Dr Tim Schork is the Associate Head of School of Architecture and an Associate Professor in the School of Architecture within the Faculty of Design, Architecture & Building (DAB) at the University of Technology Sydney, where he co-founded and co-leads the Transformative Technologies & Data Poetics Research Group. The group is an interdisciplinary research platform that pools together expertise from the fields of architecture, industrial design, visual communications, interaction design, engineering, mechatronics, computer and materials science. His research investigates the progressive integration of technology into architectural practice and construction. He received his PhD from RMIT University in 2013 for his research on the transformative effects and contributory role of integrative computational design strategies on the practices of architecture.
Can supervise: YES
Nicholas, P, Rossi, G, Williams, E, Bennett, M & Schork, T 2020, 'Integrating real-time multi-resolution scanning and machine learning for Conformal Robotic 3D Printing in Architecture', International Journal of Architectural Computing, pp. 147807712094820-147807712094820.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Robotic 3D printing applications are rapidly growing in architecture, where they enable the introduction of new materials and bespoke geometries. However, current approaches remain limited to printing on top of a flat build bed. This limits robotic 3D printing's impact as a sustainable technology: opportunities to customize or enhance existing elements, or to utilize complex material behaviour are missed. This paper addresses the potentials of conformal 3D printing and presents a novel and robust workflow for printing onto unknown and arbitrarily shaped 3D substrates. The workflow combines dual-resolution Robotic Scanning, Neural Network prediction and printing of PETG plastic. This integrated approach offers the advantage of responding directly to unknown geometries through automated performance design customization. This paper firstly contextualizes the work within the current state of the art of conformal printing. We then describe our methodology and the design experiment we have used to test it. We lastly describe the key findings, potentials and limitations of the work, as well as the next steps in this research.
Schork, T 2019, 'Agency and Change: Disruptive Construction Technologies', Architectural Design Review, vol. The Business of Architecture and Design, no. 162, pp. 28-31.
Tish, D, McGee, W, Schork, T, Thün, G & Velikov, K 2019, 'Case Studies in Topological Design and Optimization of Additively Manufactured Cable-nets', Structures, vol. 18, pp. 83-90.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Advances in additive manufacturing technologies have availed new modes of design and production across the design and engineering disciplines. While lightweight cable-net structures have long captured the imagination of engineers and architects, there has so far been little research on the opportunities afforded by large-scale additive manufacturing of cable-net structures for form-active or performative tensile surfaces. Additive manufacturing opens up the possibility of manufacturing tensile surfaces beyond knitted, woven nets, or mechanically fastened nets, and expands the types of materials that can be used in such systems. This paper discusses research in novel approaches to the topological design and optimization of cable-nets enabled by the additive manufacturing of elastomeric materials. Through three realized case studies, the topological structure is used to determine the formal, behavioral, and performance-based properties of the cable-net system. This is achieved through the reorientation of a standard quad-grid topology, through a material programming method that embeds non-natural three-dimensional forms into two-dimensional patterns, and through a new meso-scale density-based topological optimization method.
Schork, T, Nicholas, P & others 2012, 'Pattern in (formation)', Artlink: Australian contemporary art quarterly, vol. 32, pp. 64-65.
Tim Schork and Paul Nicholas founded MESNE Design Studio, an innovative architecture and urban design studio working globally as one office from London and Melbourne, to explore the relationship between architecture and divergent domains of knowledge through the use of computation in order to create innovative design strategies for novel spatial structures. They write about the back story of the project "Pricking', an interdisciplinary collaborative project between MESNE Design Studio, Ian Maxwell (supermanoeuvre) and Indae Hwang, which involves an interactive lace-making table with an infra-red based multi-touch interface.
Kendir, E & Schork, T 2009, 'Tools for conviviality: Transcribing design', Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures, pp. 740-753.
Schork, T 2009, 'Contagious life'.
Schork, T & Nicholas, P 2008, 'Screenresolution: Prototypes made from non-standard components'.
Loy, J & Schork, T 2019, 'Building Relationships: Changing Technology and Society' in Koç, G & Christiansen, B (eds), Reusable and Sustainable Building Materials in Modern Architecture, IGI Global, pp. 166-187.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This chapter describes how digital immersion, changing social values, and environmental and economic pressures have the potential to create a paradigm shift in relationships between people and their built environment with the growing sustainability imperative. It responds to emerging opportunities provided by digital technologies for the construction, maintenance, and heritage curation of the life of buildings, and draws on aligned changes in thinking apparent in manufacturing, healthcare, business, and education in the 21st century. The ideas that shape this chapter are relevant to architects and educators, but also to scholars and practitioners across disciplines because they provide an innovative approach in responding to the types of changes currently impacting societies worldwide.
Nicholas, P & Schork, T 2010, 'Screen Resolution' in Homo Faber: Modelling, Identity and the Post Digital, pp. 88-91.
Ooi, J, Rasouli, H, Schork, T & Malek, S 2019, 'The Role Of Defects In 3D Printing Of Bio-Inspired Cellular Composites', Twenty-Second International Conference On Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia.
Sutjipto, S, Tish, D, Paul, G, Vidal Calleja, T & Schork, T 2018, 'Towards Visual Feedback Loops for Robot-Controlled Additive Manufacturing', Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design 2018, Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design, Springer, Zurich, pp. 85-97.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Robotic additive manufacturing methods have enabled the design and fabrication of novel forms and material systems that represent an important step forward for architectural fabrication. However, a common problem in additive manufacturing is to predict and incorporate the dynamic behavior of the material that is the result of the complex confluence of forces and material properties that occur during fabrication. While there have been some approaches towards verification systems, to date most robotic additive manufacturing processes lack verification to ensure deposition accuracy. Inaccuracies, or in some instances critical errors, can occur due to robot dynamics, material self-deflection, material coiling, or timing shifts in the case of multi-material prints. This paper addresses that gap by presenting an approach that uses vision-based sensing systems to assist robotic additive manufacturing processes. Using online image analysis techniques, occupancy maps can be created and updated during the fabrication process to document the actual position of the previously deposited material. This development is an intermediary step towards closed-loop robotic control systems that combine workspace sensing capabilities with decision-making algorithms to adjust toolpaths to correct for errors or inaccuracies if necessary. The occupancy grid map provides a complete representation of the print that can be analyzed to determine various key aspects, such as, print quality, extrusion diameter, adhesion between printed parts, and intersections within the meshes. This valuable quantitative information regarding system robustness can be used to influence the system's future actions. This approach will help ensure consistent print quality and sound tectonics in robotic additive manufacturing processes, improving on current techniques and extending the possibilities of robotic fabrication in architecture.
Schork, T, Dang, T & Malekmohammadi, S 2018, 'Lightweight 3D cellular microstructures for architecture', Proceedings of IASS Annual Symposia, IASS 2018 Boston Symposium: Structural innovation through interdisciplinary collaboration, International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures, International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures, MIT, Boston, USA.
Additive manufacturing technologies makes it possible to control the target deformability behavior of
global geometry by varying the material deposition of microstructure. This offers new ways to
fabricate cellular materials with differentiated material behaviors that go beyond mimicking the
structure and mechanical properties of materials found in nature. However, material limitations and a
lack of appropriate design tools and models have confined the usefulness of 3D printed cellular
materials. This paper introduces and describes a novel design model that allows to analyze and exploit
microstructures in the context of architecture. Specifically, this paper discusses the use of 3D cellular
microstructures to fabricate flat deformable panels with predefined elastic behavior that can be used in
architecture to approximate arbitrarily complex shapes. In the first part this paper will introduce and
describe the design tool, which was developed by an interdisciplinary research team, comprising
researchers from architecture, computer graphics and civil engineering. The model takes into account
parameters affecting the structural response of 3D cellular microstructures, such as the volume
fraction, orientation distribution, aspect ratio within each cell as well as the cell geometry and relative
density are included in the model. To guide the design of cellular microstructures, we developed an
integrated, parameterized, multi-scale model. Computational homogenization based on finite element
is employed to obtain the elastic properties of the material at multiple scales. In the second part of this
paper, we will discuss the findings of a case-study undertaken by the authors in which the previously
described approach was employed and tested.
Nicholas, P, Voorderhake, D & Schork, T 2018, 'Full-scale prototype of a lightweight and robotic incrementallyformed copper facade system with standing seam connections', Proceedings of IASS Annual Symposia, IASS 2018 Boston Symposium: Structural innovation through interdisciplinary collaboration, IASS Symposium 2018: Creativity in Structural Design, International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pp. 1-8.
Incrementally formed thin sheet metal enables lightweight structures that integrate ornament, structure and skin - a trajectory of architectural and structural opportunity initialized by Prouve, Junkers, and LeRicolais. However, where previously the need for a mold has limited rigidization to contexts of mass production, mold-less Robotic Incremental Sheet Forming (RISF) provides new opportunities for customized and bespoke panels. This paper reports on the computational design and fabrication of a lightweight and highly differentiated copper façade system, using RISF. Central concerns are the challenge of integrating customized structurally responsive geometry with design constraints typical of a metal facade, and managing the material property changes induced by the fabrication process.
Where architectural models of material typically assume stability of physical properties, geometric change implies property change in the RISF process. This paper describes a multi-scale approach to predictive and generative modelling that incorporates these variables within the design process at material and structural scales, allowing for material and fabrication informed design of a 1:1 prototype.
Tish, D, McGee, W, Schork, T, Thün, G & Velikov, K 2018, 'Topological Design and Optimization of Additively Manufactured Tensile Meshes', IASS Symposium 2108: Creativity in Structural Design, International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pp. 1-8.
Advances in additive manufacturing have availed the possibility to directly fabricate the results of topological optimization processes, especially those carried out by hard-kill methods such as the BESO process. However, a much less established area of research is the use of topological optimization for flexible forms and cable-nets through the use of elastomers in the additive manufacturing of their constituent geometries. Robotic additive manufacturing of cable-net structures with elastomeric material enables methods of topological design and topological optimization which are capable of embedding new formal, behavior, and performance properties in the cable-net material system. These capabilities are demonstrated and discussed through a series of case-studies realized by the authors.
Tish, D, Schork, T & McGee, W 2018, 'Topologically Optimized and Functionally Graded Cable Nets: New Approaches through Robotic Additive Manufacturing', Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, Recalibration: On Imprecision and Infidelity, Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City, pp. 260-265.
Recent advancements in the realm of additive manufacturing technologies have made it possible to directly manufacture the complex geometries that are resultant from topological optimisation and functionally graded material processes. Topological optimisation processes are well understood and widely used within the realm of structural engineering and have been increasingly adopted in architectural design and research. However, there has been little research devoted to the topological optimisation of cable nets and their fabrication through robotic additive manufacturing. This paper presents a design framework for the optimisation of additively manufactured tensile cable nets that attempts to bridge between these two domains by reframing the scale of topological optimisation processes. Instead of focusing solely on the topology optimisation at the macro-scale of cable nets, this research develops a method to optimise the meso-scale topology and defines metamaterial units with different properties that are to be aggregated into a complex whole. This reorientation from the formal towards the material domain signals an engagement with morphogenetic modes of design that find formal expression through bottom-up material processes. In order to further investigate the emerging potentials of this reorientation, the presented method is validated through physical deformation tests and applied to the design of a furniture-scale case study project realised through the use of robotic additive manufacturing of elastomeric materials.
Block, P, Bayl-Smith, MK, Schork, T, Bellamy, J & Pigram, DA 2014, 'Ribbed tiled vaulting: Innovation through two design-build workshops', Proceedings for Fabricate: Negotiating Design & Making, Fabricate: Negotiating Design and Making, gta Verlag, Zurich, Switzerland, pp. 22-29.
Traditional tile vaults are typically constructed springing off from walls or straight arches built from support element to support element on falsework. From these, the vault's surface can be built in space with minimal or no guidework. Built on previous research and focusing on continuous surface expression and fully representing three-dimensional equilibrium surfaces in compression, this research explores the design potential of three-dimensional networks of structural ribs, made possible by new funicular form-finding approaches. This new structural typology for tile vaults was investigated and tested through two intensive, design-build workshops in Australia, the first at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) in October 2012, and the second at Monash Art Design & Architecture (MADA), in May 2013.
Nicholas, P, Stasiuk, D & Schork, T 2014, 'THE SOCIAL WEAVERS CONSIDERING TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM-UP DESIGN PROCESSES AS A CONTINUUM', ACADIA 2014: DESIGN AGENCY, 34th Annual Conference of the Association-for-Computer-Aided-Design-in-Architecture (ACADIA), RIVERSIDE ARCHTECTURAL PRESS, Univ So Calif, Sch Architecture, Los Angeles, CA, pp. 497-506.
Nicholas, P, Stasiuk, D & Schork, T 2014, 'The Social Weavers: Negotiating a continuum of agency', ACADIA, Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA), CumInCAD, Los Angeles, California, USA, pp. 497-506.
This paper introduces the notion that top-down and bottom-up design processes should be considered as a continuum, and describes the development of a spring-based simulation modelling system that operates as a means to navigate this continuum in the production of complex, open-ended design spaces. A built case study project demonstrates the underlying modeling concepts and methodology.
Schork, T 2009, 'Modes of composition-a computational approach to design', Design Modeling Symposium Berlin, pp. 300-311.
Schork, T 2008, 'Option Explicit: Scripting as Design Media', Critical Digital Conference Proceedings, pp. 41-46.
Schork, T, Burrow, A & Minifie, P, 'A Workbench for Emergent Urbanism and Architectural Form'.
Schork, T, Nicholas, P & Voorderhake, D 2018, 'Stressed Skin 02: Multi-Scalar Modelling and Robotic Fabrication of Freeform Lightweight Copper Façades', Annual Design Research 2018: Exhibition, Tin Sheds Gallery, University of Sydney.
Schork, T 2012, 'Transformations: a project-based investigation into the impact of creative design computation on architectural practice'.
Click here to enter text.This PhD responds to a twofold problem with the status of existing predominant design software within architectural practice. The first part of the problem is philosophical and is centred around the discrepancy between a worldview, which is based on emergent relational phenomena, dynamics and behaviours, and the state of existing design software tailored for the profession, which is based on determinacy, stasis and the modelling of explicit geometry. Proposing that the interrelations and the interdependencies central to this worldview are an important novel paradigm of design, this research argues that it is paramount for the design profession to adequately engage with and respond to a world defined by constant change. The second part of the problem is cultural and concerns artistic creativity and design innovation. As the use of digital technology increasingly surpasses the use of traditional media within the discipline, ready-made software becomes an important new limit condition on architectural practice and design innovation