Professor Susan Page is an Aboriginal academic whose research focuses on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ experience of learning and academic work in higher education and student learning in Indigenous Studies. Susan is currently Associate Dean (Indigenous) and Director of the Centre for the Advancement of Indigenous Knowledges, in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. From 2015-2018 Susan led a university wide Indigenous Graduate Attribute project. Early in her academic career, Susan was awarded a university Excellence in Teaching Award (University of Sydney) and in 2019 she led the CAIK team awarded a National Australian Universities Teaching Award, the Neville Bonner award for Indigenous Education. Susan has been an investigator on four Australian Research Council grants. From 2015-2018 she was a Director of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Higher Education Consortium (Aboriginal Corporation).
Can supervise: YES
Indigenous Higher Education, teaching and learning
Page, S & Asmar, C 2008, Indigenous academic voices: Stories from the tertiary education frontline.
Trudgett, M, Page, S & Coates, SK 2020, 'Talent war: recruiting Indigenous senior executives in Australian Universities', JOURNAL OF HIGHER EDUCATION POLICY AND MANAGEMENT.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bodkin-Andrews, G, Page, S & Trudgett, M 2019, 'Working towards accountability in embedding Indigenous studies: Evidence from an Indigenous Graduate Attribute evaluation instrument', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 232-260.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Coates, SK, Trudgett, M & Page, S 2019, 'Indigenous higher education sector: The evolution of recognised Indigenous Leaders within Australian Universities', Australian Journal of Indigenous Education.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Copyright © The Author(s) 2020. There is clear evidence that Indigenous education has changed considerably over time. Indigenous Australians' early experiences of 'colonialised education' included missionary schools, segregated and mixed public schooling, total exclusion and 'modified curriculum' specifically for Indigenous students which focused on teaching manual labour skills (as opposed to literacy and numeracy skills). The historical inequalities left a legacy of educational disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Following activist movements in the 1960s, the Commonwealth Government initiated a number of reviews and forged new policy directions with the aim of achieving parity of participation and outcomes in higher education between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Further reviews in the 1980s through to the new millennium produced recommendations specifically calling for Indigenous Australians to be given equality of access to higher education; for Indigenous Australians to be employed in higher education settings; and to be included in decisions regarding higher education. This paper aims to examine the evolution of Indigenous leaders in higher education from the period when we entered the space through to now. In doing so, it will examine the key documents to explore how the landscape has changed over time, eventually leading to a number of formal reviews, culminating in the Universities Australia 2017-2020 Indigenous Strategy (Universities Australia, 2017).
Page, S, Trudgett, M & Bodkin-Andrews, G 2019, 'Creating a degree-focused pedagogical framework to guide Indigenous graduate attribute curriculum development', Higher Education, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018, Springer Nature B.V. Globally, rapid technological advancement is creating widespread concern about workforces of the future, and universities are expected to produce highly skilled graduates to meet the unremitting demands of knowledge economies. In this context, graduate attributes are a means for developing employability skills and an avenue for institutions to demonstrate to employers and potential graduates that the requisite skills will be developed during a degree. To meet these needs, graduate attributes tend to emphasise a range of generic abilities such as team work, communicating effectively, or critical thinking. While these soft skills are common in suites of graduate attributes, more recently, a next generation of attributes is emerging. The curriculum has now become a site for critical global issues such as sustainability. Also, globalisation is driving universities to foster graduates' intercultural and international skills, reflecting a diversifying and internationalised workforce. In Australian universities, and those in other colonised nations such as Canada and New Zealand, there is a growing emphasis on ensuring that graduates engage with Indigenous content and develop the capacity to work effectively with and for Indigenous peoples to address inequities and promote social justice. Using a case example from an Australian university curriculum project, we describe a degree framework developed to guide the institution wide implementation of Indigenous graduate attributes. Although the case context is quite specific, the guiding principles have widespread relevance for embedding graduate attributes into university curricula.
Page, S, Trudgett, M & Bodkin-Andrews, G 2019, 'Tactics or strategies? Exploring everyday conditions to facilitate implementation of an Indigenous graduate attributes project', JOURNAL OF HIGHER EDUCATION POLICY AND MANAGEMENT, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 390-403.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Asmar, C & Page, S 2018, 'Pigeonholed, peripheral or pioneering? Findings from a national study of Indigenous Australian academics in the disciplines*', Studies in Higher Education, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1679-1691.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Society for Research into Higher Education Global moves to integrate Indigenous perspectives and histories into university curricula are growing. In Australia, shifts towards Indigenisation in higher education teaching and research have been slow, but now – partly due to new national and institutional policies – are re-forming the disciplinary landscapes where our students learn and grow. Vital to achieving these new agendas are the Indigenous Australian scholars whose work experiences are reported in this paper. Findings from a nation-wide survey of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander academics (mainly in professional disciplines like law, education and health) support a more optimistic scenario than that portrayed in some existing literature. No longer peripheral to institutional missions, this newly confident cohort of Indigenous academics is forging unprecedented partnerships with non-Indigenous colleagues and transforming the very essence of a university degree. The implications for Australia, and for other societies with Indigenous communities, are profound.
Bodkin-Andrews, G, Page, S & Trudgett, M 2018, 'Shaming the silences: Indigenous Graduate Attributes and the privileging of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander voices', Critical Studies in Education.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018, © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. An increasing number of Australian universities are committing to Indigenous Graduate Attributes across a wide range of academic disciplines. This paper critiques not only the slow up-take of Indigenous Graduate Attributes in the last 10 years, but also how such attributes may realistically contribute to university students graduating with increased 'awareness', 'knowledges' and 'abilities' to work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities. It is reasoned that any commitment to Indigenous Graduate Attributes must be carefully and critically monitored for the silencing effects of colonial narratives that also are prevalent throughout Australian Indigenous Studies (which is arguably the foundation of realising Indigenous Graduate Attributes). Drawing from a diversity of Indigenous standpoint theories, critical studies and research methodologies, the paper offers a critical evaluative framework through which both Indigenous Graduate Attributes and the content within the teaching and learning of Australian Indigenous Studies may be evaluated. This includes an acute awareness of imposed colonial narratives, a critical awareness of one's own positioning, engagement with Indigenous voices, knowledge of Indigenous Research Methodologies, and more meaningful levels of Indigenous engagement through Indigenous ethics and protocols.
Bodkin-Andrews, G, Whittaker, A, Harrison, N, Craven, R, Parker, P, Trudgett, M & Page, S 2017, 'Exposing the patterns of statistical blindness: Centring Indigenous standpoints on student identity, motivation, and future aspirations', Australian Journal of Education, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 225-249.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017, © Australian Council for Educational Research 2017. This article engages with an Indigenous Quantitative Methodological Framework to examine links between a positive sense of cultural identity, future aspirations, and academic motivational tendencies. Utilising a sample of Aboriginal, non-Aboriginal and First Generation (Migrant) Australian students in years 7–10, results showed strong psychometric properties across the three groups for the measures utilised. Whilst few differences were identified between the First Generation and non-Aboriginal Australian students, Aboriginal students consistently had lower future aspirations and less adaptive motivational tendencies than the two other student groups. Importantly though, Aboriginal students held a stronger sense of cultural identity. Key links between motivation and cultural identity were identified, and both were associated with stronger educational and life aspirations. The implications suggest that researchers and teachers need to recognise the importance of cultural identity as a positive driver for schooling motivation and future aspirations, and that First Nations theory and research should be engaged to override the erasing effects of Western epistemological standpoints when utilising statistical methods.
Harrison, N, Trudgett, M & Page, S 2017, 'The dissertation examination: identifying critical factors in the success of Indigenous Australian doctoral students', Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, vol. 42, pp. 115-127.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Indigenous Australians represent 2.2% of the working age population, yet account for only 1.4% of all university enrolments. In relation to higher degree research students, Indigenous Australians account for 1.1% of enrolments, but only 0.8% of all higher degree research completions. This paper reports on findings that emerged from an Australian Research Council-funded study which aimed to establish a model of best practice for the supervision of Indigenous doctoral students. The project identified the dissertation examination as one of the critical factors underpinning the success of doctoral candidates. Whilst research into the examination process for doctoral students is limited, the research that specifically explores the examination of dissertations submitted by Indigenous students is entirely inadequate. Our research identified key epistemological concerns that impact approaches to the examination process, to demonstrate how the dominance of Western methods of research impact the examination process for Indigenous doctoral students. This paper explores the experiences of 50 successful Indigenous Australian doctors with a specific focus on their examiner preference and disciplinary requirements. It highlights the limitations that some Indigenous students and their supervisors experience in finding an appropriate examiner.
The number of Indigenous students enrolled in higher education is
increasing. Yet parity with the proportion of domestic students attending
university remains some way off. This review outlines the efforts that have been made to reduce the gap in Indigenous staff and student outcomes.Looking at the Australian higher education sector in 20 years' time the authors ask what is the future for senior Indigenous appointments and the aspiration of including Indigenous knowledge in the curriculum? The review identifies one pathway to Indigenous workforce outcomes is through postgraduate programs. It describes efforts underway to embed Indigenous perspectives into the broader curriculum. The review concludes with some optimism that Indigenous Australian outcomes are gradually moving from the margins to the centre of universities missions albeit at a pace that will need to improve to achieve parity by 2040.
Trudgett, M, Page, S & Harrison, N 2016, 'Brilliant Minds: A Snapshot of Successful Indigenous Australian Doctoral Students', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF INDIGENOUS EDUCATION, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 70-79.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Asmar, C, Page, S & Radloff, A 2015, 'Exploring anomalies in Indigenous student engagement: findings from a national Australian survey of undergraduates', Higher Education Research and Development, vol. 34, pp. 15-29.
Increases in participation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in higher education across Australia continue to be promising. However, it is also known that Indigenous students' attrition, retention and completion rates remain areas of concern. In this paper, we report our findings from an analysis of Indigenous student responses to the 2009 Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. Overall, Indigenous Australian students express positive responses in relation to engagement, but are more likely than non-Indigenous students to be planning to depart. We explore this somewhat unexpected anomaly, whilst also suggesting that much more needs to be known about our Indigenous students, including, for example, whom they may interact with at university; where they turn for support; and why they may decide to leave. Our findings strongly indicate that better national and institutional data are needed to address the current gaps in knowledge relating to Indigenous student populations in Australia and around the world.
Page, S 2014, 'Exploring new conceptualisations of old problems: researching and reorienting teaching in indigenous studies to transform student learning', The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, vol. 43, pp. 21-30.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Indigenous Studies can be both exciting and challenging for teachers and students. This article will examine how an existing learning theory can be harnessed to help teachers better understand these challenges and manage some frequently seen student behaviours. Much of the discussion in Indigenous Studies pedagogy to date has focused on the curriculum and what we should be teaching, with a growing body of literature, for example, related to the inclusion of Indigenous Knowledges. However, there is less written about how students learn in Indigenous Studies. Drawing on the notion of the Cultural Interface and the 'zone of proximal development' to highlight the complexity of Indigenous Studies classrooms as a site of necessary struggle for students, the article considers possibilities for reconceptualising and reorienting teaching. The paper explores using the threshold concepts framework to gather evidence about how students learn or indeed don't learn, in Indigenous Studies. Threshold concepts are key ideas, critical to mastering discipline specific knowledge, which facilitate students' ability to think like a discipline experts.
Harrison, N, Page, S & Finneran, M 2013, 'Generative methodology: an inquiry into how a university can acknowledge a commitment to its Aboriginal community', The Australian Educational Researcher, vol. 40, pp. 339-351.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper maps ethical and epistemological issues around attempts by a university to negotiate with the traditional custodians of the Sydney basin, the Darug, to facilitate the intergenerational transmission of knowledge within their community, and through the university curriculum. The theory and practice of research raised some important methodological questions about what constitutes knowledge in Aboriginal and western contexts. The project brought us to reflect upon the epistemological basis of our research to consider whether it was history, ethnography, cultural resource management or memory work. As we worked through these issues during the process of consultation and negotiation with Senior Darug, the inquiry began to focus on how a university can acknowledge a commitment to its community. Such a commitment for a university must be built around attentiveness and respect, rather than an epistemology of control. We find that respecting the power structures and organisation of an Aboriginal community is a crucial step for a university in performing such a commitment. Respect for the established power relations in these communities constitutes the very basis of a generative methodology.
Mercier, OR, Asmar, C & Page, S 2011, 'An Academic Occupation: Mobilisation, Sit-In, Speaking Out and Confrontation in the Experiences of Maori Academics.', The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, vol. 40, pp. 81-91.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Māori and other Indigenous scholars have been calling for the Indigenisation of academic space for decades. But what is the day-to-day experience of Māori academics within Aotearoa–New Zealand universities, and how does this experience reveal or enact the commitments to claim space? We interviewed 12 Māori academics and analysed and organised their experiences in the following way: the university can be understood as a site of (1) mobilisation of Māori staff and students; (2) sit-in, or infusing the institutional system with Indigenous values; (3) speaking out, thereby educating not only students, but staff and the public about Indigenous issues; and (4) at which confrontation is part of the academic terrain. The most common outcome of confrontation was negotiation and reclamation of space for Māori people, norms and values. In spite of this apparent willingness of the university to compromise, we find that capitulation (being moulded to the norms of the academy) and (self-)eviction (reconciling difference by leaving the university) are ever-present possibilities for Māori academics. In shaping and presenting the Māori academic occupation as a 4-stage commitment to affirm Māori identity, norms and scholarship, we present a framework within which Indigenous and minority academic work may be understood.
Asmar, C & Page, S 2009, 'Sources of satisfaction and stress among Indigenous academic teachers: Findings from a national Australian study', Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 29, pp. 387-401.
Page, S & Asmar, C 2008, 'Beneath the teaching iceberg: Exposing the hidden support dimensions of Indigenous academic work'.
Rose, D, Rose, M, Farrington, S & Page, S 2008, 'Scaffolding academic literacy with indigenous health sciences students: An evaluative study', Journal of English for Academic Purposes, vol. 7, pp. 165-179.
Page, S, Farrington, S & Daniel-DiGregorio, K 2007, 'The student experiences study: Using research to transform curriculum for Indigenous health sciences students'.
DiGregorio, KD, Farrington, S & Page, S 2000, 'Listening to our students: Understanding the factors that affect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students' academic success', Higher Education Research and Development, vol. 19, pp. 297-309.
Farrington, S, DiGregorio, KD & Page, S 1999, 'The Things That Matter: Understanding the Factors That Affect the Participation and Retention of Indigenous Students in the Cadigal Program at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney.'.
Farrington, S, Digregono, KD, Page, S & others 1999, 'Yooroang Garang issues in Aboriginal health worker training: Listening to students', Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal, vol. 23, pp. 17-17.
Page, S, DiGregorio, KD & Farrington, S, 'INTRANATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER STUDENTS'ACADEMIC SUCCESS'.
Page, S, 'The transformative potential of Southern SOTL for Australian Indigenous Studies', Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in the South, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 108-108.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The complex problem of how students learn in Indigenous Studies and what they find most challenging has recently gained new importance for Australian tertiary educators. A new Indigenous strategy, released by the peak body Universities Australia, has indicated that all university curricula should include Indigenous perspectives. This short paper touches briefly on this potentially pivotal development in Australian Higher Education, foreshadows a learning and teaching project I am currently undertaking, and outlines why SOTL in the South is timely and crucial to advancing the contributions that Indigenous scholars are already making to the field in general and to social justice education more specifically.
How to cite this reflective piece:
PAGE, Susan. The transformative potential of Southern SOTL for Australian Indigenous Studies. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in the South, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 1, p. 108-113, sep. 2017. Available at: <http://sotl-south-journal.net/?journal=sotls&page=article&op=view&path%…;. Date accessed: 12 Sep. 2017.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Page, S, Holt, L & Thorpe, K 2020, 'Fostering Indigenous intercultural ability during and beyond initial teacher education' in Intercultural Competence in the Work of Teachers Confronting Ideologies and Practices, Routledge, UK, pp. 237-254.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In an increasingly globalised world, the incorporation of intercultural competence within university institutional goals has become ever more important in preparing 'global ready' graduates. Intercultural competence of graduate teachers has been found to increase self-efficacy, develop global mindedness and improve educational outcomes. Intercultural competence is seen as critical to achieving the dual aims of increasing the Indigenous teacher workforce and developing all teachers' ability to work with Indigenous Australians. While the Indigenous focus areas undoubtedly provide direction for initial teacher education curriculum there is an emphasis on professional knowledge, at the graduate level, with little guidance for professional practice in the classroom or engagement with families and community – both areas covered in the two remaining domains. Schools of education, in broadening the focus of intercultural education would be well served by examining their own practices in relation to Indigenous staff and student engagement.
Trudgett, M, Page, S, Bodkin-Andrews, G, Franklin, C & Whittaker, A 2017, 'Another brick in the wall? Parent perceptions of school experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.' in Walter, M, Martin, KL & Bodkin-Andrews, G (eds), Indigenous Children Growing Up Strong: A Longitudinal Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Families, Palgrave Macmillan, UK, pp. 233-258.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Within the Australian and international research literature the likely importance of how schools and teachers relate to and interact with Indigenous parents and children has been identified. Despite this, there is as yet little Australian research in this area. This chapter addresses this question. The results find that Parent 1s' perception that the teacher of the study child was sensitive to the needs of Indigenous families was regularly and positively linked to good relationships with the school. This finding strongly suggests that the relationships between teachers and parents are not only of great importance, but that the nature of this relationship must move beyond a homogeneous and Eurocentric understanding of what constitutes Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander parents and their families.
Trudgett, M, Page, S, Bodkin-Andrews, G, Franklin, C & Whittaker, A 2017, 'Another brick in the wall? Parent perceptions of school educational experiences of indigenous Australian children' in Indigenous Children Growing Up Strong: A Longitudinal Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Families, pp. 233-258.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Page, S, Trudgett, M & Harrison, N 2015, 'A sociocultural approach to supporting Indigenous Australian success' in Macfarlane, A, Macfarlane, S & Webber, M (eds), Sociocultural Realities: Exploring new horizons, Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp. 155-167.
Asmar, C, Mercier, ORI & Page, S 2009, '"You do it from your core": priorities, perceptions and practices of research among Indigenous academics in Australian and New Zealand universities', pp. 146-60.
Page, S, Trudgett, M & Bodkin-Andrews, G 2016, 'Exploring an Indigenous graduate attribute project through a critical race theory lens', Research and Development in Higher Education: The Shape of Higher Education, Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia Annual International Conference, HERDSA, Fremantle, Perth, pp. 258-267.
Graduate attributes are a mechanism not only for developing employability skills, but also for fostering graduate abilities to be productive contributors to social change. There is growing recognition that university graduates can and should contribute to enhancing outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians signaling the need for dedicated Indigenous curriculum for all university students. Consider the transformative possibilities of significant numbers of graduates empowered to work effectively in partnership with Indigenous Australians. In 2014 almost 10,000 students graduated from the University of Technology Sydney (UTS). Reflecting the organisational culture, graduate attributes also illustrate the values of an institution. In 2014, responding to the Behrendt Review of Higher Education Access and Outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People (2012) call for whole of university approaches, UTS approved the development of an Indigenous Graduate Attribute (IGA) Framework for all university courses. Recognising that resources would be required to support the implementation of such an ambitious project, a proposal was made to establish an Indigenous academic expertise centre to support the implementation of IGAs in all courses. In this paper the Aboriginal academic staff leading the IGA project will draw on Critical Race Theory (CRT), including the work of Ladson-Billings, to reflect on our experiences in the first year of the project. We use CRT to highlight the ways in which institutions might work with Indigenous academics to optimise the success of complex projects such as the UTS Indigenous Graduate Attribute project.
Page, S, Farrington, S & DiGregorio, K 1999, 'Promoting academic success through valuing and supporting diversity amongst Indigenous students in a block mode health science program', HERDSA (Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia Inc) Annual International Conference.
Page, S, DiGregorio, KD & Farrington, S 1997, 'The Student Experiences Study: Understanding the Factors that Affect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students' Academic Success', Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Brisbane.
Asmar, C, Page, S & Radloff, A 2011, Dispelling myths: Indigenous students' engagement with university.
Page, S 2015, 'Theoretical learning spaces: exploring threshold concepts, the cultural interface and the zone of proximal development to better understand student learning in Indigenous Studies'.
Page, S & Trudgett, M 2015, 'UTS Indigenous Graduate Attribute Project: Examining institutional readiness for embedding Indigenous knowledges in the curriculum'.
Page, S 2012, 'Intersecting and Overlapping Spaces: Combining teacher and student perspectives to identify threshold concepts in Indigenous Australian Studies.'.
Asmar, C, Page, S & others 2009, 'Sharing the load [Indigenous cultural policy in the post-Bradley era.]', APN Educational Media.