Albanese, B, Gibson, T, Whyte, T, Meredith, L, Savino, G, de Rome, L, Baldock, M, Fitzharris, M & Brown, J 2017, 'Energy attenuation performance of impact protection worn by motorcyclists in real-world crashes.', Traffic Injury Prevention, vol. 18, no. S1, pp. S116-S121.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Laboratory studies have demonstrated that impact protectors (IP) used in motorcycle clothing can reduce fracture severities. While crash studies have reported IP are associated with reduced likelihood of soft tissue injury, there is little evidence of their effectiveness in reducing fracture likelihood. This discrepancy might be related to IP quality. There are mandatory requirements for IP supplied with protective clothing in Europe, but not elsewhere. This study examines the energy attenuation performance of IP used by Australian riders.IP were harvested from clothing worn by crashed riders admitted to hospital. The IP were examined and energy attenuation properties were determined using EN 1621-1 test procedures. Impact injury was identified from medical records and defined as fractures, dislocations, and avulsions that occurred following impact to the rider's shoulders, elbows, hips, and/or knees. Fisher's exact test was used to examine the relationship between meeting the EN 1621-1 energy attenuation requirements and impact injury. The association between the average and maximum transmitted force, and impact injury was examined using generalized estimating equations. Motorcycle riders were recruited as part of an in-depth crash study through three hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, between 2012 and 2014. Riders were interviewed, and engineers conducted site, vehicle, and clothing inspections. Clothing was collected, or identical garments were purchased.Clothing was inspected for 62 riders. Of these, 19 wore clothing incorporating 76 IP. Twenty-six of these were impacted in the crash event. Almost all impacted IP (96%) were CE marked, and most (83%) met Level 1 energy attenuation requirements of EN 1621-1 when tested. Of the 26 impacted IP, four were associated with impact injuries, including midshaft and distal clavicle fractures and a scapula and olecranon fracture. No associations between meeting EN 1621-1 requirements and impact injury were found (p...
Whyte, T, Gibson, T, Eager, D & Milthorpe, B 2017, 'Full-face motorcycle helmet protection from facial impacts: an investigation using THOR dummy impacts and SIMon finite element head model.', Injury Prevention, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 205-210.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Facial impacts are both common and injurious for helmeted motorcyclists who crash; however, there is no facial impact requirement in major motorcycle helmet standards. This study examined the effect of full-face motorcycle helmet protection on brain injury risk in facial impacts using a test device with biofidelic head and neck motion. A preliminary investigation of energy absorbing foam in the helmet chin bar was carried out.Flat-faced rigid pendulum impacts were performed on a THOR dummy in an unprotected (no helmet) and protected mode (two full-face helmet conditions). The head responses of the dummy were input into the simulated injury monitor finite element head model to analyse the risk of brain injury in these impacts.Full-face helmet protection provides a significant reduction in brain injury risk in facial impacts at increasing impact speeds compared with an unprotected rider (p<0.05). The effect of low-density crushable foam added to the chin bar could not be distinguished from an unpadded chin bar impact.Despite the lack of an impact attenuation requirement for the face, full-face helmets do provide a reduction in head injury risk to the wearer in facial impacts. The specific helmet design factors that influence head injury risk in facial impacts need further investigation if improved protection for helmeted motorcyclists is to be achieved.
Whyte, T, Gibson, T, Anderson, R, Eager, D & Milthorpe, B 2016, 'Mechanisms of Head and Neck Injuries Sustained by Helmeted Motorcyclists in Fatal Real-World Crashes: Analysis of 47 In-Depth Cases.', Journal of neurotrauma, vol. 33, no. 19, pp. 1802-1807.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Despite an improved understanding of traumatic head and neck injury mechanisms, the impact tests required by major motorcycle helmet standards have remained unchanged for decades. Development of new test methods must reflect the specific impact loads causing injury in real crashes as well as test criteria appropriate for the observed injury profiles. This study analysed a collection of in-depth crash investigations of fatally injured helmeted riders in the Adelaide metropolitan region between 1983 and 1994 inclusive to review the head and neck injury patterns that resulted from specific types of impact. Inertial brain injury was sustained in 49% of examined cases, most often resulting from facial impacts but also in a large proportion of tangential, run over, and occipital impact cases. Focal brain and brainstem injury was also common (53%) and regularly associated with skull vault (11/12) and skull base fractures (22/31). Prevention of these fractures in impacts outside the area of required protection and in impacts with a straight edge would provide a significant increase in helmeted rider protection. Cervical spinal cord injury was sustained in facial, straight edge, and tangential impacts on the head. Motorcycle helmets are effective for preventing local skull fractures in impacts for which they are designed, whereas other serious injuries such as basilar skull fracture (BSF) and inertial brain injury persist despite helmet protection. Further impact test procedures should be developed for injurious impact types not currently assessed by major helmet standards, in particular facial impacts, and using test criteria based on commonly observed injuries. This study provides the necessary link, from impact load to injury, for guiding impact test development.
Whyte, T, Gibson, T, Eager, D & Milthorpe, B 2016, 'Response of a full-face motorcycle helmet FE model to the UNECE 22.05 chin bar impact test', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CRASHWORTHINESS, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 555-565.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Far-side impacts are not part of any regulated NCAP, FMVSS, or similar test regime despite accounting for 43 percent of the seriously injured persons and 30 percent of the harm in U.S. side impact crashes. Furthermore, injuries to the head and thorax account for over half of the serious injuries sustained by occupants in far-side crashes. Despite this, there is no regulated or well-accepted anthropomorphic test device (ATD) or computer model available to investigate far-side impacts. As such, this presents an opportunity to assess a computer model that can be used to measure the effect of varying restraint parameters on occupant biomechanics in far-side impacts. Objective: This study sets out to demonstrate the modified TASS human facet model's (MOTHMO) capabilities in modeling whole-body response in far-side impacts. Method: MOTHMO's dynamic response was compared to that of postmortem human subjects (PMHS), WorldSID, and Thor-NT in a series of far-side sled tests. The advantages, disadvantages, and differences of using MOTHMO compared to ATDs were highlighted and described in terms of model design and instrumentation. Potential applications and improvements for MOTHMO were also recommended. Results: The results showed that MOTHMO is capable of replicating the seat belt-to-shoulder complex interaction, pelvis impacts, head displacement, neck and shoulder belt loading from inboard mounted belts, and impacts from multiple directions. Overall, the model performed better than Thor-NT and at least as well as WorldSID when compared to PMHS results. Though WorldSID and Thor-NT ATDs were capable of reproducing many of these impact loads, measuring the seat belt-to-shoulder complex interaction and thoracic deflection at multiple sites and directions was less accurately handled. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that MOTHMO is capable of modeling whole-body response in far-side impacts. Furthermore, MOTHMO can be used as a virtual design tool to explore the effect of var...
Douglas, C, Fildes, B & Gibson, T 2009, 'Development of an occupant model for far-side vehicle crashes', International Journal of Vehicle Safety, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 173-184.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The biofidelity and performance requirements for a far-side occupant model are described. Previous work is analysed that highlights the potential use of a modified version of the TNO Human Facet Model for simulating far-side impacts. The model's biofidelity and performance are compared with PMHS results from pelvic offset sled tests, pendulum tests and a full-scale far-side crash test. Results indicate that the model exhibits good biofidelity compared with PMHS results, specifically its ability to simulate: belt interaction with the shoulder; loading to the pelvis, thorax and abdomen and whole body kinematics in a full-vehicle far-side crash. The model's main limitations are that its thorax is less capable of matching the magnitude of deflection observed in the PMHS pendulum tests. Copyright © 2009, Inderscience Publishers.
Gorrie, C, Duflou, J, Brown, JS, Gibson, T & Waite, P 2001, 'Extent and distribution of vascular brain injury in pediatric road fatalities', Journal Of Neurotrauma, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 849-860.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study used a multidisciplinary approach to examine the brains of pediatric road trauma fatalities in the Sydney area over a 3-year period. The brains of 32 children (0-16 years) were examined: 20 pedestrians, nine passengers, and three cyclists. The
Gibson, T, Nikolai, N, MacPherson, J & McIntosh, A 2000, 'Crash characteristics of whiplash associated chronic neck pain', Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, vol. 8, no. 1-2, pp. 87-95.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Objective: To analyze the motor vehicle crash parameters associated with chronic neck pain outcomes associated with whiplash injury. Method: Police accident data were matched with a clinical database of 273 subjects with chronic neck pain as a result of a motor vehicle crash. These subjects had or were in the process of being objectively investigated for zygapophyseal [Z-joint] pain by means of controlled double-blind differential diagnostic anesthetic blocks. The combined database was analyzed to find the crash parameters. Results: For the 92 cases where the crash data was able to be matched with the clinical data, females [55%] had slightly higher representation than males [45%]; rear-end impacts were more common [40%] and few had injuries requiring hospitalization [6.5%]. Higher severity crashes appeared to be associated with these chronic neck pain sufferers than typically found for whiplash associated disorder. For this group of drivers and motorcycle riders, 68 [74%] were diagnosed to have objective Z-joint pain mostly at the C2/3 [34%] and C5/6 [32%] levels of the neck. More symptomatic joints were found on the right side [59%] than left side [43%]. Conclusion: In Australia, the characteristics of the motor vehicle crashes associated with subjects suffering chronic neck pain were investigated. In the 92 cases analyzed, 74% had objective evidence that the chronic neck pain was connected with the Z-joints and seemed to be associated with more severe rear-end rear impacts.
Albanese, B, Meredith, L, Whyte, T, Gibson, T, De Rome, L, Fitzharris, M, Baldock, M & Brown, J 2016, 'Energy attenuation performance of impact protection for motorcyclists', 2016 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, pp. 507-508.
Whyte, T, Gibson, T, Milthorpe, B & Eager, D 2015, 'Full-face motorcycle helmet protection from facial impacts', AIPN 12th Injury Prevention & Safety Conference, AIPN Injury Prevention & Safety Conference, Sydney.
Gibson, T, Thai, K, Saxon, J & Pollock, R 2008, 'The effectiveness of safety equipment in horse racing falls', International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury - 2008 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury, Proceedings, pp. 453-456.
The effectiveness of the personal protective equipment PPE used by jockeys and harness drivers in falls during racing was investigated. In Australia the wearing of helmets and protective vests is mandatory in both forms of the sport, though the equipment standards differ. The incidence of injury was analysed and the mechanisms of injury investigated by video analysis of actual injury incidents. The effectiveness of the safety equipment was assessed through physical testing. The differing injury mechanisms and track surfaces in the two sports result in unique requirements for the protective equipment used. The needs for future development of improved equestrian personal protective equipment are outlined.
Douglas, CA, Fildes, BN, Gibson, TJ, Boström, O & Pintar, FA 2007, 'Factors influencing occupant-to-seat belt interaction in far-side crashes', Annual Proceedings - Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, pp. 319-339.
Seat belt interaction with a far-side occupant's shoulder and thorax is critical to governing excursion towards the struck-side of the vehicle in side impact. In this study, occupant-to-belt interaction was simulated using a modified MADYMO human model and finite element belts. Quasi-static tests with volunteers and dynamic sled tests with PMHS and World SID were used for model validation and comparison. Parameter studies were then undertaken to quantify the effect of impact direction, seat belt geometry and pretension on occupant-to-seat belt interaction. Results suggest that lowering the D-ring and increasing pretension reduces the likelihood of the belt slipping off the shoulder. Anthropometry was also shown to influence restraint provided by the shoulder belt. Furthermore, the belt may slip off the occupant's shoulder at impact angles greater than 40 degrees from frontal when no pretension is used. However, the addition of pretension allowed the shoulder to engage the belt in all impacts from 30 to 90 degrees.
Gibson, T, Bostrom, O, Kullgren, A & Milthorpe, B 2005, 'The mechanisms of early onset C5/C6 soft-tissue neck injury in rear impacts', International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Impact - 2005 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact, Proceedings, pp. 215-228.
An anatomically based, multi-body model of the C5/C6 motion segment was developed to study soft-tissue neck injury mechanisms in rear impacts. This was integrated into the MADYMO-based van der Horst head and neck model. Responses were compared with volunteer test data up to head restraint impact. Soft-tissue loading was predicted for a series of rear-end vehicle crashes with crash recorders (n=78) and known long-term pain outcomes. Facet capsule shear and impingement injury mechanisms at C5/C6 were demonstrated. Facet capsule loading correlated well with NIC max and was able to predict the risk of AIS1 neck injuries with persisting pain.