Can supervise: YES
© 2019 American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved. The durability performance of Port Kembla Olympic Pool, built in 1937, has been investigated. Nearly all structural components were reinforced concrete and were exposed to marine environments with some components ‘permanently submerged’ while others were in an ‘atmospheric zone’ and ‘tidal or splash zone.’ After more than 60 years in service, most structural components were found to be in excellent condition. This paper discusses the site investigation that examined strength, carbonation, chloride penetration, and cover depths. The results revealed the quality of the concrete to be uniform in the pool but variable in other structural members. There was little carbonation but extensive chloride penetration, depending on the exposure condition. The average compressive strength of the 60-year-old concrete in the pool and its surrounding structures was 5700 and 4280 psi (40 and 30 MPa), respectively. The covers were between 2.0 and 2.5 in. (50 and 65 mm). Despite the extent of chloride penetration into the cover concrete, limited corrosion was observed. The concrete has proven to give a service life of over 60 years, which confirms the importance of achieving adequate strength and, perhaps more importantly, cover.
Alkali silica reaction (ASR) in concrete is a deleterious reaction which occurs due to the reaction between alkalis in the pore solution and reactive forms of silica found in some aggregates. ASR results in expansion and cracking which reduce the mechanical properties of the concrete. An ultra-accelerated autoclave test method has been used to test concrete prisms with and without alkali boosting. In this method, expansion and deterioration caused by ASR in concrete was investigated using an autoclave to simulate long-term deterioration. Test parameters such as temperature, pressure, duration of autoclaving and alkali boosting were investigated. Results obtained within a short period, clearly show large expansions and deterioration levels for concrete made with reactive aggregates.
Evaluation of reduction in modulus of elasticity of concrete undergoing alkali silica reaction is carried out using an artificial neural network
Nguyen, TN, Yu, Y, Li, J, Gowripalan, N & Sirivivatnanon, V 2019, 'Elastic modulus of ASR-affected concrete: An evaluation using Artificial Neural Network', Computers and Concrete, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 541-553.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Copyright © 2019 Techno-Press, Ltd. Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete can induce degradation in its mechanical properties, leading to compromised serviceability and even loss in load capacity of concrete structures. Compared to other properties, ASR often affects the modulus of elasticity more significantly. Several empirical models have thus been established to estimate elastic modulus reduction based on the ASR expansion only for condition assessment and capacity evaluation of the distressed structures. However, it has been observed from experimental studies in the literature that for any given level of ASR expansion, there are significant variations on the measured modulus of elasticity. In fact, many other factors, such as cement content, reactive aggregate type, exposure condition, additional alkali and concrete strength, have been commonly known in contribution to changes of concrete elastic modulus due to ASR. In this study, an artificial intelligent model using artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed for the first time to provide an innovative approach for evaluation of the elastic modulus of ASR-affected concrete, which is able to take into account contribution of several influence factors. By intelligently fusing multiple information, the proposed ANN model can provide an accurate estimation of the modulus of elasticity, which shows a significant improvement from empirical based models used in current practice. The results also indicate that expansion due to ASR is not the only factor contributing to the stiffness change, and various factors have to be included during the evaluation.
Vu, T, Gowripalan, N, De Silva, P, Kidd, P & Sirivivatnanon, V 2019, 'Influence of curing and retarder on early-age properties of powder geopolymer concrete', Concrete in Australia, vol. Volume 45, no. No 2, pp. 41-46.
The effect of different curing conditions and the addition of a retarder on flow characteristics, setting time and strength development of a powder form of geopolymer is reported.
Moghaddam, F, Sirivivatnanon, V & Vessalas, K 2019, 'The effect of fly ash fineness on heat of hydration, microstructure, flow and compressive strength of blended cement pastes', Case Studies in Construction Materials, vol. 10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 In this paper, an experimental study on the effect of fly ash fineness on the heat of hydration, microstructure, flow and compressive strength of blended cement pastes was carried out and evaluated against control cement paste. Fly ashes with different fineness: classified fly ash, run-of-station fly ash and grounded run-of-station fly ash; with a median particle size of 17.4, 11.3 and 5.7 μm, respectively, from the same power station source in Australia were used to partially replace Portland cement at 20% and 40% by weight of cement using a fixed water-to-binder ratio of 0.40. Results of this study showed that the cumulative heat of hydration of blended cement paste decreased as fly ash content in blended cement paste was increased. For a given cement replacement level, blended cement paste containing finer fly ash released more heat of hydration when compared to coarser fly ash. Moreover, increasing the fineness of fly ash resulted in a higher consumption of calcium hydroxide at 7 and 28 days reflecting pozzolanic reactivity and, thus, a denser microstructure than blended pastes containing coarser fly ash as revealed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compressive strength results. In addition, the incorporation of fly ash in the blended pastes led to the introduction of an additional hydration peak in the heat evolution curve possibly due to the late activation of fly ash by calcium hydroxide renewing the C 3 A reaction and converting ettringite to monosulfate. The flow of the freshly blended cement pastes was also found to improve slightly with increasing fineness of the fly ash. In addition, the hardened blended cement pastes containing 20% ground run-of-station fly ash showed comparable compressive strength with the control cement pastes at both 7 and 28 days mainly due to the higher fineness of the ground run-of-station fly ash and increased reactivity compared to coarser grade fly ash.
Tapas, M, Brenner, J, Vessalas, K, Thomas, P & Sirivivatnanon, V 2018, 'Effect of Limestone Content in Cement on Alkali-Silica Reaction Using Accelerated Mortar Bar Test', Concrete in Australia, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 41-47.
This paper reports the effect of interground limestone content on Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) in binder systems with and without supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) using commercial Portland cement (Type GP) with no limestone addition and a masonry cement with 17% limestone. The results show that increasing cement limestone content up to 17% has no adverse effect on expansion of mortar bars containing reactive greywacke aggregate tested using Australian Standard AS 1141.60.1. The high limestone content of 17% also appears to stabilise the Accelerated Mortar Bar Test (AMBT) expansion after 14 days of immersion in 1M NaOH 80 oC. This is possibly because of the formation of monocarboaluminate as detected by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), resulting from the reaction of limestone with the aluminate phases in the cement, which may lead to reduced porosity in the mortar as well as the reduced amount of portlandite in the hydrated masonry cement as confirmed by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Moreover, it was found that the limestone content had no detrimental effect on the efficacy of SCMs to suppress ASR as shown in the expansion of the accelerated mortar bar tests.
Erkmen, RE, Gowripalan, N & Sirivivatnanon, V 2017, 'Elasto-plastic damage modelling of beams and columns with mechanical degradation', COMPUTERS AND CONCRETE, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 315-323.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mohammadreza Hassani, E, Vessalas, K, Sirivivatnanon, V & Baweja, D 2017, 'Influence of permeability-reducing admixtures on water penetration in concrete', ACI Materials Journal, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 911-922.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Copyright © 2017, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved. An experimental investigation was carried out on concrete into the effectiveness of integral permeability-reducing admixtures as possible alternatives to the traditional external waterproofers. The efficiency of hydrophobic water repellents and crystalline pore blockers were evaluated in concretes incorporating fixed water-cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) and different cementitious material types covering OPC, fly ash, and granulated blast-furnace slag. Three different test methods were employed to evaluate the water penetration resistance of concrete. To isolate the benefits that are achieved by varying the mixture design parameters, statistical factorial analysis of variances was carried out to discover the significance of each variable. Results indicated that the effect of w/cm and cementitious material is more pronounced compared to the addition of permeability-reducing admixtures. It was also demonstrated that the admixtures can be effective in reducing water penetration; however, their effect is varied in different mixtures. Caution must be exercised when using such admixtures in different concrete mixtures.
Foster, SJ, Stewart, MG, Loo, M, Ahammed, M & Sirivivatnanon, V 2016, 'Calibration of Australian Standard AS3600 Concrete Structures: part I statistical analysis of material properties and model error', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 242-253.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sirivivatnanon, V, Mohammadi, J & South, W 2016, 'Reliability of new Australian test methods in predicting alkali silica reaction of field concrete', CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, vol. 126, pp. 868-874.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Stewart, MG, Foster, S, Ahammed, M & Sirivivatnanon, V 2016, 'Calibration of Australian Standard AS3600 concrete structures part II: reliability indices and changes to capacity reduction factors', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 254-266.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sirivivatnanon, V, Thomas, WA & Waye, K 2012, 'Determination of free chlorides in aggregates and concrete', Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 151-158.
Chlorides exist as either "bound" or "free" chloride in concrete. It is well recognised that it is the free chloride that contributes to steel depassivation and subsequent corrosion in concrete. In measuring the amount of chlorides in aggregates and concrete, both "water-soluble" and "acid-soluble (total) chloride" test methods have been used. The aggressiveness of the extractive techniques determines the type and amount of chlorides. This was investigated in terms of the type of extracting agent and degree of fractured surface of the materials. It was found that the use of boiling water on materials passing 850-micron sieve offered a well balanced measure of the free chloride contents in aggregate. The findings were also confirmed valid in testing hardened concrete. © Institution of Engineers, Australia 2012.
De Silva, P, Bucea, L & Sirivivatnanon, V 2009, 'Chemical, microstructural and strength development of calcium and magnesium carbonate binders', CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 460-465.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chindaprasirt, P, Rukzon, S & Sirivivatnanon, V 2008, 'Effect of carbon dioxide on chloride penetration and chloride ion diffusion coefficient of blended Portland cement mortar', CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1701-1707.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chindaprasirt, P, Rukzon, S & Sirivivatnanon, V 2008, 'Resistance to chloride penetration of blended Portland cement mortar containing palm oil fuel ash, rice husk ash and fly ash', CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 932-938.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Khatri, RP, Quick, GW & Sirivivatnanon, V 2008, 'Durability of concrete containing siderite-bearing microsyenite and trachyte aggregates', CEMENT & CONCRETE COMPOSITES, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 307-315.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Quick, GW & Sirivivatnanon, V 2008, 'Predicting iron staining of siderite-bearing microsyenites intended for dimension stone use', CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 257-263.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chindaprasirt, P, Chareerat, T & Sirivivatnanon, V 2007, 'Workability and strength of coarse high calcium fly ash geopolymer', CEMENT & CONCRETE COMPOSITES, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 224-229.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chindaprasirt, P, Chotithanorm, C, Cao, HT & Sirivivatnanon, V 2007, 'Influence of fly ash fineness on the chloride penetration of concrete', CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 356-361.View/Download from: Publisher's site
De Silva, P, Bucea, L, Sirivivatnanon, V & Moorehead, DR 2007, 'Carbonate binders by "cold sintering" of calcium carbonate', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, vol. 42, no. 16, pp. 6792-6797.View/Download from: Publisher's site
De Silva, P, Sagoe-Crenstil, K & Sirivivatnanon, V 2007, 'Kinetics of geopolymerization: Role of Al2O3 and SiO2', CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 512-518.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sirivivatnanon, V, Castel, A, Francois, R, Li, CQ & Zheng, JJ 2007, 'Propagation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete and its effects on structural deterioration - Discussion', MAGAZINE OF CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 151-154.
De Silva, P, Bucea, L, Moorehead, DR & Sirivivatnanon, V 2006, 'Carbonate binders: Reaction kinetics, strength and microstructure', CEMENT & CONCRETE COMPOSITES, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 613-620.View/Download from: Publisher's site
McGhie, S, Cox, J, Bucea, L & Sirivivatnanon, V 2005, 'Urban salinity site investigations for greenfield developments', Australian Geomechanics Journal, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 23-26.
Chindaprasirt, P, Homwuttiwong, S & Sirivivatnanon, V 2004, 'Influence of fly ash fineness on strength, drying shrinkage and sulfate resistance of blended cement mortar', CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1087-1092.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Khatri, RP & Sirivivatnanon, V 2004, 'Characteristic service life for concrete exposed to marine environments', CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 745-752.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Khatri, RP, Sirivivatnanon, V & Heeley, P 2004, 'Critical polarization resistance in service life determination', CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 829-837.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Baweja, D, Roper, H & Sirivivatnanon, V 2003, 'Improved electrochemical determinations of chloride-induced steel corrosion in concrete', ACI MATERIALS JOURNAL, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 228-238.
Lim, CC, Gowripalan, N & Sirivivatnanon, V 2000, 'Microcracking and chloride permeability of concrete under uniaxial compression', CEMENT & CONCRETE COMPOSITES, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 353-360.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Baweja, D, Roper, H & Sirivivatnanon, V 1999, 'Chloride-induced steel corrosion in concrete: part 2 - Gravimetric and electrochemical comparisons', ACI MATERIALS JOURNAL, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 306-313.
Baweja, D, Roper, H & Sirivivatnanon, V 1999, 'Specification of concrete for marine environments: A fresh approach', ACI MATERIALS JOURNAL, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 462-470.
Baweja, D, Roper, H & Sirivivatnanon, V 1998, 'Chloride-induced steel corrosion in concrete: Part 1 - Corrosion rates, corrosion activity, and attack areas', ACI MATERIALS JOURNAL, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 207-217.
Khatri, RP & Sirivivatnanon, V 1997, 'Methods for the determination of water permeability of concrete', ACI MATERIALS JOURNAL, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 257-261.
Khatri, RP, Sirivivatnanon, V & Yu, LK 1997, 'Effect of curing on water permeability of concretes prepared with normal Portland cement and with slag and silica fume', MAGAZINE OF CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 49, no. 180, pp. 167-172.View/Download from: Publisher's site
KHATRI, RP, SIRIVIVATNANON, V & GROSS, W 1995, 'EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS ON MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE', CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 209-220.View/Download from: Publisher's site
CAO, HT, BUCEA, L & SIRIVIVATNANON, V 1994, 'INFLUENCE OF BINDER TYPE ON ANODIC-DISSOLUTION OF STEEL EMBEDDED IN CEMENT PASTES', CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 203-213.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BAWEJA, D, ROPER, H & SIRIVIVATNANON, V 1993, 'RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANODIC POLARIZATION AND CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE', CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1418-1430.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Dynamic polarization techniques were used to estimate the corrosion rates of steel embedded in cement paste made with different binder systems. A corrosion model is proposed. The corrosion rates were determined by employing the Evans diagrams constructed from cathodic polarization curve of steel embedded in chloride free cement paste and anodic polarization curve of steel embedded in cement pastes containing chloride. Within the limitations of the adopted experimental conditions and sample configuration, the preliminary results indicate that corrosion rates of steel embedded in blended cement pastes generally fall within the range shown by steel embedded in portland cement pastes. © 1993.
Baweja, D, Munn, RL, Roper, H & Sirivivatnanon, V 1992, 'Situ assessments of long-term performance of plain and blended cement concretes', Transactions of the Institution of Engineers, Australia. Civil engineering, vol. CE34, no. 2, pp. 115-127.
Between 1987 and 1990, selected elements from ten individual structures from within four facilities were examined to assess the long-term performance of concretes used. Structural members examined encompassed slabs on grade, suspended slabs and wharf elements. Individual concretes forming the selected structures had binders of normal portland cement, portland cement with fly ash or ternary systems of fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and portland cement. Slag aggregates were used in certain of the concretes. Interest focused on the long-term in-service durability of the concretes. Conclusions were drawn with respect to the performance of the concretes.
Sirivivatnanon, V & Cao, HT 1991, 'Quality assurance of concrete structures analysis of in-situ concrete cover', Transactions of the Institution of Engineers, Australia. Civil engineering, vol. CE33, no. 2, pp. 111-118.
This paper presents a brief review of durability problems in reinforced concrete structures caused by lack of sufficient concrete cover and a statistical concept to analyse and to quantify in-situ concrete cover in buildings. The use of non-destructive procedures to measure the cover in building elements under construction is discussed. Cover data of a large number of buildings in Australia and Japan were analysed. It was found that the Levels of Confidence (LOC) for achieving minimum concrete cover for durability were poor, with less than 50 per cent of the structures achieving a 90% LOC. The use of the non-destructive technique of cover measurement and the statistical concept to quantify the in-situ cover as a quality auditing tool are described. The effectiveness of such a tool, coupled with a series of corrective measures implemented during the construction, to improve the LOC is demonstrated using an example of projects in Singapore. With improvements in design detailing, selection of suitable spacers and good installation practice, it is suggested that an LOC of 90% could be achieved and should be specified. These, together with the correct choice of the concrete type, cover thickness and good concreting practice, could prove to be the most economical way of achieving the design service life of concrete structures.
COOK, DJ & SIRIVIVATNANON, V 1978, 'INFLUENCE OF PREMIX POLYMER ADDITIVES ON DEFORMATION-BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE', CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 369-380.View/Download from: Publisher's site
COOK, DJ & SIRIVIVATNANON, V 1978, 'INFLUENCE OF PREMIX POLYMER ADDITIVES ON DEFORMATION-BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE - REPLY', CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 779-780.View/Download from: Publisher's site
COOK, DJ, MORGAN, DR, SIRIVIVATNANON, V & CHAPLIN, RP 1977, 'RAMACHANDRAN,VS AND SEREDAS,PJ DISCUSSION ON DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL-ANALYSIS OF PREMIX POLYMER CEMENT MATERIALS - REPLY', CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 357-358.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cook, DJ, Morgan, DR, Sirivivatnanon, V & Chaplin, RP 1976, 'Differential thermal analysis of premix polymer cement materials', Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 757-764.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this paper, the use of DTA thermograms, to examine the interaction between premix polymer systems and hydrating cement, are described. The thermograms indicate that the polymerisation method (i.e., thermal or irradiation) has little effect on the nature of the hydration products. It was also observed that polystyrene, polyvinyl acetate, polymethyl methacrylate and polyester-styrene, as premix components, react with the hydrating cement. Polystyrene and polyisoprene have no effect on the calcium hydroxide endotherm while polyacrylonitrile and polymethyl methacrylate have a slight effect. Polyvinyl acetate and polyester-styrene markedly reduce the calcium hydroxide endotherm and reduce the maturity of the paste. © 1976.
Studies to determine the influence of mixtures of monomers (and subsequently copolymers) on the behaviour of premix copolymer cement materials are described in this paper. Five system viz styreneacrylonitrile, styrene-vinyl acetate, methyl methacrylate - vinyl acetate, butyl methacrylate - methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate - methyl methcrylate, were investigated. Setting time and hydration studies were carried out on premix cement pastes while compressive strength tests were carried out on premix mortars, to determine the influence of monomer volume, surfactants and polymerisation method. The results indicated, as has most of the work on premix systems, that the influence of the copolymers was to increase setting time, decrease the degree of hydration as measured by percentage of chemically combined water and decrease strength relative to that of specimens continuously moist cured. © 1976.
Gowripalan, N, Cao, J, Sirivivatnanon, V & South, W 2021, 'Comparison of the effect of ASR deterioration on the load carrying capacity of concrete structural elements in accelerated laboratory tests and in the field', 16th International Conference on Alkali Aggregate Reaction 2021, Lisbon, Portugal.
Yu, Y, Nguyen, TN, Li, J & Sirivivatnanon, V 2019, 'Soft computing techniques for evaluation of elastic modulus of ASR affected concrete', Concrete 2019: Concrete in Practice – Progress Through Knowledge, Sydney.
Butcher, R & Sirivivatnanon, V 2019, 'Influence of shape and grading of manufactured sand on the workability and compressive strength of concrete', FIB 2018 - Proceedings for the 2018 fib Congress: Better, Smarter, Stronger, pp. 3050-3060.
© 2019 by the fib. All rights reserved. In this study, two methods of producing manufactured sands from the same rock source were evaluated in terms of the resulting shape and grading of the sands, and their effects on the workability and compressive strength of cement mortar and concrete. The two sands were used to blend with a natural sand to produce cement mortars at fixed sand to cement (S/C) and water to cement ratio (W/C). The shape and grading of the two sands were found to affect the New Zealand flow cone time and air void (RMS T279) and consequently the flow and compressive strength of the mortars. The sand blends were also used to produce a standard grade concrete with equal slump. The efficiency of the two sands in concrete production was measured in term of water demand of the concrete. The economic viability of each sand production method is reflected in comparing the quantity of cement and fly ash required to produce each cubic meter of a standard grade concrete.
Sirivivatnanon, V, Hocking, D, Cheney, K & Rocker, P 2019, 'Reliability of extending AS1141.60.1 and 60.2 test methods to determine ASR mitigation', Concrete 2019 app, 29th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia, Concrete Institute of Australia, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-8.
The Australian Standards AS 1141.60.1 and AS 1141.60.2 were published in 2014 as Accelerated Mortar Bar Test (AMBT) and Concrete Prism Test (CPT) to determine the potential alkali-silica reactivity (ASR) of aggregates. Both methods were extended to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in mitigating ASR, similar to ASTM C1567 and CSA A23.2-14A, in a research program undertaken by the Cement, Concrete and Aggregates Australia (CCAA). Eight aggregates were tested with various dosages of either fly ash or slag and expansions measured up to 35 days and 2 years for AMBT and CPT respectively. In addition, the efficacy of SCMs to mitigate ASR was determined for four additional reactive aggregates based on the AMBT. The results were evaluated based on the corresponding reactivity criteria in the two Australian Standards. They showed that fly ash or slag can effectively be used to mitigate ASR and that the AMBT provided a more conservative dosage of SCM in mitigation ASR than the CPT. The required fly ash or slag dosages are also found to be consistent with recommendations given in HB79. Most importantly, there are findings from many exposure sites around the world that showed the reliability of AMBT and CPT in predicting the effectiveness of SCM-mitigated solution in long-term field-exposed large concrete blocks.
Gowripalan, N, Cao, J, Sirivivatnanon, V & South, W 2019, 'Assessment of ASR expansions using an ultra-accelerated test', 29th Biennial Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia, Sydney Australia.
A constitutive model based on a novel coupled elastoplastic-damage framework is adopted for the modelling of concrete under cyclic loads. Coupled elastoplastic-damage models have been used to capture both the material degradation and the permanent deformations under inelastic deformations. In this study, a multisurface plasticity framework is implemented for the modelling of concrete under compressive and tensile cyclic loads. The elastoplastic-damage framework is based on the 'direct-coupling' method in which an a-priori relationship between the total strain and the damage strain is postulated. The model is easy to calibrate since it utilises the same yield and potential functions for plasticity and damage calculations. Concrete is modelled using a pair of yield surfaces in order to capture its compressive and tensile behaviour while utilising corresponding isotropic damage variables to capture the stiffness degradations in the compressive and tensile regimes. Material parameters are calibrated using uniaxially loaded concrete experiments. The results are compared with experimental and numerical data provided in the literature.
Vu, TH, Gowripalan, N, De Silva, P, Sirivivatnanon, V & Kidd, P 2018, 'Carbonation And Chloride Induced Steel Corrosion Related Aspects In Fly Ash/Slag Based Geopolymers - A Critical Review', Proceedings of the 2018 FIB Congress, International fib Congress, Fédération internationale du béton, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 3061-3076.
Carbonation and the presence of chloride ions are considered as two important factors affecting steel reinforcement corrosion in conventional ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. Particularly, large OPC pre-cast pipes and culverts are expected to have a longer design life due to lower water/cement ratios and higher cement contents (hence higher strength and lower porosity). Although most of the time they are buried underground and corrosion conditions may not be present, the aggressive nature of fluids (highly acidic or salty) they carry internally and the aggressive ground water in which they are located have resulted in deterioration of these elements due to corrosion of steel. Nowadays, attempts are made to replace OPC concrete pipes or culverts with fly ash/slag based geopolymer pipes and culverts. In this paper, a comparison of the corrosion aspects of reinforced concrete elements, particularly, pre-cast pipes and culverts, manufactured of OPC or blended cements and fly ash/slag based geopolymers is made. Carbonation rate in OPC concrete is different to that of geopolymer concrete mainly due to different pore structure and reaction products. The chloride ion penetration will also be different mainly due to different binding capacity, chemical products and pore structure. The threshold concentration of chloride ions required to initiate corrosion of steel reinforcement is also different. These aspects are critically reviewed which includes diffusion rates and cover requirements for long-term performance.
Vu, TH, Gowripalan, N, Sirivivatnanon, V, De Silva, P & Kidd, P 2019, 'Assessing Corrosion Resistance of Powder form of Geopolymer Concrete', 29 Biennial Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia, Sydney Australia.
Sirivivatnanon, V, Moghaddam, F & Vessalas, K 2019, 'Effect of fineness and dosage of fly ash on selected properties of mortars', 29th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia,, Concrete Institute of Australia, Sydney, Australia.
In this paper, a laboratory investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of fineness and levels of fly ash on the selected fresh, hardened and durability properties of mortars such as flow, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, strength activity index and alkali-silica reactivity. Portland cement was partially replaced by 20%, 30% and 40% of three kinds of fly ashes with different fineness (classified, run-of-station and ground run-of-station fly ashes). Fixed water to binder ratio of 0.40 and sand to binder ratio of 2.5 with a fixed dosage of water reducer were maintained for these mixes. In addition, some mixes containing classified and run-of-station fly ash with 50%, 60% and 70% cement replacement with fixed water to binder ratio of 0.55 and sand to binder ratio of 5 with a fixed dosage of water reducer were cast to evaluate the effect of fineness of fly ash in low strength mortar. Moreover, the effectiveness and required level of classified and run-of-station fly ash on mitigating alkali-silica reactivity are evaluated using accelerated mortar bar test method, and the results are reported in this paper. The results showed that all kinds of fly ashes improved the flowability of the mix with superior performance for the finer fly ash. X-ray diffraction and compressive strength test results demonstrated the effect of fineness of fly ash in decreasing the crystalline phase, increasing reactivity and improving the strength development. Drying shrinkage was decreased considerably with the inclusion of all kinds of fly ashes at all replacement levels. Incorporation of 25% classified and run-of-station fly ash is needed to control the expansion of mortar bars due to alkali-silica reactivity by the reducing the alkalinity of the mix.
Sirivivatnanon, V, Moghaddam, F & Vessalas, K 2019, 'Investigation on the influence of run of station fly ash in concrete pavement construction', 29th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia, Sydney, Australia.
The achievement of sustainable development has been a major challenge facing the concrete industry for years. In recent years there have been changes, both technical and policy driven, that have the potential to affect the availability of classified fly ash. The possible shortage of classified fly ash (CFA) supply has prompted researchers at UTS to examine the possible use of run-of-station fly ash (RFA) for use in concrete applications. In this paper, an experimental study was carried out to evaluate the influence of partially replacing cement with 20% RFA on the heat of hydration, and microstructure of blended cement pastes compared to the paste containing 20% CFA. In addition, the effects of RFA on fresh and hardened concrete properties of pavement mixes were examined and compared to CFA concrete mix. Only two lots of RFA from one single source were examined, and hence the variability and effectiveness of RFA from other sources cannot be generalised. Properties critical to the use of fly ash in pavement concrete are examined according to the R83 specification.
Nsiah-Baafi, E, Vessalas, K, Thomas, P & Sirivivatnanon, V 2019, 'Investigation of Alkali Threshold Limits and Blended Aggregate in ASR Risk-Assessed Concretes', Concrete New Zealand Conference, ConcreteNZ, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Concrete structures are designed for a specific design life to tolerate deterioration caused from various aggressive environmental loads such as carbon dioxide, chloride and aggressive soil conditions. The approach to prevent deterioration in concrete due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is by the avoidance of any such dissolution reaction taking place in concrete. ASR can in part be prevented by limiting the alkali content and restricting the use of potentially reactive aggregates. In this paper, the alkali threshold of several aggregates originating from New Zealand were determined using a modified version of RILEM AAR-3.2 and AAR-7.1. The AAR-2 accelerated mortar bar test (AMBT at 80°C) and AAR-3.2 concrete prism test (CPT at 38°C) were replaced with Australian Standard AS 1141.60.1 and 60.2 test methods, respectively, to evaluate expansion. Additional accelerated CPT in accordance with AAR-4.1 (ACPT at 60°C) was also conducted to examine the adequacy of shortening the test period. Petrographic examination taken before and after expansion testing was also carried out to qualify the presence of reactive silica and ASR gel contributing to expansion. The findings of this study suggest the potential for specifying the alkali threshold in concrete based on the reactivity classification of aggregates allowing a relaxation of the CCANZ Technical Report TR 3 alkali limit of 2.5 kg/m3 that is currently in place in New Zealand. This approach allows greater flexibility in the use of potentially reactive aggregates as sustainable concreting making materials.
Nsiah-Baafi, E, Vessalas, K, Thomas, P & Sirivivatnanon, V 2018, 'Mitigating Alkali Silica Reactions in the Absence of SCMs: A Review of Empirical Studies', The International Federation for Structural Concrete 5th International fib Congress, Melbourne.
The mechanism and severity of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is subjective to the conditions of the availability of moisture and sufficient alkali content, and the presence of reactive aggregates. Since the 1940s, key focus has been placed on the reduction of alkali content by way of addition of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). However, the cost of SCMs and the realization that the availability of these materials could become limited in the untold future has influenced some researchers to investigate the development of protocols for the use of aggregates minimizing the likelihood of potential severe ASR. This paper presents a summary and review of the various strategies that have been adopted in recent years for the mitigation of ASR without utilising the addition of SCMs.
Roboredo, C, Thomas, P, Vessalas, K & Sirivivatnanon, V 2018, 'Alkali Limit In Cement With Supplementary Cementing Materials – A Review', The International Federation for Structural Concrete 5th International fib Congress, The International Federation for Structural Concrete Congress, Conrete Institute, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-8.
The alkali silica reaction (ASR) may cause deleterious cracking in concretes as a result of the reactions of reactive aggregates in concrete systems that contain elevated alkali contents. Current strategies applied in the mitigation of ASR are based on limiting the alkali content (Na2Oe) of the cement and concrete and through the screening of aggregates with additional surety provided by the use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) in the partial replacement of cement. These strategies pose significant issues for the construction materials industry through increased manufacturing costs and reduction in volumes of viable raw materials that meet the imposed criteria. The effective mitigation of deleterious ASR using SCMs should change the focus of regulators and standards authorities to risk management through the assessment of the risk profile of a concrete mix in a particular application. Using a risk profile to assess alkali limits has the potential to relax alkali limits in cements. To achieve this aim a deep understanding of ASR in cement-SCM-aggregate concrete mixes is required through laboratory testing correlated with long-term field performance. This paper reviews ASR, reactivity assessment of aggregates and the role of SCMs in ASR mitigation and proposes a change in the focus to a balanced alkali limit based on assessed risk for the occurrence of deleterious ASR.
Tapas, M, Vessalas, K, Thomas, P & Sirivivatnanon, V 2019, 'An AMBT Study on the Effect of Limestone on ASR Mitigation: Ground Limestone Vs. Interground Limestone in Cements', Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Materials, Systems and Structures (SMSS2019) Durability, Monitoring and Repair of Structures, International Conference on Sustainable Materials, Systems and Structures, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L., Rovinj, Croatia, pp. 201-207.
Tapas, M, Vessalas, K, Thomas, P, Sirivivatnanon, V & Kidd, P 2019, 'Mechanistic Role of Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs) in Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Mitigation', Concrete in Practice-Progress Through Knowledge, Sydney, Australia.
Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) can cause premature failure of concrete structures and therefore is a major concrete durability issue. The use of commonly available supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) such as fly ash and slag is generally regarded as the most optimal and economical solution in mitigating ASR. However, the eminent closure of coal fired power stations in favour of greener technologies for producing energy and increasing demand in steel recycling threaten the future supply of SCMs that are currently available. Hence, the need to better understand the ASR mitigation process in order to be able to identify potential alternatives. This experimental study aims to provide a better understanding of ASR mitigation by studying the influence of various SCMs on ASR expansion, portlandite consumption and pore solution alkalinity. Results show that the efficacy of the SCMs in reducing ASR expansion can be correlated to their ability to consume portlandite and bind alkalis. Further, results suggest that any material that has high content of soluble Al2O3 and/or SiO2 is a potential SCM for ASR mitigation.
Thomas, P, Ha Hau, V, Vessalas, K, Sirivivatnanon, V & South, W 2019, 'Assessment of Aggregate Reactivity Using Slurry Tests', https://concrete2019.com.au/mobile/content.html, 29th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia, Sydney.
The testing and screening of aggregates for their alkali-silica reactivity (ASR) is generally carried out initially by petrographic analysis. If reactive aggregates are identified by petrographic analysis then a rapid screening of the aggregate's potential to cause expansion using the accelerated mortar bar test (AMBT, AS-1141.60.1) is carried out to determine further reactivity potential. Aggregates that are found to be reactive in the AMBT method may be further screened using the concrete prism test (CPT, AS-1141.60.2). Both AMBT and CPT methods are a compromise between introducing accelerated and reactive conditions and monitoring the expansion over short and long periods of time but with conditions that are more closely aligned with field conditions.
Given that these tests are empirical estimates of reactivity potential, alternate testing may be developed for the screening of aggregates. Alternate laboratory tests are rapidly carried out using slurry tests on small samples of ground aggregate (e.g. ASTM C289). Simulating storage temperatures used in the AMBT (80°C) and CPT (38°C) in 1 M NaOH (1.25% Na2Oe) is an alternate approach to the development of new rapid screening tests. To assess the degree of aggregate reactivity a co-reactant, calcium hydroxide (CH), may be added to the reaction mixture aiding reactivity assessment through the consumption of CH. The results of a laboratory trial into the reactivity of aggregates using a ground aggregate slurry test of this nature are reported in this paper. The results are correlated with standard test method data using AMBT and CPT (AS-1141.60.1 and 2) with a view to assessing this method (or methods of this type) as an alternative rapid screening approach in the identification of aggregate reactivity for ASR potential.
Thomas, P, Roboredo, C, Boyd-Weetman, B, Vessalas, K, Farah, D & Sirivivatnanon, V 2019, 'Investigation of ASR Reactivity through Slurry Dissolution Tests', 29th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia, Sydney.
The potential for alkali silica reaction (ASR) has been investigated through dissolution tests and the determination of the concentration of elemental species, Na, K, Ca and Si in the supernatant fluid of GP cement, aggregate and fly ash slurries. The aggregates selected for investigation were a reactive greywacke and a non-reactive micro-diorite both of which contain quartz. Alkali ions were delivered to the solution by the cement, although lower concentrations were released by both the aggregates and fly ash. Silica was released into solution according to aggregate reactivity. Rapid and local release of silica can yield an expansive ASR gel for reactive aggregate. Fly ash was observed to release silica rapidly indicating that the primary action of fly ash is through a competitive reaction for the formation of silica gel thus mitigating deleterious ASR. Quartz content as determined by X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that this phase was the main source of solution silica for the reactive aggregate.
Nguyen, TN, Yu, Y, Li, J & Sirivivatnanon, V 2018, 'AN OPTIMISED SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE MODEL FOR ELASTIC MODULUS PREDICTION OF CONCRETE SUBJECT TO ALKALI SILICA REACTION', 25th Australasian Conference on Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Brisbane.
Butcher, R & Sirivivatnanon, V 2018, 'The effect particle shape and grading of manufactured sands on the plastic and hardened properties of concrete', International Federation for Structural Concrete 5th International fib Congress 2018, Melbourne.
Sanchez Roboredo, C, Thomas, P, Vessalas, K & Sirivivatnanon, V 2018, 'Advantages of Using High Alkali Cements and Industrial Waste Materials in Prevention of Alkali-silica Reaction in Concrete', Advancing Materials and Manufacturing CAMS2018 conference, University of Wollongong.
Mckinley, MAX, Sirivivatnanon, VUTE & Hogan, C 2017, 'Effects of mix constituents on embodied energy indices of cement mortars.', 28th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia, Adelaide.
Sirivivatnanon, V, Khabbaz, H & Ayton, G 2017, '“Performance-based Specification of sand for skid resistance of concrete pavements”, ASCP 4th Concrete Pavement Conference, 2017.', ASCP 4th Concrete Pavement Conference, 2017.
Tapas, M, Vessalas, K, Thomas, P & Sirivivatnanon, V 2018, 'Role of Supplementary Cementitious Material Composition in its Efficacy to Mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction', Concrete 2017 Advances in Materials and Structures, Adelaide, Australia.
Thomas, P, Ha Hau, WF, Vessalas, K, Sirivivatnanon, V & South, W 2017, 'Assessment of Test Methods for ASR Aggregate Reactivity', Concrete 2017 Advances in Materials and Structures, Adelaide, Australia.
The paper reports on the initial stages of a study into the use of phase analysis using typical laboratory techniques; thermogravimetric analysis (TG), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the alkali silica reaction (ASR) with a view to classifying the relative reactivity of aggregates. Phase analysis of ground aggregates reacted under AS1141.60.1 accelerated mortar bar test (AMBT) conditions in the presence of calcium hydroxide (CH) are reported for aggregates that have been identified as non-reactive, slowly-reactive and reactive according to the AMBT test. Results of the phase analysis correlated the AMBT classifications. The reactivity of the aggregates was also compared to the reactivity of a quartz flour of similar particle size distribution which was found to be less reactive than the reactive and slowly reactive aggregates. The reactivity of the quartz flour and the reactive and slowly reactive aggregate was attributed to the highly reactive conditions used.
Bornstein, B, Hocking, D, Bacolod, J & Sirivivatnanon, V 2015, 'The Use of Reaction Kinetics in Classifying Alkali Silica Reactivity Potential of Aggregates', Proceedings of the concrete 2015 conference: 27th biennial national conference of the concrete institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM week conference, Concrete Institute of Australia - Biennial Conference, Concrete Institute of Australia, Melbourne, pp. 704-711.
The Australian Standard accelerated mortar bar test (AMBT) method, AS 1141.60.1, adopts the expansion limits at two exposure periods to classify the alkali silica reactivity (ASR) of aggregate. This was a first step toward the use of ‘reaction kinetics’ or ‘rate of reaction’ to detect and classify alkali silica reactivity. The AS 1141.60.2 concrete prism test (CPT), on the other hand, uses a single expansion limit at one year to classify ASR. This paper examines the validity of the use of reaction kinetics, evaluated from the AMBT expansion data, to gauge and classify the reactivity. This may enable a better quantification of the degrees of reactivity and a more fundamental approach to ASR mitigation
The use of cement supplementary materials in structural concrete is widely accepted by the construction industry for technical, economical and environmental reasons. Metakaolin (MK), produced by calcining kaolinite at high temperature is suitable for concrete production due to its pozzolanic property. This paper reviews the some of the research published on effects of using MK on engineering properties of structural concrete as a cement replacement material. The review shows that the use of relatively finer MK to partially replace cement reduces the consistency of concrete and enhanced the strengths, deformational and durability properties of concrete. MK is most effective in enhancing compressive strength (particularly at early ages) compared to other strengths and modulus of elasticity was least improved. Drying shrinkage and creep of MK concretes are lower than those for the control concrete. The high pozzolanic reactivity of MK with calcium hydroxide contributes to both porosity reduction and pore-structure refinement in the pastes and concrete. As the consequence, the durability of concrete is improved through increased resistance to chloride penetration and controlled expansion, due to alkali-silica reaction and sodium sulphate attack.
Pospischil, D, Sirivivatnanon, V, Sivathasan, U & Cheney, K 2015, 'Effectiveness of Traditional and Alternative Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Mitigating Alkali-Silica Reactivity', Proceedings of 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week, Concrete Institute of Australia - Biennial Conference, Concrete Institute of Australia, Melbourne.
With occasional disruptions in the supply of quality fly ash, and the global move towards sustainable means of power generation, it is timely for the Australian construction industry to examine the use of alternative Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM’s) in various concrete applications. In this study, Metakaolin, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Fly Ash were used to partially replace traditional Portland cement in mortar mixtures. The influence of these SCM’s on the workability and early age strength development of mortars was examined, along with their effectiveness in mitigating the alkali-silica reactivity (ASR) of aggregates, which was evaluated using the new Australian Standard AS1141.60.1 (1) for the Accelerated Mortar Bar Test (AMBT). Both the type and dosage of the two SCM’s were studied
Rocker, P, Mohammadi, J, Sirivivatnanon, V & South, W 2015, 'Linking New Australian Alkali Silica Reactivity Tests to World-Wide Performance Data', Proceedings of the Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week, Concrete Institute of Australia - Biennial Conference, Concrete Institute of Australia, Melbourne, pp. 502-513.
The long awaited Australian Standard test methods to detect alkali-silica reactivity (ASR) of aggregates: AS 1141.60.1 accelerated mortar bar test (AMBT) and AS 1141.60.2 concrete prism test (CPT); were published in September 2014. Both test methods were adopted correspondently from the ASTM 1260 and ASTM C1294 test methods but with different performance limits leading to a new class of slowly reactive aggregates. This paper reviews international and Australian research which supported these new performance limits. It also reviews and examines the value of these testing methods in predicting the ASR of aggregates in field-exposed large concrete blocks and a limited number of concrete structures. The outcomes may lead to a consideration of the hierarchy of these two test methods
Salek, S, Samali, B, Sirivivatnanon, V & Adam, G 2015, 'Development of an Acid Resistant Concrete', Proceedings of the 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week, Concrete Institute of Australia - Biennial Conference, Concrete Institute of Australia, Melbourne, pp. 727-734.
Modern infrastructures are designed for long service life and are increasing being built in more aggressive greenfield and brownfield areas. Sulfate, acid-sulfate and acid resistant concrete are engineering solution to these challenges in infrastructures without the need for additional protective membrane associated with conventional concrete. This paper presents an experimental investigation on mechanical properties of concretes made from a new acid-resistant mortar and a conventional concrete, and corresponding reinforced concrete beams, subjected to accelerated acidic environments in UTS laboratory. Concrete properties including compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, mod ulus of rupture, indirect tensile and drying shrinkage were examined. The load carrying capacity of companion reinforced concrete beams were determined. The specimens were tested before and after periods of exposure to sulphuric acid solution with the concentration of 7% and changes of their properties were evaluated. The results enable an understanding of the mechanism of acid attack and the benefit of the use of acid resistant concrete. On the other hand, the effect of acid attack on reinforced concrete beams is highly dependent on the design of the reinforced concrete beams and to a less extent on the acid resistant property of the concrete.
Sirivivatnanon, V, South, W & Whitaker, C 2015, 'Merits and challenges of increasing limestone addition in cement used in concrete pavement construction', ASCP 2015 Concrete Pavements Conference, Coffs Harbour, Australia.
Portland cement has undergone much change in recent decades to cater for rapid construction cycles, longer design life and environmental pressure. Increased fineness, the advent of Portland blended cements incorporating one or more supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), and reduced clinker content via mineral addition have been the key technological solutions to meet these demands. This paper examines how Portland cement with optimum limestone addition (designated Type GP in Australia) can be economically used to meet critical performance requirements, both in fresh and hardened state, in concrete pavement construction. Both Australian and international research and field data will be evaluated with respect to compliance to local Road Authorities specifications and service life. Recent field experience and challenges in placing these concretes using concrete paving machine will be discussed
South, W, Thomas, T & Sirivivatnanon, V 2015, 'Acid-Soluble and Water-Soluble Chloride – Testing Proficiency and Specification', Proceedings of 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week, Concrete Institute of Australia - Biennial Conference, Concrete Institute of Australia, Melbourne.
The importance of limiting the chloride ion content in concrete has always been recognised and
specified in structural concrete specifications. The Australian Standard test method for acid-soluble
chloride has been revised and published as AS 1012.20.1- 2015. At the same time, a newly developed
water-soluble chloride test method has been published as a parallel Australian Standard AS 1012.20.2-
2015. The paper reviews and reports the proficiency of the two test methods and the relationship between
acid- and water-soluble chloride based on research and proficiency testing programs conducted by
Cement Concrete and Aggregates Australia (CCAA). Performance limits specified in international
concrete standards are reviewed and recommended to be specified in relevant Australian standards and
Dumitru, I, Song, T, Bornstein, B & Sirivivatnanon, V 2013, 'Constraints in using manufactured sands in concrete pavements in Australia', Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies.
© 2013 Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies. All rights reserved. This paper documents some of the constraints in utilising larger proportions of manufactured sands in concrete pavements. These constraints, are caused mainly, by the current level of knowledge regarding the impact of manufactured sands on skid and abrasion resistance of concrete pavements. Due to shortages of natural sands, along the east coast of Australia in particular, and the need to fully utilise fines produced in quarry operations, progress has been made in utilising blends of manufactured sands and natural sands in concrete pavements. The paper presents a brief review of literature on this subject in USA, France and United Kingdom. It also, briefly, documents work recently carried out in Australia by CCAA (Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia), referring to the skid and abrasion resistance of concrete pavements using manufactured sands. The paper concludes that, there is no relationship between free silica content and skid resistance. With regard to the abrasion resistance, it is rather the curing conditions and compressive strength that are more important in achieving good results.
Tan, EL, Thomas, C & Sirivivatnanon, V 2013, 'Finite element modelling of nonlinear behaviour of headed stud shear connectors in foamed and lightweight aggregate concrete', International Conference on Advances in Experimental Structural Engineering.
© 2013 Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. All rights reserved. Composite steel-concrete construction is used widely due to its ability to utilise the concrete’s compressive strength and steel’s tensile strength to increase the span to depth ratio, reduced deflections and higher stiffness ratio than traditional steel or reinforced concrete construction. This effectiveness is depended heavily on the shear connectors to transfer shear forces and prevent separation of both components. The introduction of lightweight system further reduces the dead load of the structures which are beneficial to the construction. However, there is limited research available regarding the application of lightweight concrete in composite steel-concrete construction. The aim of this paper is to investigate the structural behaviours of headed shear stud connectors in foamed and lightweight aggregate concrete in terms of their ultimate loads, stiffness and ductility using a finite element model. Their load-slip relationships were produced and compared with normal concrete. From the comparison, the stiffness of stud connectors in foamed and lightweight aggregate concrete was lower than those in normal concrete. The ductility of stud connectors varied depending on the types of concrete used. Most importantly, the ultimate shear capacity of stud connectors performed within 10% for both foamed and lightweight aggregate concrete as compared to normal concrete.
Lim, CC, Gowripalan, N & Sirivivatnanon, V 2006, 'Predicting chloride content profile in concrete using a concrete mix design parameter', Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting - Proceedings of the International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting, ICCRRR 2005, pp. 125-127.
Many service life prediction models for concrete require information from existing structure, for example, chloride concentration value at a known depth in concrete and the period of chloride exposure before a prediction can be made. Those models are useful when dealing with service life of existing concrete structures. In the case of designing a new concrete structure for service life, the prediction may be hindered because the required field information is not available at the time of design. Hence, a model which can give an estimate of the service life of a structure at the design stage is necessary. In the present study, a chloride concentration prediction model based on a concrete mix design parameter is proposed. The model is developed based on results of chloride immersion tests conducted in a controlled laboratory environment. The model is verified using data obtained from the present study and from the literature. The model can reasonably predict the chloride concentration profile in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concretes having a water to cement ratio between 0.40 and 0.67. © 2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London.
Sirivivatnanon, V & Cao, HT 1999, 'An engineered model for service life of marine concrete structures', DURABILITY OF BUILDING MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS 8, VOLS 1-4, PROCEEDINGS, 8th International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components (8dbmc), NATL RESEARCH COUNCIL CANADA, VANCOUVER, CANADA, pp. 94-103.
Sirivivatnanon, V & Khatri, RP 1999, 'Characterising chloride penetration resistance of concrete', DURABILITY OF BUILDING MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS 8, VOLS 1-4, PROCEEDINGS, 8th International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components (8dbmc), NATL RESEARCH COUNCIL CANADA, VANCOUVER, CANADA, pp. 386-398.
BAWEJA, D, SIRIVIVATNANON, V, GROSS, W & LAURIE, G 1970, 'High-performance Australian concretes for marine applications', HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE - PROCEEDINGS, ACI INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, ACI International Conference on High-Performance Concrete, AMER CONCRETE INST, SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE, pp. 363-377.
BAWEJA, D, ROPER, H, GUIRGUIS, S & SIRIVIVATNANON, V 1992, 'MEASUREMENT OF CORROSION OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT UNDER HIGH CHLORIDE CONDITIONS', FLY ASH, SILICA FUME, SLAG, AND NATURAL POZZOLANS IN CONCRETE, VOLS 1 AND 2, 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONF ON FLY ASH, SILICA FUME, SLAG, AND NATURAL POZZOLANS IN CONCRETE, AMER CONCRETE INST, ISTANBUL, TURKEY, pp. 1543-1563.
Nelson, P, Sirivivatnanon, V & Khatri, R 1992, 'Development of high volume fly ash concrete for pavements', Proceedings - Conference of the Australian Road Research Board, pp. 37-47.
This paper describes the development of high volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete for pavements. Concretes with fly ash content (40% and above by weight of the total binder fractions) were designed for structural grades. The workability, mechanical and long-term volume stability properties were evaluated. It was found that HVFA concrete with characteristic compressive strength up to 50 MPa could be designed having fresh concrete properties similar to plain cement concrete with the exception of setting times. For concretes of similar strength grades, it was found that the flexural strength and elastic modulus properties of HVFA concretes were similar to plain cement concretes. HVFA concretes were found to have a 15-20% lower drying shrinkage at 56 days than companion plain cement concretes. These reductions increased to 15-25% at 91 days. The setting times were increased by one to six hours depending on the type of cement and percentage of fly ash used. The concretes also developed considerable strength after 24 hours to withstand loading from normal construction activities. Trial production and placing of these concretes for apron slabs and road pavements was carried out at the Pacific Power's Mount River Piper Station. It ws found that HVFA concrete could be produced and placed successfully through normal concreting practices including pumping. Long term performance of these concretes are being monitored.
SIRIVIVATNANON, V & CAO, HT 1991, 'THE NEED FOR AND A METHOD TO CONTROL CONCRETE COVER', QUALITY CONTROL OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES, INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON QUALITY CONTROL OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES, E & FN SPON, GHENT, BELGIUM, pp. 237-246.