have been working at UTS since the middle of 1999 when I was appointed as a specialist in Human-Computer Interaction.My work here focuses on building an understanding of human practices, as situated, social activities, into technology design practices.
I lead Interaction Design and Human Practice lab in the Faculty of Engineering and Information TechnologyI co-direct the Centre for Human Centred Technology Design Research.I am and member of the Computer Human Interaction Special Interest Group (CHISIG) of the Ergonomics Society of Australia.
I am interested in issues surrounding the use of technology in actual work and social settings, including:1. how an understanding of actual work practices can be developed and then used to design information systems that are usable and fit well with their situation of use;2. participative approaches to, and methodologies for, the design of information systems;human-computer interaction, interaction design and usability issues emerging from the development of new information technology particularly mobile and ubiquitous computing;3. the use of computers and communications systems to support cooperative work and other social activities;4. ethical issues in system design and the representation of work; and5. how different metaphors for human cognition and work can affect the design of technology.
- Human Computer Interaction (Undergraduate)
- Interaction Design (Postgraduate)
Robertson, T 2016, 'On Rhetorical Tricks and Overloaded Concepts', Computer Supported Cooperative Work: CSCW: An International Journal, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 313-324.View/Download from: Publisher's site
For some time now it has been standard practice, when reflecting on the use of the term awareness in CSCW, to comment on the very many different ways the term has been used and the ambiguity of its meanings. For example, in his 2002 introduction to the JCSCW special issue on Awareness, Schmidt introduced three consecutive paragraphs (p. 287) with the following sentences:
In fact, the term 'awareness' is being used in increasingly contradictory ways.
In short, it is becoming increasingly clear that the term 'awareness' does not denote a set of related practices. In fact, it is hardly a concept any longer.
The very word 'awareness' is one of those highly elastic English words that can be used to mean a host of different things.
More recently, over a decade after Schmidt's introduction, Gross wrote in the introduction to his 'jubilee' review of awareness research in CSCW:
In CSCW, awareness ranges from general information of who is around . . . and detailed information about each others' attention . . . to work-oriented information on each others' activities . . . and changes to shared workspaces and documents (2013 pp. 426–427).
Some 40 pages later, after surveying the origins of the term, various "technical solutions for awareness support", some of the tensions in awareness research and between "awareness as seen from a users' activity and effort perspective versus awareness as seen from a systems' support and automation perspective", he began the last paragraph of his conclusion: "Overall, the concept of awareness remains difficult to grasp . . ." (p. 467).
In the 2002 JCSCW special issue on Awareness I wrote: "Awareness must be one of the most extensively qualified concepts in CSCW" (p. 310). I went on to provide a long list of the different ways the term has been used and expressed hope that someone might write a review paper that mapped the awareness literature along the two dimensions of underlying design philosophy and social and/or technical focus. Note th...
Community + Culture features practitioner perspectives on designing technologies for and with communities. We highlight compelling projects and provocative points of view that speak to both community technology practice and the interaction design field as a whole. - Christopher A. Le Dantec, Editor.
Nansen, B, Vetere, F, Robertson, T, Downs, J, Brereton, M & Durick, J 2014, 'Reciprocal Habituation: A Study of Older People and the Kinect', ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 1-20.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Loke, L & Robertson, TJ 2013, 'Moving And Making Strange: An Embodied Approach To Movement-based Interaction Design', ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1-25.View/Download from: Publisher's site
There is growing interest in designing for movement-based interactions with technology, now that various sensing technologies are available enabling a range of movement possibilities from gestural to whole-body interactions. We present a design methodology of Moving and Making Strange, an approach to movement-based interaction design that recognizes the central role of the body and movement in lived cognition. The methodology was developed through a series of empirical projects, each focusing on different conceptions of movement available within motion-sensing interactive, immersive spaces. The methodology offers designers a set of principles, perspectives, methods, and tools for exploring and testing movement-related design concepts. It is innovative for the inclusion of the perspective of the mover, together with the traditional perspectives of the observer and the machine. Making strange is put forward as an important tactic for rethinking how to approach the design of movement-based interaction.
This paper is about emerging design methods that respond to the participatory, emergent, and social nature of social technologies. Social technologies are , in effect, designed through use. They are containers or scaffolds that rely on participation and user-driven contributions to take their form. Their shape emerges through the activities of use, over time, and their use is social and situated and depends on the activities of those who use them. The facilitation of participation becomes a primary concern for designers of social technologies. The embedded and contextual nature of using social technologies suggests that, then designing, evaluating and evolving new social technologies, users' experience of, and feedback about, use are most meaningful if those users have been given the opportunity to experience the technologies in the actual context in which they will be used.
Robertson, TJ & Simonsen, J 2012, 'Challenges and Opportunities in Contemporary Participatory Design', Design Issues, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 3-9.
At the core of Participatory Design is the direct involvement of people in the co-design of tools, products, environment, businesses, and social institutions. In particular, Participatory Design has developed a diverse collection of principles and practices to encourage and support this direct involvement.
Li, J & Robertson, TJ 2011, 'Physical space and information space: studies of collaboration in distributed multi-disciplinary medical team meetings', Behaviour & Information Technology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 443-454.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We conducted field studies with three multi-disciplinary cancer teams at three hospitals. We investigated distributed multi-disciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) at each setting focusing on the organisational context, existing collaboration technology facilities and the use and availability of digital medical information systems. Our results highlight how factors such as room size, team size, seating arrangements, display configuration and variations in preparing and presenting medical information clearly influence the dynamics of the conversation and information sharing in distributed MDTMs. Our analysis shows how these configurations, arrangements and practices arise and the implications they have for any technical interventions that might be introduced. We discuss how to configure a collaborative work space to support information sharing and communication in distributed MDTMs, such as a shared physical space facilitating interaction, a shared information space affording varied styles of medical information interaction and, importantly, configuring available technologies and resources to support collaboration in shared spaces without compromising local contexts.
As movement-based, interactive technologies continue to become more embedded in our daily lives, aliveness, vitality and pleasure in our interactions with these technologies are becoming sought-after qualities. Dance is one discipline that works directly with these qualities of aesthetic experience through the moving body. We conducted a series of studies with trained dancers and physical performers to explore ways of working with the moving body in interaction design. The first study was of falling by skilled movers. The aim was to explore the first-person experience and external representations of the act of falling. The second study explored ways of inventing and choreographing movement for use in the design of motion-sensing technologies. The results of the studies were examined to identify an emerging set of methods and tools to enable designers to work with movement and felt experience in the context of movement-based, interactive technologies. The methods and tools enable designers to move between and integrate the three different perspectives of the mover, the observer and the machine. This act of integration makes it possible for the designer to remain accountable to the different views of the moving body, in an approach to interaction design with the primacy of embodied, lived experience at its centre
Robertson, TJ, Li, J, O'Hara, K & Hansen, SK 2010, 'Collaboration Within Different Settings: A Study Of Co-Located And Distributed Multidisciplinary Medical Team Meetings', Computer Supported Cooperative Work: the journal of collaborative computing, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 483-513.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper reports our findings from a study of multidisciplinary team meetings for the treatment and ongoing management of breast cancer patients. The focus of the fieldwork was the meetings within and between a large group of multidisciplinary health professionals from two hospitals in Sydney, a large public teaching hospital and a much smaller private hospital. The paper examines the common work of the meetings and the variation within and between local practices and sites in the doing of this work, both in the local settings of each hospital and in the videomediated setting when the local meetings are linked. Variations in the physical setup of the meetings, the presentation of the patient cases and the preparation of images used in patient discussion are identified, traced to their various sources and examined within their particular sociotechnical context. This is followed by a discussion of how local variation contributed to the particular challenges of the video-mediated meetings as experienced by the participants and how they might be addressed. Our motivations are to contribute both to the growing case studies of multidisciplinary team meetings within healthcare settings and to the important work being done to generate conceptual and design approaches that can support the development and successful use of CSCW technologies across highly variable local settings.
Loke, L & Robertson, TJ 2009, 'Design representations of moving bodies in interactive, immersive spaces', International Journal Of Human-computer Studies, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 394-410.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper describes the development and use of a set of design representations of moving bodies in the design of Bystander, a multi-user, interactive, immersive artwork built on video-based, motion-sensing technology. We extended the traditional user-centred design tools of personas and scenarios to explicitly address human movement characteristics embedded in social interaction. A set of corresponding movement schemas in Labanotation was constructed to visually represent the spatial and social interaction of multiple users over time. Together these three design representations of moving bodies were used to enable the design team to work with the aspects of human movement relevant to Bystander and to ensure that the system could respond in a coherent and robust manner to the shifting configurations of visitors in the space. They also supported two experiential methods of design reflection-in-actionenactment and immersionthat were vital for grounding designers understandings of the specific interactive nature of the work in their own sensing, feeling and moving bodies.
Loke, L, Larssen, AT, Robertson, TJ & Edwards, J 2007, 'Understanding movement for interaction design: Framework and Approaches', Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 691-701.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The results of a study of two computer games, that use human movement as direct input, were analysed using four existing frameworks and approaches, drawn from different disciplines that relate to interaction and movement. This enabled the exploration of the relationships between bodily actions and the corresponding responses from technology. Interaction analysis, two design frameworks and Laban movement analysis were chosen for their ability to provide different perspectives on human movement in interaction design. Each framework and approach provided a different, yet still useful, perspective to inform the design of movement-based interaction. Each allowed us to examine the interaction between the player and the game technology in quite distinctive ways. Each contributed insights that the others did not.
Hagen, P, Robertson, TJ, Kan, N & Sadler, KA 2006, 'Accessing Data: Methods for understanding mobile technology use', Australian journal of information systems, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 135-149.
Robertson, TJ 2006, 'Ethical issues in interaction design', Ethics and information technology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 49-59.
Dyson, LE & Robertson, TJ 2006, 'Indigenous participation in information technology project: Achievements and challenges of the first 3 years', The Australian journal of indigenous education, vol. 35, pp. 11-20.
Robertson, TJ 2002, 'The Public Availability of Actions and Artefacts', Computer Supported Cooperative Work, vol. 11, no. N/A, pp. 299-316.
Robertson, TJ 2000, 'Building Bridges: Negotiating the Gap between work practices and Technology Design', International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 121-146.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Robertson, TJ 2000, 'Cooperative work, Women and the Working Environments of Technology Design', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 15, no. 32, pp. 0-0.
Robertson, TJ 1998, 'Shoppers and Tailors: Participative Practices in Small Australian Design Companies', Computer Supported Cooperative Work: the journal of collaborative computing, vol. 7, no. 3-4, pp. 205-221.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The focus of this paper is the relations between the work practices and technology needs of small Australian design companies and the discourses of Participatory Design. Because these companies use off-the-shelf technology, these relations are shaped not just by factors specific to company size, but also by the geographic and cultural separation between the situation of use and the situation of design. User participation focuses on shopping decisions, and the fitting of purchased technology to the local work situation. While many aspects of job design can be extremely flexible within small companies, participation in the design of computer systems is bounded by the available products and the options for continuing design-in-use that are embedded within them. The paper starts from the recognition that participative practices are important in the design of any job. From this perspective the discourses of Participatory Design that are relevant to small companies are those that support the participative design of work, irrespective of the national or industrial location of the people involved.
Robertson, TJ 1996, 'Embodied Actions in Time and Place: The Cooperative Design of a Multimedia, Educational Computer Game', Computer Supported Cooperative Work: the journal of collaborative computing, vol. 5, pp. 341-367.
Hagen, P & Robertson, TJ 2015, 'Designing Mobile Diaries: negotiating practice-led design research in a professional design setting' in Rodgers, PA & Yee, J (eds), The Routledge Companion to Design Research, Routledge, pp. 465-479.
Robertson, TJ & Simonsen, J 2013, 'Participatory Design: an introduction' in Simonsen, J & Robertson, T (eds), Routledge International Handbook of Participatory Design, Routledge, USA and Canada, pp. 1-17.
The aim of this book is to provide a current account of the commitments and contributions of research and practice in the Participatory Design of information technologies. An overview of the central concepts that have defined and shaped the field is provided as an introduction to the more detailed focus of later chapters.
Robertson, TJ & Wagner, I 2013, 'Ethics: engagement, representation and politics-in-action' in Simonsen, J & Robertson, T (eds), Routledge International Handbook of Participatory Design, Routledge, USA and Canada, pp. 64-85.
This chapter explores a range of different approaches to ethics and their relevance to Participatory Design as background to the ethical issues of designing with users. The discussion highlights the strong connections between ethical practices in design, the inclusiveness of the design processes, the choice of design methods and the responsibilities and accountabilities of those participating. The chapter calls for increased attention to the ways that design is completed in use and for new and extended Participatory Design methods and tools to better forsee and imagine ethical issues that might arise in the use of future technologies.
Grant, S, Dyson, LE & Robertson, TJ 2013, 'Diseño participativo para la inclusion digital: El caso de los aborígenes australianos' in Paz, L & Malumian, V (eds), Pioneros y Hacedores: Fundamentos y Casos de Diseño de Interacción con Estándares de Accesibilidad y, Ediciones Godot, Buenos Aires, Argentina, pp. 61-79.
Leong, T & Robertson, T 2016, 'Voicing values: laying foundations for ageing people to participate in design', PDC '16 Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference: Full papers - Volume 1, Participatory Design Conference, ACM Press, Aarhus, Denmark.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Light, A, Leong, T & Robertson, T 2015, 'Ageing Well with CSCW', ECSCW 2015: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 19-23 September 2015, Oslo, Norway, European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Springer International Publishing, Oslo, Norway, pp. 295-304.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper rethinks the role of technology in the life of older people by critically considering the discourses around ageing: drawing on insights from literatures on active ageing, findings from two studies conducted with older citizens and prevalent understandings of old age in technology design. It argues for a departure from the deficit model of old age, to an understanding that reveals older people's agency in the ageing process and the work they do to manage their capacity to age well. This reframing of ageing and the ageing population offers new insights to CSCW and suggests new goals to support when designing technology for older people—goals that are more cognizant of people's agency and their desires to manage their evolving experiences of the ageing process. We conclude with characteristics of the technologies we might develop.
Nassir, S, Leong, TW & Robertson, T 2015, 'Positive Ageing: Elements and Factors for Design', Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Australian Special Interest Group for Computer Human Interaction, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, University of Melbourne, pp. 264-268.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A significant number of models and frameworks have introduced, and been used to support, positive approaches to ageing. They include Successful Ageing, Active Ageing and Ageing in Place, among others. The number of models can create confusion for technology designers who wish to incorporate such models into practice. This paper reviews different models of positive ageing in order to distil a comprehensive list of elements and factors that are important to, and supportive of, positive ageing. This list offers designers a useful source for considering the design of technology to support positive ageing. Finally, we discuss some gaps found in existing models and offer some insights into how designers could use this paper as a resource for design.
Davis, H, Nansen, B, Vetere, F, Robertson, TJ, Brereton, M, Durick, J & Vaisutis, K 2014, 'Homemade Cookbooks: A Recipe for Sharing', Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, Designing Interactive Systems, ACM, Canada, pp. 73-82.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this paper we contribute to the growing body of research
into the use and design of technology in the kitchen. This
research aims to identify opportunities for designing
technologies that may augment existing cooking traditions
and in particular familial recipe sharing practices. Using
ethnographic techniques, we identify the homemade
cookbook as a significant material and cultural artifact in
the family kitchen. We report on findings from our study by
providing descriptive accounts of various homemade
cookbooks, and offer design considerations for digitally
augmenting homemade cookbooks.
Mentis, H, Isbister, K, Höök, K, Khut, GP, Mueller, F & Robertson, T 2014, 'Designing for the experiential body', Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, pp. 1069-1073.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The goal of this panel is to reflect on the past and discuss the present and future of designing for an experiencing body in HCI. The motivation is to discuss the full range of rich body/movement-based experiences and how the CHI community can embrace and extend these perspectives on designing for the body. The panelists and audience will be asked to share their perspectives on what has most influenced thought in designing for the body, how new sensing technologies are crafting the HCI perspective, and where they see this line of research and design heading in the next ten years.
Nansen, B, van Ryn, L, Vetere, F, Robertson, TJ, Brereton, M & Douish, P 2014, 'An Internet of Social Things', Proceedings of OZCHI 2014 - DESIGNING FUTURES - The Future of Design, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Sydney, Australia, pp. 87-96.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Vaisutis, K, Brereton, M, Robertson, TJ, Vetere, F, Durick, J, Nansen, B & Buys, L 2014, 'Invisible Connections: Investigating Older People's Emotions and Social Relations Around Objects', Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, Toronto, Canada, pp. 1937-1940.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The advent of the Internet of Things creates an interest in how people might interrelate through and with networks of internet enabled objects. With an emphasis on fostering social connection and physical activity among older people, this preliminary study investigated objects that people over the age of 65 years viewed as significant to them. We conducted contextual interviews in people's homes about their significant objects in order to understand the role of the objects in their lives, the extent to which they fostered emotional and social connections and physical activity, and how they might be augmented through internet connection.
Discussion of significant objects generated considerable emotion in the participants. We identified objects of comfort and routine, objects that exhibited status, those that fostered independence and connection, and those that symbolized relationships with loved ones. These findings lead us to consider implications for the design of interconnected objects.
Robertson, TJ, Leong, TW, Durick, J & Koreshoff, T 2014, 'Mutual learning as a resource for research design', PDC 2014: Reflecting Connectedness, Participatory Design Conference, Association for Computing Machinery, Windhoek, Namibia.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mutual learning processes provide the context for this
paper. We reflect on the early research design process of
an ongoing project that is investigating the potential
contributions of the Internet of Things (IoT) to ageing
well. While mutual learning is assumed and embedded in
Participatory Design tools and methods, it was only when
we explicitly used mutual learning processes, as a
resource in the research design of the project, that we
could make clear and accountable decisions about how to
proceed. The paper ends with a reaffirmation of the
importance of mutual learning processes in Participatory
Design, noting the opportunities, even imperatives, for
foregrounding mutual learning processes in the design of
Durick, JI, Robertson, TJ, Brereton, M, Vetere, F & Nansen, B 2013, 'Dispelling Ageing Myths in Technology Design', Proceedings of the 25th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference OzCHI, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 467-476.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We present a review of literature from the fields of gerontology, gerontechnology, HCI and government policy that deals with social and technical solutions for the ageing population. We highlight common assumptions about ageing people, which we argue ate still embedded in much of the research related to the domain of ageing.
Gisch, AL & Robertson, TJ 2013, 'Working In the Clouds: A Study of Contemporary Practices', Proceedings of the 25th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference OzCHI, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 355-358.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper presents findings from a scoping study conducted with 12 participants who use cloud productivity tools in a range of small business contexts and work arrangements. There are two key areas discussed in this paper; access and equity issues withing different Australian geographic regions and polarized views of cloud technology that resonate with teleworking utopian/dystopian discourses.
Hanley, E, Robertson, TJ & Solomon, N 2013, 'Integrating work in new models of primary health care', European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 2013 Adjunct Proceedings, European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Aarhus University, Paphos, Cyprus, pp. 9-14.
This paper introduces a large research project that investigates the remarking of professional practices in new models of primary health care. One strand of the research explores the roles of information and communication technologies in practice change. The project involves long-term ethnographic engagement in two sites that are part of an Australian primary healthcare change initiative.
Robertson, TJ, Durick, JI, Brereton, M, Vaisutis, K, Vetere, F, Nansen, B & Howard, S 2013, 'Emerging Technologies and the Contextual and Contingent Experiences of Ageing Well', Lecture Notes in Computer Science, IFIP TC13 Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Springer, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 582-589.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Based on a series of interviews of Australians between the ages of 55 and 75 this paper explores the relations between our participants' attitudes towards and use of communication, social and tangible technologies and three relevant themes from our data: staying active, friends and families, and cultural selves. While common across our participants' experiences of ageing, these themes were notable for the diverse ways they were experienced and expressed within individual lives and for the different roles technology was used for within each. A brief discussion of how the diversity of our aging population implicates the design of emerging technologies ends the paper.
Koreshoff, TJ, Leong, T & Robertson, TJ 2013, 'Approaching a human-centred Internet of Things', Proceedings of the 25th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference OzCHI13, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 363-366.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper surveys recent Internet of Things (IoT) related HCI literature, and examines it in light of a comprehensive framework by Atzori et al. (2010). Mapping HCI literature to this framework helped us understand the extend and the focus of IoT related HCI efforts, including a lack of HCI engagement with deeper human-centred perspectives of the IoT. It also revealed HCI considerations for the IoT which we added to the framework.
Koreshoff, TJ, Robertson, TJ & Leong, T 2013, 'Internet of Things: a review of literature and products', Proceedings of the 25th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 335-344.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper offers an HCI perspective on the emergent agenda of the Internet of Things (IoT). The purpose is to provide insights and resources for how HCI could engage productively with the IoT agenda while it is still evolving and being realised.
Hargreaves, DM & Robertson, TJ 2012, 'Remote participatory prototyping enabled by emerging social technologies', Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference, Participatory Design Conference, ACM Press, Denmark, pp. 25-28.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Remote participatory prototyping is characterised by extended periods of engagement, working directly with participants in the context of real-world problem settings, and by the use of social technologies. This paper reports a prototyping activity that aimed to design web-based software, over a three-month period, to support peoples 'everyday' travel planning. Participants were supported in creating software prototypes in the context of their real-world travel activities. The aim was to gain insight into the phenomena of unstructured, ad-hoc, planning as it occurs in the context of everyday life, as opposed to the deliberative, structured planning processes that are common in organisational contexts. This research examined the process of remote prototyping as a design method, enabled by social technologies. Remote participatory prototyping was used to support three concurrent activities: the design of a new software artefact; the use of the prototype as a means to gain insight into a social phenomena; and a cyclical process of reflective discussion that constituted a mutual learning activity between researchers and research participants.
Li, J, Müller-Tomfelde, C & Robertson, TJ 2012, 'Designing for distributed scientific collaboration: a case study in an animal health laboratory', The Forty-Fifth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-45), Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Computer Society, Maui, Hawaii, USA, pp. 373-381.
We have been exploring the design of an advanced collaboration platform to support scientists in a national animal health laboratory to work collaboratively across a physical containment barrier. This paper describes the design considerations based on the findings from a field study of the collaboration processes in this particular environment. We emphasize the need of providing flexible support for various information sharing practices. The major component of the platform â a collaboration environment which integrates life-size video conferencing and a large shared digital workspace - has been under routine use. Our preliminary results from a user study of the distributed group meetings supported by the platform have shown the value of high quality audio-video communication in combination with the feature of allowing access and simultaneously sharing multiple data resources.
Li, J, Robertson, TJ & MÃ¼ller-Tomfelde, C 2012, 'Distributed scientific group collaboration across biocontainment barriers', ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012, ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ACM Press, Seattle, Washington, pp. 1247-1256.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper reports the findings from a field study of distributed scientific collaboration within a national animal health laboratory. Collaboration in this setting is challenged by the need for biosecurity - there are physical containment barriers between scientists and work groups and movement of people and other physical objects across the barriers requires extensive security procedures. The aim of the field study was to understand how the scientists communicate across the barriers, particularly how they share information and collaborate on its analysis. The findings reveal that the collaboration issues relate not just to the challenges caused by the containment barriers but also to the need for collaboration support between the scientists and their work groups irrespective of the barriers. The paper explains how these findings informed the design of the collaboration platform being installed and how more generic requirements of supporting collaboration over distance were configured and extended to meet the specific requirements of a very particular local setting.
Robertson, TJ 2012, 'Actual Bodies are Ageing Bodies', Proceedings of The 2nd International Body In Design Workshop, International Body In Design Workshop, IDWoP. Interaction Design and Work Practice Lab, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 28-31.
Drawing from the work of Merleau-Ponty, this paper takes some initial steps towards a phenomenological account of the specificities of ageing bodies and the consequent implications for both policy development and the potential contributions of social and tangible technologies. Ageing bodies have been in the making for many years, long enough for their various individual genetic and environmental influences to have expressed themselves, intertwined with the inscriptions made on them by actual life experiences, such as the work they did, how well they have been looked after and various random life events and accidents. A phenomenological account enables us to understand the opportunities and constraints our embodied histories provide for the appropriation of new technologies according to the social and cultural worlds they enable us to inhabit. This would suggest approaches to both design and policy making that prioritise the flexible use of new technologies that are configurable by and to the diverse and specific capacities of the actual bodies of ageing people.
Robertson, TJ, Durick, JI, Brereton, M, Howard, S, Vetere, F & Nansen, B 2012, 'Knowing Our Users: Scoping Interviews in Design Research with Ageing Participants', Proceedings of the 24th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM Press, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 517-520.
This paper reports the findings from a series of scoping interviews designed to evaluate, ground and refine the initial understandings, assumptions and concepts of a research team in a larger project about the role of social and tangible technologies in maintaining good habits into old age. Participants understandings of some basic terms used in the research are presented along with a discussion of their current use of new and established information and communications technologies and the existing barriers to ongoing uptake of emerging technologies. The findings suggest that we question common assumptions about both ageing and technology usage by ageing people, demonstrating the contribution such early scoping interviews can make within design research projects.
Hansen, SK, Robertson, TJ, Wilson, L, Thinyane, H & Gumbo, S 2011, 'Identifying Stakeholder Perspectives in a Large Collaborative Project: An ICT4D Case Study', 23rd Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference (OzCHI 2011), Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Canberra, Australia, pp. 144-147.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper explores some of the benefits of formally capturing stakeholder perspectives through conducting stakeholder interviews in a large, collaborative project. The case study discussed is an Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) venture between two universities, industry, government and communities based in the former homeland of Transkei in rural South Africa. Benefits of conducting stakeholder interviews are discussed through the early analysis of two areas: stakeholder agendas and success criteria identified by stakeholders. The stakeholder interviews highlight the variety and range of agendas in projects involving multiple organisations, as well as the need and respective challenges of capturing community perspectives in this project. It also provides support for the need to conduct evaluations, as well as guidance for what the evaluation should include.
Loke, L & Robertson, TJ 2011, 'The Lived Body in Design: Mapping the Terrain', 23rd Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference (OzCHI 2011), Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Canberra, Australia, pp. 181-184.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We briefly sketch an overview of emerging design research and practice, which values the lived body as a central theoretical foundation in the design of interactive technologies. Three main areas of research activity are presented: theoretical and philosophical perspectives on bodies and embodiment; concepts of the body; and design approaches and methods for working with the body and bodily literacy.
Hagen, P & Robertson, TJ 2010, 'Seeding social technologies: strategies for embedding design in use', Conference Proceedings - Design Research Society International Conference, Design Research Society International Conference, Design Research Society Inc., Montreal, Canada, pp. 1-12.
This paper reflects on the changing nature of participation and design in the context of social technologies and, in particular, our evolving understanding of what it means to do design. When designing social technologies we are effectively creating containers or scaffolds; their shape is formed through participation and user driven contributions and that shape changes over time. In designing successful social platforms around which communities grow, evolve and share, our role as designers extends beyond researching, defining, creating and releasing a product. The facilitation of participation by the âfuture communityâ also becomes a central concern. In this paper we present, explore and reflect upon the notion of seeding as a useful concept for approaching the facilitation of participation in social technologies. Seeding is concerned with the process of embedding and connecting design within the real world. It draws our attention to the work that needs to be done for design to become part of peopleâs everyday lives, and our role as designers in creating conditions under which this is likely to occur. The theoretical reflections and arguments presented in the paper are based on empirical research into the impact of social technologies on exploratory design research methods used in the early stages of a design project. We present potential strategies for seeding early in the design process that emerged from our research and reflect on the questions about participation, protocol and practice that they raise.
Hagen, P & Robertson, TJ 2010, 'Social Technologies: Challenges and Opportunities for Participation', Participatory Design Conference, Participatory Design Conference, ACM, Sydney, Australia, pp. 31-40.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper is about new forms of participation that are enabled as a result of social technologies. The premise is that social technologies simultaneously create and demand an engagement with the dynamic relations of design and use and that this gives rise to new forms of participation 'in the wild'. Our aim is to contribute to understandings and practices of participatory design in this emerging context. Underpinning our research is a question of how the understandings of, and commitment to, participation represented by Participatory Design intersect with the notion of participation as a broader cultural phenomenon. Using examples from recent practice-led research we reflect on the potential conditions for participation in early design that social technologies represent, the role of social technologies in enabling these experiences, and the challenges we have faced in embracing such participatory approaches in commercial contexts.
Hargreaves, DM & Robertson, TJ 2010, 'Planning Travel As Everyday Design', Proceedings of Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference OZCHI 2010, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, Association of Computing Machinery, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 21-24.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper examines the implications of conceptualising planning as a type of design activity. This is explored through results from a two-month field study that inves- tigated the planning and decision making behaviour of people engaged in preparing for multipoint, international air travel. Planning travel is a type of ill-structured com- plex problem that is characterised as being temporally sporadic, sometimes synchronous, often asynchronous, frequently collaborative, and spatially varied with par- ticipants at different times co-located and in separate places. Research participants were professional travel agents and non-professional but experienced travel plan- ners. Ancillary material collected included photographs of the planning situation and drawings and notes made by participants. In contrast to the formalised prescriptive planning models common in cognitive science and opera- tions research, the everyday planning activity featured in this study is situated and naturalistic. This research is undertaken with a view to designing systems to support the design and decision making activity of travel planners.
Grant, S, Dyson, LE & Robertson, TJ 2010, 'A Participatory Approach to the Inclusion of Indigenous Australians in Information Technology', Proceedings of The 11th Biennial Participatory Design Conference, Participatory Design Conference, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. (ACM), University of Technology Sydney, Australia, pp. 207-210.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Improving Indigenous access to university education has been a major focus in Australia over the last four decades. However, despite success in several areas of recognised priority to the Indigenous community, participation in Information Technology (IT) degree programs remained very low throughout the 1980s and â90s. The University of Technology, Sydney began a project to address this very issue in 2001. The Indigenous Participation in IT Project was initiated by the Faculty of Information Technology in collaboration with Indigenous Australians and members of staff of the Faculty. This project culminated in the design of a participatory IT program that has successfully seen the numbers of Indigenous students and staff in the Faculty increase. A number of factors were identified as contributing to this success. These included an improvement to recruitment processes, the building of a personalised approach to student support and the growing acceptance of the program as part of the academic culture of the faculty. Additionally, of great importance has been the development of the program as a collaboration between Indigenous staff and students and nonIndigenous staff at all levels of decision making and implementation.
Hagen, P & Robertson, TJ 2009, 'Dissolving boundaries: social technologies and participation in design', Conference Proceedings OZCHI2009, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, CHISIG, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 129-136.
Abstract: The emphasis on participation in social technologies challenges some of our traditional assumptions about the role of users and designers in design. It also exposes some of the limitations and assumptions about design embedded in our traditional models and methods. Based on a review of emerging practice we present four perspectives on design in the context of social technologies. By presenting this âlay of the landâ, we seek to contribute to ongoing work on the nature of participation and design in the context of social technologies. We draw particular attention to the ways in which roles and responsibilities in design are being reassigned and redistributed. As traditional boundaries between design and use and designer and user dissolve, design is becoming more public. In the context of social technologies design is moving out into the wild.
Hargreaves, DM & Robertson, TJ 2009, 'A Study of Email and SMS use in Rural Indonesia', Conference Proceedings OZCHI2009, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, CHISIG, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 329-332.
This paper describes a two-year research study that piloted and evaluated the use of low-cost, low-bandwidth Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to support meetings between agricultural researchers and farmers in rural Indonesia and researchers in Australia. We found that the primary constraints to ICT use in rural Indonesia are rarely technical, but rather relate to the knowledge, social and economic systems within which they are used. This study revealed how different local appropriations of email and mobile phone SMS clash, which often resulted in misunderstanding, frustration and reduced team cohesion and performance. This research contributes to understanding the role of ICT to enhance social inclusion of those in remote parts of developing countries.
This paper extends the analytic framework Suchman used in Plans and Situated Actions by using it as a tool in the design of interactive, immersive environments that rely on human movement as input. We describe the historical and methodological background to Suchman's framework and the impact of her analysis on the development of HCI and related fields. We provide two examples of its use to support prototype evaluation, design reflection and generative and iterative design. Suchman's recognition that computers act on the basis of resources within their situations, just as people act in accord with the resources of theirs, broadens our focus from the design of interfaces to the design of situations within which interaction between people and computers can occur. The tool, and the methodological and theoretical commitments embedded within it, contribute to the design of emerging technologies and to current discussions about approaches to design within shifting paradigms of HCI.
Sadler, KA, Robertson, TJ & Kan, MM 2009, 'Exploring the project transitions and everyday mobile practices of freelancers: emergent concepts from empirical studies of practice', OZCHI2009, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, CHISIG, Melbourne, pp. 81-88.
We present analytic concepts that emerged from field studies of the everyday practices of Film and Television Freelancers. We categorised the freelancers mobile practices into two dimensions: the interplay of flux and stability, and the interplay of the macro and the micro. These dimensions emphasised two key practices that the freelancers engaged in while using technologies to manage change in their lives: sustaining and transitioning practices. These concepts structure our findings in a way that may provide technology designers and researchers with a useful conceptual tool. These concepts draw attention to two aspects that have been little explored in the literature on understanding mobile practices. Firstly, the everyday uses of technologies to manage transitions between longer term durations of practices. Secondly, the integral role of stable contexts, beyond remote work spaces alone, for supporting and shaping mobile practices.
Hansen, S, Robertson, TJ, Wilson, L & Hall, R 2008, 'Using an Action Research Approach to Design a Telemedicine System for Critical Care: A Reflection', Proceedings of the 20th Australasian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction: Designing for Habitus and Habitat, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Cairns, Australia, pp. 255-258.
This paper reflects on the Action Research approach adopted in the design of the ECHONET (EchoCardiographic Healthcare Online Networking Expertise in Tasmania) system a telemedicine system developed by CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation) Australia to facilitate the sharing of expertise and services between the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of a major tertiary hospital and a remote hospital in Tasmania, Australia. The baseline study within this project has been used to evaluate the ways in which the Action Research approach influenced the project directions and its success, allowing the project team to better tailor the system to the clinicians needs and deal with the unanticipated complications that are common in health projects.
Li, J, Robertson, TJ, Hansen, S, Mansfield, T & Kjeldskov, J 2008, 'Multidisciplinary Medical Team Meetings: A Field Study of Collaboration in Health Care', Proceedings of the 20th Australasian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction: Designing for Habitus and Habitat, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Cairns, Australia, pp. 73-80.
We present an observational study that was conducted to guide the design of an enhanced collaboration platform to support distributed multidisciplinary team meetings between two hospitals. Our goal was to find out how the breast cancer multidisciplinary team collaborates in their face-to-face meetings and in their discussions using an existing videoconferencing system and to identify obstacles and issues to their primary tasks. We identified a set of concerns around the way visibility and audibility affect the social cohesion of the group and impede communication and situation awareness between the distributed team. We also identified a parallel set of concerns around the difficulty of preparing and interacting around the medical images used in the meetings. These issues exposed a complex matrix of technical, social, procedural and organisational factors that affect the collaboration. We suggest potential directions for technical interventions in this setting.
Loke, L & Robertson, TJ 2008, 'Inventing and Devising Movement in the Design of Movement-based Interactive Systems', Proceedings of the 20th Australasian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction: Designing for Habitus and Habitat, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Cairns, Australia, pp. 81-87.
This paper reports on a study that explored ways of inventing and devising movement for use in the design of movementbased interaction with video-based, motion-sensing technologies. Methods that dancers, trained in movement improvisation and performance-making, used to choreograph movement were examined as sources of potential methods for technology designers. The findings enabled us to develop methods and tools for creating and structuring new movements, based on felt experience and the creative potential of the moving body. These methods and tools contribute to the ongoing development of a design methodology underpinned by the principle of making strange. By making strange, we mean ways of unsettling habitual perceptions and conceptions of the moving body to arrive at fresh appreciations and perspectives for design that are anchored in the sensing, feeling and moving body.
Sadler, KA, Robertson, TJ & Kan, MM 2006, ''It's Always There, It's Always On': Australian Freelancer's Management of Availability Using Mobile Technologies', Proceedings of the 8th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services, International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, ACM, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 49-52.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The paradigm of "access, anytime, anywhere" has been critiqued within the mobile HCI literature as a broad assumption that simplifies understandings of actual work practice, and as an example of rhetoric that allows researchers to ignore the temporal aspects of mobility. The key aspect of technology use that remains unclear, however, when discussing this paradigm is the complexity of the concept "anytime, anywhere" from the perspective of the user. This paper addresses this gap by discussing findings from an empirical study of freelance workers, across both work and social contexts, in which availability emerged as an important concern for participants. This paper explores the ways in which freelancers use their mobile devices to manage their availability to others. Finally, we also consider implications for the ways in which mobility is conceptualised within the mobile HCI literature.
Prior, JR, Robertson, TJ & Leaney, JR 2008, 'Situated Software Development: Work Practice and Infrastructure are Mutually Constitutive', Proceedings of 19th Australian Software Engineering Conference, Australian Software Engineering Conference, IEEE Computer Society, Perth, Western Australia, pp. 160-169.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Software developers work is much more interesting and multifarious in practice than formal definitions of software development processes imply. Rational models of work are often representations of processes defined as they should be performed, rather than portrayals of what people actually do in practice. These models offer a simplified picture of the phenomena involved, and are frequently confused with how the work is carried out in reality, or they are advocated as the ideal way to accomplish the work. A longitudinal ethnographic study (45 days of fieldwork over 20 months) of a group of professional software developers revealed the importance of including their observed practice, and the infrastructure that supports and shapes this practice, in an authentic account of their work. Moreover, this research revealed that software development work practice and the infrastructure used to produce software are inextricably entwined and mutually constitutive over time.
Hagen, P, Robertson, TJ & Gravina, D 2007, 'Engaging with stakeholders: Mobile Diaries for social design', Proceedings of the conference on Designing for User Experience 2007, Design for User Experience, ACM, Chicago, Illinois, USA, pp. 1-14.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Interactive systems such as community blogs and online campaign sites that require, expect or anticipate user contributions, can be conceptualised as containers, or spaces for interaction. Digital Eskimo is a design agency responsible for creating such online social spaces. In this case study we outline how we have adapted the design research method we call Mobile Diaries into Digital Eskimo's process for the design of community, campaigning and content-sharing based sites. We describe the development of the method, and evaluate its contribution to our design process and suitability for use in the design of social systems in particular. As such the solution that we have developed and documented in this case study is a methodological one.
Larssen, AT, Robertson, TJ & Edwards, J 2007, 'Experiential Bodily Knowing as a Design (Sens)-ability in Interaction Design', European Workshop on Design and Semantics of Form and Movement, European Workshop on Design and Semantics of Form and Movement, 2007 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V., University of Northumbria, pp. 117-126.
Larssen, AT, Robertson, TJ & Edwards, J 2007, 'The Feel Dimension of Technology Interaction:Exploring Tangibles through Movement and Touch', TEI07, Tangible and Embedded Interaction, ACM, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, pp. 271-278.
Loke, L & Robertson, TJ 2007, 'Making Strange with the Falling Body in Interactive Technology Design', Proceedings of Design and Semantics of Form and Movement, DeSForM 2007, Design and Semantics of Form and Movement, Koninklijke Philips Electronics, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, pp. 164-175.
Larssen, AT, Robertson, TJ & Edwards, J 2006, 'How it feels, not just how it looks: when bodies interact with technology', OZCHI 2006 Conference Proceedings, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, CHISIG, Sydney, Australia, pp. 329-332.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper presents thoughts to extend our understanding of bodily aspects of technology interactions. The aim of the paper is to offer a way of looking at the role our kinaesthetic sense plays in human-computer interaction. We approach this issue by framing it around how our bodies establish relationships with things when interacting with technology. Five aspects of a conceptual tool, body-thing dialogue, potential for action, withinreach, out-of-reach and movement expression are introduced. We discuss the role this tool can play in our thinking about, further exploration and eventually our design for movement enabled technology interactions. The idea is that it can help us consider, not just how a design or a technology might look but also how it might feel to use.
Muller, E, Robertson, TJ & Edmonds, EA 2006, 'Experience Workshops', Proceedings of "The object of interaction - the role of artefacts in interaction design" OZCHI 2006, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACID, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-5.
This position statement describes a method called "Experience Workshops", developed by the authors for working with expert audiences in the design of an interactive artwork. Based around the participants' experience of a high-fidelity prototype, the workshop aims to generate experiential language. draw together the artist's goals and the participants' experiential actualities and provide a way to reflect together on the gaps and connections between them. We describe the research principles and needs which led to the development of the method and the models it draws from. We show how the method has been used, and reflect upon its effectiveness.
Robertson, T 2006, 'Design: Activities, artefacts and environments', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.
Robertson, TJ, Mansfield, T & Loke, L 2006, 'Designing an immersive environment for public use', Proceedings of the Ninth Paticipatory Design Conference, Participatory Design Conference, CPSR/ACM, Trento, Italy, pp. 31-40.
Sadler, KA, Robertson, TJ & Kan, MM 2006, 'It's always here, it's always on: Australia balances management of availability using mobile technologies', Mobile HCI 06, International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, ACM Press, Espoo, Finland, pp. 49-52.
Sadler, KA, Robertson, TJ, Kan, MM & Hagen, P 2006, 'Balancing work, life and other concerns: A study of mobile technology use by Australian freelancers', Proceedings of the 4th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Norwegian Computer Human Interaction, ACM Press, Oslo, Norway, pp. 413-416.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this paper we present initial findings from an empirical study of the mobile technology use and mobile work practices of freelancers in the domain of Film and Television. Our findings demonstrate that mobile phones were primarily used to manage other personal activities and concerns unrelated to the local work. They were used only intermittently to support local practice when that practice itself moved away from fixed resources. The fact that people were consistently using their mobile phones at work to attend to other concerns is an important feature of mobile technology use. This personal aspect of use in the work context has been largely overlooked within the Mobile HCI literature. In particular, our findings reveal the ways in which freelancers manage the blurring of contexts that is facilitated by mobile phones. We consider implications of these findings for the ways in which we currently talk and think about mobile technology use within Mobile HCI.
Prior, JR, Robertson, TJ & Leaney, JR 2006, 'Programming Infrastructure and Code Production: An Ethnographic Study', Team Ethno-Online Journal, Issue 2 June 2006, Ethnographies of Code: Computer Programs as Lived Work of Computer Programming, TeamEthno-Online, Lancashire, UK, pp. 112-120.
Prior, JR, Robertson, TJ & Leaney, JR 2006, 'Technology Designers as Technology Users: The Intertwining Of Infrastructure & Product', OZCHI 2006 Conference Proceedings Design: activities artefacts & environment, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Sydney, Australia, pp. 353-356.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper is about the developer as technical user interacting with computer technology as part of the infrastructure that makes possible their 'real work' of developing a large and complex software product. A longitudinal ethnographic study of work practice in a software development company that uses an Agile development approach found that the developers spend a large part of their working time designing, creating, modifying and interacting with infrastructure to enable and support their software development work. This empirical work-in-progress shows that an understanding of situated technology design may have implications for the future development of HCI methods, tools and approaches
Hagan, P, Robertson, TJ, Kan, MM & Sadler, KA 2005, 'Emerging research methods for understanding mobile technology use', Proceedings of the OZCHI 2005, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, CHISIG, Canberra, Aust, pp. 1-10.
Kan, MM, Robertson, TJ, Muller, E & Sadler, KA 2005, 'Designing a movement-based interactive experience using empirically derived personas and scenarios', Proceedings of the workshop: Approaches to movement-based interaction, Dicennial Aarhus Conference Approaches to movement-based interaction, IDWoP, Aarhus, Denmark, pp. 16-20.
Larssen, AT, Robertson, TJ & Edwards, J 2005, 'Mechanics and meaning: methodological considerations when studying movement in HCI', Proceedings of the workshop: Approaches to movement-based interaction, Dicennial Aarhus Conference Approaches to Movement Based Interaction, IDWoP, Aarhus, Denmark, pp. 1-65.
Loke, L, Larssen, AT & Robertson, TJ 2005, 'labanotation for design of movement-based interaction', Proceedings of the second australasian conference on interactive entertainment 2005, Interactive Entertainment, ACM, Sydney, Australia, pp. 113-120.
Loke, L, Robertson, TJ & Mansfield, T 2005, 'Moving bodies, social selves: movement-orientated personas and scenarios', Proceedings of the OZCHI 2005, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, CHISIG, Canberra, Aust, pp. 1-10.
Loke, L, Robertson, TJ & Mansfield, T 2005, 'Moving bodies, social selves: Movement-oriented personas and scenarios', Proceedings of the 17th Australia conference on Computer-Human Interaction: Citizens Online: Considerations for Today and the Future, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, Computer-Human Interaction Special Interest Group (CHISIG) of Australia, Canberra, Australia, pp. 1-10.
This paper describes the development of movement-oriented personas and scenarios for representing multiple users of an interactive, immersive environment, designed as an artistic work for a public space. Personas and scenarios were integrated into a user interaction script and linked to a set of movement schemas using Labanotation for group choreography. Enactment of the script within a prototype environment enabled the designers to experience the aesthetic and kinaesthetic qualities of the work, as well as the social interactional aspects of the user experience. This ensured that the experience of those visiting the exhibition was always central to the design process
Robertson, TJ, Kan, MM, Sadler, KA & Hagan, P 2005, 'Uncovering traces of mobile practices: The bag study', Proceedings of the OZCHI 2005, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, CHISIG, Canberra, Australia, pp. 1-4.
This study addresses everyday human practices in order to inform our thinking around the design of technology to support human mobility and mobile device use. Building on traditional ethnographic techniques, we investigated the contents of people's bags, seeking traces of planning, decision making and other social practices that people rely on to construct and maintain relations between particular mobile objects and their particular mobile lives. The research contributes to the development of novel methods for researching mobile practices and its initial findings question assumptions about information use and storage, and about the personalisation of mobile device and services.
Sadler, KA, Robertson, TJ & Kan, MM 2005, 'Use scenarios: A useful design tool for mBusiness', Proceedings of International Conference on Mobile Business (ICMB'05), International Conference on Mobile Business, IEEE, Sydney, Australia, pp. 671-674.
This paper presents use scenarios, derived from user-centred design research and practice, as a useful tool for representing the user in the design of mBusiness technologies. Use scenarios are increasingly being employed as a method for addressing issues
Harvey, S, Robertson, TJ & Edwards, J 2004, 'Towards Understanding Information Architecture: A Distributed Cognition Study of an IT Community of Practice', Conference Proceedings of OZCHI 2004, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, Bluora and Cedir, Wollongong, Australia, pp. 1-9.
Larssen, AT, Loke, L, Robertson, TJ & Edwards, J 2004, 'Understanding Movement as Input for Interaction-a study of Two EyeToy(tm) Games', Conference Proceedings of OZCHI 2004, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, Bluora and Cedir, Wollongong, Australia, pp. 1-10.
Robertson, TJ & Hewlett, C 2004, 'HCI Practice and the Work of Information Architects', Asia-Pacific Computer Human Interaction Conference, Asia-Pacific Computer Human Interaction Conference, Springer-Verlag, Rotorua, New Zealand, pp. 369-378.
Robertson, TJ, Mansfield, T & Loke, L 2004, 'Human Centred Design Issues for Immersive Media Spaces', Futureground: Volume 1 Abstracts, Futureground, Monash University Faculty of Art and Design, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 0-0.
This paper describes the development of movement-oriented personas and scenarios for representing multiple users of an interactive, immersive environment, designed as an artistic work for a public space. Personas and scenarios were integrated into a user interaction script and linked to a set of movement schemas using Labanotation for group choreography. Enactment of the script within a prototype environment enabled the designers to experience the aesthetic and kinaesthetic qualities of the work, as well as the social interactional aspects of the user experience. This ensured that the experience of those visiting the exhibition was always central to the design process.
Robertson, TJ, Hewlett, C, Harvey, S & Edwards, J 2003, 'A role with no Edges: The work practices of Information Architects', Human - Computer Interaction - Theory and Practice (Part 1): Proceedings of HCI International 2003, International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc, Crete, Greece, pp. 396-401.
Robertson, TJ, Dyson, LE, Norman, HR & Buckley, B 2002, 'Increasing The Participation of Indigenous Australians In The Information Technology Industries', Participatory Design Conference, Participatory Design Conference, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, Malmo, Sweden, pp. 288-294.
Robertson, TJ, Lueg, CP & Brookes, WC 2001, 'Learning HCI in the Lost World', Proceedings of OZCHI 2001, November 20-23, 2001, Fremantle, WA, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia, Fremantle, WA, pp. 115-120.
Collings, P & Robertson, TJ 1998, 'Virtual Education: Building a Teaching and Learning Community in the Information Systems Discipline.', Proceedings of the Conference of the South East Asian Regional Computer Confederation, ACS, Darwin.
Robertson, TJ 1997, '"And it's a generalisation. But no it's not": Women, Communicative Work and the Discourses of Technology Design', Proceedings of the Sixth International IFIP Conference on Women, Work and Computerisation, Springer, Bonn, Germany, pp. 263-275.
Robertson, TJ 1997, 'Cooperative Work and Lived Cognition: A Taxonomy of Embodied Actions', Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS, Lancaster, UK, pp. 205-220.
Robertson, TJ 1996, 'Participatory Design and Participative Practices in Small Companies', Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA., pp. 35-43.
Robertson, TJ 1994, '"We Can Do It Better": Communication and the Control of Work Practices', Proceedings of OZCHI, Computer Human Interaction Special Interst Group of the Ergonomics Society of Australia, Melbourne, pp. 295-300.