A. J. (Tony) Veal began his career in local government and then worked in the Universities of Birmingham and North London in the UK from 1968 to 1986. In 1986 he joined the then Kuring-gai CAE, which amalgamated with UTS in 1990. He was Head of School during the period 1997-99 and spent periods as Acting Associate Dean (Research) of the Faculty of Business and Head of the Graduate School of Business in 1995-96 and 1999. In 2003 he retired from full-time employment at UTS and was appointed to the honorary position of Adjunct Professor. He is past president of the Australian and New Zealand Association for Leisure Studies (ANZALS) and former chair of the Leisure Studies Association (UK). In 2006 he received from Parks and Leisure Australia the Frank Stewart Award for contributions to the parks and leisure industry. He is author or co-author/editor of a number of books, including: Leisure and the Future (Allen & Unwin, 1987); Leisure and Tourism Policy and Planning (E2, CABI, 2002); Work and Leisure (Routledge, 2004); Free Time and Leisure Participation: International Perspectives (E2, CABI, 2005); Business Research Methods (E2, Addison Wesley, 2005); Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism (E3, Financial Times-Prentice Hall, 2006); Australian Leisure (E3, Pearson, 2006); A Handbook of Leisure Studies (Palgrave, 2006); and The Olympic Games: A Social Science Perspective (E2, CABI, 2007).
leisure forecasting; leisure participation patterns; leisure planning and policy
research methods; public policy and planning
Veal, AJ 2018, Whatever Happened to the Leisure Society?, Routledge.
This is a valuable resource for students and academics in the fields of leisure studies, cultural studies, history, economics, sociology and political science.
This book provides students and practising managers with the following: * Essential skills in designing their own qualitative and quantitative research studies that can be implemented in a real working environment * Guidance in ...
Toohey, KM & Veal, AJ 2007, The Olympic Games: A social science perspective, 2, CABI, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.
The Olympic Games are the largest and most prestigious sporting competition in the world and have grown into a massive, multi-billion dollar sport and commercial event. The scale and significance, both sporting and cultural, of these games have attracted increasing attention not only from the media and wider public but also from researchers and managers of sporting events. This extended, new edition of The Olympic Games: A Social Science Perspective covers the Olympic phenomenon from political, economic, historical and sociological perspectives, discussing topics from the history and the media to commercialism and drug use. Providing a detailed and comprehensive account and extensive bibliography, this book will be essential reading for researchers and students in leisure and sports studies.
Veal, AJ 2006, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, Third, Prentice Hall, London.
Cushman, G, Veal, AJ & Zuzanek, J 2005, Free time and leisure participation: International perspectives.
This new edition is a reprint of the hardback book, first published in 2005. As the pace of life increases and the effects of globalisation invade more and more areas of everyday life, free time becomes an increasingly precious resource. For those who are experiencing a shortage of free time - a 'time-squeeze' - and for the growing numbers looking forward to abundant free time in retirement, leisure has never been more vital for ensuring individual and social health and wellbeing and the enhancement of social capital and the quality of lifeThis book is an expanded and updated edition of a previous work entitled World Leisure Participation: Free Time in the Global Village, by the same editors (CABI, 1996). It brings together the results of the most recent national leisure participation surveys from 15 countries, including three countries not previously covered. The book also includes increased coverage of time-budget surveys and new themes such as public policy dimensions. It also examines the methodological problems and challenges of conducting national surveys in the field, and their future prospects. © CAB International 2005. All rights reserved.
© 2004 Psychology Press. All rights reserved. Globalization, economic development and changes in social environments have put the relationships between work, leisure, social structure and quality of life under the spotlight. Profound transformations in the nature and organization of work are occurring, with potentially far-reaching social and economic consequences. Increasingly, organizations demand greater flexibility from their workforces and are introducing new technologies and practices in response to global competitive pressures. At the same time many employees are experiencing long working hours, increasing workloads and job insecurity, along with the challenge of balancing work and domestic responsibilities. These changes threaten long-term gain in leisure time while, simultaneously, the leisure environment is also changing radically, as we see increasing commercialization and professionalization of leisure services and experiences, the influence of the Internet, the rise of gambling and the decline of community-based activity. Exploring all of these issues, this book brings together specially commissioned chapters from international experts in a wide range of disciplines concerned with work, leisure and well-being. Each author takes stock of the current position, identifies core practical and theoretical issues and discusses possible future trends in order to provide an invaluable resource for all policy-makers, educators, employers and researchers in the field.
Veal, AJ 2005, Business Research Methods, Pearson/Addison Wesley, Sydney, Australia.
Toohey, KM & Veal, AJ 2004, The Olympic Games : A Social Science Perspective, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, China.
Veal, AJ 2002, Leisure and tourism policy and planning, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.
Toohey, KM & Veal, AJ 2000, The Olympic games: A social science perspective, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
© 2019, © 2019 Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières. One of the most widely cited definitions of leisure is that presented by Joffre Dumazedier, originally published in 1962 and based on three functions of leisure identified in his empirical research in France. Three issues are addressed in this paper. First, aspects of the English translation of the definition, published in the USA in 1967, are found to be inappropriate and misleading. Second, attention is drawn to the unexplained omission of experiential features of leisure, also identified in Dumazedier's research. Third, it is observed that, in the 1970s, Dumazedier disavowed his original definition and replaced it with a more exclusive perspective identifying him with the 'Leisure Aristotelians'. Possible reasons for the original omission of experiential dimensions and for Dumazedier's decision to replace his definition with a very different one are discussed, together with consideration of the lack of attention given to these matters by leisure studies scholars.
Veal, AJ, Toohey, K & Frawley, S 2019, 'Sport participation, international sports events and the 'trickle-down effect'', Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, vol. 11, no. sup1, pp. s3-s7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Veal, AJ 2017, 'The serious leisure perspective and the experience of leisure', Leisure Sciences: an interdisciplinary journal, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 205-223.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The serious leisure perspective (SLP), which divides leisure activities into three distinct forms, serious, casual and project-based, has been developed by Robert Stebbins over the last 40 years. This paper evaluates the perspective as theory and as a typology. The theory associated with the SLP, concerning social worlds, identification and optimal leisure lifestyles, is found to be generally untested because it has been largely developed in relation to the serious leisure form only. The validity of the typology is questioned on the grounds that 'seriousness' is a continuum, rather than discrete categories, and that most leisure activities can be engaged in with varying degrees of seriousness. It is proposed that the SLP be replaced by a more flexible, open research approach, the Leisure Experience Perspective, which consolidates features of the SLP and other research traditions and a number of other theoretical perspectives.
Veal, AJ & Nichols, G 2017, 'Volunteering and income inequality: cross-national relationships', Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 379-399.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wilkinson and Pickett, in their 2009 book The Spirit Level, found that, in rich countries, income inequality was negatively associated with a range of indicators of well-being, but they did not consider the relationship with volunteering. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Using existing data sources, it shows that, among European countries, higher levels of volunteering are associated with lower levels of income inequality. The relationship is particularly strong for regular and sport-related volunteering. The basic Spirit Level thesis is therefore confirmed as applicable to volunteering. However, while the thesis involves just one theoretical explanation for the income inequality/well-being relationship, namely status anxiety, in the case of volunteering, other variables are also found to be at play, including government social spending, available leisure time and geo-historical traditions. It is concluded that, while high levels of volunteering, as a form of social capital, can be seen as one of a number of features of more equal societies, disentangling cause and effect may require a more holistic approach to understanding its contribution to the generation and sustaining of social well-being.
Veal, AJ 2016, 'Leisure, income inequality and the Veblen effect: cross-national analysis of leisure time and sport and cultural activity', LEISURE STUDIES, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 215-240.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 World Leisure Organization. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, endorsed by the United Nations in 1948, includes the right to leisure time, to cultural participation and to travel. While the idea of human rights permeates many aspects of national and international life, it has not permeated the field of leisure studies to any great extent. The purpose of this paper is not to remedy this situation but to argue that this neglect is unjustified and to suggest that leisure researchers might incorporate the idea of human rights and leisure rights into their work. The paper is divided into six main parts. First, it considers the parallels between the neglect of human rights in sociology and in leisure studies. Second, it considers the basis of human rights in general. Third, it examines the nature of the leisure rights declared in the Universal Declaration. Fourth, the place of leisure in the general critique of economic, social and cultural rights is assessed. Fifth, the relationship between human rights and a number of themes in leisure studies is briefly explored, including: the work/leisure divide; the individual versus society; freedom; gender; globalization; and policy. Finally, some suggestions are made for a research agenda on leisure and human rights.
While national standards for open space planning have long been subject to criticism, their use is still advocated in a number of Australian state planning guidelines, even if only as a `starting point. This suggests that the British and American origins of open space standards commonly used in Australia are believed by some to have at least a modicum of credibility. This paper seeks to establish documented evidence of the link between Australian standards and their British and American origins and to examine the scientific basis for the latter. It was found to be impossible to establish clear, explicit and documented statements of such links. Furthermore, it was found that, in the case of American standards, the responsible organisation was itself unable to explain their basis and abandoned their use in 1996. In the case of British standards, it is found that they were based on estimated demand for sport in Britain in 1925, have remained substantially unchanged since the 1930s and do not include standards for informal open space. No evidence was found of any efforts to establish Australian standards based on contemporary Australian recreation demand patterns
Open space is often neglected in academic discussion of leisure policy, yet local authorities in England are responsible for 94,000 ha of formal parks, 4400 ha of equipped playgrounds and 285,000 ha of other public open space, involving a net annual expenditure £750m, which is greater than the expenditure on, for example, indoor sport and sport development (£630m) (Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy [CIPFA], 2009). Furthermore, visiting parks is arguably the most popular of publicly facilitated leisure activities after the use of public broadcasting (Veal, 2006) and with continued urban renewal, and population growth in England and Wales of a million every 4 years (Office for National Statistics, 2008), the provision of open space, as a component of new urban infrastructure, remains a significant public policy issue.
The ``leisure society thesis was developed primarily in the 1960s and 1970s and a recent paper in the World Leisure Journal summarised the relevant literature from that period and analysed contemporary recollections of it (Veal, 2011). This paper follows the story of the leisure society thesis since 1980. Set against the background of discussions of work and leisure in periods of high unemployment, the work ethic, working hours, post-work and worklife balance, the paper reviews the post-1980 offerings of proponents, analysts and critics of the leisure society thesis. A four-fold typology of leisure society conceptualisations and reduced-work future scenarios is proposed, comprising: the current leisure society; the evolutionary leisure society; the leisure society as a political project; and other reduced-work scenarios/projects. The second half of the paper reviews literature that is analytical, ambivalent and/or definitional regarding the leisure society thesis and that which is critical. This involves discussion of the failure of paid working hours to fall in the second half of the twentieth century as had been predicted, and appraisal of a range of critical theoretical/conceptual issues. While the significance of the leisure society thesis as an early project of leisure studies is debatable, and it is clearly now an historical reference point rather than a current project, the question is raised as to why the leisure studies community has failed to join with others who are pursuing the cause of reduced paid working hours for all.
Veal, T, Toohey, KM & Frawley, SM 2012, 'The sport participation legacy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and other international sporting events hosted in Australia', Journal of Policy Research, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 155-184.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The legacy of an Olympic Games in a host city or country can take a variety of forms, including non-sporting benefits, such as enhanced urban infrastructure and national and international tourism profile, and sporting benefits, such as improved sporting facilities, strengthened sports organisations and potential increases in grassroots sport participation. This paper concentrates on the last of these, particularly in regard to the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. The paper examines claims by the Olympic movement concerning increased sports participation as a legacy and examines available evidence to consider whether the hosting of the Games boosted sports participation in Australia. While some estimates suggest that participation did increase following the hosting of the 2000 Olympics, the failure of relevant organisations to maintain an adequate and consistent data collection regime makes this conclusion extremely speculative. From 2001 onwards, with the existence of a more stable data collection system and increasing awareness of the idea of a sport participation legacy, it is possible to make more reliable estimates of the pattern of grassroots sports participation following the hosting of the 2003 Rugby World Cup and the 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth Games. However, even when reliable and consistent participation data are available, the question of causality in the context of the wider sport development and participation system remains to be addressed.
Gratton, C & Veal, AJ 2011, 'International Comparisons of Sports participation in European countries: an Update of the COMPASS Project', The European Journal for Sport and Society, vol. 8, no. 1/2, pp. 99-116.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
COMPASS (Coordinated Monitoring of Pmticipation in Sports) was a jointly funded initiative of the UK Sports Council, English Sports Council, and the Italian Olympic Committee (CONI), the aim of which was to examine existing systems for the collection and analysis of sports participation data in European countries with a view to identifying ways in which harmonisation may be achieved, so that greater comparability of data from different European countries would become possible. The COMPASS report (UK Sport, Sport England and CONI, 1999) was published in 1999 and provided comparative data on sports participation for seven European countries, Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands, UK, Ireland, Italy and Spain. The comparisons were made using an analytical framework that categorised participation into seven participation groups related to intensity of participation, club membership and whether participation was competitive or not. Despite the difficulties in making cross-national comparisons in sports participation across European countries, the COMPASS report has shown that there is evidence of an emerging European profile of sports participation. This paper attempts to build on the original COMPASS results and analyse what lessons can be learned for making comparisons of sports participation across European countries today.
Veal, AJ 2011, 'Leisure participation patterns and gender: the survey evidence on Australian adults', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 14, no. 2-3, pp. 120-142.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In recognition of the principle that quantitative methods have a role to play in gender-related studies of leisure, alongside qualitative methods, this paper draws on past and current official Australian national surveys to examine mens time use and leisure participation patterns. Three frequently asserted observations on leisure and gender, and mens leisure behaviour in particular, are addressed. First, the proposition that early survey-based leisure research was `gender blind is shown to have not generally been the case in Australia. Second, it is shown that, while it is broadly true that men have more leisure time than women, this is not the case for some key socio-demographic groups. Third, the observation that men have higher levels of participation in leisure activities than women often relies on data on sport and physical recreational activities only, but when a comprehensive definition of leisure is adopted, including such categories as cultural activity and informal outdoor recreation, and when frequency of participation is taken into account, it is found that, while leisure patterns of men are different from those of women, the quantum of participation does not significantly favour men. The paper also addresses the issue of change over time, showing that gender-related patterns of time-use and leisure participation in Australia have changed over recent decades, suggesting that observations based on quantitative empirical data should be reviewed from time to time as new data become available. Finally, the paper examines the life-time distribution of time, revealing a remarkable similarity between men and women.
On the basis of a review of some 82 sets of official, professional and academic English-language guidelines, this paper! evaluates eight rationales, goals and associated planning approaches for planning for leisure, sport, tourism and the arts: (1) meeting standards; (2) providing opportunity; (3) managing (natural/ heritage) resources; (4) meeting demand; (5) satisfying stakeholder groups; (6) meeting needs; (7) meeting participation targets; and (8) providing (net) benefits. A number of the approaches are found to suffer from limitations that are generally overlooked by the guidelines reviewed. While guidelines are often strong in providing advice on data collection, they are invariably weak in regard to data analysis and the relationships between goal setting, data analysis and policy formation. A single solution to the difficulties identified is not offered, but it is concluded that a yet to be developed demand/participationlbenefits-based approach to planning would offer a way forward.
Recent discussion in the World Leisure Journal has raised the issue of the place of the "leisure society thesis" in the development of leisure studies. Some have argued that the thesis was a key, but misconceived, "project" of the early phase of leisure studies which has done lasting damage to the leisure studies brand. Others argue that the thesis was a passing preoccupation which has long since been superseded and is no longer of relevance. In this paper, it is noted that recollections of the leisure studies thesis in its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s are often unspecific and at times ill-informed. The paper is not a defence or critique of the leisure society thesis but an attempt to establish a more accurate history through discussion of fivemyths: I. that portrayals of the leisure society in the 1960s and 1970s invariably involved visions of the future; 2. that there was a consensus within the leisure studies community concerning a future leisure society; 3. that the thesis was a significant feature of the early leisure studies literature; 4. that definitions of the leisure society were based on predictions of falling working hours; and 5. that leisure society proponents themselves predicted reductions in working hours.
Veal, AJ 2008, 'The neglect of urban parks', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 14-16.
Discusses the lack of a national institution with responsibility for urban parks in Australia and recommends the establishment of a body equivalent to the UK's CABE-Space
Veal, AJ 2008, 'Why don't people participate?', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 22-23.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Trends at last!', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 9, no. 4.
Veal, AJ 2004, 'Fact File 13 : Swimming: number 2, but should try harder', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 45-47.
Veal, AJ 2004, 'Leisure matters: but what about the data?', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 21-24.
Veal, AJ 2003, 'Education, training and professsional development in leisure: a bibliography', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 68-77.
Veal, AJ 2003, 'Fact file 11: leisure demand and older people', Australasian Praks and Leisure, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 20-20.
Veal, AJ 2003, 'Fact file 12: children and leisure', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 46-47.
Veal, AJ 2002, 'Fact file 10: gardening for leisure', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 5, pp. 1-1.
Veal, AJ 2002, 'Fact file 7: participating in the arts in Australia', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 5, pp. 34-35.
Veal, AJ 2002, 'Fact file 8: demographics', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 5, pp. 46-46.
Veal, AJ 2002, 'Fact file 9: domestic tourism', Australasian Parks and Tourism, vol. 5, pp. 14-15.
Veal, AJ 2002, 'What is ecotourism?', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 5, pp. 6-6.
This paper has examined the new generation of leisure participation surveys and their potential for research on leisure in every day life. The new generation of leisure surveys are remedying various problems in their design and in their approach to the study of leisure. As national leisure surveys in Australia and New Zealand demonstrate, leisure surveys are acquiring features which enable a broader understanding of leisure and its contexts. Just as research methodology in general is constantly changing and evolving so is leisure survey methodology. It is anticipated that as new questions are asked about leisure behaviour new ideas concerning survey methods will emerge. © Presses de I'Université du Québec.
The paper is a review of literature and an analysis of the concept of lifestyle and its relationship to leisure. In the first part of the paper the review is divided into nine sections covering Weberian, sub-cultural, psychological, market research and psychographics, leisure/tourism styles, spatial, socialist lifestyles, consumer culture, gender, and miscellaneous approaches. In the second part of the paper a number of themes are identified and their roles in defining lifestyle are discussed; these are: Activities/behaviour; values and attitudes; individuals versus groups; group interaction, coherence, recognisability and choice. In conclusion, a definition of lifestyle is offered and a brief indication of a research agenda is presented. © 1993 E. and F.N. Spon.
In contrast to the Marxist view of society and leisure, with its basis of class division and conflict, analyses of leisure based on the pluralist defence of the liberal democratic market system seem to lack both a satisfactory classificatory system of society and an adequate sociological explanation of the dynamic forces shaping leisure and society. This leads in turn to an inadequate agenda for the study of leisure in its wider social context. This paper suggests that Weber's concepts of status, status groups and lifestyle offer a way forward for pluralist analysis. It examines how research on 'status politics', or the 'politics of lifestyle concern', and existing research on lifestyle might be incorporated into such an approach. © 1989 E. and F.N. Spon Ltd.
It is flattering and somewhat daunting to find that my paper 'Leisure, lifestyle and status - a pluralist framework for analysis' (Leisure Studies, 8, 2, 1989) was of sufficient interest to have attracted comment from Chas Critcher, Sheila Scraton and Margaret Talbot and that the editors have seen fit to publish those comments. I welcome the comments and have found them stimulating and helpful in developing my own views. I am grateful for the opportunity to reply.© 1989 E. and F.N. Spon Ltd.
Economies is widely seen as the senior social science discipline and as a key ingredient in management training. Leisure and tourism have become significant components of developed market economies, accounting for between 20 and 30 per cent of consumer expenditure. Economics should therefore be an important discipline in the study of leisure and tourism. While macro-economic theory has been widely applied in the leisure and tourism field through economic impact studies and the tourism multiplier, micro-economic applications have been almost entirely concerned with non-market, public sector leisure phenomena or quasi-market phenomena such as professional team sports. The paper raises the question as to why so few examples exist of the application of micro-economics to leisure markets. © Presses de l' Université du Québec.
Travis, AS, Veal, AJ, Duesbury, K & White, J 1981, 'The role of central government in relation to the provision of leisure services in England and Wales.', University of Birmingham, Centre for Urban & Regional Studies, Research Memorandum, vol. 86.
Examines sequentially the historical evolution of local government leisure services in England and Wales, and the organisation and practice of these services today. The current and potential roles of central government in relation to leisure services are examined, and the institutional framework, official reports and legislation are examined and compared to British and overseas experience. After reviewing central-local relationships in government, conclusions are put forward and recommendations made. -from Authors
The author reviews a range of mainly British and US research on future leisure behaviour and in particular: general scenarios, forecasts of the amount of leisure time, activities, and expenditure. He discusses the limitations of one of the most widely used approaches - cross-sectional analysis. He notes some of the problems facing policy makers: there has been an overconcentration on sporting and outdoor activities, and the distributive effects of their policies have been largely ignored, eg leisure facilities meet the needs of the better-off sections of the population. © 1980.
Phillips, JC & Veal, AJ 1979, 'Research on the urban fringe.', Centre for Urban & Regional Studies, University of Birmingham, Conference and Seminar Paper, vol. 6, p. 77.
A seminar was held at Brundel University, June 12-13, 1978, designed to bring together people with interests in the urban fringe to see how current research relates to the Countryside Commission's urban fringe policies. A report of each discussion is given, followed by a list of suggested research areas. Synopses of current and completed urban fringe research projects are included. A bibliography is included listing some recent references dealing with the urban fringe. -Jennifer Clayton
Veal, AJ 1979, 'Sport and recreation in England and Wales: an analysis of adult participation patterns in 1977.', University of Birmingham, Centre for Urban and Regional Research Memorandum, vol. 74.
Presents up-to-date information on participation levels in a wide range of leisure activities. Some 30 of the more popular sports activities are analysed in detail, relating participation to a wide range of socio-economic variables such as age, income, occupation and car-ownership. A socio-economic profile is presented for each of the 30 activities. Information is also presented for each of the nine English Council for Sport and Recreation regions and for Wales and Scotland. -Author
Veal, AJ 2016, 'Planning and policy frameworks' in Walker, GD, Scott, D & Stodolska, M (eds), Leisure matters, Venture Publishing, Inc., State College PA, USA, pp. 287-294.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Frawley, SM, Toohey, KM & Veal, AJ 2013, 'Managing Sport Participation Legacy at the Olympic Games' in Stephen Frawley (ed), Managing the Olympics, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 66-83.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
One particular strategy employed by governments and government agencies to promote sport participation has been to support the hosting of international sport events. Governments and their agencies afe increasingly identifying the promotion of grassroots-sport participation as one of the opportunities, and anticipated outcomes, of hosting a mega-sport event such as the Olympic Games. For example, in regard to the London 2012 Olympic Games, UK Sport (2005) has stated that 'a comprehensive development strategy will encourage participation and boost all levels of a sport - everything from assisting potential medal winners to inspiring children to take up sport' (p. 74). Given the considerable amounts of public funds that are spent in the staging of mega-sport events, it is inevitable that there will be calls for evidence of the effectiveness of such events in delivering the promised outcomes, including sport-participation outcomes. While sport-funding agencies and governments have, in recent years, become more active in planning event legacies, including increased sport participation, research has demonstrated that there is little empirical data to show that the strategies employed to date have been successful. An extensive review of the literature has found little evidence that international sport events have a positive impact on stimulating physical activity and sport participation (Weed, Coren and Fiore, 2009). With this context in mind, the purpose of this chapter is to examine the impact that hosting the Olympic Games has on sport participation. The chapter starts by reviewing the research published to date in this area, and then presents a case study focused on the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games.
Anthony Giddens (1991: 81) has defiued lifestyle as 'a more or less integrated set of practices which an individual embraces, not only because such practices fulfil utilitarian needs, but because they give material form to a particular narrative of self-identity'. While this and other definitions emphasize individual choice, it is clear that lifestyle and self-identity afC also group phenomena, as Muggleton (2000: 66) dearly demonstrates in regard to youth subcultures. Among the 'practices' which constitute a lifestyle are leisure activities, but also 'one's body, clothes, speech, '" eating and drinking preferences, horne, car ... etc.' (Featherstone, 1987: 343), One school of thought also includes within the definition oflifestyle, individual 'belief... . , va'lues, or norms of daily behaviour' and 'the way in which each person lives the norms of the group, class or global society to which he/she belongs' (Ruiz, 1989: 158). Furthermore, Giddens (1991: 81-2) argues that 'it would be wrong to suppose that lifestyle only relates to activities outside of work .. " choice of work and work milieu forms a basic element of lifestyle orientations'.
Rojek, C, Shaw, S & Veal, AJ 2006, 'Introduction: process & context' in Rojek, C, Shaw, S & Veal, AJ (eds), A Handbook of Leisure Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, UK, pp. 1-21.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Carrying capacity' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 225-227.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Catchment area' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 230-231.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Delphi method' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 345-346.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Distance decay' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 364-365.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Evaluation' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 441-442.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Innovation diffusion' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 670-671.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Leisure and the economy' in Jackson, EL (ed), Leisure and the Quality of Life: impacts on social, economic and cultural development, Zhejiang University Press, Hangzhou, China, pp. 119-127.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Participation' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 987-989.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Participation surveys' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 989-990.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Planning' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1039-1040.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Quality of life' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1114-1115.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Rational recreation' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1121-1122.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Recreation' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1124-1125.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Social class' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1215-1217.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Time budget methods' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1373-1373.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Trends (in sport)' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1392-1393.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Unemployment' in Bartlett, R, Gratton, C & Rolf, C (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1397-1398.
Cushman, G, Veal, AJ & Zuzanek, J 2005, 'Cross- National leisure participation and time-use surveys: a future' in Cushman, G, Veal, AJ & Zuzanek, J (eds), Free Time and Leisure Participation: International Perspectives, CABI, Wallingford, UK, pp. 283-292.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Cushman, G, Veal, AJ & Zuzanek, J 2005, 'Leisure participation and time-use surveys: An overview' in Free Time and Leisure Participation: International Perspectives, pp. 1-16.
Cushman, G, Veal, AJ & Zuzanek, J 2005, 'National leisure participation and time-use surveys: A future' in Free Time and Leisure Participation: International Perspectives, pp. 283-292.
Cushman, G, Zuzanek, J & Veal, AJ 2005, 'National Leisure participation and time-use surveys: an overview' in Cushman, G, Veal, AJ & Zuzanek, J (eds), Free Time and Leisure Participation: International Perspectives, CABI, Wallingford, UK, pp. 1-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Gratton, C & Veal, AJ 2005, 'Great Britain' in Cushman, G, Veal, AJ & Zuzanek, J (eds), Free Time and Leisure Participation: International Perspectives, CABI, Wallingford, UK, pp. 109-126.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pugalis, L, Veal, A, Piracha & McAuliffe 2018, 'From Suburban to Urban: Planning for the Delivery of Quality Open Space', Co.Lab 2018, Landcom and UrbanGrowth NSW Development Corporation, Sydney.
Schlenker, K, Foley, CT, Edwards, DC & Veal, AJ 2014, 'Bums on Seats: Attendance trends in culture and sport', Liveability & Loveability Taskforce Meeting, Committee for Sydney, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Veal, AJ 2007, 'Planning for future â with particular emphasis on urban parks', NSW Parks and Leisure Australia Conference: Parks for the Future, Wollongong.
Planning for future leisure provision involves a number of inputs: one of these is the assessment of current and future demand. Demand for leisure activity is, however, not fixed but is affected by a wide range of factors, including: socio-economic and demographic change; local traditions; and the quantities, distribution and qualities of existing facilities and their management, promotion and marketing. All this is well known and is often documented in local plans. But the methodology for translating quantitative demand data into quantitative facility requirements is relatively undeveloped. While the process of translating participation rates into facility requirements is relatively straightforward for many leisure activities and facilities, it is problematical for informal recreation which takes place in urban parks. The paper considers ways in which his problem might be addressed.
Veal, AJ 2007, 'The right to leisure', Parks and Leisure Australia 2007 National Conference; âA Pivotal Roleâ, Townsville, Qld.
The right to >rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay= is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The principle of the
Veal, AJ 2007, 'Working Hours and the desire for leisure and consumption', Leisure Studies Association conference: Whatever Happened to the Leisure Society?, Eastbourne, UK.
In 1969 John D. Owen published The Price of Leisure: An Economic Analysis of the Demand for Leisure Time, which examined influences on trends in work time and leisure time in the United States from 1900 to 1961. These influences included the development of the commercial recreation industry, education, commuting time, working conditions, unemployment, and fatigue arising from work. Owen showed that reductions in working hours â and hence the emergence of a âleisure societyâ â do not follow automatically from economic growth. A number of authors, including Juliet Schor, Peter Taylor and Chris Gratton, have since addressed the issues raised by Owen and, in part, extended his empirical analysis using more recent data and data from countries other than the United States. One conclusion from these more recent analyses is that trends in the patterns of work and leisure arising from economic development appear to vary significantly between countries. Thus, while Owenâs analysis was exemplary, his empirical conclusions do not necessarily apply outside of the United States. This paper uses OECD data to explore differences in the relationships between paid working hours, leisure and consumption in a number of OECD countries.
Frawley, SM, Toohey, KM & Veal, AJ 2006, '"Sport for all" and the legacy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic games', 13th Commonwealth International Sport Conference, 13th Commonwealth International Sport Conference (CISC 2006), CISC, Melbourne, Australia.
Veal, AJ 2006, '25 years of leisure studies', Leisure Studies Association Conference - Making Space: Leisure, Tourism and Renewal, Leisure studies association, Bristol, UK.
Veal, AJ 2006, 'Planning for leisure: Alternative approaches', Parks and Leisure Australia National Conference, Parks and leisure Australia place, Sydney, Australia.
Darcy, SA & Veal, AJ 2005, 'Leisure constraints: the case of disability and tourism', Kangaroo and Kiwi Kulture: Impacts on the Leisure Experience - 7th ANZALS Biennial Conference, 7th ANZALS Biennial Conference, ANZALS, Tauranga, New Zealand, pp. 19-19.
Darcy, SA, Bolton, C & Veal, AJ 2005, 'Evaluation of NSW maritime major special aquatic events: 2003 boat owner/ skipper survey', The Impacts of Events - Event Management Research Conference, Event Management Research Conference, ACEM, Sydney, Australia, pp. 203-215.
Veal, AJ 2005, 'Demand-based planning for leisure provision', Current Issues: Future Challenges - Parks and Leisure Australia National Conference 2005, Parks and Leisure Australia National Conference 2005, Parks and Leisure Australia, Tasmania, Australia.
Veal, AJ 2005, 'Sport for all and the legacy of the Sydney 2000 olympic games', Festival and Events: Beyond Economic Impacts - Leisure Studies Association Conference, Leisure Studies Association Conference, -, Napier University, Edinburgh.
Veal, AJ 2005, 'Trend in sport participation - international perspectives', Kangaroo and Kiwi Kulture: Impacts on the Leisure Experience - 7th ANZALS Biennial Conference, 7th ANZALS Biennial Conference, ANZALS, Tauranga, New Zealand.
Veal, AJ 2004, 'Leisure matters, but what about the data?', -, 8th World Leisure Congress Leisure Matters, World Leisure & parks & Leisure Australia, -.
Veal, AJ & Dinning, S 2004, 'Parks matter to people', -, 8th World Leisure Congress Leisure Matter, World Leisure & Parks & Leisure Australia, Brisbane, Australia.
Veal, AJ & Toohey, KM 2004, 'The Sporting Legacy of the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games', -, Beyond the Torch : Olympics and the Australian Culture, Australian Society for Sport history, Canberra, Australia.
Veal, AJ 2003, 'Leisure studies and the challenge of poststructuralism', 6th ANZALS Biennial Conference: Leisure, Change and Diversity, --, Sydney.
Veal, AJ & Dinning, S 2003, 'Parks and the city', State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, --, Parramatta.
Veal, AJ & Dinning, S 2003, 'Urban parks, change and diversity', 6th ANZALZ Biennial Conference: Leisure, Change and Diversity, --, Sydney.
Veal, AJ 2002, 'Leisure is a right', The World Leisure Congress: Global Forces and Local Responses, The World Leisure Congress: Global Forces and Local Responses.
Veal, AJ 2002, 'Leisure, time-use and lifestyles of young people in Australia', International Time Use Conference: Time pressure, Work-family Interface and Parent-child Relationships: Social and Health Implications of Time Use, International Time Use Conference: Time pressure, Work-family Interface and Parent-child Relationships: Social and Health Implications of Time Use.
Veal, AJ 2002, 'Managing economic impacts of leisure, sport and tourism - the continuing role of the state in the common wealth of leisure', Leisure Studies Association Annual Conference: Leisure: Our Common Wealth, Leisure Studies Association Annual Conference: Leisure: Our Common Wealth.
Veal, AJ 2002, 'Research for improving social performance and accountability', International Parks Strategic Partners Best Practice Forum: A Sustainable Future for Parks, International Parks Strategic Partners Best Practice Forum: A Sustainable Future for Parks.
Veal, AJ & Dodd, J 2002, 'Men at midlife: Leisure and life-chances', International Sociological Association 15th World Congress of Sociology: The Social World in the 21st Century, International Sociological Association 15th World Congress of Sociology: The Social World in the 21st Century.
Pugalis, L, Veal, A, Piracha & McAuliffe Landcom and UrbanGrowth NSW Development Corporation 2019, From standards to post-standards: A review of guidelines on planning for open space and recreation in high-density areas, Sydney.
Hayllar, BR, Veal, AJ & Archer, DJ - 2004, 2004, Camden Recreation Demand Study, -.
Hayllar, BR, Veal, AJ & Archer, DJ Camden Council 2003, Camden recreation needs study, pp. 1-53, Sydney.
Veal, AJ 2009, 'WP1: Contemporary Trends and Issues in Australian Leisure - Planning Implications', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Working Papers Series.
Veal, AJ 2009, 'WP11: U-Plan Project Paper 1: Open Space Planning Standards in Australia', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism Working Papers Series.
Veal, AJ 2009, 'WP12: U-Plan Project Paper 2: Alternatives to Standards: A Review of Leisure Planning Guidelines', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism Working Papers Series.
Veal, AJ 2009, 'WP13: U-Plan Project Paper 3: Leisure Wants Needs etc (forthcoming)', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism Working Paper Series.
Veal, AJ 2009, 'WP14: U-Plan Project Paper 4: Leisure and the Concept of Need', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism Working Paper Series.
Veal, AJ 2009, 'WP15: U-Plan Project Paper 5: Leisure and the Concept of Demand (forthcoming)', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism Working Paper Series.
Veal, AJ 2009, 'WP16: U-Plan Project Paper 6: Leisure and Benefits', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism Working Paper Series.
Veal, AJ 2009, 'WP17: U-Plan Project Paper 7: Leisure Needs Studies: A Review forthcoming', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism Working Paper Series.
Veal, AJ 2009, 'WP18: U-Plan Project Paper 8: U-Plan: A Participation-based Approach to Planning for Leisure (forthcoming)', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism Working Paper Series.
Veal, AJ 2009, 'WP4: Definitions of Leisure and Recreation', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Working Papers Series.
(PDF, 273kb, 8 pages)
Veal, AJ 2009, 'WP8: Sport For All' & Major Sporting Events: Project Paper', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism Working Paper Series.
Veal, AJ 2009, 'WP9: The Elusive Leisure Society'.
(PDF, 204kb, 37 pages)
Veal, AJ 2004, 'Member, editorial board: "World Leisure Journal"'.
Veal, AJ 2003, 'Member, editorial board: "International Journal of Tourism Sciences"'.
Veal, AJ 2003, 'Member, editorial board: "Leisure Studies"'.
Veal, AJ 2003, 'Member, editorial board: "Tourist Studies"'.
Veal, AJ 2003, 'Urban parks planning and management'.
Veal, AJ 2002, 'Editorial Board and Book Reviewers Editor of Leisure Studies'.
Veal, AJ 2002, 'Editorial Board of International Journal of Tourism'.
Veal, AJ 2002, 'Editorial Board of Tourist Studies (UK)'.