Although drawn from the study of the Large Intestine Channel these are equally relevant to all channels and fundamental CM theory. This is a valuable practical and clinically applicable resource for students and practitioners alike.
Choi, YB, Cobbin, D & Walsh, S 2018, 'Does Modern Research Concerning Chinese Medicine Acupoints Relate to Original Prescriptions? If Not, Why Not?', Medical Acupuncture, vol. 30, no. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Choi, V, Cobbin, D & Walsh, S 2016, 'Revisiting the Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing: Differential Diagnostic Indications Related to the LI Channel Acupoint Sequence', Medical Acupuncture, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 148-155.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background: Huang-Fu Mi’s Jia Yi Jing (JYJ) is regarded as the earliest text (282 AD) on differential diagnosis and clinical acumoxa therapy in Chinese Medicine (CM). Objective: Within this Classical framework, this study examined CM clinical indications for the 20 Large Intestine (LI) channel points for evidence of possible sequence-associated patterns. Materials and Methods: The JYJ detailed the systematic definition and grouping of all acupoints termed ‘‘Ruling Points’’ (RPs) in relation to their unique patterns of signs and symptoms (‘‘RP indications’’), rather than as channel-specific lists. The JYJ includes comprehensive descriptions for RP indications for hundreds of clinical patterns for all channel acupoints, systematically categorized across six differential diagnostic books (Seven to Twelve). Two editions of the Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing (ZJJYJ) were scrutinized to identify all RPs for the LI channel sequence: the Song Dynasty Chinese edition (1077) and the English translation The Systematic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion (1994) translated by Yang and Chace. RP indications for each acupoint were coded by ZJJYJ diagnostic Book and Chapter Part and examined for relationships between sequence position and diagnostic category of individual RP indications. Results: While no single category of CM indications based on the RP diagnostic system, was common to all 19 points, there were at least seven patterns involving clusters of RP indications associated with sequence posi-tions. Most important were the first 7 acupoints together with LI 11. These contributed 49 of the 61 RPs channel points, with indications drawn from all six diagnostic Books. Overall, the RP indications for the channel focused primarily on the head and neck, as well as on generalized fever and upper-limb pain and weakness. The most frequent diagnostic indications for the channel came from diagnostic Book Twelve (head and neck) with 24 RPs being identified for 12 LI acupoints. Conclusions:...
Lee, S, Bae, K, Kim, G, Nam, M, Choi, V, Kwon, H, Ryu, Y & Soh, K 2013, 'Primo Vascular System In The Lymph Vessel From The Inguinal To The Axillary Nodes', Evidenced based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, no. Article ID 472704, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The primo vascular system (PVS) in a lymph system was observed mostly in large caliber ducts around the caudal vena cava of rabbits, rats, and mice. This required a severe surgery with laparectomy and massive removal of fat tissues in the abdomen to expose the lymph vessel. In the current brief report, we presented a new method to evade these shortcomings by observing the PVS in a less large caliber duct in the skin, that is, the lymph vessel fromthe inguinal to the axillary nodes.The Alcian blue injection into the inguinal node revealed the desired primo vessel in the target lymph vessel. This opened a new perspective for the investigation of the lymphatic PVS without severe damage to subject animals and for monitoring of the PVS in a long period of time.
Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing (ZJJYJ) is the earliest text dedicated to clinical acumoxa therapy in Chinese Medicine (CM), 282CE. While there are a number of theories suggested to define acupoints and explain the mechanisms of acupuncture, a single explanation is yet to be validated. Therefore, the authoritative source to provide construct validity should be provided by the ZJJYJ, the earliest classical source.
To discern any pattern of clinical indications for each channel or body region. This study examined CM clinical indications (CI) for 349 acupoints from the main 14 channels.
Two source texts were used to collect CI data: Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing Song Dynasty edition (1069) and the The systematic Classic of acupuncture and Moxibustion English translation by Yang and Chace (1994)
Sign and symptom clusters were coded based on ‘book’ and ‘chapter’ source. The data collected were examined for errors and inaccuracies, then subject matter experts were consulted to ensure validity and reliability of the collected dataset. Data analysis: ‘Term frequency’ of CI per channel were calculated to determine the clinical focus of the 14 channels. The CI collected for channels in same body regions were analysed together based on ‘term frequency.
Clinical indications become more localised to the acupoint closer to the torso. Higher Frequency of clinical indications at the extremities and at joints. Acupoints at the extremities have a varied clinical profile, whereas acupoints proximal to the body have a single clinical focus.
There was strong evidence to support classical knowledge of acupoints, channels and diseases as seen in the ZJJYJ, to be a valid source that can better inform future research into basic sciences of acupuncture. The available evidence suggests the involvement of the neurovascular system, however more investigation is required based on better understandings of proper uses of acupoints from the ZJJYJ. The ZJJYJ shows that th...
Choi, YB, Cobbin, D & Walsh, SP 2015, 'An inter-text comparison between classical an modern texts: are reliability and construct validity of an acupoint location definitions maintained in modern texts'.
Choi, YB, Cobbin, DM & Walsh, SP 2014, 'Inter-Text Comparison of Quality of Operational Definitions of Acupoint Locations, Reliability and Validity of Point Functions and Clinical Indications in Classical and Modern Texts'.
Background: Acupoint location texts present sources of
inconsistencies for point location, function and indications. Aims
This study explored inter-text variability among a set of currently
available English language point location texts and two Chinese
classical sources with respect to acupoint locations and Chinese
Medicine (CM) clinical indications for each of the 20 acupoints on
the Large Intestine (LI) channel.
Methods: Three reference texts used as benchmarks for
comparing eight contemporary acupoint location texts included
a Song Dynasty edition (circa 1070) of the earliest extant text,
the Zhen jiu jia yi jing; the Zhen jiu da cheng (1994 edition) and
the 2008 WHO Standard of Acupuncture Point Locations in the
Western Pacific Region. Inter-text comparisons included quality of
operational definitions of locations, variation in individual acupoint
locations; and CM clinical indications for each acupoint using the
Zhen jiu jia yi jing diagnostic patterns.
Results: Since 94% of all location definitions were complete,
generally texts gave reliable descriptions for locating an intended
site. However for 14 acupoints, texts defined different locations,
including minimal (LI4) or no agreement (LI14). Consensus was
limited to six acupoints on the hand and neck. Interestingly,
inter-text CM indications for individual points were unaffected by
inconsistencies in location. Discussion: There were no common
attributes across all 20 acupoints. The most frequent indications
involved ear, nose and throat (ENT) conditions (14 acupoints).
Importantly, there were definite patterns of change along the
sequence from fingers to face. Points on the hand, wrist and
elbow regions had the most numerous and varied CM indications;
they concerned distal and generalised signs and symptoms and
had close relationships between three diagnostic categories:
febrile, ENT, and mania and epilepsy. Mid-channel points had
limited indications generally related to arm and shoulder pain or