A/Prof Tony Huang is currently the director of Master of Data Science and Innovation Course at Faculty of Transdisciplinary Innovation. He is a data visualisation researcher with expertise in visual analytics and human computer interaction. He designs visualisations, user interfaces and interaction methods to combine data values with human intelligence for effective data exploration, communication and decision making.
Dr Huang holds a PhD degree in Computer Science, with training in Psychology and professional experience in Psychometrics. He is an author of over 100 publications including books entitled “Handbook of Human Centric Visualisation” and “Human Factors in Augmented Reality Environments”. Dr Huang’s research has been supported by Australian government funding agencies and commercial partners with a total value of over 3 million dollars including highly prestigious and competitive ARC DP and LP projects, and has achieved impact both in academia and in industry. He gives keynote/plenary speeches, invited talks and seminars at conferences and universities worldwide.
Prior to joining UTS, Dr Huang was the leader of Human-Data Interaction Program at Swinburne Data Science Research Institute. 1) Working with interactive visualisations, the program is looking to facilitate the interaction between: analysts and data - for knowledge discovery, and the communication of analytic findings to stakeholders - for decision making, aiming to enhance the presence of the human-in-the loop in data analytics. 2) Exploring how traditional data-driven techniques, such as those from machine learning and statistics, can be combined with interactive visualisations, the program team are focused on ways that human creativity and innovation can become integral components of sustainable data analytics. 3) In collaboration with industry partners, projects are delivering compelling visualisations, effective interactions, optimum analytic methods and solid engineering, transforming research findings and data insights into positive impact in application domains such as health, biology, business, finance, social science, education and manufacturing.
- Guiding Students with “Remote Hands” for Electronics Troubleshooting in Undergraduate Units, CSIRO ON Innovations- Science and Industry Endowment Fund (SIEF), 2019
- NetCollect - Online social network data collection and visualization platform. SNA Think Tank Pty Ltd. 2018
- Remote Presence: A New Approach for Guidance on Physical Tasks. ARC Discovery Project DP170102885, 2017.
- Visual Analytics for Massive Multivariate Networks. ARC Linkage Project LP160100935, 2016.
- Food Data Science and Advanced Visual Analytics. NICTA (Data61), 2016
Use of ambient and eco-visualization for promotion of environmental awareness. UTAS Environment Research Group grant, 2016.
- Helping hands: an innovative tele-assistance system for clinical skill development with health science students. Australian Government Office for Learning & Teaching (OLT), 2015.
Making sense of biology data through artistic interactions. UTAS Cross-Disciplinary Incentive Grant, 2015
- An innovative tele-assistance system to support education in clinical procedures. Tasmanian Clinical Education Network (TCEN), 2014.
- Visual Cues for Efficient Airplane Manufacturing. Boeing and CSIRO. 2012
- Remote Mining Engineer: Australian Government Department of Industry, 2011
Dr Huang is currently Associate Editor of Behaviour and Information Technology Journal, Editorial Board Member of Journal of Computer Languages, and a chair of the technical committee on Visual Analytics and Communication for the IEEE SMC Society. He was Associate Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Visual Languages and Computing and a guest editor for a number of SCI indexed journals. He is a grant proposal assessor for Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and for Australian Research Council (ARC), and an examiner of PhD theses for eight top Australian universities. He has served as a conference chair, a PC chair, or an organization chair for a number of international conferences and workshops.
Can supervise: YES
Duncan, C & Symvonis, A 2014, Graph drawing: 22nd International Symposium, GD 2014 Würzburg, Germany, September 24-26, 2014 Revised Selected Papers.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved. Visualizations are visual representations of non-visual data. They are produced for people to interact with and to make sense of the underlying data. Rapid advances in display technology and computer power have enabled researchers to produce visually appealing pictures. However, the effectiveness of those pictures in conveying the embedded information to end users has not been fully explored. Handbook of Human Centric Visualization addresses issues related to design, evaluation and application of visualizations. Topics include visualization theories, design principles, evaluation methods and metrics, human factors, interaction methods and case studies. This cutting-edge book includes contributions from well-established researchers worldwide, from diverse disciplines including psychology, visualization and human-computer interaction. This handbook is designed for a professional audience composed of practitioners, lecturers and researchers working in the field of computer graphics, visualization, human-computer interaction and psychology. Undergraduate and postgraduate students in science and engineering focused on this topic will also find this book useful as a comprehensive textbook or reference.
Due to rapid advances in hardware and software technologies, network infrastructure and data have become increasingly complex, requiring efforts to more effectively comprehend and analyze network topologies and information systems.
Innovative Approaches of Data Visualization and Visual Analytics evaluates the latest trends and developments in force-based data visualization techniques, addressing issues in the design, development, evaluation, and application of algorithms and network topologies. This book will assist professionals and researchers working in the fields of data analysis and information science, as well as students in computer science and computer engineering, in developing increasingly effective methods of knowledge creation, management, and preservation.
Alem, L & Huang, W 2011, Recent Trends of Mobile Collaborative Augmented Reality Systems, Springer Science & Business Media.
Advanced-level students in computer science and electrical engineering focused on this topic will also find this book useful as a secondary text or reference.
Huang, W 2010, Gaining Insights Beyond Time and Error, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
This work should be useful to practitioners, researchers and students in Visualization, User Interface and Human Factors fields.
Kim, S, Billinghurst, M, Lee, G & Huang, W 2020, 'Gaze window: A new gaze interface showing relevant content close to the gaze point', JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION DISPLAY.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kim, S, Lee, G, Billinghurst, M & Huang, W 2020, 'The combination of visual communication cues in mixed reality remote collaboration', Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Many researchers have studied various visual communication cues (e.g. pointer, sketch, and hand gesture) in Mixed Reality remote collaboration systems for real-world tasks. However, the effect of combining them has not been so well explored. We studied the effect of these cues in four combinations: hand only, hand + pointer, hand + sketch, and hand + pointer + sketch, within the two user studies when a dependent view and independent view are supported respectively. In the first user study with the dependent view, the results showed that the hand gesture cue was the main visual communication cue and adding sketch cue to the hand gesture cue helped participants complete the task faster. In the second study with the independent view, the results showed that the hand gesture had an issue of local worker understanding remote expert's hand gesture cue and the main visual communication cue was the pointer cue with fast completion time and high level of co-presence.
Suwatcharachaitiwong, S, Lin, C-C, Huang, W & Hung, L-P 2020, 'On the medication distribution system for home health care through convenience stores, lockers, and home delivery.', Health informatics journal, p. 1460458220936395.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Medication distribution service can be delivered based on a combination of home delivery and customer pickup. That is, medications are delivered either to customers' homes directly or to the pickup facilities (e.g. lockers) close to customers' homes. In Taiwan, there are more than 11,000 convenience stores that provide a 24-h service for customers to pick up the ordered items from e-commerce, which is unique to the world. In the medication distribution system, convenience stores can provide a unique opportunity for customers to more conveniently collect medications at stores, and also can reduce the operating cost for a logistics company providing the medication delivery service. Therefore, this work proposes a medication distribution system through convenience stores, lockers, and home delivery. Under this system, this work investigates how to simultaneously determine employment of convenience store chains, the convenience store locations to be visited, locations of lockers, vehicle routes for convenience stores and lockers, and vehicle routes for customers' homes, so that the total operating cost is minimized. This work further proposes a genetic algorithm to solve the medication distribution problem. Through simulation, the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to solve the problem efficiently.
Huang, W, Kim, S, Billinghurst, M & Alem, L 2019, 'Sharing hand gesture and sketch cues in remote collaboration', Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, vol. 58, pp. 428-438.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Inc. Many systems have been developed to support remote guidance, where a local worker manipulates objects under guidance of a remote expert helper. These systems typically use speech and visual cues between the local worker and the remote helper, where the visual cues could be pointers, hand gestures, or sketches. However, the effects of combining visual cues together in remote collaboration has not been fully explored. We conducted a user study comparing remote collaboration with an interface that combined hand gestures and sketching (the HandsInTouch interface) to one that only used hand gestures, when solving two tasks; Lego assembly and repairing a laptop. In the user study, we found that (1) adding sketch cues improved the task completion time, only with the repairing task as this had complex object manipulation but (2) using gesture and sketching together created a higher task load for the user.
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd As we are in the age of big data, graph data become bigger. A big graph normally has an overwhelming number of edges. Existing metrics of edge centrality are not quite suitable for dealing with such a large graph. A novel metric for measuring the importance of edges in a graph is introduced in this paper. Compared with the other six popular matrices with respect to a number of real-world graphs, the proposed metric is capable of capturing the structural feature of a graph in a scalable way. The comprehensive experiments have demonstrated the performance of the proposed metric. According to this metric, a filtering approach is presented to reduce the visual clutter of a layout in a way that the hidden patterns can be revealed gradually. As evidenced by real-world examples, our approach allows users to explore graphs in real-time with a high level of details in an interactive way in order to gain insight into graph data.
© 2019 The land use mapping refers to mapping and assessing changes and patterns of land use. The use of agricultural land maps becomes increasingly important. The governments, private sectors, research agencies, and community groups rely on land use mapping data for natural resource assessment, monitoring, and planning. Finding an effective mapping approach is thereby crucial for natural resource condition monitoring and investment, agricultural productivity, sustainability and planning, biodiversity conservation, natural disaster management, and bio-security. In this paper, four machine learning algorithms, i.e., the classic k-Nearest Neighbour (kNN), Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and newly developed Capsule Network (CapsNet), are applied to classify satellite images for land use. For comprehensively comparing the performance of different algorithms for land use mapping, the experiments have been conducted on real-world datasets. Based on the experiment results, several improvements on the algorithms are proposed in order to fulfil the requirement of a large-scale land mapping. In addition, we design and implement these algorithms for land use mapping in a Machine Learning Land Use Mapping (ML-LUM) system. The system is able to train the models, predict classifications of satellite images, map the land use, display the land use statistic data, and predict production yields. With a friendly graphic user interface for farmers, the system is implemented by using the cloud computing technique for processing large land use data. Furthermore, we present a case study. For the case study, a banana plantation area from a given satellite image is correctly marked and the area size is then calculated, together with predicting banana production.
Lin, CC, Huang, W, Liu, WY & Wu, SF 2019, 'A novel centrality-based method for visual analytics of small-world networks', Journal of Visualization, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 973-990.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, The Visualization Society of Japan. Abstract: Nowadays, the network data that we need to deal with and make sense of are becoming increasingly large and complex. Small-world networks are a type of complex networks whose underling graphs have small diameter, shorter average path length between nodes, and a high degree of clustering structures and can be found in a wide range of scientific fields, including social networks, sociology, computer science, business intelligence, and biology. However, conventional visualization algorithms for small-work networks lead to a uniform clump of nodes or are restricted to a tree structure, making the network structure difficult to identify and analyze. This work provides a new visual analytical method to improve the situation. Different from previous methods based on spanning trees, this method first generates a weighted planar sub-network based on the measurement of network centrality metrics. A force-directed algorithm based on node-edge repulsion is then applied to visualize this sub-network into a proper layout for better understanding of the data. Finally, the remaining links are placed back to maintain the original network's integrity. The experimental results show that compared to previous methods, the proposed method can be more effective in differentiating clusters and revealing relationship patterns among individual nodes and clusters in the network. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to a data of the semiconductor wafer manufacturing industry as a case study. The work shows that this new approach allows users to gain useful insights into the data. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
Hua, J, Huang, M, Huang, W & Zhao, C 2019, 'Applying Graph Centrality Metrics in Visual Analytics of Scientific Standard Datasets', Symmetry, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 30-30.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Graphs are often used to model data with a relational structure and graphs are usually visualised into node-link diagrams for a better understanding of the underlying data. Node-link diagrams represent not only data entries in a graph, but also the relations among the data entries. Further, many graph drawing algorithms and graph centrality metrics have been successfully applied in visual analytics of various graph datasets, yet little attention has been paid to analytics of scientific standard data. This study attempts to adopt graph drawing methods (force-directed algorithms) to visualise scientific standard data and provide information with importance 'ranking' based on graph centrality metrics such as Weighted Degree, PageRank, Eigenvector, Betweenness and Closeness factors. The outcomes show that our method can produce clear graph layouts of scientific standard for visual analytics, along with the importance 'ranking' factors (represent via node colour, size etc.). Our method may assist users with tracking various relationships while understanding scientific standards with fewer relation issues (missing/wrong connection etc.) through focusing on higher priority standards.
Huang, W, Alem, L, Tecchia, F & Duh, HB-L 2018, 'Augmented 3D hands: a gesture-based mixed reality system for distributed collaboration', JOURNAL ON MULTIMODAL USER INTERFACES, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 77-89.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, W, Li, J & Alem, L 2018, 'Towards Preventative Healthcare: A Review of Wearable and Mobile Applications', Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 251, pp. 11-14.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved. Wearable and mobile devices are now commonly used in our daily activities, giving users instant access to various information. One the one hand, wearable and mobile technologies are developing at a fast rate and have been increasingly ubiquitous. On the other hand, the potential of their application in health is yet to be fully explored. This paper attempts to sketch an overview of wearable and mobile applications in the healthcare domain. We first review how various wearable and mobile applications are being used to monitor and manage health conditions. Then how connections between physiological factors and psychological factors can help with disease prevention is presented. Finally, challenges and future directions for further developments of these emerging technologies in health are discussed.
Jones, ER, Chinthammit, W, Huang, W, Engelke, U & Lueg, C 2018, 'Symmetric evaluation of multimodal human-robot interaction with gaze and standard control', Symmetry, vol. 10, no. 12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 by the authors. Control of robot arms is often required in engineering and can be performed by using different methods. This study examined and symmetrically compared the use of a controller, eye gaze tracker and a combination thereof in a multimodal setup for control of a robot arm. Tasks of different complexities were defined and twenty participants completed an experiment using these interaction modalities to solve the tasks. More specifically, there were three tasks: the first was to navigate a chess piece from a square to another pre-specified square; the second was the same as the first task, but required more moves to complete; and the third task was to move multiple pieces to reach a solution to a pre-defined arrangement of the pieces. Further, while gaze control has the potential to be more intuitive than a hand controller, it suffers from limitations with regard to spatial accuracy and target selection. The multimodal setup aimed to mitigate the weaknesses of the eye gaze tracker, creating a superior system without simply relying on the controller. The experiment shows that the multimodal setup improves performance over the eye gaze tracker alone (p < 0.05) and was competitive with the controller only setup, although did not outperform it (p > 0.05).
Jones, ER, Chinthammit, W, Huang, W, Engelke, U & Lueg, C 2018, 'Symmetric Evaluation of Multimodal Human-Robot Interaction with Gaze and Standard Control', SYMMETRY-BASEL, vol. 10, no. 12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Li, J & Huang, W 2018, 'Designing Interaction and Guidance Technologies for Remote Consultations in Healthcare', Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 251, pp. 245-248.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved. We present our work in designing mobile interaction and guidance technologies for the application of remote consultation between healthcare professionals. We describe design case studies which address the needs and scenarios in this application: a hybrid and rich media tool which supports mobile one-on-one consultations; a remote guidance tool which allows an expert to remotely guide a nurse or junior clinician to perform clinical procedures; an integrated collaboration platform which supports remote consultations in a group meeting environment by enabling shared interaction with patient records and mobile interaction with large displays. These tools have been evaluated in usability studies in which the usefulness and potential value have been demonstrated. By presenting these case studies, we highlight the trend of incorporating emerging collaboration technologies and the need of integrated and multi-model interaction systems in a broader telehealth context.
Lin, C-C, Huang, W, Liu, W-Y & Chen, W-L 2018, 'Evaluating aesthetics for user-sketched layouts of symmetric graphs', JOURNAL OF VISUAL LANGUAGES AND COMPUTING, vol. 48, pp. 123-133.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Machuca, MDB, Chinthammit, W, Huang, W, Wasinger, R & Duh, H 2018, 'Enabling symmetric collaboration in public spaces through 3D mobile interaction', Symmetry, vol. 10, no. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 by the authors. Collaboration has been common in workplaces in various engineering settings and in our daily activities. However, how to effectively engage collaborators with collaborative tasks has long been an issue due to various situational and technical constraints. The research in this paper addresses the issue in a specific scenario, which is how to enable users to interact with public information from their own perspective. We describe a 3D mobile interaction technique that allows users to collaborate with other people by creating a symmetric and collaborative ambience. This in turn can increase their engagement with public displays. In order to better understand the benefits and limitations of this technique, we conducted a usability study with a total of 40 participants. The results indicate that the 3D mobile interaction technique promotes collaboration between users and also improves their engagement with the public displays.
Barnett, T, Huang, W & Mather, C 2017, 'Pilot Test of a Collaborative "Helping Hands" Tele-Assistance System for the Development of Clinical Skills', CIN-COMPUTERS INFORMATICS NURSING, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 491-495.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mather, C, Barnett, T, Broucek, V, Saunders, A, Grattidge, D & Huang, W 2017, 'Helping Hands: Using Augmented Reality to Provide Remote Guidance to Health Professionals', Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 241, pp. 57-62.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, T, Huang, ML, Nguyen, Q, Zhao, L, Huang, W & Chen, J 2017, 'A Space-Filling Multidimensional Visualization (SFMDVis) for Exploratory Data Analysis', Information Sciences, vol. 390, pp. 32-53.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The space-filling visualization model was first invented by Ben Shneiderman  for maximizing the utilization of display space in relational data (or graph) visualization, especially for tree visualization. It uses the concept of Enclosure which dismisses the "edges" in the graphic representation that are all too frequently used in traditional node-link based graph visualizations. Therefore, the major issue in graph visualization which is the edge crossing can be naturally solved through the adoption of a space filling approach.
However in the past, the space-filling concept has not attracted much attention from researchers in the field of multidimensional visualization. Although the problem of 'edge crossing' has also occurred among polylines which are used as the basic visual elements in the parallel coordinates visualization, it is problematic if those 'edge crossings' among polylines are not evenly distributed on the display plate as visual clutter will occur. This problem could significantly reduce the human readability in terms of reviewing a particular region of the visualization. In this study, we propose a new Space-Filling Multidimensional Data Visualization (SFMDVis) that for the first-time introduces a space-filling approach into multidimensional data visualization. The main contributions are: (1) achieving the maximization of space utilization in multidimensional visualization (i.e. 100% of the display area is fully used), (2) eliminating visual clutter in SFMDVis through the use of the non-classic geometric primitive and (3) improving the quality of visualization for the visual perception of linear correlations among different variables as well as recognizing data patterns.
To evaluate the quality of SFMDVis, we have conducted a usability study to measure the performance of SFMDVis in comparison with parallel coordinates and a scatterplot matrix for finding linear correlations and data patterns. The evaluation results have suggested that the acc...
Liu, Y, Huang, M, Liang, J & Huang, W 2017, 'A physiognomy based method for facial feature extraction and recognition', Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, vol. 43, pp. 103-109.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper proposes a novel calculation method of personality based on Chinese physiognomy. The proposed solution combines ancient and modern physiognomy to understand the relationship between personality and facial features and to model a baseline to shape facial features. We compute a histogram of image by searching for threshold values to create a binary image in an adaptive way. The two-pass connected component method indicates the feature's region. We encode the binary image to remove the noise point, so that the new connected image can provide a better result. According to our analysis of contours, we can locate facial features and classify them by means of a calculation method. The number of clusters is decided by a model and the facial feature contours are classified by using the k-means method. The validity of our method was tested on a face database and demonstrated by a comparative experiment.
Treemaps, a visualization method of representing hierarchical data sets, are becoming more and more popular for its efficient and compact displays. Several algorithms have been proposed to create more useful display by controlling the aspect ratios of the rectangles that make up a treemap. In this paper, we introduce a new treemap algorithm, generating layout in which the rectangles are easier to select and hierarchy information is easier to obtain. This algorithm generates rectangles which approximate golden rectangles. To prove the effectiveness of our algorithm, at the end of this paper several analyses on golden rectangle treemap have been done on disk file system.
Huang, X, Bao, J, Dai, X, Singh, E, Huang, W & Huang, C 2016, 'M&E-NetPay: A Micropayment System for Mobile and Electronic Commerce', Symmetry, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 74-74.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lin, C-C, Huang, W, Liu, W-Y, Tanizar, S & Jhong, S-Y 2016, 'Evaluating esthetics for user-sketched layouts of clustered graphs with known clustering information', JOURNAL OF VISUAL LANGUAGES AND COMPUTING, vol. 37, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, W, Huang, ML & Lin, CC 2016, 'Evaluating overall quality of graph visualizations based on aesthetics aggregation', Information Sciences, vol. 330, pp. 444-454.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. Aesthetics are often used to measure the layout quality of graph drawings and it is commonly accepted that drawings with good layout are effective in conveying the embedded data information to end users. However, existing aesthetic criteria are useful only in judging the extents to which a drawing conforms to specific drawing rules. They have limitations in evaluating overall quality. Currently graph visualizations are mainly evaluated based on personal judgments and user studies for their overall quality. Personal judgments are not reliable while user studies can be costly to run. Therefore, there is a need for a direct measure of overall quality. In an attempt to meet this need, we propose a measurement that measures overall quality based on individual aesthetics and gives a single numerical score. We present a user study that validates this measure by demonstrating its sensibility in detecting quality changes and its capacity in predicting the performance of human graph comprehension. The implications of our proposed measure for future research are discussed.
Wang, W, Huang, M, Nguyen, Q, Huang, T, Zhang, K & Huang, T 2016, 'Enabling Decision Trend Analysis with Interactive Scatter Plot Matrices Visualization', Journal of Visual Languages & Computing, vol. 33, pp. 13-23.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper presents a new interactive scatter plot visualization for multi-dimensional data analysis. We apply Rough Set Theory (RST) to reduce the visual complexity through dimensionality reduction. We use an innovative point-to-region mouse click concept to enable direct interactions with scatter points that are theoretically impossible. To show the decision trend we use a virtual Z dimension to display a set of linear flows showing approximation of the decision trend. We conducted case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of our new technique for analyzing the property of three popular data sets including wine quality, wages and cars. The paper also includes a pilot usability study to evaluate parallel coordinate visualization with scatter plot matrices visualization with RST results.
Barnett, T, Huang, W & Mather, C 2015, 'Rural and remote tele-assistance for procedural skills: the 'helping hands' project', Australian nursing & midwifery journal, vol. 23, no. 4, p. 35.
Huang, W, James, C, Stepanas, K, Widzyk-Capehart, E, Alem, L, Gunn, C, Adcock, M & Haustein, K 2015, 'Designing a network-based system for delivery of remote mine services', Australian Journal of Intelligent Information Processing Systems, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 1-12.
Chimani, M, Eades, P, Eades, P, Hong, S-H, Huang, W, Klein, K, Marner, M, Smith, RT & Thomas, BH 2014, 'People Prefer Less Stress and Fewer Crossings', GRAPH DRAWING (GD 2014), vol. 8871, pp. 523-524.
Huang, W, Huang, X & Lai, W 2014, 'RE-Tutor: An Augmented Reality Based Platform for Distributed Collaborative Learning', COOPERATIVE DESIGN, VISUALIZATION, AND ENGINEERING, CDVE 2014, vol. 8683, pp. 111-117.
Huang, W 2013, 'Establishing aesthetics based on human graph reading behavior: two eye tracking studies', PERSONAL AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 93-105.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, W, Alem, L & Albasri, J 2013, 'Prototyping and Evaluating a Wearable System for Mobile Distributed Collaboration', Communications and Network, vol. 05, no. 03, pp. 554-562.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, W, Eades, P, Hong, S-H & Lin, C-C 2013, 'Improving multiple aesthetics produces better graph drawings', JOURNAL OF VISUAL LANGUAGES AND COMPUTING, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 262-272.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, W, Khoury, R, Dawborn, T, Huang, B, Huang, M & Huang, X 2013, 'Webevis: Analyzing User Web Behavior Through Visual Metaphors', Science China Information Sciences, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The rapid growth of Internet usage has dramatically changed the way we interact with the outside world. Many people read news, communicate with friends and purchase goods online. These activities are usually done via web browsing, and web browsers record information about these activities. The recorded data can be used to understand web browsing behavior of users and improve their browsing experience. For example, website usability and the personalization of online services could both benefit from knowledge of user browsing behavior. A number of methods including data mining, text processing and visualization have been used to uncover user browsing patterns. However, these methods are mainly used to analyze and gain insights into collective behavior patterns of either a large amount of separate web users or users within an online community over a prolonged period of time. Very few systems are available for analyzing the detailed behavior of a single user within a relatively short and specific period of time. In an attempt to shorten this gap, we have developed a visual analytic system called WeBeVis. This system offers three different ways of visualizing web browsing data based on our proposed visual metaphors. It also provides a common interface for users to interact with the visualizations. In this paper, we describe this system and present a user study of it. We show that by visualizing the web browsing history of a user, we are able to uncover interesting patterns in the way that individuals use the web.
Lin, WD, Jhong, S-Y, Huang, W & Lin, C-C 2012, 'Drawing social networks using area-labeling rectangular cartograms', Journal of Internet Technology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 327-336.
Alem, L 2011, 'Supporting the Changing Roles of Maintenance Operators in Mining: A Human Factors Perspective', The Ergonomics Open Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 81-92.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, T & Huang, M 2011, 'Exploring the Relative Importance of Number of Edge Crossings and Size of Crossing Angle: A Quantitative Perspective', International Journal of Advanced Intelligence (IJAI), vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 25-42.
Recent research has indicated that human graph reading performance can be affected by the size of crossing angles. The aesthetic of crossing angles is closely related to another aesthetic factor: edge crossings. Although the number of edge crossings has been previously identi?ed as the most important aesthetic, its relative impact on human graph reading, compared to the size of crossing angles, has not been investigated. In this paper, we present an exploratory user study investigating the relative importance between crossing number and crossing angle. This study also aims to further examine the effects of crossing number and crossing angle not only on task performance measured as response time and accuracy, but also on cognitive load and visualization ef?ciency. The experimental results reinforce the previous ?ndings that the two aesthetics each signi?cantly affect performance of human graph reading. Further, in terms of the relative importance, the study demonstrates that given the current setting of the user study, the number of edge crossings is relatively more important than the size of crossing angles. To be more speci?c, crossing number and crossing angle together explain about 40% of the variance in response time, mental effort and visualization ef?ciency, with about 83% of the explained variance being attributed to crossing number. In regard to response accuracy, crossing number and crossing angle together explain about 14% of the variance, with a slightly larger portion of the explained variance being attributed to crossing number
Huang, W, Eades, P & Hong, S-H 2009, 'Measuring effectiveness of graph visualizations: A cognitive load perspective', INFORMATION VISUALIZATION, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 139-152.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, W, Hong, SH & Eades, P 2007, 'Effects of sociogram drawing conventions and edge crossings in social network visualization', Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 397-429.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper describes a user study examining the effects of different spatial layouts on human sociogram perception. The study compares the relative effectiveness of five sociogram drawing conventions in communi- cating the underlying network substance, based on task performance and user preference. The impact of edge crossings is also explored by using social network specific tasks. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are employed in the study. It was found that 1) both edge crossings and drawing conventions have significant effects on user preference and performance of finding groups, but neither has much impact on the perception of actor importance. On the other hand, node positioning and angular resolution may be more important in perceiving the importance of actors. In visualizing social networks, it is important to note that techniques that are highly preferred by users do not necessarily lead to optimal task performance. 2) the subjects have a strong preference for placing nodes on the top or in the center to highlight importance, and clustering nodes in the same group and separating clusters to highlight groups. They have tendency to believe that nodes on the top or in the center are more important, and nodes in close proximity belong to the same group. Some preliminary recommendations for sociogram design are also pro- posed.
Huang, W 2014, 'Evaluating Overall Quality of Graph Visualizations Indirectly and Directly' in Handbook of Human Centric Visualization, Springer, pp. 373-390.
Huang, M, Liang, J & Huang, W 2014, 'Highlighting in Visual Data Analytics' in Huang, Lin, M & Weidong, H (eds), Innovative Approaches of Data Visualization and Visual Analytics, IGI, USA, pp. 176-190.
Highlighting has been known as a basic viewing control mechanism in computer graphics and visualization for guiding users attention in reading diagrams, images, graphs, and digital texts. Due to the rapid development of theory and practice in information visualization and visual analytics, the role of `highlighting in computer graphics has been extended from just acting as a viewing control to being part of an interaction control and a visual recommendation mechanism that is important in modern information visualization and visual analytics. In this chapter, the authors present a brief literature review. They try to assign the word `highlighting a contemporary definition and attempt to give a formal summarization and classification of the existing and potential `highlighting methods that are to be applied in Information Visualization, Visual Analytics, and Knowledge Visualization. We also propose a new three-layer model of `highlighting and discuss the responsibilities of each layer accordingly
© 2014 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. This chapter presents a framework for developing diagram applications. The diagrams refer to those graphs where nodes vary in shape and size used in real world applications, such as flowcharts, UML diagrams, and E-R diagrams. The framework is based on a model the authors developed for diagrams. The model is robust for diagrams and it can represent a wide variety of applications and support the development of powerful application-specific functions. The framework based on this model supports the development of automatic layout techniques for diagrams and the development of the linkage between the graph structure and applications. Automatic layout for diagrams is demonstrated and two case studies for diagram applications are presented.
© 2020 IEEE. Recent methods for visualizing graphs have used a map metaphor: vertices are represented as regions in the plane, and proximity between regions represents edges between vertices.In many real world applications, the data changes over time, resulting in a dynamic map. This paper introduces new methods for representing dynamic graphs with map animation. More specifically, we present three different animation methods: MDSV (Multidimensional scaling - Voronoi), TV (Tutte - Voronoi) and TD (Tutte - dual). These methods support operations such as addition and deletion of vertices and edges. Each of our methods uses a kind of matrix interpolation.
Rasmussen, TA & Huang, W 2019, 'SceneCam: Improving multi-camera remote collaboration using augmented reality', Adjunct Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, ISMAR-Adjunct 2019, IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality Adjunct, IEEE, Beijing, China, pp. 28-33.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 IEEE. Systems for remote collaboration on physical tasks generally use AR/VR technologies to create a shared visual space for collaborators to perform tasks together. The shared space often comes from a single camera view. Prior research has not reported on the benefits of using multiple cameras for remote collaboration. On the contrary, there seems to be some usability issues, which must be addressed, when designing remote collaboration systems that use multiple cameras to capture different areas and perspectives of a task space. To be usable, a multi-camera remote collaboration system must indicate to the local user which camera the remote user is looking at and vice versa, the system must make it fast and easy for the remote user to obtain the right camera view for a given collaborative task. We present SceneCam, an AR prototype with which we explore different techniques for improving the usability of multi-camera remote collaboration by making camera selection easier and faster. Specifically, SceneCam implements two camera selection techniques. The first technique nudges the remote user to manually select an optimal camera view of the local user's actions. The second technique automatically selects an optimal camera view of the local user and shows it to the remote user. Additionally, SceneCam implements two focus-in-context views (exocentric and egocentric views) that provide the remote user with a spatial overview of the local user's whereabouts in relation to the multiple task space areas and direct visual access to the camera views of said areas. Camera selection techniques (manual point-And-click, nudging, automatic), and focus-in-context views (no focus-in-context view, exocentric, egocentric) make up the two dimensions in a design space for multi-camera remote collaboration. We describe how SceneCam spans this design space. Lastly, as part of future work we discuss some hypotheses regarding the effects of the proposed camera selection techniques...
Zhou, J, Huang, W & Chen, F 2020, 'A Radial Visualisation for Model Comparison and Feature Identification', Proceedings of 2020 IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium (PacificVis), 2020 IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium (PacificVis), IEEE, Tianjing, China.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Abeysinghe, D, Chua, C & Huang, W 2019, 'Using XR to support collaborative learning in health', Proceedings - 2019 23rd International Conference in Information Visualization - Part II, IV-2 2019, 2019 23rd International Conference in Information Visualization – Part II, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 92-95.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 IEEE. Collaborative learning methods developed with XR technologies are broadly used in different educational fields such as engineering and healthcare. In this survey paper, we discuss different collaborative learning and teaching methods such as trainings and assessment tools from different perspectives. We look at existing research contributions toward collaborative learning systems of healthcare industry and according to the technologies used to develop the collaborative learning systems. The aim of this survey paper is to analyze the available literature, identify the collaborative learning systems which need further developments and discuss the healthcare, categorize which needs more attention, and bring them to the consideration of the future researchers.
Fletcher, C, Huang, W, Arness, D & Nguyen, QV 2019, 'The role of working memory capacity in graph reading performance', IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium, IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium, IEEE, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 77-81.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 IEEE. We process information in memory and different people have different memory capacity. It is therefore important to understand possible impact of memory capacity when it comes to graph comprehension. In an attempt towards this direction, we conducted a user study investigating the impact of working memory capacity on graph reading task performance. Forty-six university students participated in the study performing a graph reading task with one hundred graph drawings of different complexity levels. Their working memory capacity and task performance (accuracy and time) were measured and recorded. The results of regression analyses indicated that working memory capacity was a significant predictor of performance accuracy, but not for response time. In this paper, we present the details of the study and discuss our findings and limitations of the study. Possible future research directions are also suggested.
Forkan, ARM, Kimm, G, Morshed, A, Jayaraman, PP, Banerjee, A & Huang, W 2019, 'AqVision: A tool for air quality data visualisation and pollution-free route tracking for smart city', Proceedings - 2019 23rd International Conference in Information Visualization - Part II, IV-2 2019, 23rd International Conference in Information Visualization – Part II, IEEE, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 47-51.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 IEEE. Air quality is an important factor in planning activities in our everyday life. The information presented though captured data using Internet of Things (IoT) in smart cities is mostly single-dimensional where citizens do not have much opportunities to directly interact with the system to get personalised insights. Recent years have seen dire reports of extreme air pollution in mega cities around the world, which has led to government authorities grappling with solutions. Taking into account the existing IoT sensor setup in smart cities, it is now very convenient to visually explore the level of pollution of any places in real-time. In this context, this paper presents AqVision, a flexible visualisation tool for future citizens in smart cities that combines personalised awareness with generalised needs and leverages to envisage air pollution hotspots using more interactive manners considering individualised health and safety concerns.
Huang, W, Jayaraman, PP, Morshed, A, Blackburn, S, Redpath, C, Guerney, T, Shahid, AH & Mui, R 2019, 'Sens-e-motion: Capturing and visualising emotional status of computer users in real time', Proceedings - 2019 23rd International Conference in Information Visualization - Part II, IV-2 2019, International Conference in Information Visualization – Part II, IEEE, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 96-99.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 IEEE. Emotion has been demonstrated to play an important role in the learning process. The capturing of these emotions is increasingly being digitally automated as researchers explore how technology can enhance student learning as well as teaching methodologies. More specifically, what emotions should be captured and how information about the captured emotions should be visualised has not been well researched in the context of teaching and learning. The study presented in this paper aims to produce a proof of concept prototype, called Sens-e-motion, that integrates multiple types of digital emotional monitoring and visualises the results in a meaningful way to the users. The monitoring includes facial expression recognition, blink-rate, text sentiment analysis, and keyword analysis. The prototype was designed and implemented as a web chat application with a RESTful web service backend and a NoSQL database. In this paper, we present the design of our system and describe technical details of it. Possible future research and development is also discussed.
Kim, S, Billinghurst, M, Lee, G, Norman, M, Huang, W & He, J 2019, 'Sharing emotion by displaying a partner near the gaze point in a telepresence system', Proceedings - 2019 23rd International Conference in Information Visualization - Part II, IV-2 2019, International Conference in Information Visualization – Part II, IEEE, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 86-91.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 IEEE. In this paper, we explore the effect of showing a remote partner close to user gaze point in a teleconferencing system. We implemented a gaze following function in a teleconferencing system and investigate if this improves the user's feeling of emotional interdependence. We developed a prototype system that shows a remote partner close to the user's current gaze point and conducted a user study comparing it to a condition displaying the partner fixed in the corner of a screen. Our results showed that showing a partner close to their gaze point helped users feel a higher level of emotional interdependence. In addition, we compared the effect of our method between small and big displays, but there was no significant difference in the users' feeling of emotional interdependence even though the big display was preferred.
Kim, S, Lee, G, Huang, W, Kim, H, Woo, W & Billinghurst, M 2019, 'Evaluating the Combination of Visual Communication Cues for HMD-based Mixed Reality Remote Collaboration', Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, Glasgow, Scotland Uk, pp. 1-13.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). Many researchers have studied various visual communication cues (e.g. pointer, sketching, and hand gesture) in Mixed Reality remote collaboration systems for real-world tasks. However, the effect of combining them has not been so well explored. We studied the effect of these cues in four combinations: hand only, hand + pointer, hand + sketch, and hand + pointer + sketch, with three problem tasks: Lego, Tangram, and Origami. The study results showed that the participants completed the task significantly faster and felt a significantly higher level of usability when the sketch cue is added to the hand gesture cue, but not with adding the pointer cue. Participants also preferred the combinations including hand and sketch cues over the other combinations. However, using additional cues (pointer or sketch) increased the perceived mental effort and did not improve the feeling of co-presence. We discuss the implications of these results and future research directions.
Mirza, IB, Huang, W, Georgakopoulos, D & Liu, H 2019, 'Computational and human evaluations of orthogonal graph drawings', Proceedings - 2019 23rd International Conference in Information Visualization - Part II, IV-2 2019, International Conference in Information Visualization – Part II, IEEE, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 74-77.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 IEEE. Graphs are often drawn into straight-line node-link diagrams for better understanding of the underlying data. However, curves have also been used in graph visualization for various purposes. Orthogonal drawing is one type of graph drawings in which each edge is made up with an alternating sequence of vertical and horizontal line segments. In the past, many algorithms have been developed for orthogonal drawing so that the resulting drawings meet some pre-defined aesthetic criteria and constraints. Experiments have also been conducted to evaluate performance of algorithms and effectiveness of orthogonal drawings. In this paper, we briefly summarize the research that has been done in relation to orthogonal drawing and provide directions for future research.
Rasmussen, TA & Huang, W 2019, 'SceneCam: Using AR to improve multi-camera remote collaboration', SIGGRAPH Asia 2019 XR, SA 2019, SA SIGGRAPH Asia, ACM, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 36-37.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Association for Computing Machinery. During multi-camera remote collaboration on physical tasks, as the name implies, multiple cameras capture different areas and perspectives of a task space. It can be challenging for the remote user to obtain the right view of the local user and to understand the spatial relationship between the disjointed views of task space areas. We present SceneCam, a prototype with which we use AR to explore different techniques for improving multi-camera remote collaboration by making optimal camera selection easier and faster for the remote user and by making the spatial relationship between task space areas explicit. To this end, SceneCam implements two camera selection techniques: nudging the remote user to select an optimal camera view of the local user, and automatic selection of an optimal camera view of the local user. Furthermore, SceneCam provides the remote user with two focus-in-context views - exocentric and egocentric views - that visualize the spatial relationship between the multiple task space areas and the local user.
Chua, C, Wakefield, M, Mui, R & Huang, W 2018, 'Designing an Anxiety Self-regulation and Education Mobile Application for High School Students', COOPERATIVE DESIGN, VISUALIZATION, AND ENGINEERING: 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, CDVE 2018, 15th International Conference on Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering (CDVE), SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, Hangzhou, PEOPLES R CHINA, pp. 270-275.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, W, Billinghurst, M, Alem, L & Kim, S 2018, 'HandsInTouch: Sharing Gestures in Remote Collaboration', PROCEEDINGS OF THE 30TH AUSTRALIAN COMPUTER-HUMAN INTERACTION CONFERENCE (OZCHI 2018), 30th Australian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction (OzCHI), ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA, pp. 396-400.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liao, X, Huang, X & Huang, W 2018, 'Visualization of Farm Land Use by Classifying Satellite Images', COOPERATIVE DESIGN, VISUALIZATION, AND ENGINEERING: 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, CDVE 2018, 15th International Conference on Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering (CDVE), SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, Hangzhou, PEOPLES R CHINA, pp. 287-290.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Machuca, MDB, Chinthammit, W & Huang, W 2018, 'Usability of Information Seeking Tools in 3D Mobile Interaction with Public Displays', COOPERATIVE DESIGN, VISUALIZATION, AND ENGINEERING: 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, CDVE 2018, 15th International Conference on Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering (CDVE), SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, Hangzhou, PEOPLES R CHINA, pp. 16-23.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, X, Huang, M & Huang, W 2017, 'A Novel Metric for Edge Centrality', INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIG DATA AND INTERNET OF THINGS (BDIOT 2017), International Conference on Big Data and Internet of Things (BDIOT), ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, London, ENGLAND, pp. 16-20.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, X, Huang, W & Lai, W 2017, 'UIP: Estimating true rating scores of services through online user communities', 2016 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2016.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 IEEE. As many online systems rely on user ratings for making decisions such as recommendations, the quality of such rating scores are increasingly important. On the other hand, users interact with each other via online communities. How such interactions affect the trueness of their ratings? Can we obtain the true rating scores that exclude the influences among users? This paper presents a conceptual framework that characterizes the influences on quality of services among users, and an algorithm that estimates the true rating scores by minimizing the influence among users. In other words, the influence on users' ratings due to their interactions is minimized so as to obtain the more accurate rating scores. The proposed approach has been validated by experimenting on real data sets. The results of the experiments have demonstrated that our approach is capable of estimating true ratings.
Luo, S, Chu, VW, Zhou, J, Chen, F, Wong, RK & Huang, W 2017, 'A Multivariate Clustering Approach for Infrastructure Failure Predictions', 2017 IEEE 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON BIG DATA (BIGDATA CONGRESS 2017), IEEE 6th International Congress on Big Data (BigData Congress), IEEE, Honolulu, HI, pp. 274-281.View/Download from: Publisher's site
He, L, Tang, B, Zhu, M, Lu, B & Huang, W 2016, 'NetflowVis: A Temporal Visualization System for Netflow Logs Analysis', COOPERATIVE DESIGN, VISUALIZATION, AND ENGINEERING, CDVE 2016, 13th International Conference on Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering (CDVE), SPRINGER INT PUBLISHING AG, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, pp. 202-209.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, W, Eades, P, Hong, S-H & Duh, HB-L 2016, 'Effects of Curves on Graph Perception', 2016 IEEE PACIFIC VISUALIZATION SYMPOSIUM (PACIFICVIS), IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium (IEEE PacificVis), IEEE, Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taipei, TAIWAN, pp. 199-203.
Wang, Y, Huang, W & Duh, HBL 2016, 'Demo: InspectAR - Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with Augmented Reality (AR) technology', SA 2016 - SIGGRAPH ASIA 2016 Mobile Graphics and Interactive Applications.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Nowadays, many industries are researching the influences of fastpaced development of technology on using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Augmented Reality (AR) has been a research field for more than two decades [Piekarski 2006; Schmalstieg et al. 2002; Schmalstieg et al. 2011; Spohrer 1999] since AR was first demonstrated by Ivan Sutherland in 1965 [Sutherland, 1965]. AR technology directly or indirectly attaches elements augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as video, graphics or GPS data, to the real-world view for the user. For example, Google Glass allows the user to see a digital image beside or on top of their view of the world. This technology has particularly useful applications, and impacts how and when a job can be executed. The ability to access this type of information without the use of a mobile device, or a trip to the site office, could deliver increased productivity and specificity onsite. The possibilities for AR are not limited to wearable technologies like Google Glass. The same sort of information display could be built into things like windshields of onsite vehicles, for example. Much research has been conducted in order to establish guidelines for using these technologies.
Huang, W, Zhu, M, Huang, ML & Duh, HBL 2016, 'Evaluating overall quality of dynamic network visualizations', Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering (LNCS), International Conference on Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering (CDVE), Springer, Sydney, NSW, Australia, pp. 157-162.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Springer International Publishing AG 2016.Visualizing dynamic networks is a challenging task. One of the challenges we face is how to maintain visual complexity and overall quality of visualizations at a reasonable and sustainable level so that the information about the network embedded in the visualization can be effectively comprehended by the viewer. Many techniques and algorithms have been proposed and developed to facilitate the discovery of changing patterns. Much research has also been done in investigating how visualization should be constructed to be effective. However, how to measure and compare the quality of visualizations of a changing network at different time points has not been well researched. In this paper, we report on a preliminary work towards this direction. In particular, we apply an existing multi-dimensional overall quality measure in a user study data of different networks and found that the measured quality is positively correlated with user task performance regardless of network size.
Liu, Y, Huang, M, Liang, J & Huang, W 2016, 'Facial Feature Extraction and Recognition for Traditional Chinese Physiognomy', Proceedings - 20th International Conference Information Visualisation, International Conference on Information Visualisation, IEEE Computer Society's Conference Publishing Services (CPS), Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 408-412.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We propose a novel calculation method of
personality based on the Chinese physiognomy. The
proposed solution combines the ancient and the modem
physiognomy to summarize the corresponding relation
between the personality and facial feature and model the
baseline to shape the face feature. We compute histogram of
image by searching for the threshold values to create a
binary image in an adaptive way. The two-pass connected
component method indicates the feature region. We encode
the binary image to remove the noise point, so that the new
connected image can provide a better result. The method was
tested on ORL face database.
Saleheen, S, Lai, W, Huang, X, Huang, W & Huang, M 2016, 'What Next in Designing Personalized Visualization of Web Information', Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering (LNCS), Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering, Springer International Publishing, Sydney, pp. 134-141.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Current state of the art in personalized visualization of web
information is tailored to provide a better view of how the information is
resided and connected to each other inside the internet. With the recent
enhancement in information and communication technology, users are
provided a very large amount of information when they search for a particular information from a specific website. Studies show that, user can perceive the information in a more better way if they are provided the
information with visual representation instead of its textual counterpart.
However, to be effective to the users, the visual representation should be
specific to the need of a particular user. Research is conducted from various viewpoints to make the visual representation (graph-representation of the web information) more user-specific. To achieve this, filtering and clustering techniques have been applied to web information to make large web graphs to compact ones. Besides, user modeling has been applied to infer the user's need for a specific time and context. These tend to make the navigation of web information easy and effective to the end user. This paper discusses the current progress in graph-based web information visualization and also outlines the scopes of improvements that could benefit the user exploring the desired information from the web space effectively and efficiently.
Huang, W, Kaminski, B, Luo, J, Huang, X, Li, J, Ross, A, Wright, J & An, D 2015, 'SMART: Design and evaluation of a collaborative museum visiting application', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 57-64.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Many systems and applications have been developed to help visitors get around the museum and interact with the items on exhibition. However, most of the existing systems are developed to serve as a virtual tour guide and/or provide additional digital information using Augmented Reality techniques. Little attention has been paid to enabling visitors to interact with each other and share their experience with outsiders. In this paper, we describe the design and evaluation of a prototype of a museum touring application called SMART. This system was designed to explore how mobile devices can be used to connect museum visitors and their friends. It is intended to be a smart and novel mobile application that enables groups of museum visitors to select tours by their preferences, display relevant information about their tour and objects, provide interactive activities for tourists and let them mark their favourite exhibits. It also aims to streamline traditional museum tours by providing more interesting, more meaningful and more interactive parts to the tour.
Huang, X, Dai, X, Singh, E & Huang, W 2015, 'Evaluating a micro-payment system for mobile electronic commence', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 87-92.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. As an increasing number of people use wireless communication to purchase goods and services, we have developed a new micropayment system called M&E-NetPay for mobile electronic commerce. This system has open interoperability and mobility, uses Web services to inter-connect brokers and vendors, and provides secure, flexible, usable, and reliable credit services over the Internet. M&E-NetPay makes use of a secure, cheap, available, and debit-based off-line protocol that allows vendors to interact only with customers after an initial validation of coins. To validate the system, we have conducted an evaluation of the system performance. The results demonstrate that by using fast hashing functions that validate e-coin unspent indexes, M&E-NetPay achieves secure transactions with a high volume per item. It was also confirmed that the.Net framework architecture 4.0 with Web Services used in M&E-NetPay improves client-to-server communications, leading to high system performance. We report on this evaluation in this paper.
Li, J, Alem, L & Huang, W 2015, 'Supporting Frontline Health Workers Through the Use of a Mobile Collaboration Tool', Health Information Science (LNCS), 4th International Conference on Health Information Science, Springer, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 31-36.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper presents our work in exploring the design of a mobile collaboration tool to support frontline health workers who deliver healthcare services at local communities and patients' homes. Our design addresses their collaboration needs when they discuss patient cases with remote clinicians during the home visits. The tool is tablet-based and supports real-time communication and information sharing between health workers and clinicians and also asynchronous information exchange between them through the recording of rich media annotations. We present preliminary results from a pilot study examining the usability of the tool.
Lin, C-C, Huang, W, Liu, W-Y & Tanizar, S 2015, 'On Clustered Graph Layouts Sketched by Users Based on Predefined Clusters', 8th International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction (VINCI 2015), 8th International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction (VINCI), ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, Tokyo, JAPAN, pp. 143-145.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Luo, Y 2015, 'Cooperative design, visualization, and engineering: 12th international conference, CDVE 2015 Mallorca, Spain, september 20–23, 2015 proceedings', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics).
Huang, T, Huang, M & Luo, J 2015, 'Teaching undergraduate algorithms with case studies and quizzes in interactive tutorials', 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TEACHING, ASSESSMENT, AND LEARNING FOR ENGINEERING (TALE), IEEE International Conference on Teaching, Assessment and Learning for Engineering, IEEE, Zhuhai, pp. 272-276.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The subject of algorithms is a core component of Computer Science for undergraduate students. Many of innovative teaching methods have been proposed in the literature and practiced in classrooms aiming to help students learn the subject effectively. This paper reports on our experience in teaching advanced data structures and classic computer science algorithms for year 2 students. For three consecutive years, we practiced a different teaching approach each year. The details of each approach are provided and discussed. By comparing students' learning performance, we found that teaching undergraduate algorithms with case studies and quizzes in interactive tutorials is relatively more beneficial for effective teaching and learning. We conclude the paper with a short summary and future work.
Hong, S-H, Huang, W, Misue, K & Quan, W 2014, 'A Framework for Visual Analytics of Massive Complex Networks', 2014 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIG DATA AND SMART COMPUTING (BIGCOMP), International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing (BIGCOMP), IEEE, Bangkok, THAILAND, pp. 22-+.
Huang, W 2014, 'Evaluating Graphs from a New Perspective', 2014 IEEE 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (CSE), IEEE 17th International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), IEEE, Chengdu, PEOPLES R CHINA, pp. 1648-1652.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, W & Bednarz, T 2014, 'Towards a cognitive approach to user-centered visualization design and evaluation', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 159-164.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Copyright 2014 ACM. How we visualize graph data is important for us to make sense of it. A number of aesthetic criteria have been used in practice to guide the visualization process and judge the quality of graph drawings. These aesthetics are limited since they often conflict with each other. It is generally agreed that in order to make visualizations effective, well-grounded perception and cognitive theories and design principles are needed. Some attempts have been made to develop visualization theories. In this paper, we present a preliminary study which we conducted with a cognitive approach to add to this growing body of research. More specifically, we propose a graph visualization model, which is further conceptualized into a two-stage assessment cycle. Examples of potentially useful methodologies and theories are introduced and their implications for producing user-friendly visualizations are discussed.
Nguyen, QV, Wu, Y, Bednarz, T & Huang, W 2014, 'ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: Preface', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, p. iii.
Donovan, A, Alem, L, Huang, W, Liu, R & Hedley, M 2014, 'Understanding how network performance affects user experience of remote guidance', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), CYTED-RITOS International Workshop on Groupware, pp. 1-12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Much research has been done to support remote collaboration on physical tasks. However, the focus of the research has been mainly on system and interface design and their impact on collaboration. Relatively less attention has been paid to investigating how network performance can affect user experience and task performance. In this paper, we present a preliminary user study on this issue in which participants were asked to work collaboratively in pair using a remote mobile tele-assistance system we developed. In this study, five network scenarios were examined and network performance (QoS) was measured using four metrics including delay, jitter, bandwidth and packet loss. User experience (QoE) was measured using both objective and subjective metrics. The formal included time taken and number of instructions repeated for task performance while the latter included user ratings of quality of audio experience, quality of video experience and overall quality of experience. The results indicated that the packet loss rate in QoS is the biggest contributor to loss in QoE. We also discuss implications of the study and possible directions of future work. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.
Huang, W & Alem, L 2013, 'HandsInAir: A wearable system for remote collaboration on physical tasks', Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW, pp. 153-156.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Many real world scenarios involve a remote helper guiding a local worker performing manipulations of physical objects (physical tasks). Technologies and systems have been developed to support such collaborations. However, existing systems often confine collaborators in fixed desktop settings. Yet, there are many situations in which collaborators are mobile and/or desktop settings are not possible to set up. In this paper, we present HandsInAir, a real-time collaborative wearable system for remote collaboration. HandsInAir is designed to support mobility of both the worker and the helper and to provide easy access to remote expertise. In particular, this system implements a novel approach that allows helpers to perform hand gestures in the air and frees two hands of workers for object operations. We describe the system and an evaluation of it and envision future work. Copyright © 2012 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. (ACM).
Huang, W, Alem, L & Tecchia, F 2013, 'HandsIn3D: Augmenting the shared 3D visual space with unmediated hand gestures', SIGGRAPH Asia 2013 Emerging Technologies, SA 2013.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Nowadays technologies used in equipment and machinery are becoming increasingly complex and ubiquitous. The technical complexities of the equipment often require specialized knowledge and expertise to operate and maintain. However, experts who have the required knowledge and expertise are not always locally available. When a machine breaks down, there is a need to arrange and fly an expert in and out to have the machine fixed, which can be time-consuming and is not cost effective. It is often seen that the lack of adequate skill sets and the cost of bringing an expert onsite translate to the loss in productivity [Alem et al. 2011]. Therefore, there is a high demand in industries for technologies that support remote collaboration in which a remote helper guides a local worker performing tasks on physical objects. With such technologies, the expert would no longer need to be flown onsite and is able to, for example, fix a machine remotely with assistance from a local technician. 2013 Copyright held by the Owner/Author.
Huang, W, Alem, L & Tecchia, F 2013, 'HandsIn3D: Supporting Remote Guidance with Immersive Virtual Environments', HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION - INTERACT 2013, PT I, 14th IFIP TC 13 INTERACT International Conference on Designing for Diversity, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Cape Town, SOUTH AFRICA, pp. 70-77.
Huang, W, Alem, L, Nepal, S & Thilakanathan, D 2013, 'Supporting tele-assistance and tele-monitoring in safety-critical environments', Proceedings of the 25th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference: Augmentation, Application, Innovation, Collaboration, OzCHI 2013, pp. 539-542.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Underground mines are hazardous environments. With more and more high-tech machines being introduced in mines, mine operators are under pressure of keeping machinery running smoothly as well as maintaining safety. To address this issue we have developed a remote guiding system called ReMoTe to allow an offsite expert to guide and monitor real time an onsite mining operator. This system brings offsite expertise to operators when and where it is needed (and in doing so supporting onthe- job training) and in the same time providing operators with the ability to monitor their level of stress (self monitoring) as well as allowing shift supervisor to remotely monitor their staff stress level. In our view the combination of these two services is key to increasing the productivity of the mines while supporting operators' safety. This paper describes ReMoTe and discusses how safety concerns are addressed in the design and evaluation of it.
Robert, K, Zhu, D, Huang, W, Alem, L & Gedeon, T 2013, 'MobileHelper: Remote guiding using smart mobile devices, hand gestures and augmented reality', SIGGRAPH Asia 2013 Symposium on Mobile Graphics and Interactive Applications, SA 2013.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Due to the rapid development in wearable computing, gestural interaction and augmented reality in recent years, remote collaboration has been seen as a fast growing field with many advanced designs and implementations for a wide range of applications. Most of existing remote guiding or collaboration solutions still rely on specifically designed hardware systems on both helper and worker side with limitations on usage, mobility, flexibility and portability. Considering widespread deployment of smart mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets in the past a few years, it already provides us numerous potentials of migrating conventional remote guiding solutions to such powerful platforms with the possibility of overcoming many existing issues and limits. In this paper, we introduce MobileHelper, a remote guiding prototype that is developed on a tablet device with the feature of allowing helpers to use hand gestures to guide the remote worker for various physical tasks. The interface used on the worker side integrates a near eye display to support mobility and real time representations of the helper's hand gestures using augmented reality technologies. We present the design and features of MobileHelper along with the description of detailed implementation of the prototype system. Stable system performance is also reported from our preliminary internal test runs. © 2013 ACM.
Huang, W 2012, 'Window to the soul: Tracking eyes to inform the design of visualizations', CGiV 2012 - 2012 9th International Conference on Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization, p. 61.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A picture is worth a thousand words. To take advantage of powerful human vision, we generate visualizations for people to view and to understand the underlying data. However, these a thousand words do not necessarily tell the truth about the data. A good visualization can make the data understanding process effective, while a bad visualization may hinder the process, even convey misleading information. To produce effective visualizations, it is important for us to have a good understanding of how people actually perceive and process the visual information. People view visualizations using their eyes, and tracking their eye movements can be a useful method for this purpose. In this talk, I will present a series eye tracking studies on how people read graphs. These studies demonstrate that: 1) eye tracking is an effective method for gaining insights into how people read graphs, and 2) how obtained insights from eye tracking can be used to inform the design of visualizations. © 2012 IEEE.
Huang, W & Alem, L 2012, 'A Usability and Spatial Awareness Study of Near-Eye Displays', PROCEEDINGS 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS (SMC), IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), IEEE, Seoul, SOUTH KOREA, pp. 906-911.
Huang, W, James, C, Alem, L, Widzyk-Capehart, E & Haustein, K 2012, 'A scenario- and observation-based requirement analysis for delivery of remote mining services', Proceedings of the 24th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2012, pp. 249-252.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Market pressure to access wider markets, whilst reducing costs of delivering support to distant clients, is driving the demand for systems that support remote delivery of customer service. Although systems have been developed to meet such demand, the delivery of remote mining engineering services posts unique challenges that require specific attention. In this paper, we report a study conducted as part of a collaborative project between CSIRO and a company specialising in the provision of mining engineering services, to understand user requirements for delivering mining engineering services remotely. In this study, we employ an approach that applies user-experience design methods, combined with scenario-based software design techniques in requirements elicitation and analysis. We review related work, describe the procedure and techniques of the approach, present our design recommendations and discuss future work. © 2012 ACM.
Tecchia, F, Alem, L & Huang, W 2012, '3D helping hands: A gesture based MR system for remote collaboration', Proceedings - VRCAI 2012: 11th ACM SIGGRAPH International Conference on Virtual-Reality Continuum and Its Applications in Industry, pp. 323-328.View/Download from: Publisher's site
There is currently a strong need for collaborative systems with which two or more participants interact over a distance on a task involving tangible artifacts (e.g., a machine, a patient, a tool). The present paper focuses on the specific category of remote-collaboration systems where hand gestures are used by a remote helper to assist a physically distant worker to perform manual tasks. Existing systems use a combination of video capturing, 2D monitors or 2D projectors, however displaying a video of the remote workspace and allowing helpers to gesture over the video does not provide helpers with sufficient understanding of the spatial relationships between remote objects and between their hands and the remote objects. In this paper we introduce our tele-presence Mixed Reality system for remote collaboration on physical tasks based on real-time capture and rendering of the remote workspace and of the helper's hands. We improve on previous 2D systems introducing 3D capturing and rendering, and exploiting the possibility offered by the use of real 3D data to increase the feeling of immersion offered by the system using head tracking, stereoscopic rendering, inter-occlusion handling and virtual shadowing. We performed initial usability test of our system to verify if users are satisfied with the spatial awareness the system provides. © 2012 ACM.
Hua, J, Huang, M, Huang, W, Wang, J & Nguyen, Q 2012, 'Force-directed Graph Visualization with Pre-positioning - Improving Convergence Time and Quality of Layout', 2012 16th IEEE International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV), International Conference on Information Visualisation, IEEE Press, Montpellier, France, pp. 124-129.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Modern visual analytics tools provide mechanism for users to gain unknown knowledge through effective visual interactions for user to quickly understand the progress of algorithms and adjust the input parameters on intermediate visualizations that towards the production of most satisfied outcome. This requires the quick production of a sequence of graph visualizations. However, the traditional force-directed graph drawing algorithms are very slow to reach an equilibrium configuration of forces. They usually spend tens of seconds producing the layout of a graph converge. Thus, they do not satisfy the requirement of rapid drawing of graphs. This paper proposes a fast convergence method for drawing force-directed graphs. We essentially pre-calculate the geometrical position of all vertices before applying a force-directed layout algorithm to reach the energy minimization of the graph layout. The experimental results have shown that this approach could not only reduce the convergence time but also the number of edge crossings that approves the quality of layout significantly
Huang, M, Huang, T & Lin, C 2012, 'Evaluating force-directed algorithms with a new framework', Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, SAC 2012, ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, ACM Press, Riva, Italy, pp. 1030-1032.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Force-directed algorithms are widely used in practice for graph drawing. How to evaluate this type of algorithms has been a challenging issue since their performance largely depends on input parameters and thus is not consistent. In this paper, we first review previous approaches used for evaluation of force-directed algorithms. We then present a case study that compares two force-directed algorithms following a newly proposed evaluation framework. This study evaluates the performance of these algorithms in terms of six commonly applied aesthetic criteria and demonstrates how the framework is used. Advantages of this evaluation framework are discussed.
Huang, T, Lin, C & Huang, M 2012, 'An aggregation-based approach to quality evaluation of graph drawings', Proceedings of International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction, VINCI '12, International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction, ACM Press, Hangzhou, China, pp. 110-113.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Aesthetics are often used to judge how good a graph drawing is in terms of specific drawing rules. A direct measurement of overall quality is missing. In this paper, we propose to evaluate quality based on aggregation of individual aesthetics. This measure can be used by visualization designers to quickly compare the quality of drawings at hand at the design stage and make decisions accordingly. We present a user study that validates this measure. The implications of the proposed measure for future research are discussed.
Alem, L & Huang, W 2011, 'Developing Mobile Remote Collaboration Systems for Industrial Use: Some Design Challenges', HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION - INTERACT 2011, PT IV, 13th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (INTERACT), SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Lisbon, PORTUGAL, pp. 442-445.
Alem, L, Tecchia, F & Huang, W 2011, 'Remote tele-assistance system for maintenance operators in mines', 11th Underground Coal Operators' Conference, University of Wollongong & the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Wollongong, pp. 171-177.
Huang, W & Alem, L 2011, 'Supporting hand gestures in mobile remote collaboration: A usability evaluation', Proceedings of HCI 2011 - 25th BCS Conference on Human Computer Interaction, pp. 211-216.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Rapid advances in networking and hardware have made it possible for remotely located individuals to perform physical tasks together. Although a range of systems have been developed for remote collaboration, how to support the richness of hand gestures for an expert guiding a mobile worker located in a non-traditional-desktop environment has not been fully explored. HandsOnVideo is a system developed to fill this gap. The system uses a near-eye display to support mobility and unmediated representations of hands to support remote gestures. A usability evaluation has been conducted to gain in-depth understanding of the usefulness and usability of HandsOnVideo and the study yields positive results. In this paper, we describe the evaluation method, report the experimental results, discuss the findings and envision possible future improvements.
Jhong, S-Y, Lin, C-C, Liu, W-Y & Huang, W 2011, 'Rectangular Cartogram Visualization Interface for Social Networks', SECURITY-ENRICHED URBAN COMPUTING AND SMART GRID, 2nd International Conference on the Emerging Areas of Security-Enriched Urban Computing and Smart Grids, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Hualien, TAIWAN, pp. 336-+.
Khoury, R, Dawborn, T & Huang, W 2011, 'Visualising web browsing data for user behaviour analysis', Proceedings of the 23rd Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2011, pp. 177-180.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The rapid growth of Internet usage has dramatically changed the way we interact with the outside world. Many people read news, communicate with friends and purchase goods online. These activities are usually done via web browsing. Understanding user web browsing behaviour is important in improving their browsing experience. For example, website usability and the personalization of online services could both benefit from knowledge of user browsing patterns. Much research has been done on understanding user web browsing behaviour. However, the usefulness of visualisations has not been fully explored in this space. In this paper, we introduce a system that offers three different ways of visualising web browsing data. This system provides a common interface for users to interact with the visualisations. We also present an evaluation of the system with end users. We show that by visualising a user's web browsing history, we are able to uncover interesting patterns in the way that individuals use the Web. © 2011 ACM.
Paris, C, Colineau, N, Farrell, V, Farrell, G & Huang, W 2011, 'Message from the technical chairs', Proceedings of the 23rd Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2011.
Quan, N, Eades, P, Hong, S-H & Huang, W 2010, 'Large Crossing Angles in Circular Layouts', GRAPH DRAWING, 18th International Symposium on Graph Drawing, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Univ Konstanz, Konstanz, GERMANY, pp. 397-+.
Huang, T, Huang, M & Lin, C 2011, 'Aesthetic of Angular Resolution for Node-Link Diagrams: Validation and Algorithm', Proc. of 2011 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC 2011), IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, IEEE Computer Society, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, pp. 213-216.View/Download from: Publisher's site
When visualizing graphs into node-link diagrams, angular resolution is often used as one of the aesthetic criteria measuring the diagram quality in terms of human comprehension. However, angualr resolution has not been empirically vailidated for its relevance to humans. In addition although many force-directed algorithms have been proposed for automatic graph drawing, performance evaluation of these algorithms has not been conclusive due to the lack of proper methods. To shorten these gaps, this paper 1) validates the aesthetic based on human experimental data and identifies the best of angular resolution measures used in the literature; 2) introduces a force-directed algorithm, forceAR, for improving angular resolution; 3) proposes a new framework for more reliable and thorough evaluation of force-directed algorithms. Finally as a case study, our forceAR algorthim is evaluated using this framework.
Huang, W, Eadesy, P, Hongy, SH & Linz, CC 2010, 'Improving force-directed graph drawings by making compromises between aesthetics', Proceedings - 2010 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, VL/HCC 2010, pp. 176-183.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Many automatic graph drawing algorithms implement only one or two aesthetic criteria since most aesthetics conflict with each other. Empirical research has shown that although those algorithms are based on different aesthetics, drawings produced by them have comparable effectiveness. The comparable effectiveness raises a question about necessity of choosing one algorithm against another for drawing graphs when human performance is a main concern. In this paper, we argue that effectiveness can be improved when algorithms are designed by making compromises between aesthetics, rather than trying to satisfy one or two of them to the fullest. In particular, this paper presents a user study. The study compares effectiveness of drawings produced by two different force-directed methods, Classical spring algorithm and BIGANGLE. BIGANGLE produces drawings with a few aesthetics being improved at the same time. The experimental results indicate that BIGANGLE induces significantly better performance of humans in perceiving shortest paths between two nodes. © 2010 IEEE.
Huang, T & Huang, M 2010, 'Exploring the Relative Importance of Crossing Number and Crossing Angle', 3rd International Symposium on Visual Information Communication, International Symposium on Visual Information Communication, ACM Press 2010, Beijing, China, pp. 35-42.
Recent research has indicated that human graph reading performance can be affected by the size of crossing angle. Crossing angle is closely related to another aesthetic criterion: number of edge crossings. Although crossing number has been previously identified as the most important aesthetic, its relative impact on performance of human graph reading is unknown, compared to crossing angle. In this paper, we present an exploratory user study investigating the relative importance between crossing number and crossing angle. This study also aims to further examine the effects of crossing number and crossing angle not only on task performance measured as response time and accuracy, but also on cognitive load and visualization efficiency. The experimental results reinforce the previous findings of the effects of the two aesthetics on graph comprehension. The study demonstrates that on average these two closely related aesthetics together explain 33% of variance in the four usability measures: time, accuracy, mental effort and visualization efficiency, with about 38% of the explained variance being attributed to the crossing angle.
Huang, W, Eades, P & Hong, S-H 2009, 'A Graph Reading Behavior: Geodesic-Path Tendency', IEEE PACIFIC VISUALIZATION SYMPOSIUM 2009, PROCEEDINGS, IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium, IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA, pp. 137-144.
Huang, W, Eades, P & Hong, SH 2008, 'Beyond time and error: A cognitive approach to the evaluation of graph drawings', Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on BEyond Time and Errors: Novel EvaLuation Methods for Information Visualization 2008, BELIV'08.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Time and error are commonly used to measure the effectiveness of graph drawings. However, such measures are limited in providing more fundamental knowledge that is useful for general visualization design. We therefore apply a cognitive approach in evaluations. This approach evaluates graph drawings from a cognitive perspective, measuring more than just time and error. Three user studies are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of this approach. Copyright 2008 ACM.
Huang, W, Hong, S-H & Eades, P 2008, 'Effects of crossing angles', IEEE PACIFIC VISUALISATION SYMPOSIUM 2008, PROCEEDINGS, IEEE Pacific Visualisation Symposium, IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Kyoto, JAPAN, pp. 41-46.
Huang, W 2007, 'Using eye tracking to investigate graph layout effects', ASIA-PACIFIC SYMPOSIUM ON VISUALISATION 2007, PROCEEDINGS, Asia/Pacific Symposium on Visualisation 2007, IEEE, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, pp. 97-100.
Huang, W, Hong, SH & Eades, P 2006, 'How people read sociograms: A questionnaire study', Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology Series, pp. 199-206.
Visualizing social network data into sociograms plays an important role in communicating information about network characteristics. Previous studies have shown that human perceptions of network fea- Tures can be aected by the layout of a sociogram [McGrath et al. 1996, 1997]. An empirical user study has been conducted to investigate eectiveness of ve dierent network visualization conventions and im- pact of edge crossings on sociogram perceptions, using both quantitative performance and preference mea- sures and qualitative questionnaire study. This pa- per reports results and ndings of the questionnaire study. We relate qualitative questionnaire results with quantitative ndings and discuss their implica- Tions for sociogram design. We found that subjects had a strong preference of placing nodes on the top or in the center to highlight importance, and cluster- ing nodes in the same group and separating groups to highlight groups. They had tendency to believe that nodes in the center or on the top are more im- portant, and nodes in close proximity belong to the same group. Some preliminary recommendations for sociogram design and hypotheses about human read- ing behaviors are proposed. © 2006, Australian Computer Society, Inc.
Huang, W, Hong, SH & Eades, P 2006, 'Predicting graph reading performance: A cognitive approach', Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology Series, pp. 207-216.
Performance and preference measures are commonly used in the assessment of visualization techniques. This is important and useful in understanding dif- ferences in eectiveness between dierent treatments. However, these measures do not answer how and why the dierences are caused. And sometimes, perfor- mance measures alone may not be sensitive enough to detect dierences. In this paper, we introduce a cognitive approach for visualization eectiveness and e±ciency assessment. A model of user performance, mental eort and cognitive load (memory demand) is proposed and further mental eort and visualization e±ciency measures are incorporated into our analy- sis. It is argued that 1) combining cognitive measures with traditional methods provides us new insights and practical guidance in visualization assessment. 2) an- Alyzing human cognitive process not only helps to un- derstand how viewers interact with visualizations, but also helps to predict user performance in initial stage. 3) keeping cognitive load induced by a visualization low allows more memory resources to be available for high level complex cognitive activities. A case study conducted supports our arguments. © 2006, Australian Computer Society, Inc.
Huang, WD, Hong, SH & Eades, P 2005, 'Layout effects on sociogram perception', GRAPH DRAWING, 13th International Symposium on Graph Drawing (GD 2005), SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Limerick, IRELAND, pp. 262-273.
Huang, W & Eades, P 2005, 'How people read graphs', Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology Series, pp. 51-58.
The graph layout problem has long been a major concern for effectiveness of conveying information. To propose user-centred aesthetic criteria for a "good" layout, it is important to have knowledge on how people read graphs; how a particular graph layout characteristic can affect people's reading performance. On the other hand, despite the increasingly wide use of graphs in everyday life, yet we know surprisingly little about how people actually read graphs. The present eye tracking study in this paper is an attempt to perform an initial investigation into this issue and provide data that can help build the basic understanding of how people read graphs.. © 2005, Australian Computer Society, Inc.
Huang, W, Murray, C, Shen, X, Song, L, Wu, YX & Zheng, L 2005, 'Visualisation and analysis of network motifs', Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Visualisation, pp. 697-702.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Many of the complex networks that occur both in nature and in technology are built up from frequently recurring patterns of basic structural elements. These structural patterns known as motifs play a significant role in the function of the network. Visualisation is a useful tool for understanding the structure in a network. The quality of a visualisation can be significantly improved if it effectively displays these motifs. In this paper we present visualisations designed to highlight motifs detected through analysis. We argue that these visualisations designed to show functionally important subgraphs give a greater insight into the function of the network. © 2005 IEEE.
Eades, P, Huang, W & Hong, S-H, 'A Force-Directed Method for Large Crossing Angle Graph Drawing'.
Recent empirical research has indicated that human graph reading performance
improves when crossing angles increase. However, crossing angle has not been
used as an aesthetic criterion for graph drawing algorithms so far. In this
paper, we introduce a force-directed method that aims to construct graph
drawings with large crossing angles. Experiments indicate that our method
significantly increases crossing angles. Surprisingly, the experimental results
further demonstrate that the resulting drawings produced by our method have
fewer edge crossings, a shorter total edge length and more uniform edge
lengths, compared to classical spring algorithms.