Sumita Ghosh is an academic who focuses on responsive urban design and spatial planning in the School of Built Environment, Faculty of Design, Architecture and Buliding, UTS. As an architect and urban planner, Sumita has more than 25 years of teaching, research and professional experience. She has previously worked for government, local councils, research organisations and universities in Australia and New Zealand.
Sumita's research interests focus on green infrastructure planning and policy (urban forestry and local food production); urban morphologies and sustainable settlement form using spatial GIS and remote sensing applications. Her research explores food urbanism theory and practices in designing and master planning for precincts and creating healthy and sustainable communities.
She has participated in multidisciplinary research projects with various Australian universities and the Foundation for Research Science and Technology (FRST), New Zealand Government on green infrastructure, sustainable settlement modelling and community development practices. She was the Chief Investigator from UTS in a collaborative research project funded by Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) Category 1 grant that investigated carbon benefits and pollution mitigation potential of Australia’s urban forest. She participated in City of Sydney’s Environmental Grant Programme to conduct qualitative social research on rooftop urban food production in the Sydney CBD in Australia. She has been a Chief Investigator from UTS in Landcom's urban tranformation project on local foodscapes and placemaking in high densities.
Sumita teaches urban design, strategic planning, master planning and spatial analysis (using Geographic Information Systems or GIS methods) in Master of Planning degree in UTS. She also supervises doctoral and postgraduate research students in the School of Built Environment in the Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building in UTS.She has published in peer reviewed journal articles, book chapters and conference papers.
Can supervise: YES
Green infrastructure planning and policy
Food urbanism theory and practices
Local food production and gardens
Urban morhologies and sustainable urban form
Spatial Analysis using GIS and remote sensing
Structure planning and master planning
Spatial analysis using ArcGIS
Social Impact Assessment (SIA)
Urban planning policy
Metropolitan Sydney has a network of rail corridors almost 400 kilometers in length, which vary in width from narrow cuttings to
wide easements. With an appropriate selection of vegetation species, these corridors can be used to offset carbon emissions from
railway operations. Simultaneously, the plantings will improve air quality, reduce pollution and storm water flows, ameliorate
urban heating deliver biodiversity gains and improve urban design and property values. A pilot study was carried out on a
representative section of one of the major rail lines in Sydney in 2016. A detailed inventory of vegetation on the selected site was
obtained through a field survey and a variety of tools were used including i-Tree Eco to benchmark current carbon sequestration
and storage (CS&S) levels. Study outcomes include the existing carbon capacity of the rail corridor’s above-ground (and
substrate) biomass and air pollution reduction. It also presents estimates of CS&S potential by identifying future planting areas within the pilot study corridor. These results are valuable for infrastructure policy formulation directed towards carbon emissions as well as securing the co-benefits noted above.
There is an increase in the construction of multi-unit residential buildings around inner Sydney in the past few years. The energy consumption in Australia has increased by approximately 30% and associated carbon dioxide emissions. This research examines a large multi-unit residential case study located close to the Sydney’s Central Business District (CBD). Current energy consumption for the common areas such as the basement, car parks, lobbies, etc. and water usage for gardens are estimated using the actual data on electricity and water usage. Potential for reduction in energy consumption and their equivalent carbon footprint values are examined. Three carbon emissions reduction strategies include: savings from electricity generation from roof solar PV installation; rainwater harvesting from the roof and minimising annual water loss by evaporation in swimming pools reducing energy demand for water supply. In addition, carbon benefits provided by the trees are calculated using an urban forest assessment tool. Recommendations suggest that installation of solar PV on the roof, using an appropriate swimming pool cover, rainwater harvesting and a better tree canopy cover collectively could improve the overall CO2 footprint performance of the selected case study.
The growing interests in 'local food' in recent years in public discussions, research and practice highlight its significant importance as a part of overall food system. This research compares spatially local food production potential of home gardens in nine residential neighbourhood case studies with varying physical densities at a local scale using geographic information systems and mathematical methods. This paper develops a 'local food energy model' for measuring sustainability potential of growing local food mainly vegetables in the home gardens. The outcomes indicate that potential of the home gardens in supplying vegetables demand as a share of total dietary energy would depend on the morphological characteristics of urban forms, total resident population, total food demand and other related factors. Local food production in the home gardens could meaningfully contribute towards building a sustainable food future.
Tenty, T, Wallis, B, Ghosh, S & Howitt, R 2012, 'Local Implementation of a Broadband Network: Social Impact issues of New Broadband Capacity in Australia', Journal of Social Inclusion, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 20-39.
In April 2009, the Australian Government announced plans to roll-out the National Broadband Network (NBN) Company Open Access Network in Australia. Australiaâs NBN will bring high speed internet access to areas and people that otherwise would have been without. Predicting consequences (both positive and negative) arising from the NBN, as well as risks and opportunities that it will generate differentially between places, groups and sectors, is inherently uncertain. With little reliable data available on social impacts of NBN-style access at the household and community level, policy-making and regulation risks responding to optimistic speculation and commercially motivated spin rather than carefully weighed evidence. The research reported in this paper aimed to address this gap with a preliminary assessment of the social impacts of the NBN-like broadband roll-out at one New South Wales test site in southwest Sydney. The paper discusses the research methods and findings and frames recommendations for further research to address both limitations that arose in the research reported here, and broader gaps in understanding the social impacts of new forms of broadband access and associated applications. Due to the small sample size, this preliminary report provides details and findings from a scoping research perspective that aims to inform future research in this area.
Ghosh, S 2010, 'Sustainability potential of suburban gardens: review and new directions', Australasian Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 165-175.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Gardens, as important elements of Australian suburban residential environments, could have significant sustainability potential similar to that of dwellings. Research to identify the cumulative (social, cultural, environmental and ecological) sustainability values of suburban domestic gardens has been very limited. Australian suburbs are likely to retain their typical characteristics for a considerable period of time as their rapid intensification is not likely. Therefore, it is immensely important to understand the role and performance of the suburban garden in this discourse. This article reviews the sustainability potential of domestic gardens and their links to suburban forms, sustainable design, social processes, and environmental and ecological functions. It explores whether gardens could be re-imagined as energy and water sources rather than sinks. This research presents a holistic conceptual sustainability model for gardens and establishes that suburban gardens can provide multiple sustainability benefits.
Ghosh, S & Head, L 2009, 'Retrofitting the Suburban Garden: morphologies and some elements of sustainability potential of two Australian residential suburbs compared', Australian Geographer, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 319-346.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Residential gardens will continue to dominate as important elements of Australian suburbs in the timeframe available for adapting to climate change. In this paper, we analyse and compare the morphologies and sustainability potential of residential suburbs and their gardens in two case studies: Traditional-suburban and Modernsuburban in the Illawarra region of New South Wales. Spatial distributions of land-cover patterns were estimated using Geographic Information Systems (ArcGIS). The four sustainability parameters measured were: roof rain water collection; local food (vegetable) production; energy and CO2 emission savings from clothes lines; and carbon benefits of onsite tree canopy cover. Outcomes suggest that land cover such as tree canopy cover and other permeable and impermeable surfaces in garden spaces can significantly impact on sustainability. Impermeable surface cover is higher in the Modern-suburban compared to the Traditional-suburban development. Traditional-suburban is more capable of supporting environmental and ecological functions through better connectivity of green spaces and availability of onsite land areas for local food production. Modern-suburban has more capacity for roof rainwater collection due to larger building roof sizes, provided there is planning for sufficient tank spaces in the design phases. These results identify specific characteristics of two suburban forms which could make positive contributions to suburban sustainability. However, changes in behaviour would be essential to utilise these capabilities of suburban environments.
This paper presents an urban taxonomy or classification system for New Zealand settlement forms across five urban scales: metropolitan/regional, sub-metropolitan/city; community/neighbourhood; local/residential block and houses/micro. It provides taxonomical descriptions and density patterns of existing and emerging New Zealand residential urban forms at neighbourhood and local levels. Considering seven case studies in the Auckland Region, this paper formulates a set of basic quantitative urban form descriptors within the urban taxonomical framework. An analysis of these descriptors indicates that dwelling and household densities and spatial distributions of built-up roof areas, vegetation, productive land, impervious pavements and pathways reflect their urban form characteristics. These varying qualities can be linked to the appraisal of environmental sustainability performances of different urban forms.
Ghosh, S, Vale, RJ & Vale, B 2008, 'Local Food production in home gardens: measuring on-site sustainability potential of residential development', International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (IJESD), vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 430-451.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Local food production is an integrated pathway to achieving a sustainable food future, appropriate urban ecosystem maintenance and meaningful environmental impact reduction. Current urban food production policies have demonstrated the sustainability importance of growing food locally. This paper analyses local vegetable productivities associated with available productive land areas as home gardens in low, medium and high density residential urban forms using aerial photographs, spatial ArcGIS and mathematical methods. It compares the food production potential of a household in five different residential urban form case studies from the Auckland Region, New Zealand. Potential annual household savings are estimated as Land Area Equivalents (LEQs) in hectares using ecological footprint conversion methods. The case studies were compared to determine the most 'food efficient' urban form considering average and maximum production scenarios. Outcomes indicate that community behaviour change and appropriate policy measures are critical for the uptake of local food production in home gardens
Ghosh, S, Vale, R & Vale, B 2007, 'Metrics of Local Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study in Auckland, New Zealand', Local Environment, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 355-378.
Environmental impacts, in addition to economic, social and cultural drivers, have significant implications in the evolution of more sustainable urban forms. This paper presents the results of calculating potential local environmental sustainability using ecological footprint techniques in terms of five main aspects - domestic energy; transportation; vegetation cover; food; waste - for five residential urban form case studies in Auckland, New Zealand. This quantitative study formulates a comprehensive methodology for measuring comparative sustainability performances and identifies important residential urban form descriptors. As measured in this research, low-density urban forms may have more potential to be sustainable compared with other compact urban forms which may require a change of behavioural patterns for the residents.
Ghosh, S & Vale, R 2006, 'The Potential for Solar Energy Use in a New Zealand Residential Neighbourhood: A Case Study Considering the Effect on CO2 Emissions and The Possible Benefits of Changing Roof Form', Australasian Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 13, no. December, pp. 216-225.
Ghosh, S, Vale, R & Vale, B 2006, 'Domestic energy sustainability of different urban residential patterns: a New Zealand approach', International Journal of Sustainable Development, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 16-37.
A quantitative study was undertaken to calculate the potential sustainability of five residential blocks in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) of differing physical densities. The main study considered five attributes of sustainability: domestic energy, transportation, carbon sequestration, food, and waste. This paper presents the results and mathematical methodology developed for one key aspect, domestic energy. Using aerial photographs, Geographic Information System (GIS) and ecological footprint assessment techniques, domestic energy demand, generation and deficit were calculated. Research outcomes suggest that the classic New Zealand suburb with a density of 18 households per hectare might have the greatest potential to be more sustainable.
Ghosh, S, Vale, R & Vale, B 2006, 'Indications from Sustainability Indicators', Journal of Urban Design, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 263-275.
Sustainability Indicators are a measure to assess progress towards sustainable development, but how and why certain indicators are produced and used is often hard to understand. There is also a lack of common ground, so that different indicators cannot be directly compared. This paper explores the suitability of some existing sustainability indicators and measurement tools in this light. It suggests there is a need to develop simple local quantitative indicators in addition to the more commonly used qualitative indicators. A new method is outlined for the development of quantitative physical indicators as part of an integrated approach to a more sustainable urban environment.
Water is a finite natural resource that is essential for our survival. Over the years the reserves of fresh water are running low and some regions in the world are faced with severe water stress. Climate change has impacted the pattern and amount of precipitation and the water shortage has escalated with rapid population growth and urbanization. As a result, we and the natural environment are confronted with a serious water shortage. Sustainable water management is a strategy for maintaining future water resources that include increasing water supply and managing the way we use fresh water to sustain economic growth for current and future generations. This article aims to discuss the state-of-the-art of managing water supply and demand as natural resources and what indicators are being developed to identify water scarcity worldwide. The article reviews the technologies that have been developed to implement sustainable water management at the community scale, demonstrated with case studies.
Ghosh, S 2017, 'Sustainable Urban Design and Planning for Precincts' in Abraham, MA (ed), Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies, Elsevier, pp. 13-30.
This article focuses on planning measures and policies for delivering sustainable design and planning technologies and practices for water conservation, energy savings, and green infrastructure provisions at a precinct scale. The collective performances of selected case studies using sustainable water management practices, energy efficient technologies, and tree canopy cover and local food production opportunities are discussed.
Ghosh, S 2016, 'Food Efficient Planning and Design for Peri-Urban Neighbourhoods' in Maheshwari, B, Singh, VP & Thoradeniya, B (eds), Balanced Urban Development: Options and Strategies for Liveable Cities, Springer, Netherlands, pp. 367-385.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Peri-urban areas are the strategically most important emerging built environments that need to integrate appropriate food efficient design and planning. This chapter aims to understand food responsive design and form specific characteristics of new residential neighbourhoods in peri- urban areas. A review of three key food urbanism approaches was conducted. Two international master planned community case studies from the United States of America (USA) that apply ‘Agrarian Urbanism’ principles were analysed. A small scale residential neighbourhood case study in Sydney, Australia was redesigned to test applicability of these principles as identified through the review and analysis. Results from these case studies, emphasise the importance of protecting land in the peri-urban locations. Appropriate design and planning approaches can contribute significantly. Developing a strong a evidence base; understanding community aspirations; formulating appropriate planning policy and recognising trandiscplinary connections of food efficient design and planning would be vital for building resilient communities of the future.
Ghosh, S, Vanni, I & Giovanangeli, A 2016, 'Social aspects of institutional rooftop gardens' in Wilkinson, S & Dixon, T (eds), Green Roof Retrofit Building Urban Resilience, John Wiley & Sons, UK, pp. 189-215.
Ghosh, S 2015, 'Local Food Futures and Healthy Communities: Role of Sustainable Practices' in Ghosh, D, Bagchi, D & Tetsua, K (eds), Clinical Aspects of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 399-411.
The book provides an essential overview of the clinical aspects surrounding functional foods and nutraceuticals for key stakeholders, drawing links between areas of knowledge that are often isolated from each other.
Ghosh, S 2013, 'A Study of Suburban New Zealand' in Vale, R & Vale, B (eds), Living within a fair share ecological footprint, Routledge, Oxon, pp. 240-261.
Sustainability of a human settlement is significantly influenced by a very wide range of factors, including spatial distributions of transport networks and land-use pallerns, resource demand and associated environmental emissions, access to facilities and services, residential location choices, behavioural practices, community participation and knowledge, social qualities, economic factors and impacts of .urba~l plam~il~g policies (Anderson et al., 1996; Bertolini et al., 2005). Residentlal land IS one of the major determinants of urban structure', covers approximately 40 per cent, of the total developed land in a city and is 'the generator of most types 01 urban traffic' (Romanos, 1976: 4). The two main patterns of urban development identified in sustainability literature are. 'compa.ct' ~u.ld 'sprawl'. A significant debate continues around the relatIve sustamabllItj' performance of compact or high density developments versus sprawl or low density patterns (Williams et at., 2000; Jenks and Dempsey, 2005; ~ewlIlan and Kenworthy, 1989; Gordon and Richardson, 1997; Troy, 19:6; Troy. et at., 2005). The proponents of urban intensification argue that hIgh denSIty developments are more sustainable compared to low and medium densities due to their potential to reduce transport use (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999), as they could be located in close proximity to work, protect ecologically sensitive land areas and water quality (United Stat.es Environment Protection Authority [EPA], 2006) and facilitate better SOCIal interactions by creating well-designed places where people can 'live, work and play' (English Partnerships and Housing Corporation.' 200~),' ~OSL current urban planning policies are targeted towards further mtensIhcatlOll of urban environments as compact developments are considered the sustainable solution (Guy and Marvin, 1999).
Ghosh, S 2012, 'Sustainability of Local Food Production: A Review on Energy and Environmental Perspectives' in Ghosh, D, Das, S, Bagchi, D & Smarta, RB (eds), Innovation in Healthy and Functional Foods, CRC Press, Florida, USA, pp. 555-579.
This chapter in the 'Future Trends' section of the book focuses on understanding issues associated with local food production and its potential from energy and environmental sustainability perspectives. It reviews barriers (such as population growth, urbanisation, bio fuel etc) to sustainable local food production and supply. It explores local food production in human settlements using different case studies. Impacts of local food in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency are discussed. Local food production potential of residential neighbourhoods are analysed and compared at local scales. This chapter finally synthesises the key research trends and future research directions in local food research.
Ghosh, S & Khan, F 2018, 'Potential of trees to mitigate climate change impacts in a railway corridor case study in Sydney', https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/6e13f1_682d42481a4d4e08b9a046cfade9616a…, Smart and Sustainable Built Environments, SASBE, Sydney, Australia, pp. 267-275.
Railway corridors as transportation networks cover significant land areas in Sydney Metropolitan region. Many sections contain trees, shrubs and vacant land areas along the railway tracks. Trees are protected in these locations due to restricted access conditions and could act as urban forest banks located close to developments to mitigate climate change impacts. Trees as useful green infrastructure could provide significant environmental, ecological and economic benefits. Limited research has been carried out to measure the contributions of trees in the grey infrastructure facilities such as motorways, landfill sites and railway corridors in cities. Recognising immense prospects of greening these grey infrastructure spaces to provide climate change adaptation is essential.
A railway corridor case study through residential suburbs of Western Sydney and approximately of 11 km long was selected for this project. The objectives of this paper were to determine the existing land use distribution and to measure climate change mitigation potential of trees as carbon storage and sequestration capacities; air pollution reduction capabilities and associated economic benefits in this corridor. This paper modelled tree growth using a scenario-based approach to determine the impacts of increasing tree canopy cover in the case study site.
In this paper, existing land use distribution; potential of carbon storage and sequestration and air pollution reduction capacity and economic costs of current tree canopy cover in the rail corridor case study were measured. These aspects were analysed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methods and i-Tree software developed by US Forest Service. Results established that trees provide positive ecosystem services. Revegetating vacant lands with trees on the corridor case study could enhance carbon storage and sequestration and air pollution reduction potential and associated economic values significantly.
Ray, M, Ghosh, S & Wilkinson, S 2018, 'Evaluating factors influencing the uncontrolled growth of urban-rural belt – a case study of Delhi, India', https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/6e13f1_682d42481a4d4e08b9a046cfade9616a…, Smart and Sustainable Built Environments, SASBE, Sydney, pp. 126-134.
The unprecedented growth of cities in the last few decades gave rise to a new kind of peri-urban area, which is neither urban nor rural in a real sense. The complexity of these spaces has given them various names in different parts of the world such as peri-urban, urban-rural zone, exurbia, transition zone, urban-rural belt etc. These hybrid spaces have a unique socio-spatial dynamic of their own which defy the principles of sustainable development and fail to enjoy the benefits of urban and the subsidised welfares of rural. The transition from agriculture to a new mixed and diversified economic base is one of the significant characteristics of the urban-rural belt.
Delhi, the capital territory of India, is not immune to the uncontrolled growth of urban-rural belt. Often referred to as the “policy void zones”, these spaces display an extraordinary “order in chaos”. However, uncontrolled growth of urban rural belt is pertinent in many cities of India but Delhi is the only megacity where this transformation has been enormous in the last few decades and provides a model for the study in Indian context. The massive in-migration and rampant development are threatening the growth of the city on one side and unique characteristics of rural on the other. The people in the urban-rural belt face enormous challenges concerning essential infrastructure services, safety and security, which affect the standard of living. Often regarded as the provider for urban areas, the belt has failed to sustain its own growth, repeatedly, in spite of numerous interventions.
This paper investigates the factors influencing the uncontrolled growth of urban-rural belt through a settlement’s perspective in Delhi, India. The methodology is based on the exploratory literature review to understand the growth of urban rural belt. The study briefly outlines the concept of urban rural belt and presents the impact of urbanisation in its proliferation. The temporal change in Delhi’s land use is present...
Ghosh, S 2017, 'Measuring Integrated Sustainability Performance And Self-Sufficiency Of Three Residential Precincts In Sydney', Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Real Estate Society (PRRES) Conference, Pacific Rim Real Estate Society (PRRES) Conference, PRRES, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-14.
Sustainability performance of a local-scale urban form is significantly important to developing self-sufficient communities. In this paper, three contemporary low, medium and high density residential developments from Sydney were selected and measured considering three sustainability factors: energy; water and local food production as a part of the green infrastructure. Data was collected from Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2011 Census, georeferenced aerial imagery and planning and property databases. The selected case studies for this paper were analysed to determine the total energy and water demands and the potential of developments to integrate renewable energy and water to develop localised self-sufficient systems. The potential of on-site green infrastructure to provide positive ecosystem benefits through urban food production were calculated in this analysis. The assessment is conducted using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methods and mathematical calculations. Research outcomes suggest that calculating impacts of different sustainability factors in different density precincts or local scale urban forms could provide clues for developing relevant sustainability strategies for various urban development projects. The methodology developed could be applied to designing new and retrofitting existing developments. Different density urban forms would require varying strategies to become sustainable.
Ghosh, S & Yung, SH 2017, 'Carbon and economic benefits of urban trees in two Sydney transport corridor case studies', https://www.ecocity2017.com/program/papers/, Ecocity World Summit 2017, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-12.
Trees in urban areas provide multiple local sustainability and climate change benefits. Roads as the movement arteries of cities are leading sources of greenhouse gas emissions from transport and impact different land uses along and around these networks. This paper estimates carbon sequestration and storage potential, air pollution reduction capability and associated economic benefits of urban trees using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methods and i-Tree Eco v5.0. The research was conducted on selected sections of two transport corridor case studies along the Pacific Highway and Parramatta Road in Sydney, Australia. This research provided valuable information and evidence base on tree species, composition, characteristics and tree densities in these two Sydney case studies. Localities with larger trees were equipped with higher carbon sequestration potential and storage capacity. Variations in land use patterns can influence significantly urban forest compositions and subsequent carbon sequestration and storage potential and air pollution reduction capabilities of urban trees. This research established significant sustainability importance and ecosystem service benefits of urban trees. These outcomes could raise awareness for existing tree preservation and new tree planting and highlight the need for formulating meaningful planning policies for urban trees. The participation and building awareness of community and supports of government, private and other organisations would be essential in this process.
Ghosh, S 2016, 'Exploring local food sustainability potential and ‘Agrarian Urbanism’ in the regional city of Dubbo', Proceedings for the Planning, Participation and Progress at the Australian Regional Development Conference, Australian Regional Development Conference, Debra Thompson, Association for Sustainability in Business Inc., Hyatt Hotel, Canberra, pp. 59-75.
Rapid urbanisation as a consequence of population growth is likely to reduce the availability of valuable agricultural land areas for food production. Two-thirds of the world’s population will be living in urban areas by 2030. Cities around the world are integrating local food production capabilities within built environments to create food secure and environmentally sustainable habitats. Regional cities with comparatively less population have a significant potential and distinct advantage to incorporate these measures early on in planning for the urban areas. In this paper, a review is conducted on local food production policies and practices in relevant cities. ‘Agrarian Urbanism’ approach to the master planning of new developments can protect valuable agricultural land and natural areas. A real-world case study that applies ‘Agrarian Urbanism’ principles is analysed. Dubbo, one of the most important regional cities of Orana region in New South Wales in Australia is selected as a case study for research analysis. Using Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methods, current local food production potential, and its capacity to meet the annual food (vegetable) demand of Dubbo City are estimated and examined through four scenarios. The local food production typologies that could be embedded in the urban fabric are explored, and recommendations are formulated. Research outcomes suggest that Dubbo city has a reasonable prospect to grow into a sustainable regional city of future. Collaborative efforts of governments, private, non-profit and farming organisations, industries and residents would be important for the uptake.
Ghosh, S 2016, 'Exploring urban design quality of movement networks in two masterplanned peri urban case studies', International Urban Design Conference 2016 Canberra Conference Proceedings, 9th International Urban Design Conference, Smart Cities for 21st Century Australia, Association for Sustainability in Business Inc., Hyatt, Canberra, Australia, pp. 232-255.
Peri-urban areas are important strategic areas of a smart city characterised by transforming built environments from rural to urban land uses. Urban design could provide useful techniques for master planning developments for communities in these areas in transition. ‘New Urbanism’ practices and ‘Agrarian Urbanism’ model together could provide
meaningful urban design and planning solutions to create liveable environments for communities and to protect agricultural land and natural areas in these lower density settings. Movement networks are vital to connecting different land use activities and in creating a better urban design quality in these developments. This paper reviews theoretical
foundations developed by a renowned school of thought in the USA over time on transport
(such as Smart Growth and New Urbanism) and urban design model (such as Agrarian Urbanism) to understand applications of these practices in master planning of movement networks in peri-urban developments of a city. A detailed analysis of two practical best practice
case studies: Serenbe and Prairie Crossing in the USA, is conducted. This study assesses the applicability of outcomes of review; how movement networks provide access to different land use activities using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods and
incorporate urban design elements along the routes of travel within these two developments. This paper also explores visual and experiential qualities offered by the movement networks. Research outcomes indicate that elements of context-specific movement network designs and targeted urban design strategies are essential for successful master planning and improved urban design quality of developments at the rural–urban interface.
Ghosh, S 2016, 'Urban agricultural practices and initiatives in built environments: case studies of Detroit and Singapore explored', Making Cities Liveable Conference 2016 Pullman Melbourne on the Park Conference Proceedings Peer Reviewed, Making Cities Liveable Conference, Association for Sustainability in Business Inc., Melbourne, pp. 19-34.
Global communities are recognising the importance of integrating urban food production locally and adopting to agrarian lifestyles in cities. In this paper, review and analysis on three selected world cities: City of Vancouver, New York, and Hong Kong are conducted considering important factors of urban characteristics and practices, initiatives and performances of urban agriculture and a set of criteria is formulated. A comparative analysis of two case studies of different density cities: Detroit and Singapore is undertaken in detail based on this criteria developed. Evolving out of varying contexts and processes that have shaped urban agricultural movements in these cities, this research offers a unique insight into the lives of these two cities. Urban agriculture plays vital roles in world cities in sustaining and creating liveable and productive places and building community resilience. Outcomes suggest that functional processes and appropriate and well-aligned policies and strategies on urban food production linked to urban planning policies can transform cities and can create curative places for wellbeing and improved food security of residents. Involvements of government, private organisations, local councils, and residents would be essential for a successful long-term continuation of these practices. Future research should focus to strengthen transdisciplinary connections between health, planning and other disciplines.
Ghosh, S & Wilkinson, S 2016, 'Food urbanism, place making and sustainability performance in two institutional rooftop gardens in Sydney, Australia', Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Toronto, Canada in association with George Brown College, pp. 3-13.
Urban food production on rooftop gardens within denser built environments could contribute to better sustainability performance; regeneration of vacant roof spaces into active and interactive places and create opportunities for building healthy, socially networked and liveable communities. Two rooftop case studies: UTS rooftop garden and St. Canice Kitchen Garden in Sydney, Australia are explored. Situated within two different settings and supported by City of Sydney’s funding grants, these case studies offer a unique insight. This paper explores integrated sustainability contributions of institutional rooftop gardens and aims to model future potential of growing food locally and associated carbon benefits. Outcomes suggest that as a part of useful green infrastructure, a rooftop garden has significant potential to improve sustainability performance. From a social perspective, the gardens act as shared community meeting places. Through effective collaborative efforts and partnerships, it is possible to initiate socially inclusive and resilient community building within the institutions as well as beyond their boundaries.
Panahian, M, Ding, G & Ghosh, S 2016, 'Measuring Sustainability Performance For A Multiunit Residential Development Case Study In Sydney', Conference Proceedings AUBEA 2016, Australian Universities Building Education Association Annual Conference, Central Queensland University, Cairns, Australia, pp. 647-659.
Multiunit residential development numbers are on the rise close to Sydney
Central Business District (CBD) as more people are choosing to live in
apartments. Energy efficiency and water savings in these developments
are significantly important to develop sustainable communities of future.
This paper selects and examines a large multi-dwelling residential estate
case study in an eastern suburb of Sydney, located approximately within
eight kilometres radial distance from Sydney’s CBD. Based on the
electricity and water usage data, current electricity consumption for
common areas and water usage for gardens are estimated. Three key
sustainable options examined are: potential onsite renewable electricity
generation from roof solar PV installation; techniques for reducing
swimming pool heat loss and to maintain year wide adequate water
temperature and roof rainwater harvesting potential. Associated costs are
examined to comprehend useful energy and water efficient solutions.
Recommendations suggest that solar PV installation, using an appropriate
swimming pool cover and rain rainwater collection from the roof could
meaningfully improve overall sustainability performance of the selected
Ge, X, MacDonald, H & Ghosh, S 2016, 'Accessibility and dwelling prices: a pilot study of the Epping-Chatswood rail link', Proceedings of the 2016 Asian Real Estate Society's (AsRES) Conference, The 2016 Asian Real Estate Society’s (AsRES) Conference, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, Bengaluru India, pp. 1-13.
Location is one of the important elements to be considered in the dwelling purchase decision-making process. If a property is close to work opportunities, shopping centres, schools and other facilities, the property is likely to be in high demand and thus command a higher price than properties further away. Infrastructure investments improve accessibility by saving time and costs for people to travel for work and other activities. The proximity to transport thus is one of the factors contributing the purchasing decision. Relative little research has done on infrastructure investment on property value in Australia.
The Epping-Chatswood rail link was developed in Nov 2002 to Dec 2009. As a consequence, the dwelling prices along the link have increased dramatically. This paper conducts a pilot study to investigate the relationships of dwelling prices surrounding Epping station and the link development. Epping station is one of the stations along the Epping-Chatswood link. The station is located in a suburb of Sydney about 21.6 kilometres north-west of the Sydney CBD. A total of 1,474 sale transaction prices from January 1991 to July 2012 were collected from RPData for this study. Each of the data sets includes transaction price, number of beds, bathrooms, garage or car spaces and living rooms, which represent the physical characteristics as explanatory variables entering the hedonic model. An accessibility factor is measured by the direct distance of a dwelling to the Epping station. The estimated results indicate that, in addition to the dwelling’s physical characteristics such as number of bedrooms, bathrooms and car spaces, accessibility ranks relatively low among the factors that explain variations in dwelling prices in the Epping area.
Ghosh, S & Wilkinson, SJ 2015, 'Roles of a roof top garden in enhancing social participation and urban regeneration in Sydney CBD.', RICS COBRA AUBEA 2015, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Sydney, Australia, pp. np-np.
Urban food production on the rooftops in denser urban areas could recreate lost productive green spaces and could provide meaningful places for social interaction and sustainable practices. With a funding support from City of Sydney’s Environmental Grant Programme, a rooftop garden was established for University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) staff members and students on a UTS Student Housing building located in the Sydney CBD. This paper aims to explore aspirations, motivations and expectations of UTS staff and student members in an institutional setting and at an early setting up stage of this garden. Semi-structured interviews had been conducted with the UTS staff and student members to understand their views. Outcomes suggest in this workplace rooftop garden, participants expect to grow food; create important social networks to initiate community building and engagement; share new knowledge and gardening practices and have important access to nature in a workplace or in an institution. Converting vacant and suitable roof spaces of institutional buildings into rooftop gardens have significant potential to contribute to a positive urban regeneration process in denser environments. Institutional supports and appropriate policies would be essential for the uptake.
Ghosh, S, Wilkinson, S & Adler, D 2015, 'Social aspects of urban food production: a case study of Coogee Community Garden in Sydney', Conference Proceedings, Making Cities Liveable Conference, Association for Sustainability in Business Inc., Melbourne, pp. 71-86.
Ghosh, S 2013, 'Suburban zone of `The Transect: comparing morphologies and design qualities of residential neighbourhoods in Sydney, Kolkata and Miami', ISUF 2013 Brisbane International Seminar on Urban Form: Urban Form at the Edge, Proceedings from ISUF 2013 Volume 1, International Seminar on Urban Form, QUT Creative Industries Faculty, School of Design in conjunction with ISUF, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 73-84.
Morphologies of human environments vary in terms of their nature, spatial characteristics, and intensity of development. ‘The Transect’, an integrated zoning code for the City of Miami in USA, provides form based guidelines for development along rural and urban continuum. ‘T3 Sub-Urban’ is a suburban zone out of a total of six types of zones classified under ‘The Transect’. This paper focuses on examining morphologies and qualities of suburban neighbourhoods in three cities in three different countries of the world. Three cities: Sydney, Australia, Kolkata, India and Miami, USA are selected as their social conditions, cultural backgrounds and planning controls vary. An urban to rural cross section will be identified for each of these cities. Three typical suburban residential case studies, one from each of these three cities will be selected at a local scale. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), a spatial analysis estimates land cover pattern, dwelling density, and others relevant values for each of these three case studies. A visual analysis is conducted to understand design features, aesthetic qualities, and characteristics of these neighbourhoods. Outcomes of spatial analyses on the case studies are compared. Morphological characteristics can significantly influence neighbourhood sustainability and design performance.
Ghosh, S & Yung, S-H 2014, 'Carbon and economic benefits of urban forests and policy implications in two Sydney transport corridor case studies', World Green Infrastructure Congress (WGIC), Sydney, Australia..
Urban trees are intrinsically linked to climate change. As important urban green infrastructure, urban trees provide multiple sustainability benefits. The overall project was a collaborative and multidisciplinary research project with a number of Australian Universities and was funded by the Nursery Industry Levy and the Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) Category 1 research funding grant. The objectives of this paper are:
• to estimate carbon sequestration and storage potential and air pollution reduction potential of urban trees in two selected sections of Pacific Highway and Parramatta Road in Sydney;
• to calculate the associated economic benefits with urban trees in these corridors;
• to determine urban tree planning policy implications for Sydney;
The study provided valuable information and evidence base on tree species, composition, characteristics and tree density in urban forests in Sydney case studies. This research established significant sustainability importance, and carbon and economic benefits of urban trees. These outcomes could raise awareness for existing tree preservation and new tree planting and highlights the need for formulating meaningful urban tree planning policies.
Ghosh, S 2013, 'Comparing food efficient design and planning of built environments in Sydney and Miami', State of Australian Cities Conference 2013: Refereed Proceedings, State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, State of Australian Cities Research Network, Sydney, pp. 1-13.
Sustainable design and planning could play increasingly important roles in creating food efficient built environments of the future. This paper reviews design approaches and emerging theories in food efficient of design and planning for built environments. This paper aims to measure and to compare morphologies and spatial dimensions of three typologies of small local food production spaces: urban small farms, community gardens and home gardens in two low density suburban residential neighbourhood case studies in Sydney and Miami. `The Transect, an integrated form based zoning code adopted for the City of Miami in the USA, provides design and planning guidelines for six zones across urban to natural areas. A case study from Sydney is selected as different zoning controls could drive different morphological characteristics of urban forms. Results indicate that morphological analysis can assist significantly in design and planning of built environments and planning policy formulation. Extending this research to larger cross sectional analysis will be beneficial for sustainable community planning.
Ghosh, S 2012, 'Designing food efficient urban forms', UPE 10 Next City: Planning For a New Energy & Climate Future, International Urban Planning and Environment Association Symposium, ICMS Pty Ltd., Australia, Sydney, pp. 332-346.
By 2030, two third of the world's population will live in urban areas. Due to land transformation to urban development and other competing land uses (such as biofuel production etc.), availability of agricultural land for food production will decrease significantly. If the cumulative open land areas locked within urban developments could be put to productive use, they could contribute immensely towards achieving a sustainable food future. An appropriate design of urban form efficient in accommodating spaces for growing local food would be essential. This paper reviews and compares selected national and international best practice examples of urban forms that are self-sufficient in growing local food and the related policies. This study builds on author's previous research on local food and presents a new precinct scale case study in Sydney systematically analysing the typologies of food production spaces available considering different density developments within the existing urban form. The research outcomes discuss how the existing patterns of the built environments could be retrofitted and designed to accommodate food production spaces enhancing liveability, sustainability, improved public health and food security. Finally, this paper provides recommendations on the potential local food policy areas that need be considered within different types of urban environments.
Ghosh, S 2013, 'Local food production in action: exploring its potential for improvingfood security', XIX International Conference of the Society for Human Ecology jointly with IV International Conference on Sustainability Science in Asia, The Australia National University, Canberra, Australia..
Wilkinson, S, Ghosh, S & Page, L 2013, 'Options for green roof retrofit and urban food production in the Sydney CBD', RICS COBRA 2013, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), RICS, London, United Kingdom.
The benefits of retrofitting existing buildings with vegetated roofs are environmental, economic and social. Economic benefits include lower construction costs, lower running costs, and reduced costs of borrowing whilst the social gains include retention of familiar landmarks and cultural capital. Environmental gains include retention of embodied carbon, and the re-use of existing materials. The environmental benefits are improved thermal performance and reduced heat loss and heat gain in buildings. This can lead to reduced operational energy costs for owners and tenants, providing economic benefits. However, the environmental social and economic gains are not perceived sufficient to persuade many owners to retrofit green roofs. Social, psychological and therapeutic gains occur when the roof is visible to users and is used for social interaction and relaxation. As an alternative food production system, green roofs could promote a shorter food supply chain, contribute to healthier communities and create local jobs and notably; reduce the carbon footprints of food production. A
little explored environmental gain in Sydney is the retrofit of roofs for urban food production. No empirical research has been conducted into the plant species best suited to urban food production, including native food plants, and the optimum substrate composition and depth, required to suit the NSW climate. The barriers and opportunities for urban food production in a high-density urban environment also require investigation.
Amati, M, Brack, C, Ghosh, S, Kachenko, A, McManus, P, Shrethsa, K, Wang, M & Yung, W 2013, 'Understanding the carbon and pollution mitigation potential of Sydney's urban forest', Managing Our Forests into the 21st Century - Poceedings of the Institute of Foresters of Australia National Conference, Managing our Forests into the 21st Century, The Institute of Foresters of Australia, Canberra, Australia, pp. 151-158.
Sydney's population is expected to reach 6 million by 2036, with infill development along urban corridors housing many. Eighty percent of Australia's population now live in urban areas which will be affected by peak oil prices and climate change. The goal of this project is to better understand the benefits of urban forestry, given these challenges. A widely used technique to map and model the benefits of urban vegetation is i-Tree. This study aims to show, along two corridors, how remote sensing with hyperspectral and LIDAR imaging collected by local councils can add to this tool to help quantify some of the social aspects of urban forestry. LIDAR, hyperspectral and field data using the i-Tree manual were collected along two major highways that form linear transects across different suburbs and land uses. The total amount of shadow on the roads and buildings was calculated using the ARC-GIS hillshade function to serve as an index of potential microclimate mitigation. The results accurately indicate the amount of shading from trees and it is possible to calculate the energy savings from climate-extreme mitigation along both roads. The results demonstrate how remote sensing and i-Tree can be combined. Socialcultural barriers and preferences for more tree planting are also discussed. Overall the study shows the ways in which local councils can use two tools and sources of data with which they would already be familiar to calculate the impact of planning decisions such as increasing population density.
Ghosh, S 2012, 'Growing sustainable food on local spaces and places: how do spatial scales matter?', 2012 Institute of Australian Geographers Conference - Inspiring Connections, Macquarie University, Sydney.
Local food production is an alternative pathway to a sustainable food future. This paper aims to measure the sustainability potential of local food production on different types of spaces available and defined within a local urban form context. A literature review is conducted to understand the characteristics and relative performance across a range of local food growing spaces. Using a case study based approach and assessment criteria developed, two existing neighbourhood case studies are analysed. The two selected case studies are also examined to understand how they could be retrofitted to achieve better local food production capabilities. The research suggests that it is possible to classify a variety of small to large areas as useful local food production sites within our built environments which could contribute meaningfully towards building local food self-sufficiency.
Ghosh, S 2012, 'Local food production in urban environments: addressing neighbourhood food security and sustainability', Food Security: Science, Sustainability and Governance Conference, Melbourne.
This research reviews issues on food security and brings together a number of case studies sustainability of local food. Sustainability potential of existing urban forms for local food efficiency and possible retrofitting options through appropriate design and planning are explored.
Ge, J, MacDonald, HI & Ghosh, S 2012, 'Assessing the impact of rail investment on housing prices in north-west Sydney', Proceedings of 18th Annual Pacific-Rim Real Estate Society Conference, Pacific Rim Real Estate Conference, PRRES, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 1-22.
Rail investments alter the accessibility and amenity of residential properties, and thus affect housing prices and overall affordability. This project investigates the impact of the Epping-Chatswood rail link in North-west Sydney on home prices, testing out alternative methodologies for estimating price impacts through spatial analysis of historical property sales data obtained from the RP Data Australia. The paper focuses on one station, comparing price trends before and after the construction of the rail link was announced in 2002, and before and after the opening of the rail line in early 2009. The paper concludes with an assessment of the usefulness of alternative methodologies.
Ghosh, S, MacDonald, HI & Ge, J 2012, 'Urban form and rail investment: impacts on housing prices in Sydney', 6th Australasian Housing Researchers' Conference, Australasian Housing Researchers Conference, The University of Adelaide, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, pp. 1-26.
New infrastructure investments alter the locational attributes of nearby land uses, and these changes are often reflected in changes in property value. However, the effects of new amenities may differ based on local characteristics. This paper explores whether urban morphology and urban form differences are associated with differences in the impact that new rail investment has on housing prices. We focus on a single case study - the Macquarie University train station on the new Epping- Chatswood rail link in Sydney. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and geocoded sales data from RP Data Australia, we investigate the impacts of the construction and completion of the rail line on housing prices, using a repeat-sales approach. We identified the urban form characteristics of two precincts within 1.5km of the station, using GIS to compare variables such as building footprints and bulk, dwelling densities, street patterns and intersection density, and tree canopy cover. On-site inspection and photographs enabled us to add assessments of the quality of the pedestrian environment, likely perceptions of safety, and the legibility of pedestrian connections. Statistical analyses of repeat sales in each of the precincts, controlling for dwelling characteristics, resident profiles, and other sales information, enabled us to determine that there were statistically significant associations between the rail line impacts and the urban form attributes of the local precinct. Our study suggests that public transit investment may offer more value-added in neighbourhoods with well developed pedestrian environments.
Ghosh, S 2011, 'Growing healthy local food: sustainability potential and household participation in home gardens', State of Australian Cities National Conference (SOAC), State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, 5th State of Australian Cities Conference (SOAC), Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-11.
Home gardens exist within millions of private residential outdoor spaces in the cities and suburbs of the world. This paper builds on author's previous research that formulated two models for estimating sustainability potential of home gardens in growing local food in residential neighbourhoods using GIS and ecological footprint methods. This paper, firstly, aims to investigate spatially using GIS, available productive land areas in domestic gardens in a selected residential suburb in Western Sydney at a Collection District (CD) (approximately 225 dwellings) level as defined by Australian Bureau of Statistics. The morphological correlations of productive land to parcel areas, garden sizes and other land covers such as trees, built roof areas etc. are examined spatially to classify specific garden typologies and their associated dwelling structures. Secondly, using a GIS based model, potential quantity of vegetables that could be produced in a neighbourhood is converted into equivalent food energy units. Only vegetable production is considered as it is common and due to limited availability of local food data on home gardens. Finally, a questionnaire survey with the householders will be conducted to comprehend household participation, problems and prospects of growing food in home gardens. This research analyses and integrates potential and peoples' perceptions of growing local food using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The outcomes formulate an integrated sustainability framework and highlight important local scale spatial and land use planning policy implications. Local food production in home gardens could be a possible pathway to achieving improved suburban sustainability and better public health.
Ghosh, S 2011, 'Morphologies and spatial distributions of domestic gardens in residential developments', Institute of Australian Geographers (IAG) Conference, Institute of Australian Geographers (IAG) Conference, Institute of Australian Geographers (IAG) Conference, Wollongong, Australia.
A domestic garden forms an integral part of a residential development that could provide multiple sustainability benefits. This paper builds on authorâs previous research on urban morphologies, sustainability performance assessment and cross-disciplinary sustainability model for domestic gardens with three basic factors: design and form, potential and technologies, and social processes. This paper focuses on exploring morphological characteristics and spatial distributions of domestic gardens at two different spatial scales. Firstly, morphologies of domestic gardens in a total of eleven local scale residential neighbourhood case studies from New Zealand and Australia using GIS are compared. The case studies were selected based on selection criteria (e.g. dwelling density and zoning etc). A spatial analysis is conducted to identify the specific garden typologies, dwelling types, land cover, front, rear and side garden spaces and related social and economic factors at local scales. Secondly, a two way matrix is formulated to interpret the morphological characteristics of these case studies from spatial planning policy and sustainability perspectives. Finally, a cluster analysis is conducted to examine the spatial patterns of dwelling types and their associated garden types at a larger spatial scale in Sydney. Research outcomes indicate that gardens can generate different types of urban forms at different spatial scales that can influence their sustainability performance. It is also crucial to understand how people live and use these built environments and connect to the wider urban fabric. Appropriate local level planning policies for these residential environments are vital to planning sustainable cities of future.
Ghosh, S 2011, 'Sustainability and security of food production - energy and environmental perspectives', The 13th Annual Food Regulations & Labelling Standards Conference, The 13th Annual Food Regulations & Labelling Standards Conference, Informa, Sydney, Australia.
1. Localisation of food to improve energy efficiency, reduce carbon footprints and generate new local economies 2. Sustainability of local food in addressing food security issues
Ghosh, S 2011, 'Measuring potential of a residential neighbourhood for local food economy', INSTITUTE OF AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHERS CONFERENCE 2009 Book of Abstracts, Institute of Australian Geographers (IAG) Conference 2009, Institute of Australian Geographers Incorporated, Cairns, Australia, pp. 42-42.
The potential of local food production to enhance environmental and social sustainability, promote local economies and enhance food security are well recognised. This study builds on my doctoral research comparing the local food production potential in five different residential developments in New Zealand with varying physical densities. This paper firstly reviews and compares social, economic and environmental dimensions of some best practice national and international examples of local food systems, such as community and house lot gardens. This paper also examines drivers, processes and methods that are currently directing communities to develop these local food systems. This paper then measures the economic potential of local food production in a low density residential development case study in Australia at household and neighbourhood scales. Available total productive land area (from aerial photographs using ArcGIS), total onsite food production capabilities and subsequent economic potential are calculated. Relevant economic and community data are collected from ABS census and other sources. Results indicate that neighbourhood food systems can be important indicators of local economies and sustainability. Community participation is an important driver in facilitating local food systems. Community-level strategies will be essential to strengthen local control, better organisation and improved potential of local food economies.
Ghosh, S & Vale, R 2009, 'Linking residential densities, dwelling typologies and possible provisions for localised energy infrastructure in retrofitting urban forms', State of Australian Cities National Conference Perth 09, State of Australian Cities National Conference, SOAC, Perth, Australia, pp. 1-22.
In a resource constrained future, localised energy generation is likely to be a critical pathway to fulfill future energy demand. This paper presents how existing low, medium and high density residential developments with respective dwelling typologies could be retrofitted effectively with renewable energy infrastructure provisions. Localised energy infrastructure in this paper includes provision of photovoltaic modules (PV), solar hot water panels (SHW) and small wind turbines (SWT). This research initially reviews international and national pioneering residential projects applying renewable energy generation techniques. Key approaches and mechanisms are identified considering: residential densities; dwelling typologies; levels of distributed infrastructure provisions; energy outputs and funding, management and implementation methods. Using aerial photographs, GIS and census data, potential for localised energy infrastructure in three low, medium and high density case studies are determined. The factors considered are: dwelling orientation; available solar efficient building roof areas; dwelling typologies; occupancy pattern, demand and available land areas for localised infrastructure provisions. An energy infrastructure-residential urban form matrix developed is able to inform potential linkages of localised infrastructure provisions with dwelling typologies in different density residential urban forms. Research outcomes indicate that the dwellings' typologies, site orientation, available roof and vertical surface areas and open spaces govern the possible provisions of on site energy infrastructure in different residential developments.
Piquer-Rodriguez, M, Ghosh, S, Crabtree, L & O'Neill, P 2009, 'Establishing an Urban Observatory: prospects of developing urban sustainability information base', INSTITUTE OF AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHERS CONFERENCE 2009 Book of Abstracts, Institute of Australian Geographers (IAG) Conference 2009, Institute of Australian Geographers Incorporated, Cairns, Australia, pp. 50-50.
By 2030, more than 60% of the world's population is likely to live in the urban areas. It is therefore critically important to systematically quantify, compare and aggregate multiple dissimilar dimensions of social, economic, environmental and ecological sustainability measurements. This paper focuses on the prospects for developing an Urban Observatory for a metropolitan region in Australia. The main aims of this project are to: - develop an urban sustainability information base for informed decision and policy making; - formulate a timely set of sustainability indicators comparable from international and national contexts; - provide an easily accessible web interface to improve community understanding on sustainability. This paper reviews processes involved, difficulties, gaps and probable options in setting up an Urban Observatory in Australia. This paper also summarises the outcomes of our visits to four established European Observatories (such as Barcelona, Paris, Birmingham and Brussels). It presents the possible connections and a proposed structural framework for the Observatory. Our observations show that an Urban Observatory in an Australian city should have a multi-thematic base with cross disciplinary focus. Data should be relevant and comparable in time and space at local scales. This will help policy makers to take more informed decision for achieving sustainable urban development.
Rutledge, D, Ghosh, S, Vale, RJ & Gabe, J 2008, 'Multi-scale Assessment of Potential Environmental Performance of Current and Future Urban systems in New Zealand', Ecocity World Summit 2008 Proceedings, Eco city World Summit 2008, San Francisco, California, USA.
Ghosh, S & Vale, R 2007, 'Is policy leading to improved sustainability at the local urban scale?', Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Sustainability Engineering and Science, International Conference on Sustainability Engineering and Science, NZSSES, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 1-10.
In New Zealand, urban growth strategies and environmental policies at national and regional levels are influencing urban transformations at the local scale. Intensified residential and mixed use developments are emerging at growth nodes as outcomes of the Auckland Regional Growth Strategy 2050. The New Zealand Urban Design Protocol identified significant influences from government legislation, strategies and policies on urban design and the built forms at local level. The national walking and cycling strategy indicates that supportive local-scale layout and design in both existing and new developments could significantly influence travel behaviour. One of the six goals of the National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy is to reduce local environmental effects of energy production and use. The Urban Form Design and Development (UFDD) work, part of the 'Auckland Sustainable Cities Programme' under the NZ Sustainable Development Programme of Action (NZSDPOA), focussed on policy mechanisms to drive sustainable urban form at the local scale in the Auckland Region. Using a case study-based approach, this paper investigates how national and regional policies influence the environmental sustainability of emerging local residential forms at this scale, especially in the Auckland Region. Three selected case studies are examined in terms of: applied urban design principles; design characteristics including street patterns, subdivision layouts and open space provisions; density of development; potential and actual renewable energy use and available transport options. A comparison of the New Zealand approach to sustainable urban forms with an international zero energy residential development is made. Results indicate the policies could influence emerging local-scale urban forms in varied manners generating significantly different contributions to environmental sustainability.
Ghosh, S & Vale, R 2006, 'Settlement Form and Environmental Performance', World Conference on Accelerating Excellence in the Built Environment (WCAEBE) Proceedings 2006, World Conference on Accelerating Excellence in the Built Environment, WCAEBE-2006, Birmingham, UK, pp. 1-8.
This paper presents a five-level urban taxonomy combined with a detailed residential classification system in a New Zealand context. Within this taxonomy, environmental sustainability performances of two residential patterns are assessed considering their existing demand and possible potential savings for domestic energy supply, transport for travel to work, local food productivity and carbon sequestration by vegetation cover. Potential deficits representing degrees of self sufficiency are calculated. Using GIS methods and ecological footprint techniques, the values are expressed in hectares as land area equivalent per household per year for an average household size of 2.9 for the Auckland Region. Sustainability practices for considering on site potential include solar water heaters and photovoltaic modules and on-site food production. Results indicate that different types of urban forms have different levels of potential sustainability advantages and disadvantages associated with them.
Vale, R & Ghosh, S 2006, 'Water, water, everywhere. Quantifying possible domestic water demand savings through the use of rainwater collection from residential roofs in Auckland, New Zealand', 7th International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling (UDM) and the 4th International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD), Book of Proceedings, International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling and the 4th International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design, 7UDM & 4WSUD, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 403-410.
Current residential sector growth rates in the Auckland Region are expected to impose increased demands on domestic water supply. This paper attempts to quantify, for four typical roof areas (100 m2, 150 mÂ², 200 mÂ², and 250 mÂ²), the potential savings associated with domestic water supply from roof rainwater collection systems compared with using the city water supply system. The effects of trying to meet existing water demand figures are compared with what could be achieved by the promotion of flexibility in altering demands through technical and behavioural changes of the residents. Each of the four roof areas is examined under two scenarios. In the first scenario, the ability of the roof-collected water to meet conventional water demands is assessed, while in the second scenario the effects of water-saving techniques are assessed for their potential to allow households to achieve self-sufficiency in domestic water supply. The research takes into account the electrical energy used in delivering the city and on-site domestic water supply, water line-maintenance costs, network upgrades, and other charges for residential buildings compared with the capital and operating costs of using complete rainwater supply from roofs of houses.
Final report on Green Cities 15001 project examining whether mandatory or voluntary apporaches will deliver more green roofs in Australia.
Wilkinson, SJ, Ghosh, S & Pelleri, N Horticulture Innovation Australia 2017, Green walls and roofs: A mandatory or voluntary approach for Australia? Literature, Green walls and roofs: A mandatory or voluntary approach for Australia? Literature Review, no. 1, pp. 1-54, Sydney Australia.
A review of literature on mandatory and voluntary approaches to the delivery of green roofs and walls (GRGW) globally. The key findings and patterns emerging around;
Drivers for living architecture (LA) GRGW.
As cities grow, increases in GHG emissions, air pollution, impervious surfaces urban temperatures, loss of tree canopy cover and land for food production. LA can mitigate the negative aspects. GRGW have social, economic, health and environmental benefits.
Barriers are social, economic, technological and environmental. Costs are a significant barrier and lack of construction industry experience. Industry and BE professional capacity is in developing phase and not fully ready to implement on a larger scale. Training and skill development needed.
There is significant potential to retrofit existing buildings, feasibility determined partly by structural capacity to sustain additional loads and; this needs to be more fully understood by stakeholders. Lack of policy and regulations to integrate LA practices in new build and retrofit.
No consistent policy approach found in Australia. No states have GRGW policy (COS & COM councils have policies for LGAs. NSW, Vic, SA & WA have guidelines and policies referring to GRGW. Overall a lack of policy to promote LA.
US Cost Benefit Analysis found a viable case for large-scale retrofit of GR. Increases in residential property value with green infrastructure between 6 to 15%, (AECOM, 2017).
Wide-scale adoption of GR in Toronto could attenuate the UHI by 0.5 to 5o C - as heatwave is a resilience issue for Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide, wide-scale adoption could be beneficial.
Wilkinson, SJ, Brown, P & Ghosh, S Horticulture Innovation Australia 2017, Expanding The Living Architecture In Australia, Expanding The Living Architecture In Australia, no. 3, pp. 1-54, Sydney Australia.
This final report sets out the findings of the business case analysis of whether a voluntary or mandatory approach to green roofs and walls would work best in Australia It uses Sydney and Melbourne as examples to model data.
Wilkinson, SJ, Ghosh, S, Pelleri, N, Brown, P & Soco, S Horticulture Innovation Australia 2017, Green walls and roofs: A mandatory or voluntary approach for Australia? Case Studies., Green walls and roofs: A mandatory or voluntary approach for Australia? Case Studies., no. 2, pp. 1-50, Sydney Australia.
This report comprises cases studies of 5 international cities to ascertain the issues around delivery of green walls and green roofs. It analyses whether mandatory or voluntary approaches have been adopted and the amounts of GRGW delivered as a result.
Amati, M, Ghosh, S, Shrestha, K, McManus, P, Brack, C, Kachenko, A, Wang, M, Yung, S-H, Saldarriaga, N & Gomez, AM Horticulture Australia Ltd 2013, Understanding the carbon and pollution mitigation potential of Australia's urban forest: final report, no. NY11002 (Completion: 28th August 2013), pp. 1-89, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
The urban forest holds a particular role in the Australian urban landscape. A mixture of remnant, native and exotic trees, it is managed by a variety of government and private actors, existing at once as an expenditure for local authorities while providing a range of unquantified benefits such as habitats for wildlife, air pollution removal and flood prevention. Despite its prominence as an identifier for an urban area or as the backdrop in the lives of urban residents, the urban forest continues to be undervalued as part of the policy process. In response to a renewed need to appraise the benefits of the urban forest in the face of climate change, the aim of this project was to contribute to the development of tools that help value the urban forest, while seeking an understanding of the feelings of residents towards urban trees. Our study focuses on two corridors both 400 m wide: 11 km along the Parramatta Road and 19 km along the Pacific Highway and both cutting through a variety of different suburbs in Sydney. We analysed the benefits of the forest using the i-Tree methodology and also through the use of remote sensing with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR).We also gained the residents views about the trees in North Sydney and Parramatta Local Government Authority areas, targeting a survey of 1500 residents who responded with a 819% response rate. The results of the i-Tree method reveal that the estimated population of 30,500 trees in the Pacific Highway corridor alone, deliver a combined annual benefit of $97,770 per year from carbon sequestration, air pollution removal, building energy savings and avoided carbon emissions, while storing an estimated $1.65 million of carbon (at $23 per tonne). At the same time, the study reveals marked differences in the species distribution between the two roads and the benefits delivered from an individual tree. These benefits vary because of the dominant species and its age and height. The LiDAR component of the study r...
Ghosh, S & Gabe, J Landcare Research 2007, Identification of Practical Applications for Localised Sustainable Energy and Water Systems within Intensified Centres of the Auckland Region, pp. 1-52, Auckland, New Zealand.