and NH3–N removal are good in 656 WWTPs in 70 cities. The overall average COD removal is over 88% with few regional differences. The average removal efﬁciency of NH3–N is up to 80%. Large differences exist between the operating loads applied in different WWTPs. The average operating loading rate is approximately 83%, and 52% of WWTPs operate at loadings of b 80%, treating up to 40% of the wastewater generated. The implementation of discharge standards has been low. Approximately 28% of WWTPs that achieved the Grade I-A Discharge Stan- dard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918–2002) were constructed after 2010. The sludge treatment and recycling rates are only 25%, and approximately 15% of wastewater is inefﬁciently treated. Approximately 60% of WWTPs have capacities of 1 × 104 m3/d–5× 104 m3/d. Relatively high energy consumption is required for small-scale processing, and the utilization rate of recycled wastewater is low. The challenges of WWTPs are discussed with the aim of developing rational criteria and appropriate technologies for water recycling. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures are provided.
Zhang, X, Chen, X, Zhang, C, Wen, H, Guo, W & Huu, HN 2016, 'Effect of filling fraction on the performance of sponge-based moving bed biofilm reactor', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 219, pp. 762-767.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zhang, X, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Wen, H, Li, N & Wu, W 2016, 'Performance evaluation of powdered activated carbon for removing 28 types of antibiotics from water', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, vol. 172, pp. 193-200.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zhao, C, Xie, H, Xu, J, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Hao, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Xu, X, Wang, Q & Wang, J 2016, 'Removal mechanisms and plant species selection by bioaccumulative factors in surface flow constructed wetlands (CWs): In the case of triclosan', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 547, pp. 9-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zheng, Y, Wang, X, Dzakpasu, M, Zhao, Y, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Ge, Y & Xiong, J 2016, 'Effects of interspecific competition on the growth of macrophytes and nutrient removal in constructed wetlands: A comparative assessment of free water surface and horizontal subsurface flow systems', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 207, pp. 134-141.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Fan, J, Zhang, J, Guo, W, Liang, S & Wu, H 2016, 'Enhanced long-term organics and nitrogen removal and associated microbial community in intermittently aerated subsurface flow constructed wetlands', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 214, pp. 871-875.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Jegatheesan, JV, Chiemchaisri, C, Shu, L & Guo, W 2016, 'Special issue on Challenges in Environmental Science and Engineering (CESE-2015) Preface', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 210, pp. 1-1.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wu, H, Lin, L, Zhang, J, Guo, W, Liang, S & Liu, H 2016, 'Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 219, pp. 768-772.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ansari, AJ, Hai, FI, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Price, WE & Nghiem, LD 2015, 'Selection of forward osmosis draw solutes for subsequent integration with anaerobic treatment to facilitate resource recovery from wastewater', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 191, pp. 30-36.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Luo, W, Hai, FI, Kang, J, Price, WE, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Yamamoto, K & Nghiem, LD 2015, 'Effects of salinity build-up on biomass characteristics and trace organic chemical removal: Implications on the development of high retention membrane bioreactors', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 177, pp. 274-281.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Luo, Y, Jiang, Q, Ngo, HH, Nghiem, LD, Hai, FI, Price, WE, Wang, J & Guo, W 2015, 'Evaluation of micropollutant removal and fouling reduction in a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 191, pp. 355-359.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zuthi, MFR, Ngo, HH, Guo, WS, Nghiem, LD, Hai, FI, Xia, SQ, Zhang, ZQ & L, JX 2015, 'Biomass viability: An experimental study and the development of an empirical mathematical model for submerged membrane bioreactor', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 190, pp. 352-358.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Abdolali, A, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Zhou, JL, Du, B, Wei, Q, Wang, XC & Phuoc, DN 2015, 'Characterization of a multi-metal binding biosorbent: Chemical modification and desorption studies', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 193, pp. 477-487.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ahmed, MB, Zhou, JL, Ngo, HH & Guo, W 2015, 'Adsorptive removal of antibiotics from water and wastewater: Progress and challenges', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 532, pp. 112-126.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Vo, T, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Zhou, J, Listowski, A, Du, B, Wei, Q & Bui, X 2015, 'Stormwater quality management in rail transportation — Past, present and future', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 512-513, pp. 353-363.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Railways currently play an important role in sustainable transportation systems, owing to their substantial carrying capacity, environmental friendliness and land-saving advantages. Although total pollutant emissions from railway systems are far less than that of automobile vehicles, the pollution from railway operations should not be underestimated. To date, both scientific and practical papers dealing with stormwater management for rail tracks have solely focused on its drainage function. Unlike roadway transport, the potential of stormwater pollution from railway operations is currently mishandled. There have been very few studies into the impact of its operations on water quality. Hence, upon the realisation on the significance of nonpoint source pollution, stormwater management priorities should have been re-evaluated. This paper provides an examination of past and current practices of stormwater management in the railway industry, potential sources of stormwater pollution, obstacles faced in stormwater management and concludes with strategies for future management directions.
Deng, L, Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Zuthi, MFR, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Li, J, Wang, J & Zhang, X 2015, 'Membrane fouling reduction and improvement of sludge characteristics by bioflocculant addition in submerged membrane bioreactor', SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY, vol. 156, pp. 450-458.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Gao, T, Wang, XC, Chen, R, Ngo, HH & Guo, W 2015, 'Disability adjusted life year (DALY): A useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 511, pp. 268-287.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Guo, S, Qu, F, Ding, A, Bai, L, Li, G, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Liang, H 2015, 'Effects of poly aluminum chloride dosing positions on the performance of a pilot scale anoxic/oxic-membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR)', Water Science & Technology, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 689-695.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The effects of poly aluminum chloride (PACl) dosing positions on the performance of a pilot scale anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor were investigated. PACl dosage was optimized at 19.5 mg Al2O3/L by jar test. Nutrients removal efficiencies and sludge properties were systematically investigated during periods with no PACl dosing (phase I), with PACl dosing in oxic tank (phase II) and then in anoxic tank (phase III). The results showed that total phosphorus removal efficiency increased from 18 to 88% in phase II and 85% in phase III with less than 0.5 mg P/L in effluent. Ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies reached 99% in all phases and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies reached 92%, 91% and 90% in the three phases, respectively. Total nitrogen removal efficiency decreased from 59% in phase I to 49% in phases II and III. Dosing PACl in the oxic tank resulted in smaller sludge particle size, higher zeta potential, better sludge settleability and lower membrane fouling rate in comparison with dosing PACl in the anoxic tank.
Hau, TN, Chen, S-S, Nguyen, CN, Huu, HN, Guo, W & Li, C-W 2015, 'Exploring an innovative surfactant and phosphate-based draw solution for forward osmosis desalination', JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE, vol. 489, pp. 212-219.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hau, TN, Nguyen, CN, Chen, S-S, Ngo, HH, Guo, W & Li, C-W 2015, 'A new class of draw solutions for minimizing reverse salt flux to improve forward osmosis desalination', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 538, pp. 129-136.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Kong, J-J, Yue, Q-Y, Zhao, P, Gao, B-Y, Li, Q, Wang, Y, Ngo, HH & Guo, W-S 2015, 'Comparative study on microstructure and surface properties of keratin- and lignocellulosic-based activated carbons', FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, vol. 140, pp. 67-75.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Li, X, Li, J, Wang, H, Huang, X, He, B, Yao, Y, Wang, J, Zhang, H, Ngo, HH & Guo, W 2015, 'A filtration model for prediction of local flux distribution and optimization of submerged hollow fiber membrane module', AICHE JOURNAL, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 4377-4386.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Li, X, Zhang, H, Hou, Y, Gao, Y, Li, J, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2015, 'In situ investigation of combined organic and colloidal fouling for nanofiltration membrane using ultrasonic time domain reflectometry', DESALINATION, vol. 362, pp. 43-51.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Liu, H, Zhang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Wu, H, Cheng, C, Guo, Z & Zhang, C 2015, 'Carbohydrate-based activated carbon with high surface acidity and basicity for nickel removal from synthetic wastewater', RSC ADVANCES, vol. 5, no. 64, pp. 52048-52056.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Liu, H, Zhang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Wu, H, Guo, Z, Cheng, C & Zhang, C 2015, 'Effect on physical and chemical characteristics of activated carbon on adsorption of trimethoprim: mechanisms study', RSC ADVANCES, vol. 5, no. 104, pp. 85187-85195.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Nguyen, AH, Ngo, HH, Guo, WS, Pham, TQ, Li, FM, Nguyen, TV & Bui, XT 2015, 'Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solutions and sewage using zirconium loaded okara (ZLO): Fixed-bed column study', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 523, pp. 40-49.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Nguyen, CN, Chen, S-S, Hau, TN, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Hao, CW & Lin, P-H 2015, 'Applicability of a novel osmotic membrane bioreactor using a specific draw solution in wastewater treatment', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 518, pp. 586-594.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ren, L-F, Liang, S, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Ni, S-Q, Liu, C, Zhao, Y-K & Hira, D 2015, 'Enhancement of anammox performance in a novel non-woven fabric membrane bioreactor (nMBR)', RSC ADVANCES, vol. 5, no. 106, pp. 86875-86884.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Shi, L, Wei, D, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Du, B & Wei, Q 2015, 'Application of anaerobic granular sludge for competitive biosorption of methylene blue and Pb(II): Fluorescence and response surface methodology', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 194, pp. 297-304.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Thi, TNP, Mainali, B, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Listowski, A, O'Halloran, K, Miechel, C & Corby, N 2015, 'Effect of heavy metals in recycled water used for household laundry on quality of cloth and washing machine', DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 178-190.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Van, ST, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Cuong, T-T & Zhang, X 2015, 'Typical low cost biosorbents for adsorptive removal of specific organic pollutants from water', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 182, pp. 353-363.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wang, J, Yang, S, Guo, W, Ngo, H-H, Jia, H, Yang, J, Zhang, H & Zhang, X 2015, 'Characterization of fouling layers for in-line coagulation membrane fouling by apparent zeta potential', RSC ADVANCES, vol. 5, no. 128, pp. 106087-106093.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wang, Q, Xie, H, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liu, C, Zhao, C & Li, H 2015, 'Effect of plant harvesting on the performance of constructed wetlands during winter: radial oxygen loss and microbial characteristics', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 7476-7484.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The aboveground tissue of plants is important for providing roots with constant photosynthetic resources. However, the aboveground biomass is usually harvested before winter to maintain the permanent removal of nutrients. In this work, the effects of harvest on plants' involvement in oxygen input as well as in microbial abundance and activity were investigated in detail. Three series of constructed wetlands with integrated plants ('unharvested'), harvested plants ('harvested'), and fully cleared plants ('cleared') were set up. Better performance was found in the unharvested units, with the radial oxygen loss (ROL) rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.59 μmol O2/h/plant, followed by the harvested units that had relatively lower ROL rates (0.01 to 0.52 μmol O2/h/plant). The cleared units had the lowest removal efficiency, which had no rhizome resources from the plants. The microbial population and activity were highest in the unharvested units, followed by the harvested and cleared units. Results showed that bacterial abundances and enhanced microbial activity were ten times higher on root surfaces compared with sands. These results indicate that late autumn harvesting of the aboveground biomass exhibited negative effects on plant ROL as well as on the microbial population and activity during the following winter.
Wang, YX, Ngo, HH & Guo, WS 2015, 'Preparation of a specific bamboo based activated carbon and its application for ciprofloxacin removal', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 533, pp. 32-39.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wang, Z, Liu, G, Zheng, H, Li, F, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liu, C, Chen, L & Xing, B 2015, 'Investigating the mechanisms of biochar's removal of lead from solution', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 177, pp. 308-317.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wei, D, Wang, B, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Han, F, Wang, X, Du, B & Wei, Q 2015, 'Role of extracellular polymeric substances in biosorption of dye wastewater using aerobic granular sludge', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 185, pp. 14-20.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wu, H, Fan, J, Zhang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Hu, Z & Liang, S 2015, 'Decentralized domestic wastewater treatment using intermittently aerated vertical flow constructed wetlands: Impact of influent strengths', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 176, pp. 163-168.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wu, H, Fan, J, Zhang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Liang, S, Hu, Z & Liu, H 2015, 'Strategies and techniques to enhance constructed wetland performance for sustainable wastewater treatment', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 22, no. 19, pp. 14637-14650.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as an alternative to conventional technologies for wastewater treatment for more than five decades. Recently, the use of various modified CWs to improve treatment performance has also been reported in the literature. However, the available knowledge on various CW technologies considering the intensified and reliable removal of pollutants is still limited. Hence, this paper aims to provide an overview of the current development of CW strategies and techniques for enhanced wastewater treatment. Basic information on configurations and characteristics of different innovations was summarized. Then, overall treatment performance of those systems and their shortcomings were further discussed. Lastly, future perspectives were also identified for specialists to design more effective and sustainable CWs. This information is used to inspire some novel intensifying methodologies, and benefit the successful applications of potential CW technologies.
Wu, H, Zhang, J, Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Hu, Z, Liang, S, Fan, J & Liu, H 2015, 'A review on the sustainability of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: Design and operation', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 175, pp. 594-601.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hossain, MD, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Nghiem, LD, Hai, FI, Vigneswaran, S & Nguyen, V 2014, 'Competitive adsorption of metals on cabbage waste from multi-metal solutions', Bioresource Technology, vol. 160, pp. 79-88.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study assessed the adsorption capacity of the agro-waste 'cabbage' as a biosorbent in single, binary, ternary and quaternary sorption systems with Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions. Dried and ground powder of cabbage waste (CW) was used for the sorption of metals ions. Carboxylic, hydroxyl, and amine groups in cabbage waste were found to be the key functional groups for metal sorption. The adsorption isotherms obtained could be well fitted to both the mono- and multi-metal models. In the competitive adsorption systems, cabbage waste adsorbed larger amount of Pb(II) than the other three metals. However, the presence of the competing ions suppressed the sorption of the target metal ions. Except the case of binary system of Cd(II)-Zn(II) and Cd(II)-Cu(II), there was a linear inverse dependency between the sorption capacities and number of different types of competitive metal ions.
Luo, W, Hai, FI, Price, WE, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Yamamoto, K & Nghiem, LD 2014, 'High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunitie', Bioresource Technology, vol. 167, pp. 539-546.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HRMBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology.
Luo, Y, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Nghiem, LD, Hai, F, Zhang, J, Liang, S & Wang, XC 2014, 'A review on the occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment and their fate and removal during wastewater treatment', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 473-474, pp. 619-641.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Micropollutants are emerging as a new challenge to the scientific community. This review provides a summary of the recent occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment including sewage, surface water, groundwater and drinking water. The discharge of treated effluent from WWTPs is a major pathway for the introduction of micropollutants to surface water. WWTPs act as primary barriers against the spread of micropollutants. WWTP removal efficiency of the selected micropollutants in 14 countries/regions depicts compound-specific variation in removal, ranging from 12.5 to 100%. Advanced treatment processes, such as activated carbon adsorption, advanced oxidation processes, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and membrane bioreactors can achieve higher and more consistent micropollutant removal. However, regardless of what technology is employed, the removal of micropollutants depends on physico-chemical properties of micropollutants and treatment conditions. The evaluation of micropollutant removal from municipal wastewater should cover a series of aspects from sources to end uses. After the release of micropollutants, a better understanding and modeling of their fate in surface water is essential for effectively predicting their impacts on the receiving environment.
Luo, Y, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Nghiem, LD, Hai, FI, Kang, J, Xia, S, Zhang, Z & Price, WE 2014, 'Removal and fate of micropollutants in a sponge-based moving bed bioreactor', Bioresource Technology, vol. 159, pp. 311-319.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigated the removal of micropollutants using polyurethane sponge as attached-growth carrier. Batch experiments demonstrated that micropollutants could adsorb to non-acclimatized sponge cubes to varying extents. Acclimatized sponge showed significantly enhanced removal of some less hydrophobic compounds (log D < 2.5), such as ibuprofen, acetaminophen, naproxen, and estriol, as compared with non-acclimatized sponge. The results for bench-scale sponge-based moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) system elucidated compound-specific variation in removal, ranging from 25.9% (carbamazepine) to 96.8% (ß-Estradiol 17-acetate) on average. In the MBBR system, biodegradation served as a major removal pathway for most compounds. However, sorption to sludge phase was also a notable removal mechanism of some persistent micropollutants. Particularly, carbamazepine, ketoprofen and pentachlorophenol were found at high concentrations (7.87, 6.05 and 5.55 µg/g, respectively) on suspended biosolids. As a whole, the effectiveness of MBBR for micropollutant removal was comparable with those of activated sludge processes and MBRs.
Nguyen, LN, Hai, FI, Price, WE, Leusch, FD, Roddick, F, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Magram, SF & Nghiem, LD 2014, 'The effects of mediator and granular activated carbon addition on degradation of trace organic contaminants by an enzymatic membrane reactor', Bioresource Technology, vol. 167, pp. 169-177.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The removal of four recalcitrant trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), namely carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole and atrazine by laccase in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was studied. Laccases are not effective for degrading non-phenolic compounds; nevertheless, 2255% removal of these four TrOCs was achieved by the laccase EMR. Addition of the redox-mediator syringaldehyde (SA) to the EMR resulted in a notable dose-dependent improvement (1545%) of TrOC removal affected by inherent TrOC properties and loading rates. However, SA addition resulted in a concomitant increase in the toxicity of the treated effluent. A further 1425% improvement in aqueous phase removal of the TrOCs was consistently observed following a one-off dosing of 3 g/L granular activated carbon (GAC). Mass balance analysis reveals that this improvement was not due solely to adsorption but also enhanced biodegradation. GAC addition also reduced membrane fouling and the SA-induced toxicity of the effluent.
Semblante, GU, Hai, FI, Ngo, H, Guo, W, You, S, Price, WE & Nghiem, LD 2014, 'Sludge cycling between aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic regimes to reduce sludge production during wastewater treatment: performance, mechanisms, and implications', Bioresource Technology, vol. 155, pp. 395-409.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Alternate cycling of sludge in aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic regimes is a promising strategy that can reduce the sludge yield of conventional activated sludge (CAS) by up to 50% with potentially lower capital and operating cost than physical- and/or chemical-based sludge minimisation techniques. The mechanisms responsible for reducing sludge yield include alterations to cellular metabolism and feeding behaviour (metabolic uncoupling, feasting/fasting, and endogenous decay), biological floc destruction, and predation on bacteria by higher organisms. Though discrepancies across various studies are recognisable, it is apparent that sludge retention time, oxygen-reduction potential of the anaerobic tank, temperature, sludge return ratio and loading mode are relevant to sludge minimisation by sludge cycling approaches. The impact of sludge minimisation on CAS operation (e.g., organics and nutrient removal efficiency and sludge settleability) is highlighted, and key areas requiring further research are also identified.
Wijekoon, KC, Hai, FI, Kang, J, Price, WE, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Cath, TY & Nghiem, LD 2014, 'A novel membrane distillation - thermophilic bioreactor (MDBR) system: Biological stability and trace organic compound removal', Bioresource Technology, vol. 159, pp. 334-341.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) by a novel membrane distillationthermophilic bioreactor (MDBR) system was examined. Salinity build-up and the thermophilic conditions to some extent adversely impacted the performance of the bioreactor, particularly the removal of total nitrogen and recalcitrant TrOCs. While most TrOCs were well removed by the thermophilic bioreactor, compounds containing electron withdrawing functional groups in their molecular structure were recalcitrant to biological treatment and their removal efficiency by the thermophilic bioreactor was low (053%). However, the overall performance of the novel MDBR system with respect to the removal of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and TrOCs was high and was not significantly affected by the conditions of the bioreactor. All TrOCs investigated here were highly removed (>95%) by the MDBR system. Biodegradation, sludge adsorption, and rejection by MD contribute to the removal of TrOCs by MDBR treatment.
Nguyen, T, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Zhou, J, Wang, J, Liang, H & Li, G 2014, 'Phosphorus elimination from aqueous solution using 'zirconium loaded okara' as a biosorbent', Bioresource Technology, vol. 170, pp. 30-37.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This work deals with the capture of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by biosorption onto zirconium loaded okara (ZLO). The batch-mode experiments were conducted to examine the effect of pH, biosorbent dose, initial phosphorus concentration, contact time, and temperature on the process. It was found that, the adsorption was most favored in the pH range of 26. The optimal doses for the adsorption, at initial phosphorus concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50 mg/L were 2, 3, 7, 10 g/L, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of ZLO was approximately 44.13 mg PO4/g at 298 K. The phosphate removal was rapid, reaching 95% in 30 min. Freundlich model best fitted the equilibrium data, while Pseudo-second order model satisfactorily described the kinetic results. Thermodynamic analysis revealed feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic nature of the process. The research would be beneficial for developing a promising, eco-friendly phosphorus biosorbent from a plentiful AWB okara.
Vo, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Zhou, J, Nguyen, PD, Listowski, A & Wang, XC 2014, 'A mini-review on the impacts of climate change on wastewater reclamation and reuse', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 494-495, pp. 9-17.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
To tackle current water insecurity concerns, wastewater reclamation and reuse have appeared as a promising candidate to conserve the valuable fresh water sources while increasing the efficiency of material utilization. Climate change, nevertheless, poses both opportunities and threats to the wastewater reclamation industry. Whereas it elevates the social perception on water-related issues and fosters an emerging water-reuse market, climate change simultaneously presents adverse impacts on the water reclamation scheme, either directly or indirectly. These effects were studied fragmentally in separate realms. Hence, this paper aims to link these studies for providing a thorough understanding about the consequences of the climate change on the wastewater reclamation and reuse. It initially summarizes contemporary treatment processes and their reuse purposes before carrying out a systematic analysis of available findings.
Zhou, J, Siddiqui, E, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2014, 'Estimation of uncertainty in the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil in Brighton, UK', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 497-498, pp. 163-171.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The heterogeneity of environmental samples is increasingly recognised, yet rarely examined in organic contamination investigations. In this study soil samples from an ex-landfill site in Brighton, UK were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination by using a balanced sampling protocol. The analytical technique of gas chromatographymass spectrometry was found to be fit for purpose by the use of duplicate samples and the statistical analysis of variances, as well as of certified reference materials. The sampling uncertaintywas found to significantly overweigh the analytical uncertainty, by a factor of 3 and 6 for PCBs and PAHs, respectively. The soil samples showed a general trend of PCB concentration that was under the recommended target level of 20 ng/g dry weight. It is possible that one site alongside the main road may exceed the 20 ng/g target level, after taking into consideration the overall measurement uncertainty (70.8%). The PAH contamination was more severe, with seven sites potentially exceeding the effect-range medium concentrations. The soil samples with relatively high PCB and PAH concentrations were all taken from the grass verge, which also had the highest soil organic carbon content. The measurement uncertainty which was largely due to sampling can be reduced by sampling at a high resolution spacing of 17 m,which is recommended in future field investigations of soil organic contamination.
Abdolali, A, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Chen, S, Nguyen, NC & Tung, K 2014, 'Typical lignocellulosic wastes and by-products for biosorption process in water and wastewater treatment: A critical review', Bioresource Technology, vol. 160, pp. 57-66.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes and byproducts has been identified as a proper alternative to the existing technologies applied for toxic metal ion and dye removal from wastewater streams. This paper deals with utilization of typical low cost wastes and by-products produced in different food agricultural and agroindustries as biosorbent and reviews the current state of studies on a wide variety of cheap biosorbents in natural and modified forms. The efficiency of each biosorbent has been also discussed with respect to the operating conditions (e.g. temperature, hydraulic residence time, initial metal concentration, biosorbent particle size and its dosage), chemical modification on sorption capacity and preparation methods, as well as thermodynamics and kinetics.
Abdolali, A, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Lee, D, Tung, K & Wang, XC 2014, 'Development and evaluation of a new multi-metal binding biosorbent', Bioresource Technology, vol. 160, pp. 98-106.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A novel multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) was developed by combining a group of three from the selective natural lignocellulosic agro-industrial wastes for effectively eliminating lead, cadmium, copper and zinc from aqueous solutions. Four MMBBs with different combinations (MMBB1: tea waste, corncob, sugarcane bagasse; MMBB2: tea waste, corncob and sawdust; MMBB3: tea waste, corncob and apple peel; MMBB4: tea waste, corncob and grape stalk) were evaluated. FTIR analysis for characterizing the MMBB2 explored that the MMBB2 contains more functional groups available for multi-metals binding. Comparing among the MMBBs as well as the single group biosorbents, MMBB2 was the best biosorbent with the maximum biosorption capacities of 41.48, 39.48, 94.00 and 27.23 mg/g for Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), respectively. After 5 times of desorption with CaCl2, CH3COOH and NaCl as eluent, the MMBB2 still remained excellent biosorptive capacity, so as it could be well regenerated for reuse and possible recovery of metals.
Chen, Z, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Lim, RP, Wang, XC, O'Halloran, K, Listowski, A, Corby, N & Miechel, C 2014, 'A comprehensive framework for the assessment of new end uses in recycled water schemes', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 470-471, pp. 44-52.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Nowadays, recycled water has provided sufficient flexibility to satisfy short-term freshwater needs and increase the reliability of long-term water supplies in many water scarce areas, which becomes an essential component of integrated water resources management. However, the current applications of recycled water are still quite limited that are mainly associated with non-potable purposes such as irrigation, industrial uses, toilet flushing and car washing. There is a large potential to exploit and develop new end uses of recycled water in both urban and rural areas. This can greatly contribute to freshwater savings, wastewater reduction and water sustainability. Consequently, the paper identified the potentials for the development of three recycled water new end uses, household laundry, livestock feeding and servicing, and swimming pool, in future water use market. To validate the strengths of these new applications, a conceptual decision analytic framework was proposed. This can be able to facilitate the optional management strategy selection process and thereafter provide guidance on the future end use studies within a larger context of the community, processes, and models in decision-making. Moreover, as complex evaluation criteria were selected and taken into account to narrow down the multiple management alternatives, the methodology can successfully add transparency, objectivity and comprehensiveness to the assessment. Meanwhile, the proposed approach could also allow flexibility to adapt to particular circumstances of each case under study.
Chen, Z, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Pham, N, Lim, RP, Wang, XC, Miechel, C, O'Halloran, K, Listowski, A & Corby, N 2014, 'A new optional recycled water pre-treatment system prior to use in the household laundry', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 476-447, pp. 513-521.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
With a constantly growing population, water scarcity becomes the limiting factor for further social and economic growth. To achieve a partial reduction in current freshwater demands and lessen the environmental loadings, an increasing trend in the water market tends to adopt recycled water for household laundries as a new recycled water application. The installation of a small pre-treatment unit for water purification can not only further improve the recycled water quality, but also be viable to enhance the public confidence and acceptance level on recycled water consumption. Specifically, this paper describes column experiments conducted using a 550 mm length bed of zeolite media as a one-dimensional flow reactor. The results show that the zeolite filter system could be a simple low-cost pre-treatment option which is able to significantly reduce the total hardness level of recycled water via effective ion exchange. Additionally, depending on the quality of recycled water required by end users, a new by-pass controller using a three-level operation switching mechanism is introduced. This approach provides householders sufficient flexibility to respond to different levels of desired recycled water quality and increase the reliability of long-term system operation. These findings could be beneficial to the smooth implementation of new end uses and expansion of the potential recycled water market. The information could also offer sound suggestions for future research on sustainable water management and governance.
Deng, L, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Xia, S, Zhang, Z & Li, J 2014, 'A comparison study on membrane fouling in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor and a conventional membrane bioreactor', Bioresource Technology, vol. 165, pp. 69-74.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study compared membrane fouling in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) and a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) based on sludge properties when treating synthetic domestic wastewater. In the CMBR, soluble microbial products (SMP) in activated sludge were a major contributor for initial membrane fouling and presented higher concentration in membrane cake layer. Afterwards, membrane fouling was mainly governed by bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge, containing lower proteins but significantly higher polysaccharides. Sponge addition could prevent cake formation on membrane surface and pore blocking inside membrane, thereby alleviating membrane fouling. The SSMBR exhibited not only less growth of the biomass and filamentous bacteria, but also lower cake layer and pore blocking resistance due to lower bound EPS concentrations in activated sludge. Less membrane fouling in SSMBR were also attributed to larger particle size, higher zeta potential and relative hydrophobicity of sludge flocs.
Ding, A, Liang, H, Qu, F, Bai, L, Li, G, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2014, 'Effect of granular activated carbon addition on the effluent properties and fouling potentials of membrane-coupled expanded granular sludge bed process', Bioresource Technology, vol. 170, pp. 240-246.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
To mitigate membrane fouling of membrane-coupled anaerobic process, granular activated carbon (GAC: 50 g/L) was added into an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB). A short-term ultrafiltration test was investigated for analyzing membrane fouling potential and underlying fouling mechanisms. The results showed that adding GAC into the EGSB not only improved the COD removal efficiency, but also alleviated membrane fouling efficiently because GAC could help to reduce soluble microbial products, polysaccharides and proteins by 26.8%, 27.8% and 24.7%, respectively, compared with the control system. Furthermore, excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy analysis revealed that GAC addition mainly reduced tryptophan protein-like, aromatic protein-like and fulvic-like substances. In addition, the resistance distribution analysis demonstrated that adding GAC primarily decreased the cake layer resistance by 53.5%. The classic filtration mode analysis showed that cake filtration was the major fouling mechanism for membrane-coupled EGSB process regardless of the GAC addition.
Guadie, A, Xia, S, Zhang, Z, Zeleke, J, Guo, W, Ngo, H & Hermanowicz, SW 2014, 'Effect of intermittent aeration cycle on nutrient removal and microbial community in a fluidized bed reactor-membrane bioreactor combo system', Bioresource Technology, vol. 156, pp. 195-205.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Effect of intermittent aeration cycle (IAC = 15/4560/60 min) on nutrient removal and microbial community structure was investigated using a novel fluidized bed reactormembrane bioreactor (FBRMBR) combo system. FBR alone was found more efficient for removing PO4-P (>85%) than NH4-N (<40%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD < 35%). However, in the combo system, COD and NH4-N removals were almost complete (>98%). Efficient nitrification, stable mixed liquor suspended solid and reduced transmembrane pressure was also achieved. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results of total bacteria 16S rRNA gene copies per mL of mixed-liquor varied from (2.48 ± 0.42) × 109 initial to (2.74 ± 0.10) × 108, (6.27 ± 0.16) × 109 and (9.17 ± 1.78) × 109 for 15/45, 45/15 and 60/60 min of IACs, respectively. The results of clone library analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (59%), Firmicutes (12%) and Bacteroidetes (11%) were the dominant bacterial group in all samples. Overall, the combo system performs optimum nutrient removal and host stable microbial communities at 45/15 min of IAC.
Hau, NT, Chen, S, Nguyen, NC, Huang, KZ, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2014, 'Exploration of EDTA sodium salt as novel draw solution in forward osmosis process for dewatering of high nutrient sludge', Journal Of Membrane Science, vol. 455, pp. 305-311.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, a hybrid forward osmosisnanofiltration (FO/NF) process was designed for dewatering high nutrient containing sludge and recovering draw solution with minimum energy as well as low fouling. A novel draw solution - EDTA sodium salt - was also systematically studied for dewatering process. Results show that using EDTA sodium salt produced higher water flux and lower reverse salt flux when compared to conventional inorganic salt (NaCl) at pH 8. The final sludge concentration reached 32,000 mg/L after 16 h of operation. Moreover, nutrient compounds in sludge were successfully removed by the FO membrane with a removal efficiency of approximately 97% of NH4-N, 90% of NO3-N, 97% of NO2-N and 99% of PO4-P, which was attributed to the multi-barrier layers of sludge forming on membrane surface and the steric effect of the FO membrane. The NF recovery of EDTA sodium salt indicated that all NF membranes performed well and TS-80 was the best among the tested membranes.
Rapid growth in both global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions associated with the use of fossil fuels has driven the search for alternative sources which are renewable and have a lower environmental impact. This paper reviews the availability and bioenergy potentials of the current biomass feedstocks. These include (i) food crops such as sugarcane, corn and vegetable oils, classified as the first generation feedstocks, and (ii) lignocellulosic biomass derived from agricultural and forestry residues and municipal waste, as second generation feedstocks. The environmental and socioeconomic limitations of the first generation feedstocks have placed greater emphasis on the lignocellulosic biomass, of which the conversion technologies still faces major constraints to full commercial deployment. Key technical challenges and opportunities of the lignocellulosic biomass-to-bioenergy production are discussed in comparison with the first generation technologies. The potential of the emerging third generation biofuel from algal biomass is also reviewed.
Hossain, A, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Nguyen, V & Vigneswaran, S 2014, 'Performance of cabbage and cauliflower wastes for heavy metals removal', Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 52, pp. 844-860.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
From this study, the cabbage and cauliflower, a well-known agro-waste were used as biosorbents for removing toxic lead(II) and cadmium(II) from water. A batch of experiments for both biosorbents indicated that the lead(II) and cadmium(II) sorption depended on pH (5.06.5), doses of biosorbents (38 g/L) and contact time (1545 min). The adsorption processes were fast, and equilibrium time was reached at 45 and 15 min for lead(II) and 45 and 30 min for cadmium(II) adsorption onto cabbage and cauliflower biosorbents, respectively. Both biosorbents showed higher preferences for lead(II) than cadmium(II) towards adsorption from a binary solution. Langmuir model was the best-predicted model, but threeparameter models (Redlich-Peterson, Koble Corrigan, Khan and SIPS) were shown good fitness with equilibrium data, and the adsorption coefficients indicate favourable adsorption. The maximum monolayer capacities for lead(II) were 60.57 and 47.63 mg/g onto cabbage and cauliflower biosorbents, respectively, which is higher than cadmium(II) adsorption (20.57 and 21.32 mg/g). Adsorption kinetic was multi-order and steps as it is followed the pseudo-second order and Avrami model. As a low-cost adsorbent, cabbage and cauliflower biosorbents could be preferable for the removal of heavy metals from water and wastewaters.
Hossain, A, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Zhang, J & Liang, S 2014, 'A laboratory study using maple leaves as a biosorbent for lead removal from aqueous solutions', Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 195-209.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This study tested the ability of maple leaf powder (MLP) to reduce the level of Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions. As a biosorbent, MLP has a larger specific surface area (10.94 m2/g) and contains Pb(II) binding functional groups. The highest Pb(II) removals were achieved at pH of 6.2, particle size of less than 75 µm, dose of 0.5 g, initial concentration of 10 mg/l and equilibrium time of >15 minutes. Thermodynamic results indicated that the Pb(II) adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. MLP biosorbent could be reused for five cycles after successfully recovery by 0.1N H2SO4. Both adsorption and desorption data fit well with Langmuir and Sips isotherm models (R2 0.9611.00). The Pb(II) adsorption and desorption capacities (qm) of MLP were up to 50.27 mg/g and 40.06 mg/g, respectively, for a 1 g dose at room temperature. Kinetics processes were rate controlling step and showed good fitness with the pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. Results suggest that multiple mechanisms (chelating bond, physisorption and chemisorption) are involved to adsorb the Pb(II) ions on to MLP. Higher Pb(II) removal revealed the practical applicability of MLP in water and wastewater treatment systems.
Kong, J, Yue, Q, Gao, B, Li, Q, Wang, Y, Ngo, HH & Guo, W 2014, 'Porous structure and adsorptive properties of hide waste activated carbons prepared via potassium silicate activation', Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 109, pp. 311-314.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bioremediation is widely used in organic pollutants disposal. However, very little has been known on its application in constructed wetlands contaminated with organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan in particular. To evaluate the effect of bioremediation on endosulfan removal and clarify the fate, bioaugmentation and biostimulation were studied in laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands. After 20 days' experiment, endosulfan isomers removal efficiencies were increased to 89.24–97.62 % through bioremediation. In bacteria bioaugmentation (E-in) and sucrose biostimulation (E-C), peak concentrations of endosulfan in sediment were reduced by 31.02–76.77 %, and plant absorption were 347.45–576.65 μg kg−1. By contrast, plant absorption in KH2PO4 biostimulation (E-P) was increased to 811.64 and 1,067.68 μg kg−1. Degradation process was probably promoted in E-in and E-C, while plant absorption was enhanced in EP. Consequently, E-in and E-C were effective for endosulfan removal in constructed wetlands, while adding KH2PO4 had potential to cause air pollution. Additionally, combined bioremediation was not recommended.
Li, F, Lu, L, Zheng, X, Ngo, H, Liang, S, Guo, W & Zhang, X 2014, 'Enhanced nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands: Effects of dissolved oxygen and step-feeding', Bioresource Technology, vol. 169, pp. 395-402.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Four horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCWs), named HSFCW1 (three-stage, without step-feeding), HSFCW2 (three-stage, with step-feeding), HSFCW3 (five-stage, without step-feeding) and HSFCW4 (five-stage, with step-feeding) were designed to investigate the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and step-feeding on nitrogen removal. High removal of 90.9% COD, 99.1% ammonium nitrogen and 88.1% total nitrogen (TN) were obtained simultaneously in HSFCW4 compared with HSFCW13. The excellent TN removal of HSFCW4 was due to artificial aeration provided sufficient DO for nitrification and the favorable anoxic environment created for denitrification. Step-feeding was a crucial factor because it provided sufficient carbon source (high COD: nitrate ratio of 14.3) for the denitrification process. Microbial activities and microbial abundance in HSFCW4 was found to be influenced by DO distribution and step-feeding, and thus improve TN removal. These results suggest that artificial aeration combined with step-feeding could achieve high nitrogen removal in HSFCWs.
Li, X, Li, J, Wang, J, Wang, H, He, B, Zhang, H, Guo, W & Ngo, H 2014, 'Experimental investigation of local flux distribution and fouling behavior in double-end and dead-end submerged hollow fiber membrane modules', Journal Of Membrane Science, vol. 453, pp. 18-26.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A new experimental method was proposed to obtain local fluxes along the membrane fibers of double-end and dead-end submerged hollow fiber membrane modules (SHFMMs) and to investigate the impact of average operating flux, fiber length and filtration modes (dead-end and double-end filtration) on local flux distribution. The relationship between the local flux and fouling behavior was monitored through the development of local fouling during filtration of 5 g/L yeast suspension using the non-invasive ultrasonic technique. The experimental results showed that the local flux distribution in the double-end SHFMM was more uniform than that in the dead-end SHFMM at the same operating conditions. Furthermore, the local flux obtained near the upper suction end of the double-end SHFMM was higher than that near the lower suction end. The difference value between the maximum and minimum local fluxes decreased with the decrease of fiber length and average operating flux in the double-end SHFMM. In addition, the ultrasonic measurements revealed that the behavior of fouling deposition on the membrane surface was consistent with the local flux distribution, which led to the self-adjustment and redistribution of local flux during the operation.
Liu, H, Liang, S, Gao, J, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Guo, Z & Li, Y 2014, 'Development of biochars from pyrolysis of lotus stalks for Ni(II) sorption: using zinc borate as flame retardant', Journal Of Analytical And Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 107, pp. 336-341.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this work, zinc borate (ZB) was employed as flame retardant for preparation of biochar (BC). A series of BC samples were generated by varying the ZB to lotus stalks (LS) ratio (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0) under different temperatures (300, 350 and 400 ?C) for 1 h. The BCs were analyzed for their surface morphologies, surface areas, surface elemental compositions and yields. The results indicated that, after charring, ZB kept the structures of the produced BCs as its starting material (LS), dramatically enhancing their yields, and promoting their surface oxygen content. The BCs were used as adsorbent for removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solutions. Sorption of Ni(II) on the BCs was enhanced about 310 times compared with that of BCs derived from pyrolysis of LS without adding ZB.
Liu, H, Liang, S, Gao, J, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Guo, Z, Wang, J & Li, Y 2014, 'Enhancement of Cr(VI) removal by modifying activated carbon developed from Zizania caduciflora with tartaric acid during phosphoric acid activation', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 246, pp. 168-174.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Tartaric acid (TA) was employed to modify Zizania caduciflora (ZC)-based activated carbon during phosphoric acid activation for improving its Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions. The original activated carbon (AC) and TA-modified activated carbon (ACTA) were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, Boehms titration and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The Cr(VI) removal abilities of AC and ACTA were evaluated by batch sorption experiments. The residual Cr(VI) and total Cr concentration were determined to investigated the ``Sorption-coupled reduction mechanism. Equilibrium data for the Cr(VI) removal on AC and ACTA were well described by the Freundlich model. The ACTA exhibited much higher Cr(VI) and total Cr sorption capacities than AC. After blocking of carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups, the carbons showed obviously higher Cr(VI) and total Cr removal than the original AC and ACTA, indicating that electrostatic attraction played an important role on Cr(VI) removal. The higher Cr(VI) removal on ACTA was attributed to its higher amount of oxygen-containing functional groups, which provided more electrons for Cr(VI) reduction and more positive sites for the produced Cr(III) sorption.
Ma, XY, Wang, XC, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Wu, MN & Wang, N 2014, 'Bioassay based luminescent bacteria: interferences, improvements, and applications', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 468-469, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Due to the merits of being time-saving, cost effective and simple operation, the luminescent bacteria toxicity assay (LBTA) has been widely used for environmental pollution monitoring. Based on numerous studies since 2007, this critical review aims to give an overview on the mechanisms, developments and applications of LBTA. Firstly, based on the introduction of the mechanisms of LBTA, this review shows the interferences from the characteristics of testing samples (such as inorganic nutrients, color, turbidity) and summarizes the improvements on pretreatment method, test methods and test systems in recent years. Regarding the factors that affect the toxicity prediction of single chemicals, the correlation between the toxicity index expressed asmedian effective concentration (EC50) and characters (such as Kow, the alkyl chain length, the anion and the cation) of known chemicals, especially the emerging ionic liquids (ILs), were given an in-depth discussion. The models for predicting the joint effect of mixtures to luminescent bacteria were also presented. For the factors that affect the toxicity of actual waters, the correlation of toxicity of actual samples to luminescent bacteria and their conventional indexes were discussed. Comparing the sensitivity of the LBTA with other bioassays could indicate the feasibility of the LBTA applied on specific samples. The summary on the application of LBTA to environmental samples has been made to find the future research direction.
Mainali, B, Pham, N, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Listowski, A, O'Halloran, K, Miechel, C, Muthukaruppan, M & Johnston, RR 2014, 'Introduction and feasibility assessment of laundry use of recycled water in dual reticulation systems in Australia', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 470-471, pp. 34-43.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Laundry is a potential new end use of recycled water in dual reticulation systems. Generally, the community is willing to accept this new end use if it can meet the concerns on health issues, durability of washing machine, cloth quality and aesthetic appearance. This study addresses all these major concerns thereby assisting in the introduction and promotion of this new end use in the existing and proposed dual reticulation systems. Five representative cloth materials were selected for washing in tap water and in recycled water for up to 50 wash cycles for comparative studies. The tearing/tensile strength tests were used for the assessment of cloth durability. ANOVA one way test was applied for the significance analysis (Tukey's test p b 0.05) which indicated that there is no significant change in the tensile/tearing strengths of washed cloth samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the washed cloth samples found no distinct change in surface morphology. Textile colour analysis (CIEDE2000) analysed the variation in colour of the washed cloth samples and showed that the change in colour ?E ranges from 01 revealing no visible difference in colour of cloth samples. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) was used as the indicator for predicting corrosive/scaling potential of recycled water. The LSI values ranged from +0.5 to -0.5, indicating no corrosive or scaling potential of recycled water. The microbiological study of the cloth samples washed in recycled water indicated that there was no contamination with representative bacteria. As the recycled water has similar effects like tap water on cloth and washing machine, it is safe to use for laundry.
Nguyen, T, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Nguyen, V, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Chen, S & Nguyen, NC 2014, 'A comparative study on different metal loaded soybean milk by-product 'okara' for biosorption of phosphorus from aqueous solution', Bioresource Technology, vol. 169, pp. 291-298.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Cationization of agricultural by-products using metal salts is widely used to activate their phosphorous capture ability. This study developed three kinds ofnew metal loaded soybean milk by-product `okara for phosphorus biosorption. A comparative study among these biosorbents was carried out with respect to their performances in terms of affinity, stability and reusability. Zirconium loaded okara (ZLO) was found to have the highest affinity towards PO43- anions (47.88 mg/g), followed by iron/zirconium loaded okara IZLO (40.96 mg/g) and iron loaded okara ILO (16.39 mg/g). ZLO was successfully desorbed with 0.2 M NaOH and activated with 0.1 HCl prior to the next cycle. After five consecutive cycles, the efficiency of both adsorption and desorption of ZLO remained about 85% whilst no Zr(IV) leakage was observed. Conversely, IZLO and ILO suffered from vitalshortcomingssuch ashigh metal release and/or sharp reduction in PO43- sequestering capability after multi operation cycles.
Nguyen, T, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Lee, D, Nguyen, P & Bui, X 2014, 'Modification of agricultural waste/by-products for enhanced phosphate removal and recovery: Potential and obstacles', Bioresource Technology, vol. 169, pp. 750-762.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
There is a growing trend to employ agricultural waste/by-products (AWBs) as the substrates for the development of phosphate biosorbents. Nevertheless, due to the lack of anion binding sites, natural AWBs are usually inefficient in phosphate decontamination. Consequently, modification plays a vital role in improving phosphate sorptions property of raw AWBs. This review paper evaluates all existing methods of modification. The literatures indicate that modification can significantly improve phosphate removal ability of AWBs by retaining phosphate ion onto modified AWBs principally via ion exchange (electrostatic interaction) and ligand exchange mechanisms. So far, little work has been done on the beneficial use of modified AWBs for the phosphorus recovery from aqueous solutions. The poor recyclability of modified AWBs could be responsible for their limited application. Hence, further study is essential to search for novel, cost-effective, and green methods of modification.
Wang, J, Yang, J, Zhang, H, Guo, W & Ngo, H-H 2014, 'Feasibility study on magnetic enhanced flocculation for mitigating membrane fouling', Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 26, pp. 37-45.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
During coagulation/flocculation-membrane filtration (CF-MF) process, membrane fouling was alleviated more significantly through magnetic enhanced flocculation-membrane filtration (MEF-MF) in the presence of ferromagnetic seeds in coagulants. Porous cake layer with flocs of large size was able to alleviate decline rate of membrane flux. Foulant analysis proved that magnetic enhanced flocculation (MEF) pretreatment was more efficient for the reductions of low and mid-molecular weight (MW) organic structures than CF-MF. Biopolymers with high molecular weight were also effectively removed before filtration. Overall, MEF-MF could provide a novel alternative approach to mitigate membrane fouling for surface water treatment.
Zhao, C, Xie, H, Mu, Y, Xu, X, Zhang, J, Liu, C, Liang, S, Huu, HN, Guo, W, Xu, J & Wang, Q 2014, 'Bioremediation of endosulfan in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands: effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation', ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol. 21, no. 22, pp. 12827-12835.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zhou, L, Zhang, Z, Jiang, W, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Meng, X, Fan, J, Zhao, J & Xia, S 2014, 'Effects of low-concentration Cr(VI) on the performance and the membrane fouling of a submerged membrane bioreactor in municipal wastewater treatment', Biofouling, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 105-114.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The effects of low-concentration Cr(VI) (0.4 mg l-1) on the performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) in the treatment of municipal wastewater, as well as membrane fouling were investigated. Compared with the SMBR for control municipal wastewater, the SMBR for Cr(VI)-containing municipal wastewater had a higher concentration of soluble microbial products (SMP) with lower molecular weights, and smaller sludge particle sizes. Furthermore, low-concentration Cr(VI) induced membrane fouling, especially irreversible membrane pore blocking, which markedly shortened the service life of the membrane.
Zhou, L, Zhang, Z, Xia, S, Jiang, W, Ye, B, Xu, X, Gu, Z, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Meng, X, Fan, J & Zhao, J 2014, 'Effects of suspended titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cake layer formation in submerged membrane bioreactor', Bioresource Technology, vol. 152, pp. 101-106.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Effects of the suspended titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs, 50 mg/L) on the cake layer formation in a submerged MBR were systematically investigated. With nanometer sizes, TiO2 NPs were found to aggravate membrane pore blocking but postpone cake layer fouling. TiO2 NPs showed obvious effects on the structure and the distribution of the organic and the inorganic compounds in cake layer. Concentrations of fatty acids and cholesterol in the cake layer increased due to the acute response of bacteria to the toxicity of TiO2 NPs. Line-analysis and dot map of energy-dispersive X-ray were also carried out. Since TiO2 NPs inhibited the interactions between the inorganic and the organic compounds, the inorganic compounds (especially SiO2) were prevented from depositing onto the membrane surface. Thus, the postponed cake layer fouling was due to the changing features of the complexes on the membrane surface caused by TiO2 NPs.
Zuthi, M, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Chen, S, Nguyen, NC, Deng, LJ & Tran, TDC 2014, 'An assessment of the effects of microbial products on the specific oxygen uptake in submerged membrane bioreactor', International Journal of Environmental, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 90-94.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Sustaining a desired rate of oxygen transfer for microbial activity is a matter of major concern for biological wastewater treatment (MBR). The study reported in the paper was aimed at assessing the effects of microbial products on the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) in a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) and that in a sponge submerged MBR (SSMBR). The production and progressive accumulation of soluble microbial products (SMP) and bound-extracellular polymeric substances (bEPS) were affecting the SOUR of the microorganisms which varied at different stages of operation of the MBR systems depending on the variable concentrations of the SMP/bEPS. The effect of bEPS on the SOUR was stronger in the SSMBR compared to that of the SMP, while relative high concentrations of SMP had adverse effects on the SOUR of the CMBR system. Of the different mathematical correlations analyzed in the study, logarithmic mathematical correlations could be established between SOUR and bEPS in SSMBR, and similar correlations could also be found between SOUR and SMP concentrations in the CMBR.
Nguyen, LN, Hai, F, Kang, J, Nghiem, LD, Price, WE, Guo, W, Ngo, H & Tung, K 2013, 'Comparison between sequential and simultaneous application of activated carbon with membrane bioreactor for trace organic contaminant removal', Bioresource Technology, vol. 130, pp. 412-417.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The removal efficiency of 22 selected trace organic contaminants by sequential application of granular activated carbon (GAC) and simultaneous application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) with membrane bioreactor (MBR) was compared in this study. Both sequential application of GAC following MBR treatment (MBRâGAC) and simultaneous application of PAC within MBR (PACâMBR) achieved improved removal (over 95%) of seven hydrophilic and biologically persistent compounds, which were less efficiently removed by MBR-only treatment (negligible to 70%). However, gradual breakthrough of these compounds occurred over an extended operation period. Charged compounds, particularly, fenoprop and diclofenac, demonstrated the fastest breakthrough (complete and 50â70%, in MBRâGAC and PACâMBR, respectively). Based on a simple comparison from the long-term performance stability and activated carbon usage points of view, PACâMBR appears to be a better option than MBRâGAC treatment.
Wijekoon, KC, Hai, FI, Kang, J, Price, WE, Guo, W, Ngo, H & Nghiem, LD 2013, 'The fate of pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, UV-filters and pesticides during MBR treatment', Bioresource Technology, vol. 144, pp. 247-254.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study examined the relationship between molecular properties and the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in the aqueous and solid phases during wastewater treatment by MBR. A set of 29 TrOCs was selected to represent pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, UV-filters and pesticides that occur ubiquitously in municipal wastewater. Both adsorption and biodegradation/transformation were found responsible for the removal of TrOCs by MBR treatment. A connection between biodegradation and molecular structure could be observed while adsorption was the dominant removal mechanism for the hydrophobic (logD > 3.2) compounds. Highly hydrophobic (logD > 3.2) but readily biodegradable compounds did not accumulate in sludge. In contrast, recalcitrant compounds with a moderate hydrophobicity, such as carbamazepine, accumulated significantly in the solid phase. The results provide a framework to predict the removal and fate of TrOCs by MBR treatment.
Zuthi, M, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Nghiem, LD & Hai, FI 2013, 'Enhanced biological phosphorus removal and its modeling for the activated sludge and membrane bioreactor processes', Bioresource Technology, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 363-374.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A modified activated sludge process (ASP) for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) needs to sustain stable performance for wastewater treatment to avoid eutrophication in the aquatic environment. Unfortunately, the overall efficiency of the EBPR in ASPs and membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is frequently hindered by different operational/system constraints. Moreover, although phosphorus removal data from several wastewater treatment systems are available, a comprehensive mathematical model of the process is still lacking. This paper presents a critical review that highlights the core issues of the biological phosphorus removal in ASPs and MBRs while discussing the inhibitory process requirements for other nutrients removal. This mini review also successfully provided an assessment of the available models for predicting phosphorus removal in both ASP and MBR systems. The advantages and limitations of the existing models were discussed together with the inclusion of few guidelines for their improvement.
Chen, Z, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2013, 'A Critical Review on the End Uses of Recycled Water', Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 14, pp. 1446-1516.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recycled water provides a viable opportunity to supplement water supplies as well as alleviate environmental loads. The authors examine the sources of recycled water and discusses various end uses. They focus on reviewing the historical development and current status of recycled water on a global scale with containing the evolvement of wastewater treatment technologies, water quality guidelines, and public attitudes. The authors also illustrate typical case studies of recycled water in a number of countries and regions, including Australia, Asia, the United States, Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. These pilot studies can be good examples for the future projects. They identify the good prospects of further expansion and exploration of current and new end uses while emphasizing the integrated water planning and management as well as challenging and tasks in the future.
Chen, Z, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2013, 'Risk control in recycled water schemes', Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 22, pp. 2439-2510.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recycled water is becoming one of the indispensable and reliable water resources at present. When it is introduced as an alternative source, risks on human health and the environment become major constraints driving the application and extension of recycled water. The authors examine the sources and associated risks of recycled water and introduce the practical risk control technologies on various end uses. They also review some existing risk assessment models by comparing their strengths and weaknesses toward the good approach of integrated modeling. Some critical suggestions on risk management and communication are made based on the given information.
Chen, Z, Ngo, H, Guo, W & Wang, X 2013, 'Analysis of Sydney's recycled water schemes', Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 608-615.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recycled water provides a viable opportunity to partially supplement fresh water supplies as well as substantially alleviate environmental loads. Currently, thousands of recycled water schemes have been successfully conducted in a number of countries and Sydney is one of the leading cities, which has made massive effort to apply water reclamation, recycling and reuse. This study aims to make a comprehensive analysis of recycled water schemes in Sydney for a wide range of end uses such as landscape irrigation, industrial process uses and residential uses (e.g., golf course irrigation, industrial cooling water reuse, toilet flushing and clothes washing etc.). For each representative recycled water scheme, this study investigates the involved wastewater treatment technologies, the effluent quality compared with specified guideline values and public attitudes toward different end uses. Based on these obtained data, multi criteria analysis (MCA) in terms of risk, cost-benefit, environmental and social aspects can be performed. Consequently, from the analytical results, the good prospects of further expansion and exploration of current and new end uses were identified toward the integrated water planning and management. The analyses could also help decision makers in making a sound judgment for future recycled water projects.
Chen, Z, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Wang, XC, Miechel, C, Corby, N, Listowski, A & O'Halloran, K 2013, 'Analysis of social attitude to the new end use of recycled water for household laundry in Australia by the regression models', Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 79-84.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recycled water for household laundry can be regarded as a promising strategy to alleviate the current demand on scarce water supplies. Public acceptability becomes fairly important to ensure the successful establishment and development of this new end use. To address the issue, this study conducted social surveys in two locations of Australia, Port Macquarie and Melbourne, where respondents were asked 17 questions. The regression models provide conclusions about which characteristics are more likely to lead to the acceptance of recycled water from society. Three attitudinal variables (RWAlterDW, Attitude and Cost) and three psychological variables (Odour, Reading and SmallUnit) were found to be the key driving forces behind domestic water reuse behaviour. These findings could drive the future research direction to achieve better public perception of this new end use of recycled water.
Fan, J, Wang, W, Zhang, B, Guo, Y, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Zhang, J & Wu, H 2013, 'Nitrogen removal in intermittently aerated vertical flow constructed wetlands: Impact of influent COD/N ratios', Bioresource Technology, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 461-466.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The performance response of eight vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) to different influent COD/N ratios and intermittent aeration in domestic wastewater treatment was investigated. Almost complete nitrification was obtained by intermittent aeration, which well developed alternate anaerobic and aerobic conditions for nitrification and denitrification. Sufficient carbon source supply resulted from influent COD/N ratio of 10 simultaneously obtained high removals of COD (96%), ammonia nitrogen (99%) and total nitrogen (90%) in intermittently aerated VFCWs. In all non-aerated VFCWs, poor nitrification was observed due to oxygen deficiency whilst high COD/N ratios further led to lower COD and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results suggest that intermittent aeration combined with high influent COD/N ratios could achieve high nitrogen removal in VFCWs.
Fan, J, Zhang, B, Zhang, J, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Liu, F, Guo, Y & Wu, H 2013, 'Intermittent aeration strategy to enhance organics and nitrogen removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands', Bioresource Technology, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 117-122.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, an intermittent-aerated subsurface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) A was set up to assess its performance in decentralized rural sewage treatment. A conventional SFCW B and a subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS C) were also constructed for comparison. Alternate anaerobic and aerobic conditions were well developed by intermittent aeration. High removal of organic pollutants (29.3 g m-2 d-1), ammonium nitrogen (3.5 g m-2 d-1) and total nitrogen (3.3 g m-2 d-1) were obtained simultaneously in SFCW A compared with SFCW B and SWIS C. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis proved that the intermittent aeration obviously enhanced the growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in SFCW A. These results suggest that intermittent aeration strategy is reliable to enhance the performance of SFCWs in decentralized rural sewage treatment.
Guadie, A, Xia, S, Zhang, Z, Guo, W, Ngo, H & Hermanowicz, SW 2013, 'Simultaneous removal of phosphorus and nitrogen from sewage using a novel combo system of fluidized bed reactor-membrane bioreactor (FBR-MBR)', Bioresource Technology, vol. 149, no. 1, pp. 276-285.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A FBRMBR combo system was designed as a novel approach for simultaneous phosphorus and nitrogen removal from sewage. The combo system was evaluated more than 7 months under variable pH (7.5-9.5), hydraulic retention times (HRT = 2-10 h), intermittent aeration cycles (IAC) (on/off = 60/60-15/45 min) and sludge retention times (SRT = 1060 d). Prior recovery of phosphorus as struvite in the FBR enhanced nitrogen and COD removal efficiency in MBR. Under optimum operating conditions (pH = 9, HRT = 6 h and IAC = 45/15 min), PO43-P, NH4-N and COD removal efficiencies were 92.6 ± 4.2, 98.7 ± 1.2 and 99.3 ± 0.5%, respectively. Stable mixed liquor suspended solid concentration (3.0-5.0 g/L); enhanced nitrificationdenitrification activity (78-92%) and reduced transmembrane pressure were also achieved. Compared to soluble microbial products, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) showed strong correlation with fast membrane fouling. Among EPS components, carbohydrate rather than protein was associated with membrane fouling. Except HRT, all parameters considered (pH, IAC, SRT) showed a significant effect on removal efficiency.
Hossain, MD, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2013, 'Introductory of Microsoft Excel SOLVER function-Spreadsheet method for isotherm and kinetics modelling of metals biosorption in water and wastewater', Journal of Water Sustainability, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 223-237.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper aims to introduce a simple method to run a complicated non-linear analysis of isotherm and kinetics models for metals biosorption based on input functions of spreadsheets. A robust method is demonstrated here to exploit the `SOLVER function available in Microsoft (MS) Excel spreadsheet. It is more economic and user friendly than specialized computer programmes. In this study, an iterative method was proposed to produce the optimal goodness of fit between experimental data and predicted data. This was described the implementing method of a set of real data (garden grass as biosorbent) and the predicted results were compared with linear analysis and MATLAB analysis. The R2 values found from MS Excel spreadsheet were 0.995, 0.999 and 0.996 while being 0.997, 1.000 and 0.999 by MATLAB for copper, lead and cadmium adsorption, respectively onto garden grass. The prediction of maximum adsorption, qm by excel (59.336, 63.663 and 42.310 mg/g) were very similar to MATLAB (59.889, 63.509 and 41.560 mg/g). The predictions of kinetics parameters were also close to MATLAB analysis. Hence, the MS Excel Spreadsheet method could be a handy tool for biosorption models.
Jia, W, Liang, S, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Zhang, J, Wang, R & Zou, Y 2013, 'Effect of phosphorus load on nutrients removal and N2O emission during low-oxygen simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process', Bioresource Technology, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 123-130.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Three laboratory scale anaerobicaerobic (low-oxygen) SBRs (R1, R2 and R3) were conducted at different influent phosphorus concentration to evaluate the impacts of phosphorus load on nutrients removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during low-oxygen simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process. The results showed that TP and TN removals were enhanced simultaneously with the increase in phosphorus load. It was mainly caused by the enrichment of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) under high phosphorus load and low COD/P ratio (<50), which could use nitrate/nitrite as electron acceptors to take up the phosphorus. N2O emission was reduced with increasing phosphorus load. N2O-N emission amount per cycle of R3 was 24.1% lower than that of R1. It was due to the decrease of N2O yield by heterotrophic denitrification. When the phosphorus load increased from R1 to R3, heterotrophic denitrification (D) ranged from 42.6% to 36.6% of the N2O yield.
Jia, W, liang, S, Zhang, J, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Yan, Y & zou, Y 2013, 'Nitrous oxide emission in low-oxygen simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process: Sources and mechanisms', Bioresource Technology, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 444-451.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study attempts to elucidate the emission sources and mechanisms of nitrous oxide (N2O) during simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process under oxygen-limiting condition. The results indicated that N2O emitted during low-oxygen SND process was 0.8 ± 0.1 mg N/gMLSS, accounting for 7.7% of the nitrogen input. This was much higher than the reported results from conventional nitrification and denitrification processes. Batch experiments revealed that nitrifier denitrification was attributed as the dominant source of N2O production. This could be well explained by the change of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community caused by the low-oxygen condition. It was observed that during the lowoxygen SND process, AOB species capable of denitrification, i.e., Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas-like, were enriched whilst the composition of denitrifiers was only slightly affected. N2O emission by heterotrophic denitrification was considered to be limited by the presence of oxygen and unavailability of carbon source.
Kong, Q, Zhang, J, Ngo, H, Ni, S, Fu, R, Guo, W, Guo, N & Tian, L 2013, 'Nitrous oxide emission in an aerobic granulation sequencing batch airlift reactor at ambient temperatures', International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 533-538.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study aims to investigate the nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in an aerobic granulation sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR) and the associated microbial community of aerobic granular sludge at ambient temperature (18+-3)0C. After 48 days of operation, 1-2 mm granules were obtained and excellent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium NH4-N removal efficiencies were stably achieved. N2O concentration in the off gas was maximal at the beginning of the aerobic period and stabilized at a lower concentration after an initial peak. (0.60+-0.17, n=3) % of the total nitrogen load to the SBAR was emitted as N2O. A dramatic change in the microbial community structure was noted between the initial seed sludge and the final mature aerobic granular sludge. Nitrosospira was identified to be the dominant ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) which was attributed as the dominant source of N2O production in aerobic granular sludge by analysis of 16S rDNA sequences.
Li, C, liang, S, Zhang, J, Ngo, H, Guo, W, zheng, N & zou, Y 2013, 'N2O reduction during municipal wastewater treatment using a two-sludge SBR system acclimatized with propionate', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 222, pp. 353-360.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A two-sludge denitrifying phosphorus removal process (A2N-SBR), acclimatized with propionate, was proposed as an efficient method for nitrous oxide (N2O) reduction during municipal wastewater treatment. Compared with the conventional nitrificationâdenitrification process (AO-SBR) operated in parallel, the A2N-SBR not only significantly improved total nitrogen and soluble phosphorus removal efficiencies by around 32.3% and 23.5%, respectively, but also greatly reduced N2O generation by around 31.5%. Moreover, like the anoxic stage of AO-SBR, nearly zero N2O (merely 0.054% of the removed nitrogen) was generated during the anoxic stage of A2N-SBR. The substantial N2O reduction achieved in the proposed A2N-SBR can be reasonably explained by: (i) the use of independent nitrification reactor resulting in higher activity of nitrifying bacteria and no occurrence of heterotrophic denitrification in aerobic stage, and (ii) the use of propionate as carbon source decreasing nitrite accumulation in anoxic stage.
Li, C, Wang, T, Zheng, N, Zhang, J, Ngo, H, Guo, W & Liang, S 2013, 'Influence of organic shock loads on the production of N2O in denitrifying phosphorus removal process', Bioresource Technology, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 160-166.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this work, the influences of short-term organic shock loads on N2O production during denitrifying phosphorus removal were investigated by changing the influent COD concentrations (100, 200, 350, and 500 mg/L). After switching the COD concentrations from 200 to 350 or 500 mg/L, N2O-N production amount increased from 1.62% to 7.12% or 3.29% of the TN removal, respectively, while the corresponding effluent phosphorus concentrations increased from 1.84 to 16.55 and 56.08 mg/L, respectively, which were higher than the influent phosphorus concentration (4.93 mg/L). Furthermore, when the COD concentration was decreased to 100 mg/L, N2O-N production amount was only 1.20%. All results suggested that higher organic shock loads increased N2O production. The main reason was that higher organic shock loads increased anaerobic poly-b-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis, which resulted in higher nitrite accumulation. The influences of higher organic shock loads on N2O production could be minimized by adopting continuous nitrate addition strategy.
Li, C, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Zhang, Y & Zou, Y 2013, 'Nitrous oxide generation in denitrifying phosphorus removal process: Main causes and control measures', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 20, pp. 5353-5360.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Despite the many benefits of denitrifying phosphorus removal process, the significant generation of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, remains a problem for this innovative and promising process. To better understand and more effectively control N2O generation in denitrifying phosphorus removal process, batch experiments were carried out to investigate the main causes of N2O generation, based on which the control measures were subsequently proposed. The results showed that N2O generation accounted for 0.41 % of the total nitrogen removal in denitrifying phosphorus removal process, whereas, in contrast, almost no N2O was generated in conventional denitrification process. It was further demonstrated that the weak competition of N2O reductase for electrons and the high nitrite accumulation were the two main causes for N2O generation, evidenced by N2O production and reduction rates under different conditions. Accordingly, the reduction of N2O generation was successfully achieved via two control measures: (1) the use of continuous nitrate addition reducing N2O generation by around 91.4 % and (2) the use of propionate as the carbon source reducing N2O generation by around 69.8 %.
Li, J, Li, J, Wang, H, Cheng, B, He, B, Yan, F, Yang, Y, Guo, W & Ngo, H 2013, 'Electrocatalytic oxidation of n-propanol to produce propionic acid using an electrocatalytic membrane reactor', Chemical communications Chemcomm, vol. 49, pp. 4501-4503.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
An electrocatalytic membrane reactor assembled using a nano-MnO2 loading microporous Ti membrane as an anode and a tubular stainless steel as a cathode was used to oxidize n-propanol to produce propionic acid. The high efficiency and selectivity obtained is related to the synergistic effect between the reaction and separation in the reactor.
Listowski, A, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2013, 'Establishment of an economic evaluation model for urban recycled water', Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 72, pp. 67-75.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study aimed at establishing an economic evaluation model to encourage continuing improvement in performance analysis and applying for any infrastructure system of urban recycled water. A thorough study towards characterization and economic performance assessment of urban water reuse scheme were carried out. An integrated evaluation technique was developed by synthesizing the quantitative and qualitative performance indicators related to the water recycled technology and urban water cycle system. Specific performance indicators and indexes were aggregated into an economic analytical modelling for effective evaluation of the water reuse scheme and technology using uniform economic performance standards. Detailed economic analyses were successfully applied to enable determination of economic lifetime of the technology and the whole water reuse scheme. This research confirmed that productivity, efficiency and reliability measurements and factors could be successfully deployed for determining the scheme performance during various life cycle stages (e.g. design development, operational and functional verification, or comparison with other reuse projects). The economic assessment model was applied to improve uniformity of analytical process and performance measure. This article demonstrates benefits associated with the application of a standardized methodology for performing economic assessment and by maintaining strong correlation between multi-parameter approach and adopted performance criteria in terms of productivity, efficiency and reliability. However, to ensure effectiveness of this assessment, the process would require systematic and perpetual inventory of the scheme performance data, consideration of variable factors such as capital and recurrent costs.
Ma, X, Wang, XC, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Wu, MN & Wang, N 2013, 'Reverse osmosis pretreatment method for toxicity assessment of domestic wastewater using Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 248-254.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Luminescent bacterial test is a fast and sensitive method for acute toxicity assessment of water and wastewater. In this study, an improved toxicity testing method was developed using the freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 that involved pretreatment of water samples with reverse osmosis (RO) to eliminate the interferences caused by nutrients in concentrated samples and to improve the reliability and sensitivity of the analysis. Because water samples contain low concentrations of several target toxic substances, rapid acute toxicity testing method that is commonly employed does not achieve enough sensitivity. The proposed RO pretreatment could effectively enrich organic and inorganic substances in water samples to enable a more effective and sensitive toxicity evaluation. The kinetic characteristics of toxicity of raw sewage and secondary effluent were evaluated based on the relative luminescence unit (RLU) curves and timeconcentration-effect surfaces. It was observed that when the exposure time was prolonged to 8-h or longer, the bacteria reached the logarithmic growth stage. Hence, the stimulating effects of the coexisting ions (such as Na+, K+, NO3-) in the concentrated samples could be well eliminated. A 10-h exposure time in proposed Q67 test was found to quantitatively evaluate the toxicity of the organic and inorganic pollutants in the RO-concentrated samples.
Mainali, B, Pham, N, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2013, 'Maximum allowable values of the heavy metals in recycled water for household laundry', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 452-453, no. 1, pp. 427-432.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in dual reticulation systems has a great potential as the significant amount of potablewater fromurban households can be saved. However, there is still no sufficient evidence and supporting recycledwater quality guidelines for this particular use. A key gap in knowledge is the impact of heavymetals in recycledwater on clothes and washingmachines. Thus, this study aims to determine the maximumallowable values (MAVs) of the heavy metals iron (Fe), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), andmanganese (Mn) in recycled water for washing clothes in washing machines. Six different concentrations of each targeted metals were prepared in tap water for the washing machine experiments. The tearing/tensile strength tests were used for the assessment of cloth durability.MINITAB 16 as a statistical tool was used and ANOVA one way testwas applied for the significance analysis (Turkey's test p b 0.05). The results show that theMAVs of the heavy metals Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn were found to be 1 mg/l, 1 mg/l, 10 mg/l, 5 mg/l and 1 mg/l respectively in terms of cloth durability.
Mainali, B, Pham, N, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Miechel, C, O'Halloran, K, Muthukaruppan, M & Listowski, A 2013, 'Vision and perception of community on the use of recycled water for household laundry: A case study in Australia', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 463-464, no. 1, pp. 657-666.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigates the community perception of household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in three different locations of Australia through a face to face questionnaire survey (n = 478). The study areas were selected based on three categories of (1) non-user, (2) perspective user and (3) current user of recycled water. The survey results indicate that significantly higher number (70%) of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing machines (?2 = 527.40, df = 3; p = 0.000). Significant positive correlation between the overall support for the new end use and the willingness of the respondents to use recycled water for washing machine was observed among all users groups (r = 0.43, p = 0.000). However, they had major concerns regarding the effects of recycled water on the aesthetic appearance of cloth, cloth durability, machine durability, odour of the recycled water and cost along with the health issues. The perspective user group had comparatively more reservations and concerns about the effects of recycled water on washing machines than the non-users and the current users (?2 = 52.73, df = 6; p = 0.000). Overall, community from all three study areas are willing towelcome this new end use as long as all their major concerns are addressed and safety is assured.
Nguyen, T, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Zhang, J, Liang, S & Tung, K 2013, 'Feasibility of iron loaded 'okara' for biosorption of phosphorous in aqueous solutions', Bioresource Technology, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 42-49.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigated the feasibility of using soybean milk by-products (okara) as a sustainable biosorbent for phosphate removal in water and wastewater. The results show that raw okara could hardly decontaminate phosphate from aqueous solutions. Hence, in this work, okara was modified by being cationized using FeCl3 0.25 M (namely iron loaded okara, ILO) to enhance the phosphorus adsorption capacity. The phosphate sorption onto ILO was well achieved under the conditions of pH 3, initial phosphorous concentration of 25 mg/L, biosorbent dose of 20 mg/L and contact time of 7 h. Based on Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity of phosphate by ILO was 4.785 mg/g. The effects of interfering anions were in the order of CO3 > SO4 > NO3 . It was also observed that Fe(III) was detached during operation. This problem can hinder the sustainable usability of ILO. Thus, further research would be necessary for improving the modification method.
Nguyen, T, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Zhang, J, Liang, S, Yue, Q, Li, Q & Nguyen, V 2013, 'Applicability of agricultural waste and by-products for adsorptive removal of heavy metals from wastewater', Bioresource Technology, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 574-585.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This critical review discusses the potential use of agricultural waste based biosorbents (AWBs) for sequestering heavy metals in terms of their adsorption capacities, binding mechanisms, operating factors and pretreatment methods. The literature survey indicates that AWBs have shown equal or even greater adsorption capacities compared to conventional adsorbents. Thanks to modern molecular biotechnologies, the roles of functional groups in biosorption process are better understood. Of process factors, pH appears to be the most influential. In most cases, chemical pretreatments bring about an obvious improvement in metal uptake capacity. However, there are still several gaps, which require further investigation, such as (i) searching for novel, multi-function AWBs, (ii) developing cost-effective modification methods and (iii) assessing AWBs under multi-metal and real wastewater systems. Once these challenges are settled, the replacement of traditional adsorbents by AWBs in decontaminating heavy metals from wastewater can be expected in the future.
Nguyen, TT, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2013, 'Effect of sponge volume fraction on the performance of a novel fluidized bed bioreactor', Water Science and Technology, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 2645-2650.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A novel fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was designed by integration of anaerobic granular activated carbon and aerobic sponge reactors. This FBBR was evaluated at different sponge volume fractions for treating a synthetic wastewater. Polyester urethane sponge with cube size of 1 × 1 × 1 cm and density of 2830 kg/m3 with 90 cells per 25 mm was used as biomass carrier. The results indicate that the FBBR could remove more than 93% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The highest nutrient removal efficiencies (58.2% PO4-P and 75.4% NH4-N) were achieved at 40% sponge volume fraction. The system could provide a good condition for biomass growth (e.g. 186.2 mg biomass/g sponge). No significant different performance in specific oxygen uptake rate was observed between 30, 40, and 50% sponge volume fractions.
Nguyen, TT, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2013, 'Pilot scale study on a new membrane bioreactor hybrid system in municipal wastewater treatment', Bioresource Technology, vol. 141, pp. 8-12.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A pilot scale membrane bioreactor hybrid system (MBR-HS) was evaluated for municipal wastewater treatment. This novel system comprised of a granular activated carbon-sponge fluidized bed bioreactor (GACS-FBBR) followed by a submerge membrane bioreactor (MBR) with the capacity of 2 L/min. The results indicated that the MBR-HS could effectively remove 90% DOC and 95% NH4N. PO4P removal efficiency was remained stable at about 70% throughout the experiment. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of activated sludge increased from 0.72 to 2.21 mg O2/gVSS h for the first 10 days and then followed by a steady stage until the end of experiment. Sludge volume index (SVI) was always below 50 mL/g, demonstrated an excellent settling properties of sludge. The system also showed an achievement in terms of low trans-membrane pressure (TMP) development rate. The TMP increasing rate was only 0.65 kPa/day, suggesting GACS-FBBR can be a promising pre-treatment for MBR.
Zuthi, M, Ngo, H, Guo, W & Nguyen, TT 2013, 'The effects of biomass parameters on the dissolved organic carbon removal in a sponge submerged membrane bioreactor', World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 46-50.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
A novel sponge submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) was developed to effectively remove organics and nutrients from wastewater. Sponge is introduced within the SSMBR as a medium for the attached growth of biomass. This paper evaluates the effects of new and acclimatized sponges for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal from wastewater at different mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration of the sludge. It was observed in a series of experimental studies that the acclimatized sponge performed better than the new sponge whilst the optimum DOC removal could be achieved at 10g/L of MLSS with the acclimatized sponge. Moreover, the paper analyses the relationships between the MLSSsponge/MLSSsludge and the DOC removal efficiency of SSMBR. The results showed a non-linear relationship between the biomass parameters of the sponge and the sludge, and the DOC removal efficiency of SSMBR. A second-order polynomial function could reasonably represent these relationships.
Zuthi, M, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Li, J, Xia, S & Zhang, Z 2013, 'New proposed conceptual mathematical models for biomass viability and membrane fouling of membrane bioreactor', Bioresource Technology, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 737-740.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The production and accumulation of soluble microbial products (SMP), extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and colloidal inert compounds within a membrane bioreactor (MBR) may greatly affect the biomass viability and subsequently the permeability of the membrane. This paper aims at presenting new mathematical models of biomass viability and membrane fouling that has been conceptually developed through establishing links between these biomass parameters and operating parameters of the MBR. The proposed models can be used to predict the biomass viability and membrane fouling at any state of operation of MBR. Meanwhile, easily measurable parameters of the proposed model can also serve to estimate SMP/EPS concentration in the supernatant of MBR without the tedious and expensive measurement.
Zuthi, M, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Zhang, J & Liang, S 2013, 'A review towards finding a simplified approach for modelling the kinetics of the soluble microbial products (SMP) in an integrated mathematical model of membrane bioreactor (MBR)', International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 466-473.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Soluble microbial products (SMPs) tend to accumulate in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems as a consequence of high membrane rejection and apparently low biodegradability within the wastewater treatment system. The extension of the activated sludge models (ASMs) with SMPs, therefore, has received crucial importance in recent days, particularly considering their potential use as indicators of the membrane fouling propensity. This paper presents a critical review of the formation and degradation kinetics of SMP subdivisions that have so far been used for the mathematical modelling of MBR. The paper identified a simplified approach to incorporate the kinetics of the SMP formation and degradation in the general mathematical models of MBR. It suggested that the inclusion of only four additional linear differential equations in the ASM1-SMP integrated mathematical model could simulate well the effluent quality and membrane fouling prediction. The model would also serve as a useful tool in optimizing operation conditions for better treatability and fouling control.
Chen, Z, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Listowski, A, O'Halloran, K, Thompson, M & Muthukaruppan, M 2012, 'Multi-criteria analysis towards the new end use of recycled water for household laundry: A case study in Sydney', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 438, pp. 59-65.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper aims to put forward several management alternatives regarding the application of recycled water for household laundry in Sydney. Based on different recycled water treatment techniques such as microfiltration (MF), granular activated carbon (GAC) or reverse osmosis (RO), and types of washing machines (WMs), five alternatives were proposed as follows: (1) do nothing scenario; (2) MF+existing WMs; (3) MF+newWMs; (4) MFâGAC+existing WMs; and (5) MFâRO+existing WMs. Accordingly, a comprehensive quantitative assessment on the trade-off among a variety of issues (e.g., engineering feasibility, initial cost, energy consumption, supply flexibility and water savings) was performed over the alternatives. This was achieved by a computer-based multi-criteria analysis (MCA) using the rank order weight generation together with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) outranking techniques. Particularly, the generated 10,000 combinations of weights via Monte Carlo simulation were able to significantly reduce the man-made errors of single fixed set of weights because of its objectivity and high efficiency. To illustrate the methodology, a case study on Rouse Hill Development Area (RHDA), Sydney, Australia was carried out afterwards. The study was concluded by highlighting the feasibility of using highly treated recycled water for existing and new washing machines. This could provide a powerful guidance for sustainable water reuse management in the long term. However, more detailed field trials and investigations are still needed to effectively understand, predict and manage the impact of selected recycled water for new end use alternatives.
Chen, Z, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2012, 'A Critical Review On Sustainability Assessment Of Recycled Water Schemes', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 426, pp. 13-31.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recycled water provides a viable opportunity to supplement water supplies as well as alleviate environmental loads. To further expand current schemes and explore new recycled water end uses, this study reviews several environmental assessment tools, incl
During the last decades, the interest of using membrane technology has emerged in wastewater treatment as well as drinking water and process water production. However, the impediment of the membrane technology is the fouling problem and consequently higher operating and membrane replacement cost. Hence, better understanding of membrane fouling is not only the key to solve the problems, but also is one of the main factors driving membrane technology forward. This mini-review paper identifies the major foulants and the principal membrane fouling mechanisms such as pore blocking, cake formation, concentration polarization, organic adsorption, inorganic precipitation and biological fouling. It also gives a holistic review about different fouling phenomena during the application of membrane separation technologies in water and wastewater treatment, with specific references to various problems, membranes, treatment processes and its practical applications.
Hossain, A, Ngo, H, Guo, W & Nguyen, V 2012, 'Biosorption of Cu(II) From Water by Banana Peel Based Biosorbent: Experiments and Models of Adsorption and Desorption', Journal of Water Sustainability, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 87-104.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Banana peel, a discarded agricultural waste was used to produce bioadsorbent through easy and environmental friendly processes. This banana peel based biosorbent was evaluated for adsorptive removal of copper from water and its desorption capability. The characterisation results showed this biosorbent had very high specific surface area, potential binding sites and functional groups. The optimal conditions for biosorption were found at pH 6.5, biosorbent size of less than 75Î¼, dose of 0.5g/100ml and 1-hour contact time. Thermodynamic analysis also indicated that its adsorption was spontaneous. Significant desorption of copper (94%) was obtained when using 0.1N H2SO4. Both adsorption and desorption equilibrium data were well described by Langmuir, SIPS and Koble-Corrigan models whilst kinetics data by pseudo-first order, Elovich and Intraparticle diffusion models. Modelsâ parameters were optimised by MATLABâs non-linear modelling. All models had good fitness with the experimental data from high R2 (0.970-1.00), low non-linear errors - RMSE (0.004-10.00) and low 2 (0.0004-10.00). The maximum adsorption and desorption capacities were 20.37 and 32.40 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption processes were controlled by chemisorption. Both adsorption and desorption processes could be described by the pseudo-first order kinetic. The potential applicability of banana peel based bioadsorbent could be further examined in a large-scale.
Hossain, A, Ngo, H, Guo, W & Setiadi, T 2012, 'Adsorption and desorption of copper(II) ions onto garden grass', Bioresource Technology, vol. 121, pp. 386-395.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The garden grass (GG) was firstly used to remove copper(II) from water as bioadsorbent. From the results of characterisation, the GG had the merits of high specific surface area, significant adsorption sites and functional groups. Copper-adsorption significantly depends on the initial copper concentrations, contact time, pH, adsorbent doses, particle sizes and temperature. The positive values of DG indicates that the adsorption of copper onto garden grass is non-spontaneous and values lies within the ranges of 4.452â13.660 kJ/mol for supporting physical adsorption. 0.1 N H2SO4 was found as suitable eluent, which could be used 5 cycles of adsorptionâdesorption. The data from adsorption and desorption equilibrium were well fitted by the Langmuir, SIPS and RedlichâPeterson isotherm models. The maximum adsorption and desorption capacities were 58.34 and 319.03 mg/g, respectively, for 1 g dose. Adsorption and desorption kinetics could be described by the Pseudo-first-order model.
Hossain, M, Ngo, H, Guo, W & Nguyen, V 2012, 'Palm Oil Fruit Shells As Biosorbent For Copper Removal From Water And Wastewater: Experiments And Sorption Models', Bioresource Technology, vol. 113, pp. 97-101.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Palm oil fruit shells were evaluated as a new bioadsorbent to eliminate toxic copper from water and wastewater. Without any chemical treatment, palm oil fruit shells were washed, dried and grounded into powder (<75 lm) for use in the experiments. Characterization showed mesopore based bioadsorbent was prepared from palm oil fruit shells. The results indicate that the highest Cu removal efficiency was found in an aqueous solution with pH of 6.5. The equilibrium sorption capacity of copper was significantly high (between 28 and 60 mg/g) at room temperature. Nonlinear regression analyses for isotherm models revealed that three-parameter isotherms had a better fit to the experimental data (R2 > 0.994) than that of two-parameter isotherms. The copper sorption system was heterogeneous as the values of exponents were lying between 0 and 1. The highly correlated pseudo-second-order kinetics model (R2 > 0.998) ascertained the applicability of copper removal by palm oil fruit shells.
Hossain, MA, Ngo, H, Guo, W & Nguyen, TV 2012, 'Removal of copper from water by adsorption onto banana peel as bioadsorbent', International Journal of GEOMATE, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 227-234.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Banana peel, a fruit waste were used to produce bioadsorbent through environment friendly process. It were cut, washed, dried, grounded into powder and used for copper removal. Copper adsorption onto banana peel was depended upon the controlling parameters such as particle size, doses, pH, contact time, agitation speed and temperature. Slightly acidic water (pH = 6) was found to be suitable for copper removal. Equilibrium data were well fitted (R2 = 0.998) with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The monolayer adsorption capacity was 27.78 mg/g. The calculated RL and `n values has proved the favorability of copper adsorption onto banana peel. Copper adsorption was followed the second order kinetic properly rather than other models. The equilibrium adsorption capacity was 1.439, 8.849, 18.182, 31.250 and 71.429 mg/g when initial copper concentrations were 10, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/l respectively. Solvent 0.1N Sulphuric acid showed higher desorption of copper (94%) and adsorption-desorption process can be continued till seven cycles efficiently.
Listowski, A, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2012, 'Development of a New Framework and Methodology for Social Assessment of Recycled Water Schemes', Journal of Water Sustainability, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 149-157.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The framework and methodology for social assessment follows concepts based on integrated water management and technology as the holistic process. This study was initially undertaken through literature review, collection and analysis of actual data from areas where water reclamation scheme have been in operation. The data obtained helped with identification of information gaps and communication deficiencies. The social assessment of technology might create some controversies, especially over environmental and health impact associated with a long term use of recycled water. This concept also implies that scientific research should support public debate, allowing greater public evaluation of the scheme its implications and consequences. This study could confirm that social assessment of water reclamation and reuse is considered in broad context and it suffers institutional separation and differentiation from economy and technology. It is fair to assert that, political economy and technological research are seen to be quite different from social research and it is often considered in a largely interpret technology and environmental contexts.
Liu, C, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2012, 'Watermelon Rind: Agro-waste or Superior Biosorbent?', Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 167, no. 6, pp. 1699-1715.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Biosorption of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) on watermelon rind in a wellstirred batch system was investigated. pH showed significant influence on the biosorption process. Optimal pH for Cu, Zn, and Pb biosorption was found to be 5.0, 6.8 and 6.8, respectively. Watermelon rind was in favor of Pb and it could remove up to 99% Pb between pH ranges of 5 and 6.8 when Pb concentration is lower than 100 mg/L. The biosorptive capacity of watermelon on Cu, Zn, and Pb was 6.281, 6.845, and 98.063 mg/g, respectively. The equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir adsorption isotherm while pseudo-secondorder kinetic model exhibited more advantages for describing kinetic data than pseudo-firstorder kinetic model. NaOH was found to be a suitable eluent. After desorption in NaOH solution, the resorption efficiency reached as high as 99% of these three metals either in a single-component or multi-component system. From the characterization study, ion exchange and micro-precipitation were estimated to be the main mechanisms. Due to its high metal uptake capacity, reusability, and metal recovery, watermelon rind can be considered as an eco-friendly and economic biosorbent for removing Pb from water and wastewater.
Liu, C, Ngo, H, Guo, W & Tung, K 2012, 'Optimal conditions for preparation of banana peels, sugarcane bagasse and watermelon rind in removing copper from water', Bioresource Technology, vol. 119, pp. 349-354.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, three agro-waste materials were used as biosorbents for removal of copper (Cu) from water. This work aims to optimise conditions for preparation of these materials to obtain maximum Cu adsorption capacity. The optimal conditions were determined in terms of Cu removal efficiency and/or energy consumption. The results indicate that banana peels dried at 120 C for 2 h and ground into powder form led to a better performance in terms of both copper removal efficiency and energy consumption. For sugarcane bagasse and watermelon rind, 120 C was the suitable drying temperature. However, the best drying time was 1 h for sugarcane bagasse and 3 h for watermelon rind. The powder form with size of <150 lm was optimal for all biosorbents in terms of removal efficiency and equilibration time. The findings are beneficial to the application of these agro-waste materials for Cu removal from water and wastewater treatment.
Luo, L, Wang, XC, Guo, W, Ngo, H & Chen, Z 2012, 'Impact assessment of excess discharges of organics and nutrients into aquatic systems by thermodynamic entropy calculation', Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 112, pp. 45-52.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, a method was proposed for calculating the thermodynamic entropy increase DS in a water body after receiving excess discharge of organics and nutrients in order to quantitatively assess the impact of pollutants discharge on aquatic systems. The enthalpy change was evaluated using the standard thermodynamic data according to the possible chemical and/or biochemical reactions such as organic oxidation, nitrification/denitrification, and phosphorus precipitation, for the recovery of water quality to the background level. A series of equations were established for calculating the DS associated with the decomposition or removal of TOC, NO3eN, NO2eN, NH3eN and TP. The values of DS corresponding to unit mass (per g) of these pollutants were calculated as 54.0 kJ/K, 2.91 kJ/K, 10.01 kJ/K, 28.51 kJ/K and 2.81 kJ/K, respectively. Besides, the applicability of the proposed method was proved by a scenario analysis regarding effluent quality control and surface water quality protection in China.
Ma, XY, Wang, XC, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2012, 'Application of vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67 for ecotoxic assessment of environmental waters: A mini review', Journal of Water Sustainability, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 209-220.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ecotoxicity assessment using luminescent bacteria has been wildly used because it is rapid, sensitive and cost effective for screening water and wastewater quality. This mini-review focused on the application of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67 (abbreviated as Q67), a natural freshwater luminescent bacteria strain discovered in China. The characteristics of the bioassay using Q67 were firstly reviewed with comparison to that using the Vibrio fischeri, a widely used marine luminescent bacteria strain. In addition to the principal of bioassay using luminescent bacteria, attention was paid to the applications of Q67 to the toxicity assessment of organic and inorganic substances, and practical water samples. With its advantage for direct evaluation of freshwater samples without salt addition, Q67 toxicity test can be a good alternative of Vibrio fischeri for toxicological study of environmental waters.
Nguyen, T, Ngo, H, Guo, W & Nguyen, V 2012, 'Phosphorous removal from aqueous solutions by agricultural by-products: A critical review', Journal of Water Sustainability, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 193-207.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Phosphorous plays an essential role in the development of living organisms. Nevertheless, phosphorous pollution, known as the eutrophication, is regarded as one of main causes of water quality deterioration. Hence, the decontamination of phosphorous from aqueous solutions is of importance for eutrophication control and phosphorous recovery. This review paper investigates the potential use of agricultural by-products (ABPs) as biosorbents in remediation of phosphorous contaminated waters. It was found that the modified ABPs exhibit equivalent or higher sorption capacity of phosphorous compared to conventional adsorbents. The efficient removal of phosphorous by ABPs requires some chemical modifications. The application of ABPs is highly recommended because of their significant advantages, including the abundant availability, low cost, high efficiency and without detrimental impacts on the environment. As adsorptive removal of phosphorous by ABPs is a relatively new process, there are still many aspects for future research, such as development of novel and cost-effective modification techniques, modeling for process optimization, desorption, cost-benefit analysis etc. The improvements in these aspects are expected to make it the method of choice in the future.
Nguyen, TT, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Listowski, A & Li, JX 2012, 'Evaluation Of Sponge Tray-Membrane Bioreactor (ST-MBR) For Primary Treated Sewage Effluent Treatment', Bioresource Technology, vol. 113, pp. 143-147.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The membrane bioreactor system (MBR) with pre-treatment of sponge tray bioreactor (STB) was evaluated at different operating conditions for treating primary treated sewage (PTS). The result indicated the successful removal of DOC with the efficiency of higher than 95%. The highest nutrient removal efficiency of 83.6% (NH4-N) and 75.5% (PO4-P) was observed at sludge concentration of 330 mg/L. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of activated sludge in MBR kept increasing up to 6 mg O2/g VSS h during stage IV. The sludge volume index (SVI) of less than 100 mL/g during the operation indicated the good settling property of the sludge. At highest sludge concentration of 5 g/L, trans-membrane pressure (TMP) was increasing dramatically during first 15 d up to 25 kPa; however it was only 6 kPa at lower sludge concentrations. It is concluded that the system showed the highest performance at stage III with sludge concentration of 330 mg/L.
Nguyen, V, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Li, J & Listowski, A 2012, 'Effects of Sludge Concentrations and Different Sponge Configurations on the Performance of a Sponge-Submerged Membrane Bioreactor', Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 167, pp. 1678-1687.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The performance of a novel sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) was evaluated to treat primary treated sewage effluent at three different activated sludge concentrations. Polyurethane sponge cubes with size of 1Ã1Ã1 cm were used as attached growth media in the bioreactor. The results indicated the successful removal of organic carbon and phosphorous with the efficiency higher than 98% at all conditions. Acclimatised sponge MBR showed about 5% better ammonia nitrogen removal at 5 and 10 g/L sludge concentration as compared to the new sponge system. The respiration test revealed that the specific oxygen uptake rate was around 1.0â3.5 mgO2/gVSS.h and likely more stable at 10 g/L sludge concentration. The sludge volume index of less than 100 mL/g during the operation indicated the good settling property of the sludge. The low mixed liquor suspended solid increase indicated that SSMBR could control the sludge production. This SSMBR was also successful in reducing membrane fouling with significant lower transmembrane pressure (e.g. only 0.5 kPa/day) compared to the conventional MBR system. Further study will be conducted to optimise other operating conditions.
Xing, W, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Listowski, A & Cullum, P 2012, 'Optimization Of An Integrated Sponge - Granular Activated Carbon Fluidized Bed Bioreactor As Pretreatment To Microfiltration In Wastewater Reuse', Bioresource Technology, vol. 113, pp. 214-218.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A specific integrated fluidized bed bioreactor (iFBBR) was optimized in terms of organic loading rate (OLR), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and frequency of new sustainable flocculant (NSBF) addition for primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE) treatment. It was observed that iFBBR achieved the best performance with the operating conditions of 4 times/day NSBF addition, HRT of 90 min and OLR of 8.64 kgCOD/day m3. The removal efficiencies were found to be more than 93% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 61% of total nitrogen (T-N) and 60% of total phosphorus (T-P). iFBBR as pretreatment of submerged microfiltration (SMF) is successful in increasing the critical flux and reducing the membrane fouling. NSBF-iFBBR-SMF hybrid system led to very high organic removal efficiency with an average DOC removal of 97% from synthetic PTSE.
Zuthi, M, Ngo, H & Guo, W 2012, 'Modelling bioprocesses and membrane fouling in membrane bioreactor (MBR): A review towards finding an integrated model framework', Bioresource Technology, vol. 122, pp. 119-129.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The bioprocesses taking place in activated sludge wastewater treatment system itself are characterized by great complexity and yet incomplete understanding of some of the phenomena involved. The MBR technology inherent deficiencies for its simulation due to additional intrinsic complexities resulting from the interaction between concurrently occurring and dynamic biological processes with membrane filtration and the straightforward adoption of the activated sludge modelsâ (ASM) frameworks or their modified variations. In this backdrop, this paper compiles a brief overview of the previous developments to the current state-of-the-art mathematical modelling approaches of the MBR system. With extended discussions on particular topics such as applications of modified ASMs to MBR modelling, ASM extensions incorporating soluble microbial products (SMP)/extracellular polymeric substances EPS) concepts, this paper also provides a guide for different end-users of mathematical models of MBR systems.
Chen, Z, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Wang, XC & Luo, L 2011, 'Probabilistic Assessment of Recycled Water Schemes in Australia Using MATLAB Toolbox', Journal of Water Sustainability, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 333-344.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Hundreds of recycled water schemes have been successfully established in Australia. However, water quality and risks on human health and the environment associated with particular end uses (e.g. irrigation, industrial uses, non-potable urban uses, groundwater recharges, indirect and direct potable reuses) are still of great concern which can limit the application and extension of recycled water. This study analyses representative recycled water schemes in Australia with regard to the sources and corresponding risks of recycled water, risk assessment approaches as well as practical risk control methods towards various end uses. To quantify the risks, this study proposes a probabilistic assessment approach for existing and future water recycling schemes. With the assistance of MATLAB toolbox, the model was able to fit observed data to probability distribution functions (PDFs) and express the percent removal in PDF rather than point values. This approach could be helpful in quantifying risk or percent removal of potential hazards which involve a degree of variability and randomness. The analytical results, when couple with other environmental assessment tools are convinced to be useful for integrated water planning and management in Australia.
Guo, W, Ngo, H, Wu, Z, Yen-Jung, H & Listowski, A 2011, 'Application of bioflocculant and nonwoven supporting media for better biological nutrient removal and fouling control in a submerged MBR', Sustainable Environment Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 53-58.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The study aims at modifying a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) with attached-growth nonwoven media and a new green bioflocculant (GBF) (developed at Environmental Engineering R & D laboratory, University of Technology, Sydney) addition to treat a high strength domestic wastewater for reuse. The performance of the SMBR was evaluated in terms of organic and nutrient removal as well as membrane fouling control. The results indicated that the integrated SMBR system could eliminate more than 95% dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand from the influent. The system achieved 100% of nitrification during 60 d of operation. The denitrification was primarily based on conventional nitrification-denitrification process occurring in the anoxic zone. The total nitrogen removal efficiency and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were 93 Â± 3 and 96 Â± 1% respectively. Although a relatively long solids retention time (50 d) were adopted, over 98% of total phosphorus in the influent was removed through biological phosphorus removal. The results also show that the addition of GBF could improve microbial activity and reduce membrane fouling. During the experiment, the transmembrane pressure developed marginally (4.5 kPa).
Listowski, A, Ngo, H, Guo, W & Vigneswaran, S 2011, 'A novel integrated assessment methodology of urban water reuse', Water Science And Technology, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 1642-1651.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wastewater is no longer considered a waste product and water reuse needs to play a stronger part in securing urban water supply. Although treatment technologies for water reclamation have significantly improved the question that deserves further analysis is, how selection of a particular wastewater treatment technology relates to performance and sustainabiiity? The proposed assessment model integrates; (i) technology, characterised by selected quantity and quality performance parameters; (ii) productivity, efficiency and reliability criteria; (iii) quantitative performance indicators; (iv) development of evaluation model. The challenges related to hierarchy and selections of performance indicators have been resolved through the case study analysis. The goal of this study is to validate a new assessment methodology in relation to performance of the microfiltration (MF) technology, a key element of the treatment process. Specific performance data and measurements were obtained at specific Control and Data Acquisition Points (CP) to satisfy the input-output inventory in relation to water resources, products, materiai flows, energy requirements, chemicals use, etc. Performance assessment process contains analysis and necessary linking across important parametric functions leading to reliable outcomes and results.
Listowski, A, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S, Shin, H & Moon, H 2011, 'Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions from Urban Wastewater System: Future Assessment Framework and Methodology', Journal of Water Sustainability, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 113-125.
Over the last two decades much scientific effort has been expended on the radiative gaseous emissions in the atmosphere. Although there are no regulatory requirements for managing gaseous emissions at present, the long term indications are, that impact relater to air pollution must embrace the broad diversity and challenges associated with urban wastewater cycle management. This study has been considered as a precursor to development of a comprehensive impact assessment of gaseous emission from urban wastewater infrastructure and treatment facilities. It has been carried out in consideration of the future climate change scientific projections, including socio-economic and environmental impacts. Major progress could be gained from systemic approaches in relation to factors influencing emission and the collected data demonstrates correlation between wastewater quality, treatment and energy used with the level of emission. An early attempt was made to attribute environmental impact and costs on per capita basis, as the weight of responsibility to take action is shifting to the community and individuals. The presented framework and methodology offers reliable evaluation of gaseous emissions is an integrated context comprising technology, environment, social and economic factors.
Urban water system (UWS) can be thermodynamically analysed by calculating the entropy budget based on the increase of entropy due to internal and/or external contributions. From different internal and external parts, two novel conceptual models of thermodynamic analysis for an UWS were proposed. For conceptual model 1, natural UWS as a pseudo-reversible process is internal contribution, while the external part of the UWS is artificial water cycle. When the entropy change of the natural UWS is equal to zero, the entropy change of the UWS is considered as the entropy change by the artificial water cycle. The calculations of entropy change for artificial water cycle are based on water balance and purification reactions of selected kinds of typical pollutants in the UWS. For conceptual model 2, the internal entropy change of the UWS is water body, and it is assumed to be zero due to dynamically equilibrium of the water body. The calculation of external entropy change caused by the natural water cycle was proposed to be dependent on meteorological and hydrological data whilst the external entropy change caused by the artificial water cycle could be obtained from mass balance and treatment process analysis.
Mainali, B, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Pham, N & Johnston, AJ 2011, 'Feasibility assessment of recycled water use for washing machines in Australia through SWOT analysis', Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 87-91.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Sustainable urban water consumption has become a critical issue in Australia due to increasing urbanization, the countryâs dry climate and its increasingly variable rainfall. Water recycling is considered vital to alleviate the demand on limited water supplies. The demands on water utilities to develop water recycling capacity and supplies are therefore expected to intensify in Australia. Dual reticulation systems have already been introduced in many cities in Australia and this is likely to expand to many other cities in the future. Developed and proposed dual reticulation schemes in Australia demand the substantial replacement of tap water with recycled water to ensure system optimisation and the sustainability of water supplies. This study successfully applies Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis as a research tool to assess the feasibility of use of recycled water in washing machine applications. Through the identification of the reuse schemes' strengths (elements to leverage and build on) and weaknesses (areas to seek assistance and support) in addition to community opportunities (areas to leverage for program advantages) and threats (elements that could hinder the scheme), the positive aspects for the use of recycled water in washing machines is observed. Further study to address the specific concerns of the general public and the development of guidelines for this new end use is however essential to guide the implementation of recycled water schemes.
Mainali, B, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Pham, N, Wang, XC & Johnston, AJ 2011, 'SWOT analysis to assist identification of the critical factors for the successful implementation of water reuse schemes', Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 32, pp. 297-306.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The reuse of urban wastewater has been recognised as an important alternative source of water and is a key aspect of sustainable water policy. As it is a promising innovation, a number of direct and indirect water reuse projects have been instigated and proposed, both nationally and internationally. However there is some uncertainty regarding the effectiveness and impact of these water reuse schemes (WRS). This study investigates the applicability of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) as an analysis tool for formulating the critical factors in terms of the implementation of water reuse schemes. Basically, this work adopts an existing multiple case study design method and makes use of SWOT to analyse all critical factors for each selected water reuse scheme. The strengths and weaknesses of successful and unsuccessful WRS are analysed followed by an assessment of the corresponding external opportunities and threats.. On this basis, the critical factors considered for the successful implementation of the WRS are identified. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has therefore been successfully implemented.
Pham, N, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Ho, D, Mainali, B, Johnston, AJ & Listowski, A 2011, 'Responses of community to the possible use of recycled water for washing machines: A case study in Sydney, Australia', Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 535-540.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recycled water is a valuable resource that has potential to free up potable water supplies and recharge systems while improving the environment. Recycled water for washing machine could be one of the options as new end use of recycled water to alleviate the demand on existing and limited water supplies. This paper summarizes the findings of a research survey in Sydney, Australia to explore the attitudes and opinions of community towards the use of recycled water for different purposes, especially for the washing machine. The survey showed that 97% of the respondents were aware of the persisting water shortage problem while more than 60% of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing clothes. This paper exposes the basic concern of participants for using recycled water in washing machine. Health issue was found as the most concerns of the community. The survey also presents the further conditions to be considered for using recycled water for washing machine according to the participants' opinions. Correlation between knowledge and attitudes of respondents was also found in this survey.
Xing, W, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Listowski, A & Cullum, P 2011, 'Evaluation Of An Integrated Sponge - Granular Activated Carbon Fluidized Bed Bioreactor For Treating Primary Treated Sewage Effluent', Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 5448-5453.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
An integrated fluidized bed bioreactor (iFBBR) was designed to incorporate an aerobic sponge FBBR (ASB-FBBR) into an anoxic granular activated carbon FBBR (GAC-FBBR). This iFBBR was operated with and without adding a new starch based flocculant (NSBF) to
Nguyen, V, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Phuntsho, S & Li, J 2011, 'A New Sponge Tray Bioreactor In Primary Treated Sewage Effluent Treatment', Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 5444-5447.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The new attached growth sponge tray bioreactor (STB) was evaluated at different operating conditions for removing organics and nutrients from primary treated sewage effluent. This STB was also assessed when using as a pre-treatment prior to micro-filtrat
Guo, W, Ngo, H, Dharmawan, F & Palmer, CG 2010, 'Roles of polyurethane foam in aerobic moving and fixed bed bioreactors', Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 1435-1439.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of sponge as an active mobile carrier for attachedgrowth biomass in three typical types of aerobic bioreactors to treat a high strength synthetic wastewater. The results show that sponge thickness deteriorated the organic and nutrient removal and 1 cm is the optimumthickness for fixed-bed sponge biofilter (SBF). The sponge volume had significant impact on phosphorus removal rather than organic or nitrogen removal, and 20% volume of sponge could achieve 100% T-P removal within 3 h in a sponge batch reactor (SBR). When sponge coupled with submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR), the single system show outstanding ammonium (100% at filtration flux of 10 and 15 L/m2 h) and phosphorus (>91% at all fluxes range) removal with optimum pH range of 6â7
Guo, W, Zhang, R, Vigneswaran, S, Ngo, H & Kandasamy, JK 2010, 'Membranes coupled with physico chemical treatment in water reuse', Water Science and Technology, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 513-519.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, short-term experiments were conducted with different configurations of membrane hybrid systems to treat biological treated sewage effluent containing refractory organic pollutants: (i) submerged hollow fiber microfiltration (SMF) alone; (ii) spiral flocculator (SF)-SMF without settling; (iii) SF-PAC-SMF without settling and (iv) SMF with magnetic ion exchange resin MIEXw pretreatment. The results indicated that the pre-flocculation of SF could improve the mitigation of membrane fouling significantly even when the system was operated at a high membrane filtration rate. The transmembrane pressure (TMP) of SF-PAC-SMF only increased marginally (0.8 kPa over 8 hours). SF-SMF without the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) also took a relatively long duration for the TMP to increase. The TMP only increased by 2.5 kPa over 8 hours. The SF-PAC-MF system resulted in a high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of more than 96%. When used as pre-treatment to submerged membranes, the fluidized bed MIEXw contactor could remove a significant amount of organic matter in wastewater. This pre-treatment helped to reduce the membrane fouling and kept the TMP low during the membrane operation.
Nguyen, V, Guo, W, Ngo, H & Vigneswaran, S 2010, 'A new combined inorganic-organic flocculant (CIOF) as a performance enhancer for aerated submerged membrane bioreactor', Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 204-209.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, a new combined inorganicorganic flocculant (CIOF) of FeCl3 and membrane performance enhancer (MPE50) was prepared and added to an aerated submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR). The effects of CIOF on the performance of an aerated submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) were evaluated. The results indicated that the SMBR with CIOF addition could remove almost 100% total phosphate while eliminating over 90% ammonia (NH4-N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during an 80-day of operation. The respiration tests revealed that the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) was stable around 1.52.0mgO2/gMLVSS h. The sludge volume index (SVI) of less than 100 mL/g during the operation showed the importance of CIOF on the improvement of settling properties of the sludge. Soluble carbohydrate concentration was also well correlated with DOC of the supernatant. CIOF was successful in the reduction of fouling of membrane as the membrane was only chemically cleaned after 53 days of operation.
Nguyen, V, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Johnston, AJ & Listowski, A 2010, 'Effects of sponge size and type on the performance of an up-flow sponge bioreactor in primary treated sewage effluent treatment', Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 1416-1420.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The effects of polyurethane sponge size and type on the performance of an up-flow sponge bioreactor were studied using different sponge cube sizes (1 Ã 1 Ã 1 cm, 2 Ã 2 Ã 2 cm and 3 Ã 3 Ã 3 cm) and types of sponge (S28-30/45R, S28-30/60R, S28-30/80R and S28-30/90R). The reactors were operated under anaerobic conditions in an early stage and an aerobic condition in a latter stage. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the organic and nutrient removal rates between sponge types. The medium size sponge (2 Ã 2 Ã 2 cm) had the best performance in terms of both biomass growth and pollutants removal. Under anaerobic condition, the COD, TN and TP removal efficiencies were up to 70%, 45% and 55%, respectively, and significantly improved under aerobic conditions (e.g. >90% TOC, 95% COD, 65% TN and 90% TP). The external biomass grew faster under anaerobic conditions while internal biomass was dominant under aerobic condition.
Xing, W, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Cullum, P & Listowski, A 2010, 'Integration Of Inorganic Micronutrients And Natural Starch Based Cationic Flocculant In Primary Treated Sewage Effluent (Ptse) Treatment', Separation Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 619-625.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, a natural starch-based cationic flocculant (SBCF) was first evaluated using a granular activated carbon fluidized-bed bioreactor (GAC-FBBR) to treat a high strength synthetic domestic wastewater (primary treated sewage effluent) containing
Xing, W, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Wu, Z, Nguyen, V, Cullum, P, Listowski, A & Yang, N 2010, 'Enhancement Of The Performance Of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Bioreactors (Afbbrs) By A New Starch Based Flocculant', Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 140-146.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, laboratory-scale anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactors (AFBBRs) using granular activated carbon as bedding material were employed for treating a primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE) with or without refractory organic pollutants (ROPs). A n
Guo, W, Ngo, H, Palmer, CG, Xing, W, Hu, YA & Listowski, A 2009, 'Roles of sponge sizes and membrane types in a single stage sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor for improving nutrient removal from wastewater for reuse', Desalination, vol. 249, no. 2, pp. 672-676.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Sponge not only can reduce membrane fouling by means of mechanical cleaning and maintain a balance of suspended-attached microorganisms in submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR), but also can enhance dissolved organic matter and nutrient removal. This study investigated the performance of three different sizes of sponge (S28â30/45R, S28â30/60R and S28â30/90R) associated with continuous aerated SMBR. A laboratory-scale single stage sponge-SMBR (SSMBR) showed high performance for removing dissolved organic matter (>96%) and PO4âP (>98.8), while coarse sponges such as S28â30/45R, S28â30/60R could achieve more than 99% removal of NH4âN. When three-size sponges (S28â30/45R, S28â30/60R and S28â30/90R) were mixed at a ratio of 1:1:1 and in conjunction with two kinds of membranes (0.1 Î¼m hollow fiber and 2 Î¼m nonwoven), the SSMBR system has proved its generic merits of superior treated effluent quality and less membrane fouling. The NH4âN and PO4âP removal were found excellent, which were more than 99.8% and over 99% respectively. Molecular weight distribution also indicated that major fractions of organic matter could be successfully removed by SSMBR.
Guo, W, Ngo, H, Vigneswaran, S, Dharmawan, F, Nguyen, V & Aryal, R 2009, 'Effect of different flocculants on short-term performance of submerged membrane bioreactor', Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 274-279.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study aims at evaluating the impacts of flocculant addition to a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR). Three types of common flocculants (FeCl3, PACl and chitosan) were tested based on the performance of organic and nutrients removal, respiration test and fouling control. The data showed that all of the flocculants not only could keep high removal efficiencies of DOC and COD (>90%) compared to SMBR alone, but also exhibited different advantages and disadvantages according to the properties of the flocculants. For instance, inorganic flocculants strongly affected the nitrification process and organic flocculant addition slightly reduced the phosphorus removal efficiency in SMBR. After adding FeCl3 and PACl, NH4-N removal decreased to 31.9% and 11.1%, while T-N removal dropped to 22% and 0.5% respectively. Although flocculants addition improved sludge settleability and oxygen transfer to some extent, organic flocculant obtained more stable sludge volume indexes (SVI) and specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR) than those of inorganic flocculants. Inorganic flocculants, on the other hand, led to more reduction of soluble microbial products (SMP) present in mixed liquor and lower membrane fouling rates (1.3 and 2.6 kPa/day for FeCl3 and PACl respectively).
Guo, W, Xing, W, Ngo, H, Hu, YA, Palmer, CG & Zhang, R 2009, 'Enhancement of Organics removal by an Integrated Nonwoven Media Biofiter-submerged Membrane Adsorption Hybrid System', Journal of Applied Membrane Science & Technology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-8.
Listowski, A, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S & Palmer, CG 2009, 'Concepts towards a novel integrated assessment methodology of urban water reuse', Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 11, no. 1-3, pp. 81-92.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Traditional supplies of large volumes of water and wastewater disposal technologies have offered a linear solution, thus intensifying environmental stress. In addition, provision of urban infrastructure especially any major augmentations are often the impractical or economically prohibitive. Urban water cycle should be viewed as an interactive and coordinated approach involving: Available water resources, Appropriate treatment technology producing fi t for purpose water quality, and Ascertaining long term balance between environmental, social and economic issues.
Ngo, H & Guo, W 2009, 'Membrane fouling control and enhanced phosphorus removal in an aerated submerged membrane bioreactor using modified green bioflocculant', Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 18, pp. 4289-4291.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study aims at developing a modified green bioflocculant (GBF) for membrane fouling control and enhanced phosphorus removal in a conventional aerated submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) to treat a high strength domestic wastewater (primary sewage treated effluent) for reuse. The GBF was evaluated based on long-term operation of a lab-scale SMBR. These results showed that SMBR system could achieve nearly zero membrane fouling at a very low dose of GBF addition (500 mg/day) with less backwash frequency (2 times/day with 2-min duration). The transmembrane pressure only increased by 2.5 kPa after 70 days of operation. The SMBR could also remove more than 95% and 99.5% dissolved organic carbon and total phosphorus, respectively. From the respiration tests, it was evident that GBF not only had no negative impact on biomass but also led to high oxygen uptake rate (OUR) (>30 mg O2/L h) and stable specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR). These results also indicated that GBF had no effect on nitrogen removal and nitrification process.
Ngo, H, Chuang, Y, Guo, W, Ho, D, Pham, N, Johnston, AJ, Lim, RP & Listowski, A 2009, 'Resident's strategy survey on a new end use of recycled water in Australia', Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 11, no. 1-3, pp. 93-97.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The concept of using recycled water for washing machine was introduced as a new end use. As there is a noticeable lack social research in understanding the general public perceptions of this application, the residents strategy survey was carried out at some selective suburbs in Sydney with demographically based signifi cant differences of general, gender, age, education, and property style and ownership. The survey indicates that the majority in the community considers the use of recycled water for washing machine is indispensable in view of continuing drought and the associated water shortages. Given safety assurance and demonstration, recycled water for washing machine has a considerable proportion within the responses. The general level of knowledge in community clearly understand that recycled water is more environmentally friendly option, whereas from cleanness and public health point of view, higher quality water is required to be reused in washing machine. Moreover, the residents reckon to have a small unit for pre-treatment (point of use) before recycled water entering washing machines might assure the quality and safety. The survey also shows the major concerns for a resident to use recycled water for washing machine are public health, water cleanness and washing machine durability.
Guo, W, Ngo, H, Vigneswaran, S, Xing, W & Goteti, P 2008, 'A Novel Sponge-Submerged Membrane Bioreactor (SSMBR) for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse', Separation Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 273-285.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Membrane fouling has been regarded as one of the biggest challenges to widespread application of membrane bioreactor (MBR). This study focuses on minimizing the membrane fouling and improving the performance of submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) by porous sponge addition. The effects of sponge addition on sustainable flux and membrane fouling were investigated. Acclimatized sponge could significantly increase the suspended growth in SMBR with biomass of 16.7 g/L(sponge). With the sponge volume fraction of 10%, SSMBR could enhance sustainable flux up to 50 L/m2 · h compared with sustainable flux of SMBR (only 25 L/m2 · h). SSMBR also exhibited excellent results in terms of DOC removal (over 95%), COD removal (over 97%), lower transmembrane pressure development, and oxygen uptake rate. Over 89% of NH4-N and 98% of PO4-P were removed when SSMBR was operated with a MLSS concentration of 15 g/L.
Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S, Ngo, H & Xing, W 2008, 'Comparison of membrane bioreactor systems in wastewater treatment', Desalination, vol. 231, no. 1-3, pp. 61-70.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigated the performance of four different membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems, namely floating media biofiltercrossflow microfiltration (FMBCFMF) system, submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) alone, submerged membrane adsorption bioreactor (SMABR) and spongeSMBR system, in terms of critical flux. The results indicated that FMB could be used as a pretreatment unit prior to MBR in order to minimize membrane fouling when the FMBCFMF system operates under sub-critical flux condition. The addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) could maintain the sustainable flux at a lower TMP value (7.5 kPa). However, irreversible fouling occurred when the filtration flux exceeded the critical flux. The addition of 10% volume (reactor volume) fraction of sponge could increase sustainable flux of SMBR system to 2 times.
Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S, Ngo, H, Kandasamy, JK & Yoon, S 2008, 'The Role of a Membrane Performance Enhancer in a Membrane Bioreactor: a Comparison with Other Submerged Membrane Hybrid Systems', Desalination, vol. 231, no. 1-3, pp. 305-313.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Among the membrane processes, membrane bioreactor (MBR) technologies are becoming an innovative and promising option for wastewater treatment and reuse. In this study the performance of the submerged membrane bioreactor was studied with an addition of MPE50, and it was compared against a sponge submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) and submerged membrane adsorption bioreactor (SMABR) in terms of TOC removal, COD removal, ammonium nitrogen (NH4-H) removal, orthophosphate (PO4-P) removal, transmembrane pressure (TMP) and oxygen uptake rate. SMBR with MPE50 addition significantly improved the sustainable flux and reduced membrane fouling. The improvement was better than even in the sponge SMBR system. SMBR with MPE50 achieved a high DOC and COD removal efficiency and NH4-N removal. PO4-P removal concentration of 62% initially which increased with time to over 99% after 7 day operation. In terms of phosphorus removal the sponge SMBR system performed better. OUR measurements showed that there was more microbial activity in the SMBR with MPE50 system
Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S, Ngo, H, Xing, W & Goteti, P 2008, 'Comparison of the performance of submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) and submerged membrane adsorption bioreactor (SMABR)', Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 1012-1017.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study focuses on comparing the performance of submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) and submerged membrane adsorption bioreactor (SMABR) over a period of 20 days at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.1 h. The effects of PAC on critical flux and membrane fouling were also investigated. The SMABR exhibited better results in terms of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) growth, DOC removal (over 96%), COD removal (over 95%), transmembrane pressure (TMP) and oxygen uptake rate. Nearly 100% of bacteria and 100% of total coliforms were removed in both systems. The addition of PAC could maintain the critical flux at a lower TMP value (7.5 kPa), while irreversible fouling caused by PAC occurred when the filtration flux exceeded critical flux.
Ngo, H, Guo, W & Xing, W 2008, 'Evaluation of a novel sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) for sustainable water reclamation', Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 7, pp. 2429-2435.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A novel sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) to treat a high strength wastewater for water reclamation was developed in this study. The performance of this system was evaluated using two kinds of polyester-urethane sponges (coarse sponge with hig
Xing, W, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Listowski, A & Cullum, P 2008, 'Specific Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Bioreactors as Pretreatment to Microfiltration in Domestic Wastewater Treatment for Reuse', Journal of Applied Membrane Science & Technology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1-8.
Xing, W, Ngo, H, Kim, S, Guo, W & Hagare, P 2008, 'Adsorption and bioadsorption of granular activated carbon (GAC) for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal in wastewater', Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 18, pp. 8674-8678.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, the performances of GAC adsorption and GAC bioadsorption in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal were investigated with synthetic biologically treated sewage effluent (BTSE), synthetic primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE), real BTSE and real PTSE. The main aims of this study are to verify and compare the efficiency of DOC removal by GAC (adsorption) and acclimatized GAC (bioadsorption). The results indicated that the performance of bioadsorption was significantly better than that of adsorption in all cases, showing the practical use of biological granular activated carbon (BGAC) in filtration process. The most significance was observed at a real PTSE with a GAC dose of 5 g/L, having 54% and 96% of DOC removal by adsorption and bioadsorption, respectively. In addition, it was found that GAC adsorption equilibrium was successfully predicted by a hybrid Langmuir-Freundlich model whilst integrated linear driving force approximation (LDFA) + hybrid isotherm model could describe well the adsorption kinetics. Both adsorption isotherm and kinetic coefficients determined by these models will be useful to model the adsorption/bioadsorption process in DOC removal of BGAC filtration system. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xing, W, Ngo, H, Kim, S, Guo, W & Hagare, P 2008, 'Physico - Chemical processes for landfill Leachate Treatment: Experiments and Mathematical Models', Separation Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 347-361.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Xia, H, Guo, W, Wu, X, Pi, Y & Bradford, MA 2008, 'Lateral dynamic interaction analysis of a train-girder-pier system', Journal Of Sound And Vibration, vol. 318, no. 4-May, pp. 927-942.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A dynamic model of a coupled train-girder-pier system is developed in this paper. Each vehicle in a train is modeled with 27 degrees-of-freedom for a 4-axle passenger coach or freight car, and 31 for a 6-axle locomotive. The bridge model is applicable to
Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S, Ngo, H & Xing, W 2007, 'Experimental investigation on acclimatized wastewater for membrane bioreactors', Desalination, vol. 207, no. 1-3, pp. 383-391.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The inoculation and acclimatization of activated sludge (AS) is one of the vital components to provide preferably suspended aerobic growth and desired treatment mechanism for a treated wastewater using MBR. The performance of a floating media biofilter-s
Vigneswaran, S, Guo, W, Smith, PJ & Ngo, H 2007, 'Submerged Membrane Adsorption Hybrid System (smahs) Process Control And Optimization Of Operating Parameters', Desalination, vol. 202, no. 1-3, pp. 392-399.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study is to investigate the effect of operating parameters of submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system (SMAHS) such as preadsorption and powdered activated carbon requirement, aeration, filtration flux; There is an optimum value for each of the o
Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S, Ngo, H, Nguyen, VT & Ben Aim, RM 2006, 'Influence of bioreaction on a long-term operation of a submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system', Desalination, vol. 191, no. 1-3, pp. 92-99.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigates the long-term performance of a submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system (SMAHS) for organic matter removal from synthetic wastewater representing biologically treated wastewater by using a low dose of powdered activated carbon
Ngo, H, Nguyen, M, Sangvikar, N, Hoang, T & Guo, W 2006, 'Simple approaches towards the design of an attached-growth sponge bioreactor (AGSB) for wastewater treatment and reuse', Water Science and Technology, vol. 54, no. 11-12, pp. 191-197.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wastewater treatment and reuse is being emphasized due to the shortage of water sources and the continuous deterioration of the aquatic environment. In this study, a novel sponge bioreactor was studied as a low cost, high efficiency alternative for an attached growth biological system. This was designed by combining of number of sponge trays. This emerging technology has many beneficial properties in wastewater treatment and reuse. The approaches towards the conditions for system design were: (i) selection of sponge types; (ii) selection of sponge shapes; and (iii) selection of designated slope of sponge tray. They were determined through a series of experiments using a laboratory-scale unit with synthetic wastewater. It was then tested with a pilot-scale unit at the predetermined optimum conditions. The results indicate that the highest biomass growth was found at the sponge type with a cell count of 7090 cells/in2 (6.45 cm2) The relationship between biomass growth and biological oxygen consumption was well established. The prism-shaped sponge (triangular polyurethane sponge of 7090 cells/in2 with designated slope of sponge tray at 10 degrees) led to the best performance in terms of both organic and nutrient removal efficiency.
Guo, W, Shim, WG, Vigneswaran, S & Ngo, H 2005, 'Effect of Operating Parameters in a Submerged Membrane Adsorption Hybrid System: Experimental and Mathematical Modelling', Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 247, no. 1-2, pp. 65-74.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study aims at developing a simple and practical mathematical model to predict the performance of a submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system (SMAHS). Adsorption equilibrium and kinetic studies were first carried out with powdered activated carbon (PAC) for removing, persisting organics from a synthetic wastewater. A series of short-term SMAHS experiments were conducted with preadsorption a[ different operating conditions such as aeration rate, backwash frequency, PAC dose and filtration flux. The Talu adsorption equilibrium and homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) described well the isothermal adsorption behavior and adsorption kinetics. respectively The semi-empirical mathematical model formulated for membrane-adsorption system predicts successfully the performance of SMAHS in terms of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. A coefficient known as "membrane correlation coefficient (MCC)" introduced in the model was found to be very, useful in describing both the adsorption of organics adsorbed onto the PAC and onto the membrane surface. and separation of PAC (with organics adsorbed on it) by the membrane.
Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S & Ngo, H 2005, 'Effect of Flocculation and/or adsorption as pretreatment on the critical flux of crossflow microfiltration', Desalination, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 53-62.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S, Ngo, H & Chapman, HA 2004, 'Experimental Investigation Of Adsorption-Flocculatio-Microfiltration Hybrid System In Wastewater Reuse', Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 242, pp. 27-35.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Shon, H, Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S, Ngo, H & Kim, IS 2004, 'Effect of flocculation in membrane-flocculation hybrid system in water reuse', Separation Science And Technology, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1871-1883.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Preflocculation reduces the fouling of membranes in cross-flow microfiltration (CFM) thus leading to high quality product water at economic filtration flux. As such, this hybrid system will have a major impact in treatingthe biologically treated sewage effluent. The preflocculation achieved through the floating medium flocculation (FMF) was found to increase the phosphorus removal up to 96%. The decline in microfiltration permeate flux with time was reduced by the incorporation of flocculation. However, the improvement in the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was marginal (from 20% with membrane alone to 46% with the membrane-flocculation hybrid system). The flocculation followed by adsorption as pretreatment helped to increase the DOC removal as high as 98%. Flocculation was found to remove more than 66% of colloidal effluent organic matter (EfOM). An attempt was also made to quantify the hydrophobic fraction in the pretreated effluent and to identify the molecular weight (MW) range of organics removed by the flocculation. The pretreatment of flocculation was found to remove 68.5%, 61.8%, and 62.9% of hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and transphilic organic matter. The MW size distribution analysis indicated that flocculation with ferric chloride removed a majority of organic matter in the MW range of 300-5000 Da.
Nghiem, LD, Hai, FI, Price, WE, Wickham, R, Ngo, HH & Guo, W 2017, 'By-products of Anaerobic Treatment: Methane and Digestate From Manures and Cosubstrates' in Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Biological Treatment of Industrial Effluents, Elsevier, THe Netherlands, pp. 469-484.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Anaerobic digestion is a widely used and probably the most sustainable technique for biogas production and nutrient recovery from manure. This chapter describes the process of anaerobic digestion of manure and other cosubstrates with a specific focus on biogas and digestate utilization. Biogas purification is one of the most significant bottlenecks to fully realizing the range of biogas utilization for not just energy production but also other forms of beneficial usages. Thus, biogas purification techniques are discussed in detail in this chapter. Digestate from manure is an excellent biofertilizer and can be applied using the same equipment designed for liquid fertilizer. Previous studies corroborated in this chapter highlight the importance of quality control and digestate application practice particularly when manure is codigested with other cosubstrates or the digestate is used on a different farm.
Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Tram Vo, TP, Nghiem, ID & Hai, FI 2016, 'Aerobic Treatment of Effluents from the Aquaculture Industry' in Ngo, HH (ed), Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering Biological Treatment of Industrial Effluents, Elsevier, UK, pp. 35-77.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chapters in this volume review the most recent developments and perspectives at different environmental cleanup operation scales.
Guo, W, Ngo, HH, Chen, C, Pandey, A, Tung, KL & Lee, DJ 2016, 'Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for future green bioprocesses' in Green Technologies for Sustainable Water Management, pp. 867-902.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. This chapter focuses on the comprehensive overview of the recent progress in anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) applications, including the fundamental aspects and development of AnMBR processes. For a future green bioprocess, the chapter discusses the application development of AnMBRs in domestic and industrial wastewater treatment, opportunities for biogas production and waste minimization and membrane fouling researches. The anaerobic treatment processes are known to have the inherent advantages over the aerobic counterparts, such as sludge minimization and energy savings. The key competitive advantages of AnMBRs over conventional aerobic and anaerobic processes include total biomass retention, excellent effluent quality, bioenergy recovery, smaller footprint, lower energy consumption, high efficiency of wastewater treatment, and strong ability of handling fluctuation in influent quality. Biogas recovery represents one of the key green features of AnMBR technology, particularly for submerged AnMBR (SAnMBR). The compact configure of SAnMBR allows for more convenient collection of biogas.
Lin, JG, Daverey, A, Dutta, K, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2016, 'Anammox: A sustainable technology for nitrogen removal and water recycling' in Green Technologies for Sustainable Water Management, pp. 419-454.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. This chapter discusses developments in the anammox process, since its discovery, including identification of responsible microbes and their physiology, potential process inhibitors, reactor types used, and application to treat different wastewater. Anammox bacteria are coccoid bacteria with an average diameter ranging between 800 and 1100 nm. Anammox bacteria are chemoautotrophic bacteria and use CO2 as the main inorganic carbon source to oxidize ammonium to nitrogen gas using nitrite as the electron acceptor. Ammonium and nitrite are the two substrates for anammox bacteria. The absence of nitrite in wastewater limits the direct application of the anammox process. Applications of anammox or its related processes, such as SHARON-Anammox, CANON, or SNAD have been tested to treat real world wastewaters by many researchers in lab scale reactors. Anammox combined with partial nitrification has been identified as the most efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly nitrogen removal method in recent years.
Lin, JG, Dutta, K, Daverey, A, Guo, W & Ngo, HH 2016, 'Wastewater: A potential resource of energy' in Green Technologies for Sustainable Water Management, pp. 789-828.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. This chapter discusses the energy production potential of different wastewater sources and various treatment processes with an aim of establishing sustainable energy management systems. The refractory fraction of wastewater can be converted to energy through thermal, chemical, or electrical processes. The importance of knowing the potential energy available lies in the choice of treatment methods so that most of the energy can be recovered. Some wastes that may be high in energy value, such as halogenated wastes, may be unsuitable or unattractive to some treatment methods. The chapter discusses several systems for energy recovery with simultaneous treatment of wastewater. Some of the systems include anaerobic treatment, microbial fuel cell (MFC), simultaneous algal biomass production, and wastewater treatment. The adverse environmental impacts associated with anaerobic treatment or MFC are mainly because of electricity consumption in the various process units and transportation/disposal of biosolids.
Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Chen, Z, Surampalli, RY & Zhang, TC 2016, 'Green technologies for sustainable water management: Introduction and overview' in Green Technologies for Sustainable Water Management, pp. 1-34.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. This chapter presents the background, current development and future opportunities of green technologies and issues to facilitate strategic planning of sustainable water management systems. It describes the fundamental concepts and current and future applications of green technologies for sustainable improvement in water management. The chapter discusses the appropriate approaches and policies in achieving sustainable objectives and promoting green design and supplies for water utilization. Sustainable water management has received great attention over recent years because of its substantial benefits to the environment, society, and economy. Improvements in water management are likely to come from green technologies fueled by individual curiosity, dedicated effort, and opportunities within a strategic program supported by national and international agencies, universities, and industries. These innovations can significantly contribute to less nonrenewable resource requirement, reduced carbon footprint, greenhouse gas emissions and costs, minimized water losses, and enhanced removal of contaminants.
Ngo, HH, Guo, W, Hang Nguyen, TA, Surampalli, RY & Zhang, TC 2016, 'Agricultural by-products for phosphorous removal and recovery from water and wastewater: A green technology' in Green Technologies for Sustainable Water Management, pp. 491-533.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. Phosphorus (P) is a critical nutrient for plant growth. The excessive amount of P in aquatic medium may originate from natural sources and/or artificial sources. This chapter discusses P removal/recovery from wastewater due to surface water quality deterioration and P rock reserves depletion. It focuses on both fundamental and applied aspects of this practice using agricultural waste based biosorbents (AWBs). Understanding the operation principles is expected to enable the application of AWBs in the future. Because of increasing concerns relevant to water quality deterioration and depletion of global P rock reserves, P removal/recovery recently has become a matter of interest. Even though various technologies are presently available, adsorption seems to have advantages when used for P recovery. Although AWBs in both natural and modified forms can be used for P removal, the low P uptake capacity of raw AWBs hinders their widespread application.
Ngo, H, Guo, W & Chen, Z 2014, 'New submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBRs) for sustainable water' in Singh, RS, Pandey, A & Larroche, C (eds), Advances in Industrial Biotechnology, IK International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., India, pp. 393-411.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
To ensure a stable and reliable operation of MBR in wastewater treatment, it is vital important to exploit and develop novel advanced system configurations as well as low cost and environmental friendly materials in controlling membrane fouling and reducing contaminant loading. The enhanced system performance, extended service life of membrane, and reduced operational cost can significantly contribute to long-term sustainable development in water resources. Compared with conventional SMBR approach, the modified SMBR systems, including ASMBR, SSMBR, integrated SMBR and GACS-FBBR, achieved more desirable outcomes in organic and nutrient removal and exhibited lower TMP development. While PAC in ASMBR can increase the organic removal, mitigate membrane fouling and enhance permeate flux by simultaneous functions of adsorption and biodegradation on its surface, the porous media (e.g., sponge and NB) addition to SMBR can be an excellent solution for additional nutrient removal improvement. It is worth noting that GBF can also play important roles for enhancing microbial activity and minimizing membrane fouling. Furthermore, both the laboratory and pilot scale studies on GACS-FBBR confi rmed that this hybrid system can be a promising pre-treatment for MBR, owing to its success in treating organics and nutrients along with the membrane fouling control.
Guo, W & Ngo, H 2012, 'Membrane Processes for Wastewater Treatment' in Zhang, TC, Surampalli, RY, Vigneswaran, S, Tyagi, RD, Ong, SL & Kao, CM (eds), Membrane Technology and Environmental Applications, American Society of Civil Engineers, USA, pp. 169-216.
Nowadays, continued population growth and economic development have contributed to increasing demand on water supplies, while multipurpose water use has let to deteriorating water quality by introducing chemical or biological contaminants to receiving waters. Although governments and water authorities have proclaimed more stringent discharge regulations together with increased wastewater disposal costs to protect human and environmental health, wastewater treatment has become ever more crucial and indispensable in order to preserve the diminishing water resources and minimize adverse impacts on our ecosystem. Over the last century various methods and technologies have been developed and applied to remove solids, organic pollutants and nutrients from wastewater. Wastewater treatment involves the combination of various physical, chemical and biological processes and operations (Table 6.1). In general, conventional wastewater treatment processes can successfully remove the majority of degradable organics and suspended solids found in wastewaters. However, to further provide a sufficient level of treatment to wastewater streams and to remove specific contaminants, membrane seperation technology has been emerged as an alternative and innovative treatment technology and plays an important role in global water market. This chapter gives an extensive and up-to-date review of membrane separation technologies (e.g.,microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UP), nanofiltration (NP) and reverse osmosis (RO) in wastewater treatment with specific attention to various membranes, treatment processes and configurations, and their practical applications.
Guo, W, Ngo, H & Vigneswaran, S 2012, 'Enhancement of Membrane Processes with Attached Growth Media' in Zhang, TC, Surampalli, RY, Vigneswaran, S, Tyagi, RD, Ong, SL & Kao, CM (eds), Membrane Technology and Environmental Applications, American Society of Civil Engineers, USA, pp. 603-634.
The consumption of limited waste resources together with the need to comply with ever more stringent water quality standards, and the need to reuse water are the main impetus for the intensification of existing conventional water treatment processes. Moreover, current and impending legislation on wastewater treatment effluent has also led to the need for improved treatment processes capable of removing higher percentages of nutrients, suspended solids, bacteria, etc. (Kramne et al., 2005). During the last decades, the interest in the use of membrane technology has emerged in wastewater treatment as well as drinking water and process water production. This growth can be explained by a combination of (a) growing demand for water with high quality, (b) growing pressure to reuse wastewater, (b) better realibility and integrity of the membranes, (d) lower prices of membranes due to enhanced use, and (e) more stringent standards, e.g., in the drinking water industry (van de Bruggen et al., 2008). Therefore, membrane techniques (e.g., microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (DF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO)) in general and mebrance bioreactors (MBRs) in particular have been widely applied to wastewater reclamation and reuse for simultaneous organic and nutrient removal. Normally, there are two ways to begin water reuse: either retrofitting the current wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) facilities or constructing extra advanced processes after secondary treatment. Biological nutrients removal (BNR) processes modifying the current conventional WWTP is a typical example of retrofitting, while membrane filtration, carbon adsorption and ozonation are typically used for extra-installation the advanced treatment of secondary effluent (Baek and Chang, 2009). Especially, as eutrophication of the aquatic environment caused by nitrogen and phosphorus present in discharged effluent has become an unavoidable concern, the development of cost-effective and efficient BN...
Guo, W, Ngo, H & Vigneswaran, S 2012, 'Fouling Control of Membranes with Pretreatment' in Zhang, TC, Surampalli, RY, Vigneswaran, S, Tyagi, RD, Ong, SL & Kao, CM (eds), Membrane Technology and Environmental Applications, American Society of Civil Engineers, USA, pp. 533-580.
The impediment of the membrane technology is a fouling problem and consequently higher operating and membrane relacement cost. Pretreatment is very important for developing the best treatment process train to secure better membrane treatability and producing acceptable effluent qualities. This chapter addresses the state of the art pretreatment techniques and their application to low pressure (MF/UF) and high pressure (NF/RO) memrances in water and wastewater treatment as well as desalination. The impact of different pretreatment processes on membrane performance and membrane fouling control have been extensively reviewed.
Ngo, H, Guo, W & Vigneswaran, S 2012, 'Membrane Processes for Water Reclamation and Reuse' in Zhang, TC, Surampalli, RY, Vigneswaran, S, Tyagi, RD, Ong, SL & Kao, CM (eds), Membrane Technology and Environmental Applications, American Society of Civil Engineers, USA, pp. 239-275.
Water reclamation and reuse is being increasingly emphasized as a strategy for rational use of limited freshwater and as a means of safeguarding the deteriorating aquatic environment due to wastewater disposal. Membrane technology is playing a vital role in augment our water supplies and is essential for sustainable production of clean water. This chapter gives a comprehensive review of technological development train of wastewater treatment, as well as the detailed perfonnance of advanced membrance processes in municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse. The technological and economic feasibility of different membrane-based technologies compared to conventional treatment processes is also elucidated in this chapter.
Guo, W 2009, 'Applied technologies in municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment' in Vigneswaran, S (ed), Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies, EOLSS (Encyclopaedia of Life Support Systems) Publications, Oxford, UK, pp. 199-257.
This chapter illustrates the municipal solid waste landfillâs characteristics and discharge standard, its pollution problems and environmental impacts, and its typical applied solution technologies. The applied treatment technologies are discussed based on two main catalogues of conventional and advanced technologies. The conventional technologies include: (i) physico-chemical (coagulation-flocculation, chemical precipitation, activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange, membrane filtration, chemical oxidation etc.); (ii) biological (aerobic or anaerobic conditions, suspended-growth or attached-growth conditions, and fixed-bed or moving-bed conditions). The advanced technologies are introduced to three integration groups of (i) physicochemical, (ii) multi-biological, and (iii) physicochemical-biological processes.
Guo, W 2009, 'Assessment methodologies for water reuse scheme and technology' in Vigneswaran, S (ed), Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies, EOLSS (Encyclopaedia of Life Support Systems) Publications, Oxford, UK, pp. 279-320.
This chapter illustrates the most basis assessment methodologies as decision support system and assessment framework for water reuse scheme and technology evaluation. It includes the analyses of life cycle, material flow, ecological footprint, health risk, energy consumption and economic and social impact in order to form rational concepts and approaches towards a comprehensive assessment method for water reuse.
Guo, W 2009, 'Specific options in biological wastewater treatment for reclamation and reuse' in Vigneswaran, S (ed), Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies, EOLSS (Encyclopaedia of Life Support Systems) Publications, Oxford, UK, pp. 308-378.
This chapter focuses on a number of specific biological treatment technologies as options to wastewater reclamation with specific reference to concepts, treatment processes and configurations and its performance. These biological technologies will be classified and discussed in two main categories of non-membrane biological and membrane biological treatment systems.
Guo, W 2011, 'Impact assessment of extra discharges of organics and nutrients into aquatic systems by entropy calculation', CESE 2011, The Fourth Annual Conference on the Challenges in Environmental Science and Engineering, CESE Conference Committee, Tainan City, Taiwan, pp. 13-94.
Guo, W 2011, 'Optimisation of an integrate sponge - granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor in secondary sewage treatment', CESE 2011, The Fourth Annual Conference on the Challenges in Environmental Science and Engineering, CESE Conference Committee, Tainan City, Taiwan, pp. 75-76.
Guo, W 2011, 'Risk control and environment based assessment of recycled water schemes in australia', CESE 2011, The Fourth Annual Conference on the Challenges in Environmental Science adn Engineering, CESE Conference Committee, Tainan, Taiwan, pp. 4-85.
Guo, W, Ngo, H, Palmer, CG, Xing, W, Yen-Jung, H & Listowski, A 2008, 'Enhanced biological nutrient removal by a single stage sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor in waste water treatment for reuse', Proc.IWA Regional Conference, IWA Regional Conference, IWA, Moscow, pp. 168-173.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Guo, W, Xing, W, Ngo, H, Hu, YA, Palmer, CG & Zhang, R 2008, 'Enhancement of organics removal by an integrated non woven media biofilter-submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system', Proc. 6th Regional Symposium on Membrane Science & Technology, Regional Symposium on Membrane Science & Technology, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Listowski, A, Ngo, H, Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S & Palmer, CG 2008, 'Assessment Framework of Urban Water Reuse Based on a Novel Integrated Water Cycle Concept', Proceedings of the IWA World Water Congress and Exhibition 2008, IWA World Water Congress, International Water Association (IWA), Vienna, Austria, pp. 1-8.
To achieve sustainability of the water reclamation and urban reuse technologies, it would be necessary to develop and apply comprehensive assessment methodology and processes that would consider critical elements of urban water cycle, sustainability criteria and appropriate performance assessment standards as an integrated framework. When trying to study the rationale behind the urban water reuse approaches from social, economic, technical and ecological point of view, the outcomes are often lacking cohesion and appropriate balance. The assessment methods are further complicated by the lack of consistency, specific and accurate information and methodologies, which ultimately impair the process. Taking into consideration complexity and uniqueness of the integrated water cycle concept, this paper introduces to a novel assessment framework. This enables to identify suitable assessment process consisting of logical steps and including relevant objectives, principles from which a broad selection of criteria s and performance indicators would be derived. The final step in the process would be focused on validation of the quantitative analysis and model preparation. A considerable effort would also be necessary to establish baseline indicators of sustainability and operational tools to evaluate performance of the urban water systems.
Xing, W, Guo, W, Ngo, H, Listowski, A & Cullum, P 2008, 'Specific anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactors as pre treatment to microfilttration in domestic waste water treatment for re use', PROC. 6th Regional Symposium on Membrane Science & Technology, Regional Symposium on Membrane Science & Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Thailand, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Dempsey, T, Ngo, H, Palmer, CG & Guo, W 2007, 'Application of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) to a Typical Nursery Industry in Australia', Proceedings of International Conference on Cleaner Technologies and Environmental Management, International Conference on Cleaner Technologies and Environmental Management, Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., India, pp. 15-20.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ngo, H, Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S & Xing, W 2007, 'Potential of submerged membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and reuse', Proceedings of International Conference on Cleaner Technologies and Environmental Management, International Conference on Cleaner Technologies and Environmental Management, Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., India, pp. 800-805.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The use of membrane bioreaetor (MBR) has been an increasing issue in replacing the conventional water and wastewater treatment processes to produce high quality treated water. In MBR systems design,the submergedmembranebioreactor (SMBR)can assist in significantlyreducingpower consumptionas the entire treatment activity (such as adsorption/biodegradation,liquid-solid separation, andsludgeaccumulationandwithdrawal)canbe carriedout in a singleunit. In this study, the performance of conventional 5MBR and non-eonventional submerged membrane adsorption bioreactor (SMABR) was evaluated in terms of organic and bacterial removal efficiencies,biomassgrowthvia specificoxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and mixed liquor suspendedsolids (MLSS), and membrane fouling through the development of transmembrane pressure (TMP) and sustainableflux.Theresults indicatethat both ofSMBRand5MBARproducedvery high effiuentquality. However,SMABRappeared to have a better performance as it achieved nearly 100%ofTOC andCOD removalswhile having lowerTMPdevelopment and higher SOUR,The MLSSkept constant (around 10 gIL) after 10 days operation in 5MBAR compared to about 4 gILofMLSS in 5MBR case. In order 10 enhancethe sustainableflux, an idea ofadding a predeterminedamountof spongeinto 5MBRreactor was proposedand tested, The results show that 10% of volume fraction of sponge addition could increase 2 folds of sustainablefluxofSMBRsystemat an air flow rate of9 L/min.
Guo, W 2006, 'Application of biological activated carbon for organic removal in wastewater reuse', . The Symposium of Centre of Excellence on Global Renaissance by Green Energy Revolution, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Japan.
In this study, both biological activated carbon (Powdered activated carbon (PAC) and granular activated carbon (GAC)) used in a submerged membrane â adsorption hybrid system (SMAHS) and a biological filtration system was evaluated for organic removal in wastewater reuse. The results indicated that the application of biological activated carbon in low strength wastewater treatment produced effluent of high quality that can be used for various reuse purposes. The adsorption and biological activity lead to a consistent effluent organic concentration over a long period of time. The submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system (SMAHS) was very effective in removing dissolved organic substances from the synthetic wastewater even with a low dosage of biological powdered activated carbon (BPAC). The adsorbed organics on the BPAC is biodegraded with time, and hence it creates sites for further adsorption of organics on the BPAC. The BPAC replacement in BPAC-MF reactor could stimulate both biological activity and adsorption, as well as optimize the operation of the hybrid system. Biological granular activated carbon (BGAC) consistently maintained an organic removal efficiency of 60% even with a shallow filter depth of 300 mm and after 42 days of operation. The growth of biomass onto BGAC experiments indicated that the attachment of biomass was quite consistent with about 85 mg/g GAC after 15 days in contact with synthetic wastewater. It was found that the amount of fixed biomass on filter media was proportionally related to biological dissolved oxygen consumption rate.
Guo, W 2005, 'Enhancement of critical flux by pretreatment to a crossflow microfiltration in tertiary wastewater treatment', 1st IWA-ASPIRE Conference & Exhibition, IWA, Singapore.
In this study, the need of pretreatment of flocculation and adsorption on flux improvement was evaluated in terms of critical flux. Critical flux is defined as the maximum filtration rate, under which the membrane fouling does not occur during operation. The critical flux was experimentally evaluated for crossflow microfiltration (CFMF) with and without the pretreatment using biologically treated sewage effluent from a Sewage Treatment Plant in South Korea. The results indicate that the preflocculation could not enhance significantly the critical flux. However, the preadsorption led to a critical flux of more than 3 times higher than that of wastewater (200 L/m2.h). When both flocculation and adsorption were used as pretreatment, the critical flux was raised up to 1000 L/m2.h. Molecular weight distribution (MWD) analyses on the wastewater before and after pretreatment indicated that flocculation-adsorption as pretreatment was efficient to remove most of organic matter in this wastewater, which contains small and middle range MW molecules (250â780 Daltons). The Scanning Electron microscope (SEM) showed that membrane fouling during the critical flux experiments was mainly due to pore blocking and small particles deposit on the membrane surface.
Guo, W 2005, 'The membrane adsorption hybrid system in wastewater treatment and reuse', The 58th National Congress of Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers (CHEMCON-2005), Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi, India.
Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S & Ngo, H 2004, 'A Rational Approach In Controlling Membrane Fouling Problems: Pretreatments to a submerged Hollow Fibre Membrane System', Water Environment - Membrane Technology Proceedings, IWA Specialty Conference, Water Environment-Membrane Technology, IWA, Seoul, Korea, pp. 517-524.
Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S, Ngo, H & Ben Aim, RM 2004, 'Performance of a Submerged Membrane Adsorption Hybrid System (SMAHS) in Wastewater Treatment for Reuse', 4th World Water congress: innovations in Drinking Water Treatment, IWA World Water Congress, IWA, Marrakech, Morocco, pp. 1-8.
Chaudhary, DS, Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S, Ngo, H & Vigneswaran, B 2003, 'Submerged Microfiltration: An Energy Efficient Process for Water Reuse', AWA Oz Water Convention and Conference, Australian Water Association Convention - Ozwater, AWA, Perth, Australia, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S, Ngo, H & Ben Aim, RM 2003, 'Evaluating the Efficiency of Pretreatment to Microfiltration: Using Critical Flux As a Performance Indicator', IMSTEC 2003, International Membrance Science and Technology Conference, AWA-UNESCO Membrane Centre, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Guo, W, Vigneswaran, S, Ngo, H, Shon, H & Shimohoki, S 2003, 'Improving the Performance of a Crossflow Microfiltration in Tertiary Wastewater Treatment and Reuse By Specific Pre-Treatment Processes', ASIAN WaterQual 2003, IWA Asia-Pacific Regional Conference, IWA-Regional Publication, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 1-8.