Melbourne University graduate, doing postgraduate studies in histopathology of inflammation at the light and electron microscope levels on an animal surgical model concluding with a PhD in histopathological diagnosis of equivocal cases of cancer at the Austin Hospital.
Came to Sydney and set-up the tissue culture laboratory for studies of neuro-psycho-immunology for Dr Anthony Kidman at the then NSW Institute of Technology (NSWIT) before it became UTS. Transferring into a lectureship to teach in the department of Cellular Pathology, teaching Human Biology, Anatomical Pathology including histotechnology, Transfusion Science, Haematology, Tissue Culture and Immunology at the Gore Hill campus. Where I began forensic pathology (aging of bruising working with A/Prof Neil Langlois) and biometric research (ear in conjunction with SkullForensics)
When the School of Life Sciences moved the city campus as inaugural Program Director of Forensic Biology forensic research continued looking a facial symmetry and later image analysis. Collaborations were established with Children’s Hospital Westmead (osteosarcoma - Prof David Little) and the RNSH (Kolling – Prof Chris Little [osteoarthritis], Prof Chris Jackson [wound healing] and Prof Anthony Gill [endocrine malignancies]) some of which continue to this day.
Committee member of the NSW Histotechnology Society
Member of the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society
Occasional reviewer of submissions for Frontiers in Microbiology
Can supervise: YES
I am part of the neuroscience & neurological disorders research group where I work with A/Professor Sara Lal investigating emotions manifested as spontaneous facial expressions in predicting behaviour. The work has focused on its security value to develop intelligent visual surveillance using facial expression analysis coupled to closed circuit television, though there are many other spheres where it can applied.
There are many strings to my research bow, I collaborate on bone pathology with researchers at the Kolling and Garvan Medical Research institutes where I provide my histopathology skills.
A/Professor Lal and I also supervise two PhD candidates in Emotional Facial Expressioins and Musculo-skeletal Disorders from the work, health and safety perspective at UTS and have an MSc research student with Professor Anthony Gill (Kolling institute at Royal North Shore Hospital) looking into a marker of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase in gastrointestinal malignancies. Recently have started a collaboration with Dr Alana Piper - Chancellors Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Australian Centre of Public History at UTS.
Current teaching areas
- Subject Co-ordinator of 91402 Anatomical Pathology and Notre Dame Med1000 Histology
- Lecturer in 91402 Anatomical Pathology and 91500 Histology
- Inaugural Course Director of Forensic Biology (2002-2013)
Sztynda, T, Chow, D & Lal, S 2020, 'Optical Flow Analysis of Emotional Human Facial Expressions – Forensic Application', International Journal of Artificial Intelligence Systems and Machine Learning, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 209-218.
Emotional facial expressions have been suggested as indicators of a person’s intended actions when they display a set of specific facial reactions. Our aim was to investigate Optical Flow to identify specific emotions with the long-term objective to create an algorithm that would automate the process. This would remove all allegations of bias to give security personnel an objective way of screening individuals in a crowd who may require closer scrutiny. This paper describes our preliminary studies, using film clips to elicit dynamic natural facial responses. This has identified key elements that need to be evaluated further, such as gender and age of the people under observation, as well as specific facial elements that may be of greater benefit than whole facial images for the purpose of screening crowds for potential perpertrators of anti-social behaviour.
Boulais, D, Lal, S, Sztynda, T & Zaslawski, C 2017, 'Preserving lumbar spine physiology in the cleaning industry', Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, vol. 33, no. 3.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
© CCH. Background: Lumbar spine disc breakdown may begin as early as the second decade of life. Peak bone mass occurs between the ages of 16 and 25 years and continuously decreases thereafter where bone loss occurs at a faster rate in females increasing throughout menopause. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship of age and gender against lumbar or non-lumbar musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) diagnosis and post-injury recovery time. Methods: Records of 144 MSD-related incidents that were recorded between 2012 and 2016 (five years) were retrieved from the injury register of a large commercial cleaning organisation (n = 700 cleaners) for analysis. The mean age of the organisations workforce was 57 years of age and 62% of cleaners were female by payroll. Results: The overall non-lumbar related MSD was higher within the older age (>45 years) group (n = 53) as opposed to the younger age (<45 years) group (n = 34). Consequently, more lumbar spinerelated MSDs occurred in the younger age (<45 years) group (n = 33) than the older age (>45 years) group (n = 24). A strong relationship was identified between the age of a cleaner (greater than or less than 45 years) and the type of MSD (lumbar or non-lumbar) (p = 0.027). It was identified that that 110 (76.38%) of cleaners recovered from their MSD within four weeks. Of those in the younger age (<45 years) group then 16.42% (n = 11) took longer than four weeks to recover. Of those in the older age (>45 years) group then 29.87% (n = 23) took longer than four weeks to recover. A relationship between age and recovery time was identified at the 90% confidence interval (p = 0.058). Conclusions: It was identified that non-lumbar musculoskeletal injury is more likely to occur as one ages. Furthermore, it was identified that age may have an adverse effect upon injury recovery time. It was recommended that manual handling, return to work training programs and work schedules be periodically reviewed to strategically ...
Tayao, M, Andrici, J, Farzin, M, Clarkson, A, Sioson, L, Watson, N, Chua, TC, Sztynda, T, Samra, JS & Gill, AJ 2016, 'Loss of BAP1 Expression Is Very Rare in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma', PLOS ONE, vol. 11, no. 3.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zhao, R, Xue, M, Liang, H, Lin, Y, Sztynda, T, McKelvey, K, Chan, A, Clarke, E & Jackson, C 2016, 'A NOVEL ENGINEERED ACTIVATED PROTEIN C: EFFECTS ON PROMOTING WOUND HEALING', WOUND REPAIR AND REGENERATION, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. A20-A21.
Giblin, LB, de Leon, L, Smith, LM, Sztynda, T & Lal, S 2013, 'Heart rate variability, blood pressure and cognitive function: Assessing age effects', Journal of Green Engineering, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 347-361.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Increasing age is the most significant risk factor for dementia. Aging populations see cognitive disorders becoming increasingly prevalent, unfortunately paired with high economic and social consequences. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the earliest d
Auton, E, Green, H, Sztynda, T & Sutisno, M 2010, 'Osteometric assessment of contemporary skeletal remains from Indonesia', HOMO-JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE HUMAN BIOLOGY, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 204-204.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brooks, E, Cullen, MA, Sztynda, T & Walsh, SP 2010, 'Nuclear Staining Of Telogen Hair Roots Contributes To Successful Forensic nDNA Analysis', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 115-122.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Telogen hairs have generally presented significant challenges to routine and advanced forensic nDNA typing techniques. Nuclear specific DAPI fluorescence staining of telogen hair roots introduced a method of determining the number of nuclei still present
Besinger, A, Sztynda, T, Lal, S, Duthoit, CJ, Agbinya, JI, Jap, B, Eager, DM & Dissanayake, G 2010, 'Optical flow based analyses to detect emotion from human facial image data', Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 8897-8902.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Artificial recognition of facial expression has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years and different facial expression detection methods have been developed. The current study uses a feature point tracking technique separately applied to the five facial image regions (eyebrows, eyes and mouth) to capture basic emotions. The used dataset contains a total 60 facial images from subjects different genders and nationality not wearing glasses and/or facial hair. Results show that the used point tracking algorithm separately applied to the five facial image regions can detect emotions in image sequences.
McDonald, MM, Dulai, S, Godfrey, C, Amanat, N, Sztynda, T & Little, DG 2008, 'Bolus or weekly zoledronic acid administration does not delay endochondral fracture repair but weekly dosing enhances delays in hard callus remodeling', Bone, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 653-662.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Introduction: It has been widely assumed that osteoclasts play a pivotal role during the entire process of fracture healing. Bisphosphonates (Bps) are anti-catabolic agents commonly used to treat metabolic bone diseases including osteoporosis, minimizing
Tarran, S, Langlois, NE, Dziewulski, P & Sztynda, T 2006, 'Using the inflammatory cell infiltrate to estimate the age of human burn wounds A review and immunohistochemical study', Medicine Science And The Law, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 115-126.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The burn wound healing process, which is reviewed in this paper, has features that differ from the healing of incised cutaneous wounds. This study used immunohistochemical staining and cell counting to examine the inflammatory cell response in biopsy sam
Jackson, CJ, Xue, M, Thompson, P, Davey, RA, Whitmont, K, Smith, S, Buisson-Legendre, N, Sztynda, T, Furphy, LJ, Cooper, A, Sambrook, P & March, L 2005, 'Activated protein C prevents inflammation yet stimulates angiogenesis to promote cutaneous wound healing', Wound Repair And Regeneration, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 284-294.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease that plays a central role in physiological anticoagulation, and has more recently been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory mediator. Using cultured human cells, we show here that APC up-regulates the angi
Tarran, S, Dziewulski, P, Sztynda, T & Langlois, NE 2004, 'A study of p53 expression in thermal burns of human skin for determination of wound age', Medicine Science And The Law, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 222-226.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Early expression of p53 protein in thermal burns of guinea pig skin has been reported. This study sought to determine if expression occurred in thermal burns of human skin and if immunohistochemical demonstration of p53 protein could be utilised to distinguish ante-mortem from post-mortem injuries as well as indicating the age of a lesion in the living subject. Biopsy samples were obtained from live patients and post-mortem examinations. Immunohistochemistry was used to demonstrate the presence of p53 protein. Staining was assessed by field counting of epithelial cell nuclei. In live subjects there was a tendency for early (six hour to five day) expression, with peak levels occurring around one to two days. Late samples (13 to 23 days) demonstrated minimal or no expression. In contrast, burn wounds from post-mortem examination demonstrated greater staining for p53 protein in the late (28 to 77 day) samples than in the early ones. It appears that expression of p53 protein may assist in the ageing of ante-mortem, but not post-mortem, burn wounds. This implies that results obtained from live subjects may not be applicable to post-mortem material and that any putative method for determining the age of a wound should be tested in both situations.
SZTYNDA, T & HURLEY, JV 1984, 'THE ENDOENDOTHELIAL LAYER OF NORMAL AND INJURED VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM - AN ELECTRON-MICROSCOPE STUDY', JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, vol. 142, no. 3, pp. 181-194.View/Download from: Publisher's site
LOUIS, CJ, WYLLIE, RG, CHOU, ST & SZTYNDA, T 1982, 'CONCANAVALIN-A (CON A) REACTION WITH PLASMA-MEMBRANE - REPLY', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 509-509.
Sidavong, L, Lal, S & Sztynda, T 2019, 'Spontaneous Facial Expression Analysis Using Optical Flow Technique' in Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation, pp. 83-101.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Investigation of emotions manifested through facial expressions has valuable applications in predictive behavioural studies. A potential application may be to impart intelligence to surveillance systems such as Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) systems for recognition of emotional facial expressions. A facial recognition program tailored to evaluating facial behaviour for real time application can be met if patterns of emotions can be detected. An exploratory analysis of optical flow data was conducted with an aim to detect patterns and trends to differentiate between the emotional facial expressions: amusement, sadness and fear from the frontal and profile facial orientations. Analysis was in the form of emotion maps constructed from feature vectors obtained by using the Lucas-Kanade implementation of optical flow. Classification of individual emotions showed recognition of amusement was much greater in comparison to the recognition of the negative emotions, sadness and fear. Recognition was not negatively affected using reduced set of feature vectors derived from the emotion maps. Further investigation is necessary to assess the utility of emotion maps to visualise feature representations of emotional expression.
Sidavong, L, Lal, S & Sztynda, T 2017, 'Spontaneous facial expression analysis using optical flow', Proceedings of the International Conference on Sensing Technology, ICST, International Conference on Sensing Technology, IEEE, Sydney, NSW, Australia, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. Investigation of emotions manifested through facial expressions has valuable applications in predictive behavioural studies. This has piqued interest towards developing intelligent visual surveillance using facial expression analysis coupled with Closed Circuit Television (CCTV). However, a facial recognition program tailored to evaluating facial behaviour for forensic and security purposes can be met if patterns of emotions in general can be detected. The present study assesses whether emotional expression derived from frontal or profile views of the face can be used to determine differences between three emotions: Amusement, Sadness and Fear using the optical flow technique. Analysis was in the form of emotion maps constructed from feature vectors obtained from using the Lucas-Kanade implementation of optical flow. These feature vectors were selected as inputs for classification. It was anticipated that the findings would assist in improving the optical flow algorithm for feature extraction. However, further data analyses are necessary to confirm if different types of emotion can be identified clearly using optical flow or other such techniques.
Sidavong, L, Lal, S & Sztynda, T 2017, 'Spontaneous Facial Expression Analysis Using Optical Flow', 2017 ELEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SENSING TECHNOLOGY (ICST), 11th International Conference on Sensing Technology (ICST), IEEE, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, pp. 256-261.
Duthoit, CJ, Sztynda, T, Lal, S, Jap, B & Agbinya, JI 2008, 'Optical Flow Image Analysis of Facial Expressions of Human Emotion - Forensic Applications', Proceedings e-Forensics, e-Forensics, e-Forensics, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
McDonald, M, Dulai, S, Godfrey, C, Sztynda, T & Little, D 2006, 'Osteoclasts are functionally redundant in initial endochondral fracture union but not callus remodeling: Insights into optimal bisphosphonate dosing.', JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, 28th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Bone-and-Mineral-Research, AMER SOC BONE & MINERAL RES, Philadelphia, PA, pp. S398-S398.
McDonald, MM, Dulai, SK, Godfrey, C, Sztynda, T & Little, DG 2006, 'Endochondral repair and development proceed normally during zoledronic acid treatment', BONE, 11th and Valedictory Workshop on Cell Biology of Bone and Cartilage in Health and Disease, ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Davos, SWITZERLAND, pp. S56-S57.View/Download from: Publisher's site
McDonald, MM, Dulai, SK, Godfrey, C, Sztynda, T & Little, DG 2006, 'Single dose zoledronic acid treatment is superior to continuous treatment in enhancing hard callus formation and strength without delayed remodelling', BONE, 11th and Valedictory Workshop on Cell Biology of Bone and Cartilage in Health and Disease, ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Davos, SWITZERLAND, pp. S57-S57.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Allotta, A, Messaike, E, Smith, NF, Torpy, FR, Sutisno, M & Sztynda, T 2006, 'The Human Ear - An Adjunct for Identification', 18th Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Fremantle, Australia, Fremantle, Australia.
Messaike, E, Sutisno, M, Torpy, FR & Sztynda, T 2006, 'Mapping the Human Auricle in Asians Residing in the Sydney Region', 18th Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Fremantle, Australia March 2006, Fremantle, Australia.