Tracy Taylor is a Professor of Sport Management with the UTS Business School.
Tracy has a particular focus on human resource management and executive leadership development. Tracy has over 25 years experience in designing and delivering Executive Leadership development courses for corporates and non-for profit organisations.
Tracy's research covers the areas of people management, cultural diversity management in sport, volunteer management. Tracy is past Editor of European Sport Management Quarterly and she is on the editorial board of several leading sport management journals. Tracy has completed research with the Australian Paralympic Committee on disability participation in sport, with the Australian Rugby Union on retaining volunteers, and with the state government on increasing sport participation of women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Tracy's current ARC Discovery Research grant focuses on women's professional team sport.
Tracy is currently on the IOC Athlete 365 Advisory Board, and the Australian National Rugby League Research Committee; she is a Visiting Professor for the Exectuive Masters in Olympic Studies and at the Russian International Olympic University.
Can supervise: YES
Human resource management in sport, cultural diversity management in sport, risk and security issues in sport events.
Professor Taylor's current research focus in on women in professional team sport, managing sport organisations and human resource management in Olympic sports and NOC's.
Tracy is on the Editorial Board of: Sport Management Review (Past Editor), European Sport Management Quarterly (Past Editor), Managing Sport and Leisure, Sport, Business & Management: An International Journal and International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship.
Tracy currently is on the Australian Olympic Studies Centre, National Rugby League Research and the Athlete 365 Advisory Board.
sport management; volunteer management; leadership.
Managing People in Sport Organizations provides a comprehensive overview of the theory and practice of managing people within a human resource management framework. It provides the reader with the skills to understand and work with people in sport organizations and, given the significant changes in sport organizations over the past twenty years, it addresses the issues of managing organizational complexity and how human resources adds value. Written by a team of expert authors it: Provides a systematic approach to managing people based on well established conceptual frameworks supported by substantial empirical research Analysis and explains how to understand and work with people in organisationally complex situations Outlines how HR can support organisational strategy, positively impact performance and deliver sustainable success Designs a strategic human resource management plan that is effective, sustainable and able to adapt to changing conditions. Covers the key research findings in the key area of HR in sport. With each chapter including learning objectives, key issues, international cases studies and supported by online PowerPoint slides Managing People in Sport Organizations is the definitive text for this crucial area of sports management. © 2008, Tracy Taylor, Alison Doherty and Peter McGraw. All rights reserved.
© 2019 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand National Sport Federations are responsible for governing all aspects of a sport within their respective countries. In developing and promoting their sport National Federations must respond to multi-level complexity arising from internal stakeholder needs and commercial, government and social demands. While organisational complexity responses have been extensively researched, little of this work has considered the unique positioning of sport federations. Drawing on the theoretical perspective of institutional logics and complexity, the authors adopted a case study approach to investigate Triathlon Australia's response to its complex operating environment, conducting 18 in-depth semi-structured interviews with current and former board members, chief executives, senior managers, and government representatives responsible for national sport policy and funding. Interview data were complemented with an examination of Triathlon Australia's annual reports and Australian government policy documents (1998–2016 period). Four themes and several organisational responses' themes emerged from the inductive and iterated thematic data analysis: (a) external complexity – alignment, diversification, transcendence, negotiation; (b) interstitial complexity – empathy, formalisation, collaboration, specialisation; (c) internal complexity – division, balance, leverage; and (d) emotions – connection, harness. Driven by quasi-insolvency and admission into the Olympic programme, and national government policy requirements for funding, Triathlon Australia responded to its complex environment by embracing all logics, designs and agendas, unravelling new ways to solve or mitigate it via hybrid responses. Implications for both theory and practice are outlined.
Faraji, R, Hemmatinezhad, M & Taylor, T 2018, 'Critical Factors Affecting Stadiums Security', Journal of Applied Security Research, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 473-488.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study aims to identify critical factors affecting the security of stadiums and introduce a proper model. Semistructured interviews with a Delphi panel (n = 12) were conducted and the themes that emerged formed the basis of the survey instrument. The subsequent survey of key informed participants (n = 144), revealed that infrastructure have the greatest impact on the security of the stadiums followed by stadium physical protection, personnel, and game management in order of priority. It can be concluded that stadium design and technological measures, as well as proper methods of stadium physical protection are critical in improving stadiums' security levels. In addition, trained personnel and the credentialing thereof can improve the efficiency of crowd management and stadium physical protection. Finally, match-day proper management can minimize crowd violence and facilitate security for attendees.
Darcy, SA, Lock, D & Taylor, T 2017, 'Enabling Inclusive Sport Participation: Effects of Disability and Support Needs on Constraints to Sport Participation', Leisure Sciences: an interdisciplinary journal, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 20-41.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Framed by a social approach to disability and leisure constraints theory, this paper presents the results of a national study examining the constraints to sport participation for people with disability. Responses were obtained from a multi-platform questionnaire survey capturing data on constraints to participation, dimensions of disability, and level of support needs. The Exploratory Factor Analysis identified five structural together with intrapersonal and interpersonal constraint factors. While intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations were found to constrain sport participation and nonparticipation, the five structural factors had the most significant constraining impact on sport participation. The findings showed that disability type and level of support needs explain significant variations in constraints to participation and nonparticipation. When the 2-Way MANOVA included type of disability and level of support needs as contingent independent variables, the level of support needs was the most significant indicator of the likelihood of having constraints to participation or nonparticipation
Loghmani, M, Taylor, T & Ramzaninejad, R 2017, 'Job characteristics and psychological states of football referees: implications for job enrichment', Managing Sport and Leisure, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 342-357.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018, © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. A professional football referee performs their job under the public's gaze and their performance is open to both employer and media critique. This study investigated football referee job design and its relationship to employee performance and well-being. Key job elements of football referees (n = 157) were measured using the Job Characteristics Model. Specialization and information processing were found to be central job elements. Attitudinal and behavioral outcomes of football referees were mainly achieved through skill variety and task significance. The psychological state of meaningfulness of the work was related to growth satisfaction, internal work motivation and efficiency. This research suggests that job enlargement (horizontal development) could be explored as a way to improve referees' work satisfaction and commitment through job redesign or job crafting. The practical and theoretical significance of these results is discussed.
Zhuang, L, Taylor, T, Beirman, D & Darcy, S 2017, 'Socially sustainable ethnic tourism: a comparative study of two Hakka communities in China', Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 467-483.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Ethnic tourism is a catalyst for economic and sociocultural development in many countries. However, ethnic tourism development has given rise to many challenges associated with the sustainable development of ethnic regions within different cultural contexts. This paper addresses the social aspect of sustainable ethnic tourism through comparative case studies of two ethnic Hakka tourism destinations, Nanyuan and Sujiawei villages in Heyuan, Guangdong Province, China. The comparative case-study research design included in-depth interviews, document analysis and a household study in each case-study village. The comparative case study provides insights into factors contributing to socially sustainable ethnic tourism in China, including levels of community involvement, control of the tourism 'product', the benefits accruing to the ethnic community, perceived inconveniences/externalities and authenticity considerations. This study contributes to a better understanding of socially sustainable ethnic tourism in a Chinese context, and has practical implications for ethnic tourism destination marketing, management and policy-making.
Darcy, SA, Taylor, T & Green, J 2016, ''But I can do the job': examining disability employment practice through human rights complaint cases', Disability and Society, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1242-1274.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Natural data on the Australian Human Rights Commission's website
outlining the complaint cases generated from Disability Discrimination
Act, 1992 (DDA) were used to examine the social construction of
disability employment discrimination. Using a social model and human
rights citizenship lens, some 987 complaint cases were analysed to
assess the prevalence of disability discrimination in employment, and
its relationship to the types of disability, gender, entity undertaking
the actions and organisational context. Of all complaint cases across
the Australian Human Rights Commission's operations, by far the
largest proportion involves disability discrimination. Within the
disability discrimination complaint cases, employment makes up
the greatest proportion of these cases. In examining the patterns of
discrimination seven major themes emerged involving: distinctive
patterns across disability type; access to premises; human resource
mismanagement; selection of new employees; integration of assistive
technology; perception of cost of disability inclusions; and inflexible
organisational workplace practices. The discussion examines the
underlying reasons for the emergent themes where employers
misunderstood key legal concepts that underpin the DDA including:
unjustifiable hardship; inherent requirements; reasonable adjustment;
direct; and indirect discrimination. The paper concludes by discussing
the implications of the findings as a way of understanding the social
construction of disability discrimination in employment to signal ways
to better develop inclusive organisational practice.
Stronach, M, Maxwell, H & Taylor, T 2016, ''Sistas' and Aunties: sport, physical activity, and Indigenous Australian women', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 7-26.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 Australia and New Zealand Association of Leisure Studies. Indigenous women have alarmingly low rates of participation in organized sport and physical activity (PA) in contemporary Australian society. To gain a better contextual and cultural understanding of the issues involved, we discussed the life experiences and the place of sport and PA with 22 Indigenous women. The research was guided by a culturally appropriate interpretative qualitative methodology. A complex amalgamation of cultural beliefs and traditions, history, gendered factors, and geography are presented in the women's stories. Sport and PA were highly regarded, providing the women with opportunities to maintain strong communities, preserve culture, and develop distinct identities as 'enablers'. The women called for culturally safe spaces in which to engage in PA and noted the need for Indigenous females to act as role models. The study provides preliminary understandings that can be used to facilitate greater sport and PA inclusion, and implications for future research are presented.
Lawson, R, Taylor, T, French, E, Fallshaw, E, Hall, C, Kinash, S & Summers, J 2015, 'Hunting and gathering: new imperatives in mapping and collecting student learning data to assure quality outcomes', HIGHER EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 581-595.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
French, E, Summers, J, Kinash, S, Lawson, R, Taylor, T, Herbert, J, Fallshaw, E & Hall, C 2014, 'The practice of quality in assuring learning in higher education', Quality in Higher Education, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 24-43.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
There remains a lack of published empirical data on the substantive outcomes of higher learning and the establishment of quality processes for determining them. Studies that do exist are nationally focused with available rankings of institutions reflecting neither the quality of teaching and learning nor the diversity of institutions. This article describes two studies in which associate deans from Australian higher education institutions and focus groups of management and academics identify current issues and practices in the design, development and implementation of processes for assuring the quality of learning and teaching. Results indicate that developing graduate attributes and mapping assessments to measure outcomes across an entire programme necessitates knowledge creation strategies and systems as well as inclusive decision processes. Common elements supporting consistently superior outcomes include inclusivity of a range of teaching and support academics; embedded graduate attributes; consistent and appropriate assessment; digital collection mechanisms; and systematic analysis of outcomes used in programme review. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Eisenhauer, S, Adair, D & Taylor, T 2014, 'Fifa-isation: Spatial security, sponsor protection and media management at the 2010 World Cup', Surveillance and Society, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 377-391.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper presents a case-study of spatial brand protection and media management and security strategies at the 2010 Football World Cup (FWC) in South Africa (RSA). This focus stems from the realisation that commercially designated event spaces are very important environments for the interests of FWC sponsors, and that the media has a pivotal role in conveying messages about desirable conduct in such environments. In these respects, stakeholder organisations are concerned about safeguarding core event spaces, and with promoting positive messages about the FWC via the media. The paper therefore investigates the interests of key stakeholders at the 2010 FWC: the event owner Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the FWC sponsors and the host city (Cape Town). It is concerned with identifying various surveillance strategies to manage public spaces at the FWC, albeit with a particular emphasis on protecting the interests of sponsors and their brand integrity. It is also concerned with strategies to manage the media at the FWC, with a particular emphasis on how FIFA stymies dissent and forces compliance among reporters and news outlets that undermine critical surveillance into these practices of spatial management. Taken together, these hyper-protectionist appr oaches demonstrate what we have described as the FIFA-isation of the FWC, where commercial risk is outsourced to the event host, while the commercial benefits flow back to the event owner. Concomitantly, FIFA makes enormous surveillance demands on the event hosts and those residing in the country and city where it is to be held, and upon the media that broadcast and report on the world's biggest sports mega events. © The author(s), 2014.
Lakisa, D, Adair, D & Taylor, T 2014, 'Pasifika Diaspora and the Changing Face of Australian Rugby League', CONTEMPORARY PACIFIC, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 347-367.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Morgan, A, Adair, D, Taylor, T & Hermens, A 2014, 'Sport Sponsorship Alliances: Relationship Management for Shared Value', Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 4, no. 4.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Maxwell, H, Foley, CT, Taylor, TL & Burton, C 2013, 'Social Inclusion in Community Sport: A Case Study of Muslim Women in Australia', Journal of Sport Management, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 467-481.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper considers how organizational practices facilitate and inhibit the social inclusion of Muslim women in a community sport setting. A case study of social inclusion practices in an Australian community sport organization (CSO) was built through interviews, focus groups, secondary data, and documentary evidence. Drawing on the work of Bailey (2005, 2008) the analysis employed a social inclusion framework comprised of spatial, functional, relational, and power dimensions. Findings indicated that there are a range of practices which facilitate social inclusion. Paradoxically, some of the practices that contributed to social inclusion at the club for Muslim women resulted in social exclusion for non-Muslim women. Examining each practice from multiple perspectives provided by the social inclusion framework allowed a thorough analysis to be made of the significance of each practice to the social inclusion of Muslim women at the club. Implications for social inclusion research and sport management practice are discussed
Shooshinasab, P, Taylor, TL, Moeinfard, M & Kazemnejad, A 2013, 'Strategic Planning for Development of Sport Events Tourism Industry in Iran', International Journal of Sport Studies, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1348-1361.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper presents the strategic planning process undertaken for the development of sport events tourism industry in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Iran's current sport tourism industry is described and assessed. In this regard we studied the current situation of the sport tourism industry in the country. The result was the primary list of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. (SWOT) faced by the industry. The list was set as a SWOT questionnaire. The constructs reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using confirmatory factors analysis (KMO= 0.85) and the whole questionnaire's reliability was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha (a= 0.90). The two-sentence test was used to determine statistical significance of each item of SWOT questionnaire. The descriptive statistic method was applied to rank and weight each item. The statistical sample of the research consisted of 200 sport and tourism academics, as well as high ranking managers of federations , sport and youth ministry, National Olympic Committee (NOC) and Tehrans Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism (CHHT) organization. Data analysis revealed those seven strengths, fourteen weaknesses, eight opportunities and eight threats as meaningful, concerning sport events tourism in Iran. Strategies for development of sport events tourism industry were complied for Iran, with regard to the opinions and viewpoints of the Research strategic councils members included a number of sport and tourism experts and managers.
Individuals strive to attach themselves to social groups that reflect positively on the way they view themselves (Tajfel, 1972, 1982; Tajfel & Turner, 1979). While social categories span a myriad of activities, pursuits and organizations, sport teams provide a pertinent example of social categories from which individuals derive social identity benefits (Cialdini & Richardson, 1980). As a result, social identity theory has been extensively applied to sport consumers as a framework contributing to understanding of identity formation (Fisher & Wakefield, 1998; James, 2001), strength (Wann & Branscombe, 1993, 1995), structure (Heere & James, 2007) and management for sport fans (Cialdini et al., 1976; Cialdini & Richardson, 1980; Snyder, Lassegard, & Ford, 1986).
Toohey, KM & Taylor, TL 2012, 'Surveillance And Securitization: A Forgotten Sydney Olympic Legacy', International Review for the Sociology of Sport, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 324-337.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games were the last Olympic Games held before 9/11. Even though the 2000 Games were held prior to this landmark terrorist incident, Australia implemented a range of increased security processes to safeguard the Games. As such, the
Lawson, R, Taylor, TL, Thompson, DG, Simpson, L, Freeman, M, Treleaven, L & Rohde, F 2012, 'Engaging with Graduate Attributes through Encouraging Accurate Student Self-Assessment', Asian Social Science, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1-12.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Self-assessment can be conceptualised as the involvement of students in identifying assessment criteria and standards that they can apply to their work in order to make judgements about whether they have met these criteria (Boud, 1995). It is a process that promotes student learning rather than just grade allocation. However, self-assessment does not have obvious face validity for students; and many students find that making an objective assessment of their work difficult (Lindblom-ylanne, Pihlajamak & Kotkas, 2006). Previous business education research has also found that self-assessment does not closely reflect either peer or instructor assessments (Campbell, et al., 2001). The current study aimed to explore: (a) the relationship between self-assessment grading and teacher assessment; and (b) the effect of self-assessment in engaging students with graduate attributes, in order to explore the tenets of self-assessment This process of self-assessment was investigated through application of an online assessment system, ReView, to encourage more effective self-assessment in business education. Data collected from two groups (student and teacher) demonstrated that: (1) initial self-assessment results between the teaching academics and the students self-assessment, were significantly different with students overestimating their ability on every criterion; (2) however, the variation diminished with time to the point that there was no significant difference between the two assessments; and (3) students awareness of the graduate attributes for their degree program increased from the beginning to the end of the subject
Lawson, R, Fallshaw, E, Papadopoulos, T, Taylor, TL & Zanko, M 2011, 'Professional Learning in the Business Curriculum: Engaging Industry, Academics and Students', Asian Social Science, vol. 7, no. 4, April, pp. 61-68.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Professional Learning has become a feature of business curricula in universities around the world. The term "professional learning" (PL) is often used to encapsulate dimensions of educational programs that highlight contemporary industry issues explicitly linked to industry and professional bodies. PL encompasses the skills, qualities and attributes that are required by industry and the processes through which those skills are acquired. It encourages deep learning in relation to the studentâs future profession, and includes industry engagement, work-integrated learning and authentic learning environments. This paper describes a typology of approaches to PL derived from a national study of good practices in business faculties in Australian universities. It identifies the enablers and impediments to the successful adoption of PL, and discusses the challenges associated with industry engagement in PL for academics, students and business organisations.
Lock, D, Taylor, TL & Darcy, SA 2011, 'In the Absence of Achievement: The Formation of New Team Identification', European Sport Management Quarterly, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 171-192.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Motives to attend sport and form identification with sporting teams attract considerable attention in the literature. Previous research has determined that vicarious achievement is a key construct leading to attendance and identification. Conceptual and theoretical development has focused on established sport teams, and has not been inclusive of the formation of identification in a new team context. New sport teams do not have a history of achievement or well established traditions through which to attract fans, thus the constructs that influence the formation of identification with new sport teams may be conceivably different. In this study a mixed-method approach was used to explore key themes leading to the formation of new team identification with a new football team in Australia. Findings illustrated that vicarious achievement is less relevant in a new team, new league context. New team identification was characterized by a strong desire to support the sport of football in an Australian league. The home city of members and the match day occasion were also important themes in the formation of new team identification.
Taylor, TL & Toohey, KM 2011, 'Ensuring Safety at Australian Sport Event Precincts: Creating Securitised, Sanitised and Stifling Spaces?', Urban Studies, vol. 48, no. 15, pp. 3259-3275.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Since 9/11, pervasive concerns about public safety have irrevocably changed the management of large sport events and these events are now under constant pressure to improve security. This empirical research contextualises contemporary safety issues assoc
Yeh, C, Hoye, RS & Taylor, TL 2011, 'Board roles and strategic orientation among Taiwanese nonprofit sport organisations', Managing Leisure - An International Journal, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 287-301.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper examines the relationship between strategic orientation and board roles. In particular, the research looks at how board roles of nonprofit sport organisations with a dual board structure are associated with organisational strategy in 25 summer Olympic sport organisations in Taiwan. The study found that the majority of board roles for both directors and supervisors can be statistically distinguished from each other in relation to organisational strategic orientation. The study advances the understanding of nonprofit board roles and practices by differentiating between board of directors and board of supervisors. Furthermore, the findings support using specific recruitment practices that should strengthen nonprofit boards. This finding can also support further research into the relationship between an organisation's strategic orientation and other governance elements, including board composition, structure and culture.
Maxwell, H & Taylor, TL 2010, 'A culture of trust: Engaging Muslim women in community sport organizations', European Sport Management Quarterly, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 465-483.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article examines the impetus for, and process of, engaging Muslim women in community sport. The research focuses on how and why a community sport organization, located in a large Australian city, embraced cultural change and developed a more inclusi
Adair, D, Taylor, TL & Darcy, SA 2010, 'Managing ethnocultural and 'racial' diversity in sport: Obstacles and opportunities', Sport Management Review, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 307-312.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Diversity involves coming to terms with alterity (otherness) and negotiating inclusion (togetherness). That goal is more likely, philosopher Emmanuel Levinas argues, when people usually separated socially culturally, politically, economically geographically are brought together in consensual face-to-face contact and in social contexts where equitable interpersonal co-operation and group cohesion are fostered (Burggraeve, 2002, 2008). Such a quest for consensus about diversity and mutuality, as opposed to discordance through disdain for difference (Grillo, 2007), is a challenge (but also an opportunity) in a range of normative environments, such as business, education and sport (Kostogriz & Doecke, 2007; Lim, 2007; Sykes, 2006). In an overarching sense, the management of diversity and the policies that underpin mutuality are arguably contributions to cosmopolitanism, which Vertovec and Cohen (2002, p. 4) argue incorporates `variously complex repertoires of allegiance, identity and interest. They conclude that cosmopolitanism, as an applied philosophical position, `seems to offer a mode of managing cultural and political multiplicities (2002, p. 4).
Darcy, SA & Taylor, TL 2009, 'Disability citizenship: an Australian human rights analysis of the cultural industries', Leisure Studies, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 419-441.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Research on disability and cultural life (the arts, leisure, recreation, sport and tourism) in the Australian context has largely been captured by medical approaches to disability. In contrast, this paper takes direction from social approaches to disability that place the experience of people with disabilities (PwD) at the centre of the research paradigm by examining this population's human rights' experiences. The paper is framed by reviewing the United Nations' disability initiatives including the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The research then analyses the implementation and operation of Australia's Disability Discrimination Act, 1992 in respect to the cultural life of PwD. The research design uses a mixed method interpretive approach drawing on the management information systems of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission and the Federal Court. The analysis of 420 complaint cases and 80 Federal court actions show a relationship between the types of discrimination experienced in cultural life and gender, disability type and industry sector. The recurring themes of discrimination demonstrate an ongoing struggle by PwD to assert their rights of citizenship.
Lock, DJ, Darcy, SA & Taylor, TL 2009, 'Starting with a clean slate: An analysis of member identification for a new sports team', Sport Management Review, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 15-25.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Soccer in Australia underwent a series of changes following a Federal Government inquiry into its future. A report into the Structure, Governance and Management of Soccer in Australia (2003) recommended a process of structural change, aimed at repositioning and re-branding soccer as association football. The restructure yielded the replacement of the National Soccer League with the A-League, five new Australian teams and a concerted attempt to separate soccer from its ethnic ties in the antipodes. This paper examines member identification in relation to a specific A-League clubâs members. Using the Sports Spectator Identity Scale (Wann & Branscombe, 1993) to measure sport fan identity in a new team context, a survey of club members of Sydney FC (n = 510), was undertaken. Survey findings indicated that members of Sydney FC reported relatively strong team identification in the first year of the new competition, with some nuanced differences based on age and income. The SSIS demonstrated a good level of fit in relation to a new sports team, although it is evident that rivalries and identification with a new team need time to develop fully.
In this paper, Janus is used as a metaphor for examining the nature of cultural diversity in Australian sport. It does so by firstly presenting a historical context for sport in Australia and the relative lack of cultural diversity found in sport. Within a country dominated by the running codes of football and cricket, the position of soccer in Australia was somewhat unique as it became a bastion for many non-Anglo migrant groups. However, in the 1980s and 1990s soccer's lack of organizational success at the state and national level was negatively ascribed to the tensions between the ethnically affiliated clubs, the same clubs that were ironically the stalwarts driving the growing popularity of the sport. We examine the initiatives used to restructure the game in Australia to make football more appealing to mainstream (i.e. non-ethnically aligned) spectators. The contemporary situation is explored through secondary documentation and the results of a survey of 3,056 spectators undertaken during the first season of the new A-League are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion about the relative success of the restructure in terms of changing the face of Australian soccer.
Yeh, C, Taylor, TL & Hoy, R 2009, 'Board roles in organisations with a dual board system: Empirical evidence from Taiwanese nonprofit sport organisations', Sport Management Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 91-100.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Research on the roles of the board of unitary board systems is well established, while explorations of dual board systems are very limited. We know little about nonprofit sport organisations board roles in countries such as Taiwan that operate with a dual board structure. In consequence, this study explored the roles taken by the board of directors and the board of supervisors in Taiwanese nonprofit sport organisations. Four overarching board of director roles were identified: manage vision and purpose; board duty; human resource and fundraising; and stakeholder focus. For the board of supervisors two primary functions emerged: monitoring results; and board duty and process. The findings of the study extend our understanding of the governance of nonprofit sport organisations and the differences that exist between dual board and single board systems of governance.
Hoye, RS, Cuskelly, G, Taylor, TL & Darcy, SA 2008, 'Volunteer motives and retention in community sport: A study of Australian rugby clubs', Australian Journal on Volunteering, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 40-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The retention of volunteers has been identified as a significant organisational challenge for community sport organisations. However, little is known about the relationship between volunteer motives and their intentions to remain with an organisation. In this study, 402 volunteers from community rugby clubs were surveyed about their motivations to volunteer and intention to remain as volunteers. The results indicate that while volunteer motivations are primarily based on altruistic values, intentions of volunteers to remain with their club are only moderately affected by these motives.
Since 1972, there has been an association between terrorism, violence, and the Olympic Games. The events of September 11, 2001, however, clearly re-escalated concerns about the Games being a terrorist target. This conceptual article discusses the theories of the risk society and the precautionary principle to understand and interpret how visitors to the most recent Summer Games, Athens 2004, framed their decision to attend. Consistent with risk theory, a strong public and financial commitment to safety at the Games was evident, with the organizers undertaking wide-ranging large-scale risk management initiatives. Athens attendees, while displaying tenets of risk aversion and engagement with a discourse of fear, also showed resilience, resistance, and indifference to potential terrorist threats. Implications for both theory and practice are noted.
Yeh, C & Taylor, TL 2008, 'Issues of governance in sport organisations: a question of board size, structure and roles', World Leisure Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 33-45.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Darcy, SA, Cameron, B, Dwyer, LM & Taylor, TL 2008, 'Understanding the notion of accessible spaces and places: Sydney CBD Visitor Accessibility Web portal www.sydneyforall.com', Australasian Parks and Leisure Journal, vol. 2008, no. Spring, pp. 28-34.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The paper presents an approach to understanding the accessibility of spaces and places for people with disabilities and seniors. For these groups, the challenges associated with recreational access are compounded by the cultural context, fragmented approaches to wayfinding and a lack of collaboration by providers to promote accessible experiences. The paper presents the outcome of the research project that sought to collaboratively promote accessible experiences within the Sydney CBD and Sydney Harbour environs. The Sydney for All web portal was developed in conjunction with three industry partners: Tourism NSW; Tourism and Transport Forum; and NSW Dept of Environment and Climate Change. The research engaged in participatory action research with the major stakeholders, attractions and the destination experience providers. The Web portal complies with the highest W3C web accessibility standards as evidenced through the compliance testing by Vision Australia. The paper outlines the research approach, underlying philosophy and the major accessibility features of the portal through a case study of the North Head Lookout. As will be demonstrated, the portal is a starting point to understanding accessible experiences through focusing on universal design, destination experience and management frameworks rather than using constraints based approaches that dominate mainstream access auditing.
Post-migration sport and physical activity experiences may assist young people with the impact of migration and settlement. To investigate the role of sport and physical recreation in the process of fitting in to a new country, focus group interviews were conducted with 40 ESL high school students from various ethnic backgrounds who were recent immigrants to a regional city in Canada. Findings revealed that sport and recreation are perceived to be fun, healthy, and helpful in the development of language skills and in providing orientation to the mainstream culture; factors that have been identified elsewhere as key to successful immigrant settlement (e.g., Scott& Scott, 1989; Seat, 2000). However, participation in sport may lead to feelings of social exclusion on the part of young newcomers, because of language difficulties, unfamiliarity with mainstream sports, and prejudice on the part of their peers. The findings have implications for policy and programming that includes sport and physical recreation activities that can enhance the impact of migration
Taylor, TL & Toohey, KM 2007, 'Perceptions of Terrorism Threats at the 2004 Olympic Games: Implications for Sport Events', Journal of Sport Tourism, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 99-114.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
A legacy of September 11, 2001, and subsequent terrorist attacks such as the Bali, (2002), Madrid (2004) and London (2005) bombings, is evidenced in the increased security measures put in place at major sport events. Heightened attention to safety management and public concern about terrorism threats and perception of risk has now become a fundamental component of the planning and risk management strategies for sport events. On the basis of appraisal-tendency theory (Lerner & Keltner, 2001), we investigated effects of anger and fear on risk judgments of 277 attendees at the 2004 Athens Olympics. Attendees who reported being fearful or feeling unsafe at the Games displayed increased risk estimates and associated concerns, whilst respondents expressing defiance and anger produced opposite reactions. Male respondents had less pessimistic risk perceptions than did females, and men were more likely than women to report that the increased security measures detracted from their Olympic Games experience. Nationality had minimal effect on perceptions of risk except in the case of the host country, with Greek respondents reporting fewer concerns for safety but greater awareness of the security measures present at the Games. The discussion focuses on theoretical, methodological and practical implications.
Cuskelly, G, Taylor, TL, Hoye, RS & Darcy, SA 2006, 'Volunteer management practices and volunteer retention: a human resource management approach', Sport Management Review, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 141-163.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This study used a human resource management (HRM) approach to examine the efficacy of volunteer management practices in predicting perceived problems in volunteer retention. Participants were a sample of 375 Australian Rugby Union clubs from across the country. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the properties of a hypothesised reflective measurement model with seven volunteer management constructs (planning, recruitment, screening, orientation, training and support, performance management, and recognition). The efficacy of volunteer management practices was tested using regression analysis. The study found significant relationships between perceived retention problems and several of the volunteer management constructs.Clubs that reported more extensive use of planning practices and training and support practices were likely to report significantly fewer perceived problems in the overall retention of volunteers.Results indicated significant relationships between management practices and retention problems, with variances noted by the category of volunteer position, including management committee or board members, coaches, team managers and volunteers in other formal positions. Implications for volunteer management and retention are discussed from a HRM perspective
Taylor, TL & Toohey, KM 2006, 'Impacts of terrorism-related safety and security measures at a major sport event', Event Management: an international journal, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 199-209.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, major sport event organizers have had to grapple with a range of associated impacts, including increased security costs and changed stakeholder expectations. Event organizers have acted to realize a balance between effective risk management measures that offer appropriate security while not unduly deterring from spectators' enjoyment of the event. To better understand the post 9/11 sport event environment and attendee reactions, we surveyed 2003 Rugby World Cup attendees on aspects related to terrorism, risk, safety and security. We found that the majority of attendees felt safe and indicated that the security measures in place neither enhanced nor detracted from their level of enjoyment. A substantial proportion of event attendees were either openly defiant about terrorism or dismissive of any threat to their security. Implications for event managers are discussed.
Taylor, TL & Toohey, KM 2006, 'Security, perceived safety, and event attendee enjoyment at the 2003 Rugby World Cup', Tourism Review International: an international journal, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 257-267.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
International sport event organizers around the world have placed considerations of terrorism high on their planning and risk management agendas since September 11, 2001. Increased public awareness about the threat of terrorism and associated safety concerns have led to increased security, especially for large multicountry international events. To date there has been limited empirical research on the relationship between sport event attendance and the impact of terrorism, with the exception of the body of work on the 1972 Olympic Games. In this article the authors outline the extensive antiterrorism security measures taken at the 2003 Rugby World Cup held in Australia. To determine the impact of these measures, event attendees were surveyed to determine the extent to which terrorism influenced event attendees' motivations, perceptions of safety, and level of enjoyment. The results indicate that security measures were perceived as sufficient and attendees were generally not deterred by the threat of terrorism. The heightened security enhanced the event experience for some attendees, with only a small minority reporting a negative impact on satisfaction. Suggestions for further research and practice are discussed.
Taylor, TL, Darcy, SA, Hoye, RS & Cuskelly, G 2006, 'Using psychological contract theory to explore issues in effective volunteer management', European Sport Management Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 123-147.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Psychological contract theory is used here to explore the set of expectations and obligations that community sport club volunteers regard as part of their volunteering experience. In the first phase of the research, focus group interviews were conducted with 98 community sports club administrators about the methods used to manage volunteers and the organisational expectations of the volunteers. In phase two, 48 general volunteers were interviewed about their expectations and perceptions of the club's volunteer management practices. The findings indicate that club administrators and volunteers place different emphases on the transactional, assurance of good faith and fair dealing, and intrinsic job characteristic components of the psychological contract. Notably, club administrators had substantial expectations of volunteers in relation to adherence to professional, legal and regulatory standards. Volunteers were primarily concerned with doing rewarding work in a pleasant social environment that was able to fit within their often tight time restrictions. The implications of these findings for volunteer management processes and practice in community sport clubs are discussed.
Toohey, KM & Taylor, TL 2006, ''Here be dragons, here be savages, here be bad plumbing': Australian media representations of sport and terrorism', Sport in Society, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 71-93.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
As `Propaganda Theorists argue, an examination of key discourses can enhance our understanding of how economic, political and social debate is shaped by mainstream media reporting. In this essay we present content and discourse analysis of Australian media reporting on the nexus of sport and terrorism. Examining newspaper reports over a five-year period, from 19962001, which included the 11 September 2001 terrorist tragedy in the United States (9/11), provides useful insights into how public discourse might be influenced with regard to sport and terrorism interrelationships. The results of the media analysis suggest that hegemonic tropes are created around sport and terrorism. The distilled message is one of good and evil, with homilies of sport employed in metaphors for western society and its values. The reactions and responses of sport administrators and athletes to terrorist acts and the threat of terrorism to sport are used to exemplify these ideals, providing newspaper readers a context within which to localize meaning and relevance.
Lee, C & Taylor, TL 2005, 'Critical reflections on the economic impact assessment of a mega-event: the case of 2002 FIFA World Cup', Tourism Management, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 595-603.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Sport tourism has received growing attention as a source of generating significant revenue and contributing major economic benefits to host cities, regions, and countries. However, current methods for assessing economic impact have had variable success i
Lee, C, Taylor, TL, Lee, Y & Lee, B 2005, 'Impact of sport mega-event on destination image: The case of the 2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan', International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 27-45.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Quick, SP, Taylor, TL & Gargalianos, D 2005, 'The paradox of politics and sport: Exploring international relations in the context of Olympic sports', International Journal of Sport Management, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-14.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Taylor, T & Ho, CY 2005, 'Global human resource management influences on local sport organisations', International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, vol. 1, no. 1-2, pp. 110-126.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Societal consciousness has shifted from national to international and global spheres, and the world is increasingly perceived as one place. Many sport organisations now find that they are under increasing pressure to engage in globally benchmarked sustainable management systems and processes, across all functional areas from finance to HRM. Some sport organisations have used aspects of the globalisation process to create new opportunities for expansion and growth, while others have been reluctant or resistant to externally instigated change. We assessed the adoption of 'best practice' HRM practices in a range of amateur and professional sport organisations to see how they were reacting to these convergence pressures. This issue fits in the wider convergence-divergence debate that has been the concern of many cross-cultural researchers. Our empirical results indicate that while government policy has urged movement to a universally derived system of HRM processes, few sport organisations have adopted a formal HRM strategy and HR practices are widely variable across organisations. Copyright © 2005 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Taylor, TL & Doherty, A 2005, 'Adolescent sport, recreation and physical education: experiences of recent arrivals to Canada', Sport Education and Society, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 211-238.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper explores the perceived benefits and challenges of sport, recreation and physical education participation of culturally diverse adolescent girls and boys who are recent arrivals to Canada. The aim of the research was to further our understandin
Taylor, TL & Ho, CY 2005, 'Global human resource management influences on local sport organisations', International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, vol. 1, no. 1/2, pp. 110-126.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Societal consciousness has shifted from national to international and global spheres, and the world is increasingly perceived as one place. Many sport organisations now find that they are under increasing pressure to engage in globally benchmarked sustainable management systems and processes, across all functional areas from finance to HRM. Some sport organisations have used aspects of the globalisation process to create new opportunities for expansion and growth, while others have been reluctant or resistant to externally instigated change. We assessed the adoption of "best practice" HRM practices in a range of amateur and professional sport organisations to see how they were reacting to these convergence pressures. This issue fits in the wider convergence-divergence debate that has been the concern of many cross-cultural researchers. Our empirical results indicate that while government policy has urged movement to a universally derived system of HRM processes, few sport organisations have adopted a formal HRM strategy and HR practices are widely variable across organisations.
Taylor, TL 2004, 'The rhetoric of exclusion: perspectives of cultural diversity in Australian netball.', Journal of Sport and Social Issues, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 453-476.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Taylor, TL & McGraw, P 2004, 'Succession management practices in australian organizations', International Journal of Manpower, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 741-758.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Taylor, TL 2003, 'Book review - diversity and the recreation profession organisational perspectives', Parks and Leisure, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 47-47.
Taylor, TL 2003, 'Book review: organisation behaviour by Conrad Lashley and Darren Lee-Ross', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 300-301.
Taylor, TL 2003, 'Diversity management in a multi-cultural society: an exploratory study of cultural diversity and team sport in Australia', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 168-188.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Taylor, TL 2003, 'Issues of cultural diversity in women's sport', Journal of the International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 27-33.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Taylor, TL 2002, 'A whole new ball-game', Australian Netballer, vol. 1, pp. 10-11.
Taylor, TL 2002, 'From bloomers to body suits: the history of netball in Australia', Australian Netballer, vol. 1, pp. 9-11.
Taylor, TL 2002, 'Girls only need apply', Australian Netballer, vol. 1, pp. 10-12.
Taylor, TL & Bennett, A 2002, 'Strategic development of organisational talent: the use of succession management approaches', Research and Practice in Human resource Management, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 56-69.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Taylor, TL 2000, 'Women, ethnicity and leadership in sport', International Review of Women and Leadership, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 10-22.
Taylor, T & Toohey, K 1999, 'Sport, gender, and cultural diversity: Exploring the nexus', JOURNAL OF SPORT MANAGEMENT, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-17.
Taylor, T & Toohey, K 1998, 'Negotiating Cultural Diversity for Women in Sport: From assimilation to multiculturalism', Race Ethnicity and Education, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 75-90.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Research addressing the issue of sport or physical activity for women of non-English speaking backgrounds in the Australian context is still in its infancy. This is an area rich for study given the multicultural composition of the country's population, combined with the popular view of sport as a major component of Australian cultural identity and the fact that levels of sporting involvement of women born in non-English-speaking countries are extremely low. The research study presented in this article involved exploring notions of sport from the perspectives of women from Italian, Lebanese and Vietnamese backgrounds, and the attitudes of sport service providers about these populations. The outcomes clearly demonstrate that there is continued adherence to assimilation practices in the sporting environment and that such practices disadvantage women from non-English-speaking backgrounds in their sport participation. The findings highlight the need to improve the knowledge and training of sports providers about cultural diversity and its implications for practice. Also, women from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds must have a greater involvement in developing policies and practices which combine innovative and progressive approaches that begin to challenge both racist and sexist constraints currently prevalent in Australian sporting environments.
In Australia, leisure industry education and training is engaged in a major re-structuring process. National standards and competency based training (CBT) criteria are being developed for all levels of training and education - from operative to management level positions. This situation is not unique to Australia; the UK and more recently New Zealand, have pursued a similar path. This paper discusses the implications these new directions in training and education have for employers in the leisure industry and raises concerns associated with such moves. If approached in a positive, consultative and dynamic manner national standards and CBT could benefit employers, employees at appropriate levels and consumers of the leisure product. © 1996 Chapman & Hall.
Taylor, T & Toohey, K 1995, 'Ethnic barriers to sports participation', Australian Parks & Recreation, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 32-36.
In pursuing a large scale, post-WW II immigration program, Australia has employed various strategies in relation to migrant settlement, ranging from assimilation to the current multi-culturalism policy, community attitudes and actions have not necessarily followed suit. Racial discrimination and vilification have historically been a very real life experience for many migrants, especially those from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB). This paper, aims to explore the intersections of sport with ethnicity. It is contextually relevant as Australia is often portrayed as a "sporting nation', a country with a strong sense of national identity obtained and maintained through sporting endeavours. -from Authors
CAMERON, BD, CHASSEAUD, LF, LEWIS, JD & TAYLOR, T 1974, 'DISPOSITION OF BUTRIPTYLINE IN RATS, DOGS AND MAN', ARZNEIMITTELFORSCHUNG-DRUG RESEARCH, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 93-96.
Taylor, T & Doherty, A 2020, 'International Sport Management: A Way Forward' in MacIntosh, E, Bravo, G & Li, M (eds), International Sport Management, Human Kinetics, Champaign Illinois, pp. 385-394.
Taylor, T & Morgan, A 2018, 'The Australian Sport Industry' in Zhang, JJ, Huang, RH & Nauright, J (eds), Sport Business In Leading Economies, Emerald Publishing Limited, Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK, pp. 27-64.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Australia is a large, relatively isolated, country that is populated by just over 23.7 million people (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2015a). Notably, this relatively small and geographically diffused population hosts a vast array of sporting codes, sports events, and professional sport leagues and teams. The Australian sport industry is multi-faceted and comprises government, not-for-profit, commercial, and private enterprises. This multi-million dollar industry has a rich historical tradition that has shaped the way in which contemporary sport is played, organized, and consumed. Australians often refer to themselves as a sport-mad nation, a country that sees sport as part of its national identity, with greater per capita athlete and sport team success than its comparable rivals.
This chapter provides a brief history of the development of the sport industry in Australia, key federal government sport policies and initiatives, an overview of professional sport leagues, sport's role in the country's economy and society, and concludes with contemporary issues and trends. Illustrative case vignettes are integrated into each of these sections.
Taylor, TL & Morgan, A 2017, 'Managing volunteers in grassroots sport' in Bradbury, T & O'Boyle, I (eds), Understanding Sport Management International Perspectives, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 130-144.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Morgan, A, Taylor, TL, Adair, D & Hermens, A 2016, 'Tensions within Interorganizational Alliances: A sponsorship Case Study' in Das, TK (ed), Governance Issues in Strategic Alliances, Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC USA, pp. 201-223.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Taylor, TL & Toohey, K 2015, 'The security agencies' perspective' in Parent, M & Chappelet, J-L (eds), Routledge Handbook of Sports Event Management, Routledge, UK, pp. 373-396.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Eisenhauer, S, Adair, D & Taylor, T 2014, 'Beyond the Stadium: Football World Cup Fan Fests and Global Live Sites' in Frawley, S & Adair, D (eds), Managing the Football World Cup, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, UK, pp. 133-148.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Toohey, K & Taylor, TL 2014, 'Managing Security at the World Cup' in Frawley, S & Adair, D (eds), Managing the Football World Cup, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, pp. 175-196.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Olympic sport venues arc the stage upon which Olympic athletes perform and are a critical component for both athletes and spectators at Olympic Games, Venues built or rnodified sp('cifically to host the Olympic Games have become a focus of international media attention in the years leading up to these events for a combination of their design, aesthetic impact, construction time frames, operational logistics, cost and questions regarding longer-term usc and sustainability. Venues are sport specific, rnulti-sport and also include support venues sllch as the athlete village. The venues thal have been able to reflect the local historic cultural context and aspirations of the host nation in their design, such as Barcelona's swimming pool (Piscina Municipal de Montjui'c) with its panoramic views over Barcelona, or Beijing's 'BinI's Nest' National Stadium, have achieved iconic status and represent a strong architectural and cultural signature. This chapter begins by reviewing the history and development of Olympic Games venues and then focuses on the key contemporary issues in managing Olympic venues. In doing so, venue management considerations for bidding and host cities afe outlined. Historical documents from host cities, academic and social critiques of Olympic city venue management and other source documentation provide the basis for these discussions. The chapter first reviews the historical context of venues and Olympic cities before investigating the costs of infrastructure investment. With this background, venue life cycle and Olympic life cycle planning are examined. This is followed by an examination of iconic design that represents the best of what the host city wants to showcase to the world.
Frawley, SM, Toohey, KM, Taylor, TL & Zakus, DH 2013, 'Managing Sport at the Olympic Games' in Stephen Frawley (ed), Managing the Olympics, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 84-98.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter outlines how the task of managing sport at an Olympic Games has become increasingly more complex as the Games have grown in size as well as becoming more technologically and media interdependent. To provide contextual background, a brief review of this growth is discussed together with data on the event's scale and dimensionality, indicated by the changing number of events, athletes and spectators, and, by association, sports-related managerial and operational planning. Although the 16 days of sport competition is the most obvious manifestation of the Olympic movement, to date there has been surprisingly little published in academic literature specifically about sport-programme management and organization unlike other aspects of the Olympics, such as sponsorship (Barney, Wenn and Martyn, 2002), legacy (Cashman, 2006; Veal, Toohey and Frawley, 2012), security (Taylor and Toohey, 2007), economics (Preuss, 2000, 2007) and politics (Kidd and Donnelly, 2000). This chapter aims to redress this gap m scholarship by examining how sport is planned and organized at the Olympic Games. It begins by introducing principles of the Olympic Charter that gnide the management of Olympic sport. As the organization of sport at each edition of the Games involves a range of stakeholders, all with diverse agendas, these differing stakeholders' roles are discussed. Following this, an in-depth case study of a successful model for sport-programme organization, that of the Sydney 2000 Olympics, IS presented. To finish the chapter and provide alternative approaches to sport-programme management, descriptions of sport organization at subsequent Olympic Games to Sydney are provided.
McGraw, P, Taylor, TL & Lock, D 2012, 'Theoretical approaches and practical strategies for change management' in Robinson, L, Chelladurai, P, Bodet, G & Downward, P (eds), Routledge Handbook of Sport Management, Routledge, Abingdon UK, pp. 116-134.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Foley, CT, Taylor, TL & Maxwell, H 2011, 'Gender and cultural diversity in Australian sport' in Long, J & Spracklen, K (eds), Sport and challenges to racism, Palgrave MacMillan, UK, pp. 167-182.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Maxwell, H, Taylor, TL & Foley, CT 2011, 'Social inclusion of muslim women in Australian community sport' in Long, J, Fitzergerald, H & Millward, P (eds), Delivering Equality in Sport and Leisure, Leisure Studies Association, Eastbourne UK, pp. 15-33.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The social and community building potential of sport has been highlighted by social policy makers and academics both in Australia and overseas (Australian Sports Commission, 2006; Coalter, 2007; Collins and Kay. 2003; Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 2007; Jarvie, 2003; Nicholson and Hoye, 2008; Rojek, 2005). There is a "presumption that sport can help to address the multifaceted aspects of social exclusion (e.g. reduce crime, increase employability, improve health) and contribute to community development and social cohesion" (Coalter. 2007: p. 19). In ethno culturally diverse societies such as Australia, with a vast array of ancestral identities. languages, and religions, sport has been strategically deployed to overcome the challenges of social exclusion and marginalisation among minority ethnic groups.
Key c nsiderations in the effective manag ment of paid empl yees nd volunte rs are presented in this chapter. Th chapter examine the topics of recruitment, sel ction, orientation, training and devel pment, and performance management in the overall context of attracting and r taining the best possible staff and providing an environment where they co n perform to Lheir highest potential. Matters associated with managing and working within a voluntary sport organisati nand rela ed to the 'paid/unpaid' dichotomy of many su h organisations ar also dis ussed.
Taylor, TL, Lock, DJ & Darcy, SA 2011, 'The Janus face of diversity in Australian sport' in Toohey, K & Taylor, T (eds), Australian Sport: Antipodean Waves of Change, Routledge, London, pp. 25-39.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In this essay, Janus is used as a metaphor for examining the nature of cultural diversity in Australian sport. It does so by firstly presenting a historical context for sport in Australia and the relative lack of cultural diversity found in sport. Within a country dominated by the running codes of football and cricket, the position of soccer in Australia was somewhat unique as it became a bastion for many non-Anglo migrant groups. However, in the I 980s and 1990s soccer's lack of organizational success at the slate and national level was negatively ascribed to the tensions between the ethnically affiliated clubs. the same clubs that were ironically the stalwarts driving the growing popularity of the sport. We examine the initiatives used to restructure the game in Australia to make football more appealing to mainstream (i.e. non-ethnically aligned) spectators. The contemporary situation is explored through secondary documentation and the results of a survey of 3,056 spectators undertaken during the first season of the new A-League are presented. The essay concludes with a discussion about the relative success of the restructure in terms of changing the face of Australian soccer.
Toohey, KM & Taylor, TL 2011, 'Sport in Australia: 'worth a shout'' in Toohey, K & Taylor, T (eds), Australian Sport: Antipodean Waves of Change, Routledge, London, pp. 1-5.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Australia's sporting success and dominance across a number of sports has been attributed to a variety of factors, including: inheritance of the British sport ethic in the early years of white settlement and colonization; dominance of a masculine and competitive culture; a paucity of cultural alternatives; a temperate climate; and availability of open spaces'> Whatever the explanation, the centrality of sport to the Australian psyche has been a subject that has fascinated both sport studies scholars and a small number of academics from other disciplines. For example, the social commentator Donald Home, writing in The Lucky Country, in the 1960s, believed that, 'sport to many Australians is life and the rest is a shadow. Sport has been the one national institution that has had no knockers. To many it is considered a sign of degeneracy not to be interested in it. To play sport, or watch others play and to read and talk about it is to uphold the nation and build its character:3 Despite such populist observations, it is germane to question whether or not this preoccupation with sport is unique to Australia. Furthermore, is the nation really a haven for an unquestioning, sport-crazed populous that obsessively hold sporting victories above all else, irrespective of sportspersonship and ethical responsibility? Richard Cashman, writing some 30 years after Home, in Paradise of Sport, legitimately questions if this scenario was ever really the case and, if so, has the trend continued?
Toohey, KM & Taylor, TL 2010, 'Mega events, fear and risk:Terrorism at the Olympic Games' in Girginov, V (ed), The Olympics: A Critical Reader, Routledge, UK, pp. 329-343.
Darcy, SA, Taylor, TL, Cuskelly, G & Hoye, RS 2008, 'Case 28 professional rugby, community rugby clubs and volunteers: Creating advantage through better volunteer management' in Chadwick, S & Arthur, D (eds), International Cases in the Business of Sport, Elsevier, London, pp. 404-422.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The case examines the volunteer management practices within the Australian Rugby Union and its community clubs based based on the authors' ARC Linkage grant research.
Lock, DJ, Taylor, TL & Darcy, SA 2008, 'Soccer and social capital in Australia: Social networks in transition' in Nicholson, M & Hoye, R (eds), Sport and Social Capital, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, pp. 317-338.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter starts with the general premise that sport clubs have the potential to build social capital. Following on from this assumption, we specifically examine the role that soccer played in Australian society in relation to social capital development in the last century. Prior to 2003 the term soccer was officially used to describe football in Australia. We then discuss the present situation, recent governance and strategic positioning challenges implemented in the sport of soccer, and the impact these initiatives have had on the sport's social capital and its constituent communities.
Arthur, D & Chadwick, S 2007, 'Promoting Pacific Islander rugby in a crowded marketplace: Using media relations to overcome the challenge' in International Cases in the Business of Sport, pp. 287-298.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2008, Simon Chadwick and Dave Arthur. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The nations of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland have a long tradition of rugby union competition and consequently strong brand recognition in the European marketplace. The English Rose, Irish Clover, Scottish Thistle and the Welsh Dragon are all well-known symbols associated with these countries and their sporting heritage. The Australian Wallabies, South African Springboks and New Zealand All Blacks, through their strong performances over a number of years (between them they have won four of the five Rugby World Cup's (RWC's) contested), have similarly strong brand recognition. However, the Pacific Islanders do not enjoy such an exalted position given their comparative lack of history. In marketing terms generally, and public relations specifically, the 2006 tour to Europe for test matches versus Wales, Scotland and Ireland therefore represented a significant challenge for the Pacific Islanders management team and their constituent nations. Indeed, even the rugby public in the Islands, more used to supporting the individual nations rather than the combined Pacific Islanders side, needed to be harnessed and won over from their traditional parochialism. As 2006 Pacific Islanders coach Pat Lam (2006) intimated: There's a lot of expectation back in the islands, he said. They'll all be up until three, four o'clock in the morning watching the games and the boys know that. We realise that there is a responsibility. If we do well there are huge benefits on and off the pitch for pacific island rugby, so it's a great challenge. This case examines how the vitally important role of media relations as an essential element of public relations was undertaken on the 2006 Pacific Islander's tour.
Taylor, TL 2007, 'Clark, A.' in Di Langmore (ed), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 218-218.
Taylor, TL 2005, 'Communist sport policy: past, present and future' in Kluka, D, Stier, W & Schilling, G (eds), Aspects of Sport Governance, Meyer & Meyer Sport Publisher, Berlin, Germany, pp. 51-77.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Taylor, TL 2004, 'Managing human resources in sport and leisure.' in McMahon-Beattie, U & Yeoman, I (eds), Sport and Leisure Operations Management, Thomson Learning, London, pp. 58-74.
Taylor, TL, Watt, BJ & Bennett, A 2004, 'Strategic Development of Organisational Talent: The use of succession management' in Redden, JY & Martin, G (eds), Australian Master Human Resources Guide 2004/05, CCH Australia Limited, Sydney, Australia, pp. 385-406.
Watt, BJ, Bennett, A & Taylor, TL 2004, 'Career Planning & Development' in Redden, JY & Martin, G (eds), Australian Master Human Resource Guide 2004/05, CCH Australia Limited, Sydney, Australia, pp. 371-384.
Taylor, TL 2002, 'Women, sport and ethnicity: Exploring differences in netball' in Whimpress, B (ed), The Imaginary Grandstand: Identity and Narrative in Australian Sport, Australian Society for Sports History, South Australia, pp. 40-46.
Taylor, TL & Toohey, KM 2001, 'Sport & Cultural diversity: Why are the women being left out?' in Gratton, C & Henry, P (eds), Sport in the City: The role of sport in economic & social regeneration, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 204-213.
Taylor, TL, Watt, BJ & Bennett, A 2001, 'Strategic Development of organisational talent' in 2002 Australian Master Human Resources Guide, CCH Australia, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1071-1093.
Watt, BJ, Bennett, A & Taylor, TL 2001, 'Career Planning and Development' in 2002 Australian Master Human Resources Guide, CCH Australia, Sydney, Australia, pp. 345-359.
Morgan, AA, Taylor, T, Adair, D & Hermens, A 2015, 'Tension within Inter-organizational Alliances: A Sponsorship Case Study', Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Vancouver.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wadsworth, CA, Dwyer, LK, Paranandi, B, Philips, N, Mahmood, S, Krishnan, B, Taylor, TL, Seward, E, Wilson, P, Singhal, A, Williams, E, Westaby, D, Webster, GJ & Sturgess, RP 2014, 'CURRENT PERFORMANCE OF ERCP IN THE CLEARANCE OF BILE DUCT STONES IN UK CENTRES - WORKING TOWARDS ROBUST KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS', GUT, Annual Meeting of the British-Society-of-Gastroenterology (BSG), BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Manchester, ENGLAND, pp. A210-A210.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lawson, RJ, Taylor, T, Herbert, J, Fallshaw, E, French, E, Hall, C, Kinash, S & Summers, J 2012, 'ASSURANCE OF LEARNING - ARE ACADEMICS AND SENIOR LEADERS SINGING FROM THE SAME HYMN SHEET?', EDULEARN12: 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EDUCATION AND NEW LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES, Annual International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, IATED, Barcelona, SPAIN, pp. 4584-4594.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Taylor, TL, Fallshaw, E, Lawson, R & Zanko, M 2011, 'Tools for Professional Learning in Business Education', Tools for Professional Learning in Business Education, ANZAM, Wellington.
Darcy, SA, Cameron, B & Taylor, TL 2008, 'Rights of access: Visitor accessibility in the Sydney CBD through the case of Sydney for All', The 4Rs - Rights, Respect, Reconciliation, Responsibility - Planning for a socially inclusive future for Australia, The 4Rs - Rights, Respect, Reconciliation, Responsibility - Planning for a socially inclusive future for Australia, Cosmopolitan Civil Societies, University of Technology, Sydney Broadway Campus, pp. 36-36.
Publication of abstract proceedings
Litchfield, AJ, Nettleton, SC & Taylor, TL 2008, 'Integrating work-ready learning into the curriculum contextualised by profession', Work Integrated Learning (WIL): Transforming Futures: Practice...Pedagogy...Partnerships E-Proceedings, WACE Asia Pacific Conference, ACEN, Manly, Australia, pp. 329-336.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The paper presents the University of Technology Sydneys (UTS) 2007-8 curriculum renewal project `Improving students work-ready knowledge and skills. The project aims to improve graduates professional attributes and employability skills by designing new subjects, career envisaging modules and integrating into existing subjects short well-designed work-ready learning activities. The activities were designed together with the AACSB, ACS, AHRI, AMI, CFA, CPA, ICAA and GMAA.
Nettleton, SC, Litchfield, AJ & Taylor, TL 2008, 'Engaging professional societies in developing work-ready graduates', 31st Annual International HERDSA Conference Website, Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia Annual Conference, HERDSA, Rotorua, New Zealand, pp. 241-251.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Since the 1990s universities have faced increasing pressure to better prepare graduates for the workforce. Employers, professional societies and the government are increasingly calling for graduates who are work-ready. In this paper we identify the drivers of the work-ready initiative and present definitions and components of our identified professional work-ready attributes and skills. University graduates are expected to have more than just the discipline-based knowledge and skills that universities traditionally teach. In exploring the tensions, challenges and opportunities that this changing educational environment presents, this paper investigates the key graduate attributes, skills and criteria for successful careers in the professional workplace. Working in consultation with professional societies, our project aims to identify and contextualise work-ready skills to each of the targeted disciplines Information Technology and Business to maximise student relevance. We aim to rejuvenate the current curriculum to improve the development of students work-ready skills by integrating into the curriculum new work-ready subjects and learning activities within existing subjects. Skills identified by professional societies are critical for contemporary university graduates, and are being used to develop effective teaching and learning strategies, tutorials, activities and case-studies.
Taylor, TL 2008, 'E-approaches to destination management: the case of Sydney for All Visitor accessibility in the Sydney CBD', e-CASE 2009.
Paper Number: C1245 Author: Simon Darcy, Tracy Taylor
Taylor, TL 2008, 'Engaging professional societies in developing work-ready graduates', Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia Annual Conference, Rotorua NZ.
Taylor, TL 2008, 'Student and teacher assessment of graduate attribute development', University of British Columbia.
Yeh, C, Taylor, TL & Hoye, RS 2008, 'The dual board system and board roles in Taiwanese sport organizations', 23rd Annual Conference of the North American Society for Sport Management, Toronto, Canada.
Hoye, RS, Kuskelly, G, Taylor, TL & Darcy, SA 2007, 'Volunteer motives and satisfaction with management practices in community sport organizations', The 15th Congress of the European Association for Sport Management Sport Events and Sustainable Development, The 15th Congress of the European Association for Sport Management Sport Events and Sustainable Development, The European Association of Sport Management, Torino, Italy, pp. 141-142.
Lock, DJ, Taylor, TL & Darcy, SA 2007, 'What changed the minds of Australia's football supporters?', The 15th Congress of the European Association for Sport Management Sport Events and Sustainable Development, The 15th Congress of the European Association for Sport Management Sport Events and Sustainable Development, The European Association of Sport Management, Torino, Italy, pp. 205-206.
Yeh, C & Taylor, TL 2007, 'Exploring board governance in Taiwanese nonprofit sport organisations', The 15th Congress of the European Association for Sport Management Sport Events and Sustainable Development, The 15th Congress of the European Association for Sport Management Sport Events and Sustainable Development, The European Association of Sport Management, Torino, Italy, pp. 151-152.
Yeh, C, Taylor, TL & Hoye, RS 2007, 'Board Roles in Nonprofit Sport Organisations with a Dual Board System', Proceedings of the 21st ANZAM 2007 Conference: Managing Our Intellectual and Social Capital, Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, ANZAM, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Governance is a critical component of the effective management of a nonprofit sport organisation. Boards in this governance system play an important role to guide their organisations. While a number of agencies have provided documents of what boards should perform in their organisations, these documents remain descriptive. Empirical research on board roles particularly in a dual board system has been deficient. The purpose of this research therefore was to empirically investigate board roles in nonprofit sport organisations with a dual board system in Taiwan. 158 directors and 103 supervisors from 24 nonprofit sport organisations completed questionnaire regarding board roles. Two factor analyses were conducted. A 20-variable/4-factor scale of roles of directors and a 9-variable/2-factor scale of roles of supervisors were generated. Several conclusions were made based on results of this study
Lock, DJ, Taylor, TL & Darcy, SA 2006, 'Sport fan identity and the new kid on the block.', Sport World United, Sport World United 14th EASM Congress, European Academy of Sport Management, Nicosia, Cyprus, pp. 135-136.
Taylor, TL, Cuskelly, G, Hoye, RS & Darcy, SA 2006, 'A taxonomy of volunteer management practice in community sport organisations', Knowledge, Action and the Public Concern - 2006 Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings, Academy of Management Annual Meeting, AoM, Atlanta, USA, pp. 1-32.
Taylor, TL, Darcy, SA, Hoye, RS & Cuskelly, G 2006, 'Psychological contract theory and volunteer management', Knowledge, Action and the Public Concern - 2006 Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings, Academy of Management Annual Meeting, AoM, Atlanta, USA, pp. 1-34.
Teo, ST, Taylor, TL & Ross-Smith, AE 2006, 'Work satisfaction of academics in an Australian university', Building International Communities Through Collaboration - Proceedings of the 2006 British Academy of Management Conference, British Academy of Management Conference, British Academy of Management, Belfast, Ireland, pp. 1-6.
Taylor, TL & Ho, CY 2004, 'Human resource management in sport organisations: approaches to paid and volunteer staff', 18th Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management: "People First - Serving our Stakeholders", Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, ANZAM, Dunedin, New Zealand, pp. 1-13.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Taylor, TL & Toohey, KM 2004, 'Perceptions of safety and security at major sport events: FIFA World Cup 2002 IRB World Cup 2003', Sport science through the ages: Proceedings of the 2004 Pre-olympic congress, 19th Conference of the North American Society for Sport Management, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA, p. 242.
Taylor, TL & Toohey, KM 2004, 'Security and spectator enjoyment at the Rugby World Cup 2003', Innovation in co-operation, Innovation in co-operation - 12th EASM Congress, PVLO, Gent. Belguim, pp. 63-64.
Taylor, TL & Toohey, KM 2004, 'The balance between security and spectator enjoyment: A case study of the rugby world cup 2003', Sport science through the ages: Proceedings of the 2004 Pre-Olympic congress, Pre-Olympic Congress, -, Thessaloniki, Greece, pp. 283-284.
Taylor, TL, Mcgraw, P & Ross-Smith, AE 2003, 'Succession management practices in Australian organisations', Conference Proceedings Democracy in a Knowledge Economy, Academy of Management, Seattle, USA.
Taylor, TL, Toohey, KM & Lee, C 2003, 'Post-terrorism impacts on mega sport events: the 2002 world cup', 9th Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand Conference, University of Ottago, Dunedin, pp. 55-56.
Taylor, TL, Toohey, KM & Lee, C 2003, 'Terrorism and sport tourism: the 2002 world cup', Sport Management in a Changing World: 11th European Sport Management Congree, Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, pp. 186-187.
Toohey, KM & Taylor, TL 2003, 'Sport and tourism in the Australian media: flow-on effects of September 11', Sport and Social Order: Challenges for Theory and Practice, ISSA, Cologne, Germany, pp. 150-150.
Toohey, KM & Taylor, TL 2003, 'Sport, terrorism and the media: the effects of September 11', Sporting tradition XIV Australian Society of Sport History, --, Sydney, pp. 30-30.
Ross-Smith, AE & Taylor, TL 2002, 'Rational male/ rational manager: historical, philosophical and sociological conceptions of rationality, masculinity and management', Building Effective Networks - Academy of Management 2002 Meeting, No, Academy of Management, Denver, Colorado, pp. 1-38.
Ross-Smith, AE & Taylor, TL 2002, 'Rational male/rational manager: Historical, philosophical and sociological conceptions of rationality, masculinity and management', Building Effective Networks - Academy of Management 2002 Meeting, Academy of Management 2002 Meeting, Academy of Management, Denver, USA, pp. 1-38.
Taylor, TL 2002, 'Competitive advantage in a multicultural society: Cultural diversity and community sports in Australia', North American Society for Sport Management 17th Annual conference, North American Society for Sport Management 17th Annual conference, NA, Alberta Canada, pp. 76-77.
Taylor, TL 2002, 'Rhetoric of exclusion: perspectives of cultural diversity in female sport', Sports Organisations: their role in social and economic development, Sports Organisations: their role in social and economic development, Bowling Green State University, Indianapolis, pp. 49-49.
Toohey, KM & Taylor, TL 2002, 'Managing diversity in sport organisations: the after effects of September 11, 2001', 12th Commonwealth International Sport Conference, 12th Commonwealth International Sport Conference, NA, Manchester, UK.
Taylor, TL & Bennett, A 2001, 'Succession Management and the Strategic Development of Human Resounces: An Analysis of Succession Management Programs', Proceedings of ANZAM 2001: Closing the Divide, Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, Massey University, Auckland, pp. 0-0.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Quick, SP, Taylor, TL & Gargalonos, D 2000, 'A comparative study of policies on international relations in Olympic sports', Bridging Three Centuries: Intellectual Crossroads and the Modern Olympic Movement, Centre for Olympic Studies, University of Western Ontario, Sydney, NSW, pp. 81-87.
Ross-Smith, AE & Taylor, TL 2000, 'A wolf in lamb's clothing or a lamb in wolf's clothing? learning academic leadership: a case study', Managing for the New Millennium: The Leap Ahead - ANZAM 2000 Conference Proceedings, Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, Australia & New Zealand Academy of Management, Sydney, NSW, pp. 0-0.
Taylor, TL 2004, 'Member, editorial board: "European Sport Management Quarterly"'.
Taylor, TL 2004, 'Member, editorial board: "Leisure Information Quarterly"'.
Taylor, TL 2004, 'Member, editorial board: "Sport Management Review"'.
Taylor, TL 2003, 'Member, editorial board: "Sport Management Review"'.
Darcy, SA, Taylor, TL, Murphy, AJ & Lock, D Canberra: Australian Sport Commission. 2011, Getting Involved in Sport: The Participation and non-participation of people with disability in sport and active recreation, pp. 1-78, Canberra.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Darcy, SA, Cameron, B, Dwyer, L, Taylor, TL, Wong, E & Thomson, AK Sustainable Tourism CRC 2008, Visitor accessibility in urban centres (Technical Report 90040), pp. 1-110, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The research project was sponsored by the STCRC NSW state node to examine visitor accessibility in urban areas. Visitor accessibility encompasses all tourism markets including seniors and people with disabilities who have been identified as the accessible tourism market. It is recognised in the literature that there are significant barriers that constrain the tourism experiences of the group. As determined by the Industry Reference Group (IRG) the precinct study area was the main Sydney tourism precinct that incorporated: the transport hub from Central to Circular Quay East and West Circular Quay The Rocks Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney Harbour environs and Sydney Harbour National Park Manly Ferry, Manly boardwalk and North Head Lookout.
Taylor, TL 2009, 'WP2: Netball in Australia: A Social History', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Working Papers Series.
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