Professor Stuart White is Director of the Institute for Sustainable Futures where he leads a team of researchers who create change towards sustainable futures through independent, project-based research. With over twenty years experience in sustainability research, Professor White’s work focuses on achieving sustainability outcomes at least cost for a range of government, industry and community clients across Australia and internationally. This includes both the design and evaluation of programs for improving resource use efficiency and an assessment of their impact. Professor White has written and presented widely on sustainable futures and is a regular commentator on sustainability issues in the media.
Can supervise: YES
Consumption and Waste
Energy and Greenhouse
Buildings and Design
© Stuart White, 2003. All rights reserved. This book explores an alternative philosophy of economic citizenship - justice as fair reciprocity. It is divided into two parts. Part I outlines and defends the conception of justice as fair reciprocity. Part II discusses the policy and institutional implications of this theory of justice.
Liu, A., Giurco, D., Mukheibir, P., Mohr, S., Watkins, G. & White, S. 2017, 'Online water-use feedback: household user interest, savings and implications', Urban Water Journal, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 900-907.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This paper reports on the short- and long-term impacts of online water-use feedback provided via a smart metering trial involving 120 households in New South Wales, Australia. Near-real time water consumption feedback was provided via an online portal to half of the sample. Water consumption was uniquely analysed one year pre- and post-intervention, and in conjunction with login data. During one year of available access, the intervention group saved an overall average of 24.1 litres per household per day (L/hh/d) (4.2%). Regression analysis showed the significant savings of active users related specifically to portal login activity. Significant short-term effects persisted for 42 days, averaging at 63.1 L/hh/d. The article discusses the implications for research and practice, including a consideration of how, in addition to providing ongoing access, online portals could be leveraged further by water authorities to help meet urgent short-term supply constraints such as in drought.
Neset, T., Cordell, D.J., Mohr, S., Van Riper, F. & White, S. 2016, 'Visualizing alternative phosphorus scenarios for future food security', Frontiers in Nutrition, vol. 3, no. 47.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialogue on the technical, behavioral and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real-time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialogue to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1) the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2) the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3) the potential of a decreased animal product consumption, and (4) the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency and yield gains...
Probyn-Rapsey, F., Donaldson, S., Ioannides, G., Lea, T., Marsh, K., Neimanis, A., Potts, A., Taylor, N., Twine, R., Wadiwel, D. & White, S. 2016, 'A Sustainable Campus: The Sydney Declaration on Interspecies Sustainability', Animal Studies Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 110-151.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Under the remit of an expanded definition of sustainability – one that acknowledges animal agriculture as a key carbon intensive industry, and one that includes interspecies ethics as an integral part of social justice – institutions such as Universities can and should play a role in supporting a wider agenda for sustainable food practices on campus. By drawing out clear connections between sustainability objectives on campus and the shift away from animal based products, the objective of this article is to advocate for a more consistent understanding and implementation of sustainability measures as championed by university campuses at large. We will draw out clear connections between sustainability objectives on campus and the shift away from animal based products. Overall, our arguments are contextualised within broader debates on the relationship between sustainability, social justice and interspecies ethics. We envisage that such discussion will contribute to an enriched, more robust sense of sustainability—one in which food justice refers not only to justice for human consumers and producers of food and the land used by them, but also to justice for the nonhuman animals considered as potential sources of food themselves.
Liu, A., Giurco, D., Mukheibir, P. & White, S. 2016, 'Detailed water-use feedback: A review and proposed framework for program implementation', Utilities Policy, vol. 43, pp. 140-150.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Smart water metering (SWM) introduces new opportunities to engage householders about water use based on detailed information. Water utilities must decide how to embrace these opportunities, but remain hesitant due to limited available experience and knowledge, which risks delaying the benefits of involving householders more fully in SWM and more sustainable water consumption. An implementation framework is developed outlining the key strategic, practical and evaluative elements in decision-making for detailed feedback programs by drawing on the literature and first-hand experiences of two feedback trials involving SWM. Existing approaches are reviewed and recommendations are provided to advance more well-considered approaches and realise benefits regarding sustainable water use.
Baumann, C. & White, S. 2015, 'Collaborative stakeholder dialogue: A catalyst for better transport policy choices', International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 30-38.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Policies that promote sustainable transport development are often contested among the different stakeholder groups in the policy process. The resulting conflict creates barriers to the implementation of innovative policies. This article investigates how, and under what conditions, closer communication and the resulting relationships between different stakeholders in the policy process can contribute to overcoming these challenges. By building on the findings of a case study in collaborative stakeholder dialogue in Munich, it proposes collaborative stakeholder dialogue as a pragmatic strategy to counterbalance the difference in influence competing stakeholder groups have in the policy process, and to so facilitate better choices.
Benn, S.H., Angus-Leppan, Edwards, M., Brown, P.J. & White, S. 2015, 'Changing Directions in Business Education: Knowledge Sharing for Sustainability', Building Sustainable Legacies, vol. 2015, no. 5, pp. 87-102.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Cordell, D. & White, S. 2015, 'Tracking phosphorus security: indicators of phosphorus vulnerability in the global food system', Food Security, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 337-350.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Giurco, D., Herriman, J., Turner, A., Mason, L., White, S., Moore, D. & Klostermann, F. 2015, 'Integrated Resource Planning for Urban Waste Management', Resources, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 3-24.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper summarises some of the results from the "Landfill Futures" project carried out by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology Sydney. Besides the authors, a large number of people have contributed, including researchers, members of a project reference group and participants in workshops and interviews. We are grateful to all these as well as to the CRC CARE 1 Program 4-the Social, Legal, Policy and Economic Issues Program for funding this research.: Social, Legal, Policy and Economic Issues Program
Metson, G.S., Iwaniec, D.M., Baker, L.A., Bennett, E.M., Childers, D.L., Cordell, D., Grimm, N.B., Grove, J.M., Nidzgorski, D.A. & White, S. 2015, 'Urban phosphorus sustainability: Systemically incorporating social, ecological, and technological factors into phosphorus flow analysis', Environmental Science & Policy, vol. 47, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cordell, D.J. & White, S. 2014, 'Life's Bottleneck: Sustaining the World's Phosphorus for a Food Secure Future', Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol. 39, pp. 161-188.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Giurco, D., Littleboy, A., Boyle, T.M., Fyfe, J. & White, S. 2014, 'Circular Economy: Questions for Responsible Minerals, Additive Manufacturing and Recycling of Metals', Resources, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 432-453.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The concept of the circular economy proposes new patterns of production, consumption and use, based on circular flows of resources. Under a scenario where there is a global shift towards the circular economy, this paper discusses the advent of two parallel and yet-to-be-connected trends for Australia, namely: (i) responsible minerals supply chains and (ii) additive manufacturing, also known as 3D production systems. Acknowledging the current context for waste management, the paper explores future interlinked questions which arise in the circular economy for responsible supply chains, additive manufacturing, and metals recycling. For example, where do mined and recycled resources fit in responsible supply chains as inputs to responsible production? What is required to ensure 3D production systems are resource efficient? How could more distributed models of production, enabled by additive manufacturing, change the geographical scale at which it is economic or desirable to close the loop? Examples are given to highlight the need for an integrated research agenda to address these questions and to foster Australian opportunities in the circular economy.
Giurco, D., Turner, Fane & White, S.B. 2014, 'Desalination for Urban Water: Changing Perceptions and Future Scenarios in Australia', Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol. 42, pp. 13-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In response to prolonged drought, large desalination plants have been built in Australia's major cities over the last decade. This paper identifies those plants and focuses on the context surrounding the decision to build the plant in Sydney. Whilst a portfolio approach allowed lower cost options for secure supply to be identified – including an innovative 'desalination-readiness option' – perceived uncertainty and political decisions led the state government to build the desalination plant before the carefully considered planning triggers dictated and without revisiting the decision when the drought broke. Media analysis is used to construct a timeline of reported headlines relating to the pre- and post-construction periods including events surrounding heavy rain, overflowing dams and dialogue on desalination being unnecessary and expensive. The paper highlights a disconnect between the planning processes, stakeholder and community engagement and political decision-making. Given desalination is now an embedded feature of water supply in most major Australian cities, scenarios are used to assess the potential role of desalination
in the future urban water landscape and broader economy.
Peterseim, J., Hellwig, U., Tadros, A. & White, S. 2014, 'Hybridisation optimization of concentrating solar thermal and biomass power generation facilities', Solar Energy, vol. 99, pp. 203-214.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Recently, the first concentrating solar powerbiomass hybrid power plant commenced operation in Spain and the combination of both energy sources is promising to lower plant investment. This assessment investigates 17 different concentrating solar powerbiomass hybrid configurations in regards their technical, economic and environmental performance. The integration of molten salt thermal storage is considered for the best performing hybrid configuration. While thermal storage can increase plant output significantly even 7 h full-load thermal storage plants would generate the majority of the electricity, 70%, from the biomass resource. Only mature technologies with references >5 MWe are considered in this assessment to ensure that the scenarios are bankable. The concentrating solar power technologies selected are parabolic trough, Fresnel and solar tower while the biomass systems include grate, fluidised bed and gasification with producer gas use in a boiler. A case study approach based on the annual availability of 100,000 t of wood biomass is taken to compare the different plant configurations but the results are transferable to other locations when updating site and cost conditions. Results show that solar towerbiomass hybrids reach the highest net cycle efficiency, 32.9%, but that Fresnel-biomass hybrids have the lowest specific investment, AU$ 4.5 m/MWe. The investment difference between the 17 scenarios is with up to 31% significant. Based on the annual electricity generation CSPbiomass hybrids have an up to 69% lower investment compared to standalone concentrating solar power systems. The scenario with the best technical performance, being solar tower and gasification, is at this point in time not necessarily the best commercial choice, being Fresnel and fluidised bed, as the lower Fresnel investment outweighs the additional electricity generation potential solar towers offer. However, other scenarios with different benefits rank closely.
Peterseim, J., Herr, A., Miller, S., White, S. & O'Connell, D.A. 2014, 'Concentrating solar power/alternative fuel hybrid plants: Annual electricity potential and ideal areas in Australia', Energy, vol. 68, no. 15 April 2014, pp. 698-711.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Australia's extensive solar resource is underexploited especially in the CSP (concentrating solar power) arena because of the high investment and lack of stable investment incentives. CSP hybrid plants provide an option to improve returns from CSP installations because of lower specific investment. This paper investigates the generation potential and most prospective regions for 5-60 MWe CSP hybrids using forestry residues, bagasse, stubble, wood waste and refuse derived fuels in locations with a direct normal irradiance >18 MJ/m2/day. Different plant efficiencies are used to identify the overall electricity potential for single and multiple feedstocks systems. The EfB (energy from biomass) or EfW (energy from waste) components of the hybrid plants considered are assumed to allow base load operation with the CSP components providing additional capacity during the day. The total CSP-EfB & EfW hybrid potential in Australia, within 50 km of existing transmission and distribution infrastructure, is 7000 MWe which would require an investment of AU$ 39.5b to annually generate 33.5 TWh. This is equivalent to 12.8% of all electricity generated in 2008-2009 or 74% of Australia's 2020 renewable energy target. The CO2 abatement potential of CSP-EfB & EfW hybrids is up to 27 Mt or 4.8% of all 2009-10 CO2 emissions.
Peterseim, J., Tadros, A., Hellwig, U. & White, S. 2014, 'Increasing the efficiency of parabolic trough plants using thermal oil through external superheating with biomass', Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 77, no. January 2014, pp. 784-793.View/Download from: Publisher's site
It is well understood that the cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) will need to decrease quickly to ensure competitiveness with photovoltaic (PV) systems and other forms of power generation. Research and development on CSP plant components is crucial in order to reduce costs but is typically time consuming. New CSP plant concepts combining proven technologies with CSP represent another option that can be implemented quickly. This paper investigates the use of several biomass materials to externally superheat steam in conventional parabolic trough plants. Currently, parabolic trough plants are easiest to finance and external steam superheating can overcome the lower efficiencies compared to other CSP technologies. Seven scenarios, each air and water cooled, with steam parameters ranging from 380 °C at 100 bar to 540 °C at 130 bar have been modeled, and the results presented here are based on a 50 MWe plant with 7.5 h molten salt thermal storage. Our results show that the peak solar to electricity net efficiency increases up to 10.5% while the specific investment can decrease immediately from AU$8.2m/MWe to AU$6.3m/MWe, a 23.5% reduction. That is significant considering the expected 1740% CSP cost reduction targets by the end of this decade. The modeling shows that even major fuel and water price changes are significantly less relevant than small changes in the agreed electricity purchase price. The technical, economic and environmental analysis reveals that external superheating with biomass can provide significant benefits, is able to use a variety of fuels and despite a limited global market, could immediately enable the implementation of several hundred MWe of CSP capacity at lower cost.
Peterseim, J., White, S., Tadros, A. & Hellwig, U. 2014, 'Concentrating solar power hybrid plants: Enabling cost effective synergies', Renewable Energy, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 178-185.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper categorises different concentrating solar power (CSP) hybrid options into light, medium and strong hybrids and discusses the combination of CSP with coal, natural gas, biomass and waste materials, geothermal, and wind. The degree of hybridisation depends on the interconnection of the plant components. Light hybrids create only limited synergies, such as the joint use of a substation, and their cost reduction potential is therefore limited, while strong hybrids share major plant components, such as steam turbine and condenser, and can better match their energy output with electricity pricing. The hybridisation options for CSP with different energy sources are plentiful ranging from feedwater heating, reheat steam, live steam to steam superheating with some options better suited for a specific energy source combination than others. The synergies created in hybrid plants can lead to cost reductions of 50%, better energy dispatchability as well as revenue maximisation. Several CSP hybrid studies exist for coal, natural gas and biomass but these are often investigating a specific hybrid concept. This paper considers several options at a higher level and also includes geothermal and wind which is novel. While the paper focuses on Australia the approach taken and concepts discussed are transferable to other countries.
Mukheibir, P., Boyle, T.M., Delaney, C.C. & White, S. 2014, 'Estimating the reliable residential water substitution from household rainwater tanks', Water Practice and Technology, vol. 9, no. 3.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Cordell, D.J. & White, S. 2013, 'Sustainable Phosphorus measures: Strategies and technologies for achieving Phosphorus security', Agronomy, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 86-116.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Phosphorus underpins the worlds food systems by ensuring soil fertility, maximising crop yields, supporting farmer livelihoods and ultimately food security. Yet increasing concerns around long-term availability and accessibility of the worlds main source of phosphorusphosphate rock, means there is a need to investigate sustainable measures to buffer the worlds food systems against the long and short-term impacts of global phosphorus scarcity. While the timeline of phosphorus scarcity is contested, there is consensus that more efficient use and recycling of phosphorus is required. While the agricultural sector will be crucial in achieving this, sustainable phosphorus measures in sectors upstream and downstream of agriculture from mine to fork will also need to be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive classification of all potential phosphorus supply- and demand-side measures to meet long-term phosphorus needs for food production. Examples range from increasing efficiency in the agricultural and mining sector, to technologies for recovering phosphorus from urine and food waste. Such measures are often undertaken in isolation from one another rather than linked in an integrated strategy. This integrated approach will enable scientists and policy-makers to take a systematic approach when identifying potential sustainable phosphorus measures. If a systematic approach is not taken, there is a risk of inappropriate investment in research and implementation of technologies and that will not ultimately ensure sufficient access to phosphorus to produce food in the future. The paper concludes by introducing a framework to assess and compare sustainable phosphorus measures and to determine the least cost options in a given context.
Cordell, D.J., Jackson, M.L. & White, S. 2013, 'Phosphorus flows through the Australian food system: Identifying intervention points as a roadmap to phosphorus security', Environmental Science and Policy, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 87-102.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Global phosphorus scarcity is likely to threaten the world's ability to produce food in the future if concerted efforts to ensure long-term phosphorus availability and accessibility and to use phosphorus more sustainably in the food system are not taken by policy makers, scientists and industry. Each country is vulnerable to phosphorus scarcity in different ways due to different characteristics of the national food system. However numerous opportunities exist to steer countries on a more sustainable trajectory to buffer food systems against such risks. A country-level phosphorus flow analysis can aid the identification of current inefficiencies, potential points for phosphorus recovery, reduction in losses and facilitate prioritisation of policy measures. This paper presents the findings and implications of a phosphorus flow analysis for Australia. The analysis found that despite being a net food exporter (predominantly to Asia), Australia is a net phosphorus importer (80 kt/a of P) to replenish naturally phosphorus-deficient soils and support a phosphorus-intensive agricultural and livestock export sector. Simultaneously, there is a net phosphorus deficiency from the Australian food system (106 kt/a of P) due to substantial losses and inefficiencies from mine to field to fork. The livestock sector represents over 60% of Australia's phosphorus demand due to fertilised pastures and animal feed. The manure produced by the 211 million head of livestock in Australia alone contains 60 times more phosphorus than the food consumed by the entire Australian population. Key opportunities to increase the resilience of the Australian food system include: increasing manure reuse, phosphorus use efficiency in fertilised pastures, investigate phosphorus recovery from phosphogypsum waste stockpiles and investigating more phosphorus-efficient food and agricultural commoditiesparticularly to reduce exported and wasted phosphorus whilst maintaining or enhancing productivity.
Peterseim, J., White, S., Tadros, A. & Hellwig, U. 2013, 'Concentrated solar power hybrid plants, which technologies are best suited for hybridisation?', Renewable Energy, vol. 57, pp. 520-532.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This assessment compares 9 CSP technologies for solid fuels and 11 for natural gas. ? Results derive from data from literature, industry contacts, own calculations and workshop. ? Multi-criteria decision making (Analytical Hierarchy Process) to combine quantitative and qualitative data. ? For lower temperature steam integration, Fresnel and parabolic trough (thermal oil) score best. ? High temperature steam integration favours solar towers (direct steam generation & molten salt).
Boyle, T.M., Giurco, D., Mukheibir, P., Liu, A., Delaney, C.C., White, S. & Stewart, R.A. 2013, 'Intelligent metering for urban water: A review', Water, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1052-1081.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc.) as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly pilot or demonstration scale with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation
Baumann, C. & White, S. 2012, 'Making better choices: A systematic comparison of adversarial and collaborative approaches to the transport policy process', Transport Policy, vol. 24, no. Nov 2012, pp. 83-90.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper investigates the practical and theoretical advantages of collaborative stakeholder (CSD) dialogue over adversarial processes in facilitating better transport policy choices.
Cordell, D.J. & White, S. 2011, 'Peak phosphorus: clarifying the key issues of a vigorous debate about long-term phosphorus security', Sustainability, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 2027-2049.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper first reviews latest information and perspectives on global phosphorus scarcity. Phosphorus is essential for food production and modern agriculture currently sources phosphorus fertilizers from phosphate rock. The 2008 price spike triggered increased concerns regarding the timeline of depletion of finite phosphate rock reserves. While estimates range from 30 years to 300 years and are shrouded by lack of public available data and substantial uncertainty, there is general consensus that the quality of remaining reserves are decreasing and costs will increase. This paper then asks what would it take to achieve global phosphorus security? What would a `hard-landing response look like from Africa to Australia, and how could preferred `soft-landing responses be achieved?
Giurco, D., Boyle, T.M., White, S., Clarke, B. & Houlihan, P. 2011, 'The influence of declining perceptions of scarcity: Exploring a new paradigm of future demand management options', Water, vol. 38 (2011), no. 3 (May), pp. 68-71.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The DM options assessed are summarised in Table 2. The analysis aimed to cover a diverse range of options and has already led to the successful establishment of an outdoor water saving program Ballarat Gardens Come Alive and Maryborough Gardens Come Alive with participation approaching 1,000 households. These programs encourage water effi ciency through monitoring rainfall to reduce over-watering, and by encouraging effi cient garden practices, including mulching.
White, S. 2011, 'Challenge 2: Water: A local resource, a global problem', The Conversation, vol. 11 June, no. 2012.
White, S. & Brennan, T. 2011, 'Parking the car: the swing to public transport', Rail Express, vol. 4, no. Nov 2011, pp. 54-56.
Australia has developed its agricultural export industry on the foundation of importing phosphorus: from Nauru. and more recently through substituting domestic production [or at least half of all demand for fertiliser. Decreasing ore grades for phosphate rock increasing concerns about the negative impact of run-off from soils, and the likelihood of future price increases all mean that a rethink is needed of the future of phosphorus in Australia, and globally. The current path for phosphorus lise in the world and in Australia is not sustainable. due to the significant levels of inefficiency, to the certainty of peak phosphorus in the coming decades and the vulnerability to potentially volatile markets. Moving towards a sustainable phosphorus future can be achieved by reducing our dependence on imported and domestic rock, by diversifying phosphorus sources through investing in renewable phosphorus fertilisers, increasing the efficiency of use throughout the system (not just in agriculture) and maximising recovery and reuse of phosphorus.
Elser, J.J. & White, S. 2010, 'Peak Phosphorus', Foreign Policy, vol. April 2010, no. 178, pp. 1-5.
From Kansas to China's Sichuan province, farmers treat their fields with phosphorus-rich fertilizer to increase the yield of their crops. What happens next, however, receives relatively little attention. Large amounts of this resource are lost from farm fields, through soil erosion and runoff, and down swirling toilets, through our urine and feces. Although seemingly mundane, this process cannot continue indefinitely. Our dwindling supply of phosphorus, a primary component underlying the growth of global agricultural production, threatens to disrupt food security across the planet during the coming century. This is the gravest natural resource shortage you've never heard of.
Giurco, D., White, S. & Stewart, R.A. 2010, 'Smart metering and water end-use data: conservation benefits and privacy risks', Water, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 461-467.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Smart metering technology for residential buildings is being trialed and rolled out by water utilities to assist with improved urban water management in a future affected by climate change. The technology can provide near real-time monitoring of where water is used in the home, disaggregated by end-use (shower, toilet, clothes washing, garden irrigation, etc.). This paper explores questions regarding the degree of information detail required to assist utilities in targeting demand management programs and informing customers of their usage patterns, whilst ensuring privacy concerns of residents are upheld.
White, S. & Brennan, T. 2010, 'Reframing urban transport decision making', Rail Express, vol. Nov 2010, no. 3, pp. 87-91.
This paper provides an overview of the innovative One to One Water Savings Program implemented in the South East Queensland (SEQ) region of Australia in 2007. The program aimed to assist households classified as high water users (HWUs) to reduce their water demand during the worst drought on record. The program consisted of sending out a survey to over 79,000 HWUs using more than 800 L/household/day (L/hh/d) and for those that completed the survey, a personalised plan was provided on how to save water. The program had a unique combination of: a very large sample size (over 70,000 respondents); access to individual customer water meter readings; and availability of detailed household survey responses on water using practices. Due to this unique combination it was possible to investigate the suite of reasons why HWUs have above average water consumption. It was also possible to analyse how HWUs could save water to inform future water saving policy initiatives. The analysis outlined in this paper draws on an extremely important water usage dataset, of a size that has never been collated and analysed before in Australia. The research is of significant importance at a regional, national and international level and will be of significant interest to those water resource managers facing a drought situation and those involved in water forecasting and demand management interested in understanding how water is being used and could be saved.
Cordell, D.J., Drangert, J. & White, S. 2009, 'The Story of Phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought', Global Environmental Change, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 292-305.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Food production requires application of fertilizers containing phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium on agricultural fields in order to sustain crop yields. However modern agriculture is dependent on phosphorus derived from phosphate rock, which is a non-renewable resource and current global reserves may be depleted in 50100 years. While phosphorus demand is projected to increase, the expected global peak in phosphorus production is predicted to occur around 2030. The exact timing of peak phosphorus production might be disputed, however it is widely acknowledged within the fertilizer industry that the quality of remaining phosphate rock is decreasing and production costs are increasing. Yet future access to phosphorus receives little or no international attention. This paper puts forward the case for including long-term phosphorus scarcity on the priority agenda for global food security. Opportunities for recovering phosphorus and reducing demand are also addressed together with institutional challenges.
The energy intensities of a range of household rainwater systems were monitored in Sydney and Newcastle as part of a study carried out by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) in collaboration with the Australian Commonwealth Scientific Investigation and Research Organisation (CSIRO). The study found that the energy intensity of these rainwater systems varied depending on system configuration, rainwater end uses and the water efficiency of the household. Preliminary results indicate that the energy intensity varies between 0.9 and 4.9 kWh/kL with a 'typical' household rainwater system using approximately 1.5 kWh to deliver each kilolitre of rainwater.
The energy intensities of a range of household rainwater systems were monitored in Sydney and Newcastle as part of a study carried out by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) in collaboration with the Australian Commonwealth Scientific Investigation and Research Organisation (CSIRO). The study found that the energy intensity of these rainwater systems varied depending on system configuration, rainwater end uses and the water efficiency of the household. Preliminary results indicate that the energy intensity varies between 0.9 and4.9 kWh/kL with a 'typical' household rainwater system using approximately 1.5 kWh to deliver each kilo litre of rainwater.
Retamal, M.L. & White, S. 2008, 'Designing for zero net potable water use: a case of urban renewal in Sydney, Australia', Sustainable Water Management: concepts towards a zero outflow municipality, vol. 3.
White, S., Noble, K. & Chong, J. 2008, 'Reform, risk and reality: challenges and opportunities for Australian urban water management', The Australian Economic Review, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 428-434.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper we review recent challenges to the water industry in Australia and describe a set of risks and opportunities in the form of a set of response measures. Some of these are being implemented or are being actively discussed within industry circles. These response measures are analysed for their potential benefits and their potential to be implemented in ways that yield either positive or negative social outcomes.
Turner, A.J., White, S., Kazaglis, A. & Simard, S. 2007, 'Have we achieved the savings? The importance of evaluations when implementing demand management', Water Science & Technology: Water Supply, vol. 7, no. 5-6, pp. 203-210.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Even though millions of dollars have been spent on demand management (DM) over the last decade across Australia, there is still very little evaluation of implemented DM/water efficiency programs. This paper brings together some of the limited examples of evaluation studies undertaken, providing details of both the statistical analysis method used and the findings of such studies undertaken by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) on behalf of water utilities. The studies include measurement of water savings in the residential and non-residential sectors and economic assessment of implemented programs. The paper highlights the importance of evaluation and need for embedding evaluation into the water planning process. It also highlights additional research currently being undertaken in this field associated with pressure reduction and energy usage when implementing DM programs. This paper will be of interest to a broad spectrum of practitioners beginning or currently involved in the development of DM programs or implementing and evaluating existing DM programs.
Abeysuriya, K., Mitchell, C.A. & White, S. 2007, 'Can corporate social responsibility resolve the sanitation question in developing Asian countries?', Ecological Economics, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 174-183.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Urban sanitation and waste management services are in crisis in many Asian countries, attributed to a number of factors. In this paper we argue that the crisis is exacerbated by the application of inappropriate economic and technological models for urban sanitation. We examine why the dominant models, including full-cost pricing driven by neoclassical economics, are inappropriate in the context of Asian countries. On the basis of Ecological Economics and Buddhist Economics, we identify a set of principles for arriving at more sustainable solutions. Sanitationâs role as a service for waste removal and disposal is expanded to a synergistic group of economically feasible services provided through cooperation between service providers, community and government. The STEEP framework is shown to be a useful way to tailor the sanitation options on the basis of contextual factors.
White, S. 2006, 'The future business of water, future water for business', WME Environment Business Media, vol. 0.
This paper provides details of a preliminary least cost planning (LCP) assessment carried out for Canberra, the capital city of Australia, as part of the development of a 50 year Water Resources Strategy. In the assessment a suite of options consisting of demand management, source substitution, reuse and supply were developed to determine how to satisfy water demand requirements for the projected population over the 50 year planning horizon whilst also achieving the identified demand reduction targets. The options developed were then compared on an equal basis using the principles of LCP to identify the suite of lowest cost options to be considered for further analysis and implementation. The suite of demand management options developed was found to have the lowest whole of society levelised cost. Since the preliminary analysis and release of the Water Resources Strategy in April 2004, a water efficiency team has been set up to develop an implementation plan, implement options, develop an end use model, conduct pilot studies and undertake program evaluations
Turner, A.J., White, S., Beatty, K. & Gregory, A. 2005, 'Results of the largest residential demand management program in Australia', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, vol. 5, no. 3-4, pp. 249-256.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Methodologies for end use analysis have been developed by different researchers in the energy and water fields and in different areas in the world over the last 20 years. While there are core features associated with the methodologies and models used, the differences can provide insight into the ways that they might be improved, as well as the differences that may be required in different regions and when models are used for different purposes. In addition to reviewing the field of end use analysis and appliance stock models, this paper will focus on two case studies. The first is the Sydney Water End Use Model, developed as part of the Sydney Water Least Cost Planning Study. This model has been developed and used to project the demand for water in Sydney over the next 20 years under business as usual scenario, as well as allow the projection of a number of scenarios which include major investment in water efficiency and effluent reuse programs as well as regulatory options to improve the efficiency of water using appliances in stalled in new buildings. Key features of the Sydney Water End Use Model include the fact that it takes into account the fact that the efficiency of toilets in Australia has a much larger range than (say) the US, in that the dual flush toilet was introduced in (to date) three stages. The model also accounts for projections of demographic and land use change which has been particularly dramatic in Sydney, particularly the movement to smaller occupancy rates in dwellings, and towards multi-family residential dwellings. The second case study will demonstrate the linkages between end use modeling of energy using and water using appliances.
Fane, S.A., Robinson, J. & White, S. 2003, 'The use of levelised cost in comparing supply and demand side options for water supply and wastewater treatment'', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 185-192.
This paper explores the use of levelised cost in planning for infrastructure networks. Levelised cost provides a useful measure comparing supply or conservation options on varying scales on an equivalent basis. Comparison is made to annualised cost, a metric often used as a means of comparing different supply side options. Urban water supply is used as the primary example, however levelised cost is equally applicable to other infrastructure networks, such as electricity or gas. The levelised cost is calculated as the ratio of the present value of projected capital and operating cost of an option to the present value of the projected annual demand supplied or saved by the option. The paper demonstrates that levelised cost is the constant unit cost of supply, provided by an option at present value. It is also the average incremental cost of the option at the point of implementation. When translated to a unit cost, annualised cost does not account for unutilised capacity in large scale schemes, systematically under-representing actual costs. By using levelised cost this inherent bias is removed. Use of levelised cost would facilitate the inclusion of smaller scale and more incremental supply options into infrastructure networks providing both economic and environmental benefits.
Carson, L., White, S., Hendriks, C. & Palmer, J. 2002, 'Community consultation in environmental policy making', Drawing Board, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-13.
Fane, S.A., Ashbolt, N.J. & White, S. 2002, 'Decentralised urban water reuse; the implications of system scale for cost and pathogen risk', Water Science and Technology, vol. 46, no. 6-7, pp. 281-288.
he non-potable reuse of treated sewage in urban areas provides significant conservation of potable supplies beyond that available through water use efficiency. Effluent reuse is also an inevitable requirement in novel decentralised wastewater systems. At present, urban water reuse, where pursued, usually involves large-scale schemes based on new or existing centralised sewage treatment plants. This is despite the diseconomy of scale inherent in pipe networks that balances economies of scale in sewage treatment and negates any cost advantage for wastewater systems with more than around 1,000 connections. In light of this, the theoretical relationship between effluent reuse system scale and pathogen risks was examined at various effluent qualities. Waterborne disease was seen to be a significant factor when reusing effluent in urban areas and smaller systems were found to pose a lower risk of waterborne infection, all other things being equal. Pathogen risks were then included within an economic analysis of system scale. It was concluded that with the inclusion of pathogen risks as a costed externality, taking a decentralised approach to urban water reuse would be economically advantageous in most cases. This conclusion holds despite an exact evaluation of increased waterborne disease due to effluent reuse remaining problematic
This paper describes recent experience with integrated resource planning (IRP) and the application of least cost planning (LCP) for the evaluation of demand management strategies in urban water. Two Australian case studies, Sydney and Northern New South Wales (NSW) are used in illustration. LCP can determine the most cost effective means of providing water services or alternatively the cheapest forms of water conservation. LCP contrasts to a traditional approach of evaluation which looks only at means of increasing supply. Detailed investigation of water usage, known as end-use analysis, is required for LCP. End-use analysis allows both rigorous demand forecasting, and the development and evaluation of conservation strategies. Strategies include education campaigns, increasing water use efficiency and promoting wastewater reuse or rainwater tanks. The optimal mix of conservation strategies and conventional capacity expansion is identified based on levelised unit cost. IRP uses LCP in the iterative process, evaluating and assessing options, investing in selected options, measuring the results, and then re-evaluating options. Key to this process is the design of cost effective demand management programs. IRP however includes a range of parameters beyond least economic cost in the planning process and program designs, including uncertainty, benefit partitioning and implementation considerations.
White, S., Van Der Zwan, J.T., Wyatt, R.W. & Faup, G. 2000, 'Water demand management and conservation including water losses control', Water Supply, vol. 18, no. 1-2, pp. 163-359.
Howe, C.A. & White, S. 1999, 'Integrated resource planning for water and waste water: Sydney case studies', Water International, no. 4, pp. 356-362.
Carson, L. & White, S. 1998, 'The Sydney water contamination crisis: manufacturing dissent', Science & Public Policy, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 265-271.
Botica, R. & White, S. 1996, 'Kalgoorlie-Boulder: the water efficient city', Water, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 14-17.
White, S. 1993, 'Scientists and the environmental movement', Chain Reaction, vol. 68, no. Febraury 1993.
Science and scientists can help the environment movement, but there are also dangers in relying on them. Stuart White examines the roles of scientists and scientific arguments.
Turner, A.J., White, S. & Hilaire, J. 2018, 'Pushing the boundaries of sustainable development: The case of Central Park, Sydney' in Ruming, K. (ed), Urban Regeneration in Australia Policies, Processes and Projects of Contemporary Urban Change.
Drawing together leading urban academics, this book provides the first detailed and cohesive exploration of contemporary urban regeneration in Australian cities.
White, S. & Cordell, D. 2017, 'Phosphorus security: Future pathways to reduce food system vulnerability to a new global challengee' in Global Resource Scarcity Catalyst for Conflict or Cooperation?, Routledge.
This volume examines the wider potential for the experience of scarcity to promote cooperation in international relations and diplomacy beyond the traditional bounds of the interests of competitive nation states.
Chong, J. & White, S. 2017, 'Urban—Major Reforms in Urban Water Policy and Management in Major Australian Cities' in Hart, B. & Doolan, J. (eds), Decision Making in Water Resources Policy and Management, Elsevier, pp. 85-96.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The history of urban water reform in Australia parallels the reform of the water sharing and allocation system. This history is influenced by the origins of Australian water utilities as public sector, often local government, entities. The first major reforms of the 1990s separated the regulatory and operational functions of the water utilities and corporatized many of them, as well as heralded a greater commitment to commercial returns and transparent economic regulation. At the same time, the historic focus on supply planning was being supplemented by supply-demand planning, including some explicit targets for reduction of water use through improved customer water efficiency, reduced losses and increased water recycling. This accelerated during the Millennium drought, which triggered a strong recognition of the impact of climate uncertainty on water security. Large capital works programs for increasing supply ensued, including the building of desalination plants, as well as the first application of 'real options planning in the water sector. In the last 10 years, there has been a growth in alternative servicing options for water supply and sewerage provision, including third-party provision. The future is likely to see the emergence of the smart and digital water utility, resource efficiency and recovery, including of energy and nutrients, as well as a shift to a fourth generation of water infrastructure, including greater 'fit for purpose provision of water services and infrastructure, and a greater variation in models of ownership and service provision.
Chong, J., Cooley, H., Dickinson, M., Turner, A.J. & White, S. 2017, 'Managing drought in urban centres – Lessons from Australia' in Wilhite, D.A. & Puwarty, R.S. (eds), Drought and Water Crises: Science Technology and Management Issues, Taylor and Francis.
Cordell, D.J. & White, S. 2015, 'Phosphorus' in Pattberg, P. & Fariborz Zelli, F. (eds), Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Governance and Politics, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, pp. 404-415.
Accordingly, universities around the world have added courses on global
environmental governance, politics and policy to their curricula across
departments and disciplines. Teaching global environmental governance,
however, presents a ...
Cordell, D.J. & White, S. 2015, 'Phosphorus security: global non-governance of a critical resource for food security' in Pattberg, P.H. & Zelli, F. (eds), Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Governance and Politics, Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 404-416.
This comprehensive reference work, written by some of the most eminent academics in the field, contains 68 entries on numerous aspects across 7 thematic areas, including concepts and definitions; theories and methods; actors; institutions; ...
White, S. & Cordell, D. 2015, 'Global phosphorus security- diet, sustainability, and food for thought' in Soeters, K. (ed), Meat, The Future: How Cutting Meat Consumption Can Feed Billions More, Nicholaas G Pierson Foundation, The Netherlands, pp. 75-86.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Childers, D., Capale, Z., Carlielle-Marquet, C., Cordell, D.J., Gerhart, V., Iwaniec, D. & White, S. 2013, 'Future scenarios for the sustainable use of global Phosphorus resources: P is for preferred (p) futures' in Wyant, K.A., Corman, J.R. & Elser, J.J. (eds), Phosphorus, Food, and Our Future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 183-198.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Herriman, J., White, S. & Atherton, A.M. 2012, 'Political influence in the context of Australian WWViews' in Joan Font (ed), Citizen Participation in Global Environmental Governance, Earthscan, London, UK, pp. 221-240.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Retamal, M.L., Turner, A.J. & White, S. 2010, 'The water-energy-climate nexus: systems thinking and virtuous circles' in Howe, C., Smith, J. & Henderson, J. (eds), Climate Change and Water: International perspectives on mitigation and adaptation, American Water Works Association and IWA Publishing, Denver, USA and London, UK, pp. 99-109.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
White, S., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D. & Turner, A.J. 2008, 'Putting the economics in its place: decision-making in an uncertain environment' in Zografos, C. & Howarth, R. (eds), Deliberative Ecological Economics, Oxford University Press, New Dehli, India, pp. 80-106.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Carson, L., White, S., Hendriks, C. & Palmer, J. 2003, 'Combining a televote and citizens' jury in a legislative review' in Joan Font (ed), Citizen Participation in Public Decision-Making, Institut de Ciencies Politiques i Social, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 169-181.
Chong, J., Atherton, A., Leahy, C. & White, S. 2017, 'Universities as facilitators of change:The role of research in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals', International Conference on Sustainable Development, Columbia University, New York.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Peterseim, J.H., White, S. & Hellwig, U. 2015, 'Novel solar tower structure to lower plant cost and construction risk', SolarPACES 2015, SolarPACES International Conference, American Institute of Physics, Cape Town, South Africa.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 Author(s).In recent times the interest in solar tower power plants is increasing with various plants being built in the last years and currently under construction, e.g. Ivanpah and Crescent Dunes in the US and Khi Solar One in South Africa. The higher cycle efficiency leads to lower levelised cost of electricity. However, further cost reductions are required and this paper compares a novel and patented solar tower structure with a conventional concrete tower. The novel solar tower design is cable-stayed which has the benefit that the cables absorb a large part of the wind and buckling loads. A tower that has to cope with fewer wind and buckling forces can have a significantly smaller diameter than a concrete tower, which enables workshop manufacture, sea and road transport, and rapid on-site installation. The case study provided in this paper finds that the tower area affected by wind can be reduced by up to 45%, installation time shortened by up to 66%, and tower cost by 20-40%. The novel design allows the construction and transport of the solar tower in few large modules, which are pre-manufactured including piping, cables, platform, ladders etc. The few modules can be assembled and installed rapidly not only lowering plant cost and construction time but also project risk.
Yeomans, W., Fam, D. & White, S. 2015, 'Case study analysis of niche energy service innovations at the precinct scale – Actors, factors and levels influencing future city-scale transformation', 6th International Sustainability Transitions (IST) Conference, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton (UK).View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Peterseim, J., Tadros, A., White, S., Hellwig, U., Landler, J.A. & Galang, K. 2013, 'Solar tower-biomass hybrid plants: Maximizing plant performance', SolarPACES: Concentrating Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems, SolarPACES: Concentrating Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems, Elsevier, Las Vegas, USA, pp. 1197-1206.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Peterseim, J., Tadros, A., Hellwig, U. & White, S. 2013, 'Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Plants using solar towers with thermal storage to increase plant performance', Volume 2: Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) - Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Power Conference, ASME Power Conference, ASME, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In Australia both natural gas and an excellent solar irradiance are abundant energy sources and its combination is one option to implement concentrating solar power (CSP) systems in Australias traditionally low cost electricity market. The recently introduced carbon pricing mechanism in Australia is likely to steer investment towards combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plants. This will also lead to further plants being built in high solar irradiance areas where CSP could provide valuable peak capacity. Hybridisation would enable more competitive power generation than standalone CSP systems as hybrid plants share equipment, such as steam turbine and condenser, therewith lowering the specific investment. This paper investigates the novel hybridization of CCGT and solar tower systems to increase the efficiency of integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC). Currently, all ISCC plants use parabolic trough systems with thermal oil as this technology is most mature. However, increases in plant efficiency, simpler solar tower integration as well as further synergies of solar tower ISCC systems, such as joint use of tower as CCGT stack, are likely to enhance the economic viability of new ISCC plants. In addition to a technical concept description this paper outlines the ideal sites for ISCC plants in Australia and presents a 200MWe ISCC case study with 3h molten salt thermal storage for the conversion of the Port Hedland open cycle gas turbine (OCGT) facility in Western Australia into a solar tower ISCC plant.
Peterseim, J., White, S., Hellwig, U., Tadros, A. & Klostermann, F. 2012, 'Concentrated solar power - Energy from waste hybrid plants: Creating synergies', Proceedings of the SolarPACES 2012 Conference - Concentrating Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems, SolarPACES 2012 Conference - Concentrating Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems, SolarPACES (Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems), Marrakech, Morocco, pp. 1-10.
Peterseim, J., White, S., Tadros, A. & Hellwig, U. 2012, 'Integrated Solar Combined Cycle plants using solar power towers to optimise plant performance', Proceedings of the SolarPACES 2012 Conference - Concentrating Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems, SolarPACES 2012 Conference - Concentrating Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems, SolarPACES, Marrakech, Morocco, pp. 1-8.
Baumann, C. & White, S. 2011, 'Collaborative stakeholder dialogue: a pragmatic pathway towards sustainable urban transport development', 3rd World Planning Schools Congress, World Planning Schools Congress, Global Planning Education Association Network (GPEAN), University of Western Australia, Perth, pp. 1-20.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper introduces a pragmatic pathway towards more sustainable urban transport development (SUTD) by documenting and discussing a process that engages organised public and private interests in a collaborative dialogue on urban transport futures. Integrating the ecological, social and economic aspects of urban transport development in a mutually reinforcing way in the policy process is a complex task, and is often referred to as a 'wicked problem. Finding agreement in the policy process on implementing measures to promote SUTD is therefore often (ideologically) contested. This paper investigates how, and under what conditions, closer communication and the resulting relationships between different stakeholders in the policy process can contribute to overcoming these challenges. The paper is based on the findings of a case study of a collaborative stakeholder dialogue in Munich, Germany; the `Inzell-Initiative. This professionally facilitated dialogue sits outside the formal administrative and political processes and is in place since 1995. Participants include transport stakeholders from planners and politicians through to bicycle user groups, motorist associations and BMW as local car manufacturer. We first introduce the underlying definition of SUTD and the methodology of this case study. The findings establish a link between the procedural aspects and the quality of the resulting policy outcomes. We then discusss preconditions and success factors for such a collaborative learning process in the context of existing theory. In doing so we identify enhanced social capital in the policy process as a catalyst for high quality and durable solutions to the challenges of urban transport development. In conclusion we offer a process-based definition of SUTD that reflects the findings of the case study
Baumann, C. & White, S. 2011, 'Pathways towards sustainable urban transport development. Investigating the transferability of Munich best practice in collaborative stakeholder dialogue to the context of Sydney', Proceedings of the State of Australian Cities National Conference 2011, State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, Australian Sustainable Cities and Regions Network (ASCRN), Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Research and practice have produced valuable recommendations on transport infrastructure elements or programs that can contribute towards more sustainable urban transport development (see Schiller, Bruun & Kenworthy 2010 for a comprehensive overview). However, conflicting values and competing interests among stakeholders in the transport policy process often create barriers to the implementation of these policies (Baumann & White 2010a). These transport stakeholders range from community organisations through to business interest groups, infrastructure and service providers and pedestrian, cyclist and motorist associations. Problem situations like these, for which there are no solutions that completely satisfy all parties, are often referred to as wicked problem (Rittel & Webber 1973).
Giurco, D., Boyle, T.M., White, S., Clarke, B. & Houlihan, P. 2011, 'Demand management: influence of new supply infrastructure and declining perceptions of scarcity', 4th National Water Efficiency Conference, Melbourne, Victoria.
White, S., Cordell, D.J., Herriman, J., Moore, D.D., Gero, A. & Mason, L.M. 2011, 'Local government and landfill futures', Proceedings of ACELG's Local Government Researchers Forum 2011, ACELG's Local Government Researchers Forum 2011: Local governance in transition, Australian Centre of Excellence for Local Government (ACELG), University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-13.
White, S., Retamal, M.L., AbuZeid, K.M., Elrawady, M.H. & Turner, A.J. 2011, 'Integrated resource planning in Alexandria, Egypt', Proceedings of Efficient '11 - 6th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Water, Efficient '11 - 6th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Water. Water Demand Management: Challenges & Opportunities, International Water Association, Dead Sea, Jordon, pp. 1-8.
Baumann, C. & White, S. 2010, 'Enhanced dialogue in the transport planning and decision-making process: Enabling change through citizen/stakeholder deliberation', Selected proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Transport Research Society, 12th World Conference on Transport Research Society, World Conference on Transport Research Society, Lisbon, Portugal.
Baumann, C. & White, S. 2010, 'Learning from the world - adding a strategic dimension to lesson-drawing from successful sustainable transport policies', Australasian Transport Research Forum 2010 Proceedings, Australasian Transport Research Forum 2010, Australasian Transport Research Forum, Canberra, Australia, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Boydell, S., Giurco, D., Rickwood, P., Glazebrook, G., Zeibots, M. & White, S. 2010, 'Using an Integrated Assessment Model for Urban Development to Respond to Climate Change in Cities', ENERGY EFFICIENT CITIES: ASSESSMENT TOOLS AND BENCHMARKING PRACTICES, pp. 85-111.
Boydell, S., Giurco, D., Rickwood, P., Glazebrook, G.J., Zeibots, M.E. & White, S. 2009, 'Using an integrated assessment model for urban development to respond to climate change in cities', Energy Efficient Cities: Assessment tools and benchmarking practices, Urban Research Symposium, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, Marseille, France, pp. 65-91.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This chapter describes an integrated assessment model for city-scale urban development that links the energy used in passenger transport (public and private) and residential in-house energy use. The model divides the urban region into disjoint subregions, the core of the model being centered on residential location choice, which is calibrated by population, demographic characteristics, and building types, leading to preferences for each subregion based on household type. Submodels are subsequently used to calibrate different rates of energy in accordance with household and demographic factors.THis generates a picture of consumption patterns across the metropolitan area, enabling an appreciation of spatially heterogenous factors such as differing levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, alongside variations in the distribution of infrastructures that can create considerable variation in energy consumption between districts within cities. The energy impacts of policy decisions that affect, by way of example, where new housing is to be built and of what type, can then be simulated. The workings of the model are demonstrated in the chapter using data on Sydney, Australia, as a case study, with the research offering a policy scenario to city officials to monitor its progress towards a 2030 vision for a sustainable Sydney.
Cordell, D.J. & White, S. 2010, 'Pathways to Phosphorus security: the long-term perspective', Phosphates 2010: Fertilizers, Industrial and Feed Phosphate Markets, International Conference and Exhibition - Phosphates 2010: Fertilizers, Industrial and Feed Phosphate Markets, British Sulphur Events, Brussels, Belgium.
White, S. 2010, 'Phosphorus and global food security: workshop synthesis', Proceedings of the International Workshop on Phosphorus and Global Food Security, International Workshop on Phosphorus and Global Food Security, Department of Thematic Studies, Water and Environmental Studies, Linkoping University, Sweden, Linkoping University, Sweden, pp. 1-58.
White, S. 2010, 'Session 1: Food security and current sustainability challenges', International Workshop on Phosphorus and Global Food Security, Linkoping University, Sweden.
Cordell, D.J., Neset, T.S., White, S. & Drangert, J. 2009, 'Preferred future phosphorus scenarios: a framework for meeting long-term phosphorus needs for global food demand', International Conference on Nutrient Recovery from Wastewater Streams, International Conference on Nutrient Recovery from Wastewater Streams, IWA Publishing, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 23-43.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper puts phosphorus recovery in a global sustainability context, with particular reference to future phosphate rock scarcity and global food security. While phosphorus fertilizers are essential for sustaining high crop yields, all modern agricultural systems currently rely on constant input of mined phosphate rock. However, phosphate rock, like oil, is a finite resource, and global production of high quality phosphate rock is estimated to peak by 2033, after which demand for phosphorus fertilizers will increasingly exceed supply. Phosphorus cannot be manufactured; though fortunately there are a number of technologies and practices that together could potentially meet long-term future phosphate fertilizer needs for global food demand. This paper develops probable, possible and preferred long-term scenarios for supply and demand-side measures. The preferred scenarios together demonstrate how substantial reduction in demand for phosphorus can be achieved, and how the remaining demand can be met through high recovery and reuse of organic sources like human and animal excreta (e.g. direct reuse, struvite crystals), crop residues, food waste and new sources like seaweed, ash, bonemeal and some phosphate rock.
White, S. & Cordell, D.J. 2009, 'Pathways to phosphorus security: the long-term perspective', Australian Fertilizer Outlook conference, Australian Fertilizer Outlook conference, Australian Association of Agricultural Consultants WA Inc., Sydney, Australia.
Boydell, S., Giurco, D., Rickwood, P., Glazebrook, G.J., Zeibots, M.E., White, S. & Thomas, L.E. 2009, 'Using integrated urban models to respond to climate change in cities', Fifth Urban Research Symposium on Cities and Climate Change Website: Responding to an Urgent Agenda, Urban Research Symposium on Cities and Climate Change: Responding to an Urgent Agenda, Urban Research Symposium, World Bank, Marseille, France, pp. 1-33.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper presents a single, integrated urban model that focuses on the key areas of transport, domestic energy-use, and domestic water use and how these relate to urban planning and other policies. The model structure is spatial ½ requiring a sub-division of the urban region into disjoint sub-regions. Such a sub-division is necessary, not only because spatial information is essential to any transport model, but also because climatic and demographic factors are common to all resource models, and are spatially heterogeneous. The model is intended for use by local, regional, and state authorities, government departments, energy, and utility service companies as a modelling and decision support tool for analysing the impact on cities of a range of energy, water, transport, and land use related policies. In particular, it seeks to understand the impact - reductions possible at household and city scales. Growing awareness of the threats from climate change has focused attention on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the need to reduce them. Using a sample analysis of Sydney, our on-going research collaboration seeks to examine the working relationships between multiple infrastructure sectors through a single analysis platform. The need to integrate policy for multiple infrastructures is critical given the multiple fronts on which the sustainability of urban systems are now jeopardised.
Turner, A.J., Fyfe, J., Retamal, M.L., White, S. & Coates, A. 2009, 'The one to one water savings program unpacking residential high water usage', 5th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water, 'Efficient 2009': 5th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water, International Water Association (IWA) and Australian Water Association (AWA), Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-8.
Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R. & White, S. 2008, 'Integrated resource planning: how do we know if our water planning and management is best practice? (paper)', Conference Proceedings & Participant List, 3rd National Water Efficiency Conference, AWA, Surfers Paradise, Australia.
White, S. 2008, 'Pathways to deliberative decision-making: urban infrastructure and democracy', Proceedings for Conference on Environmental Governance and Democracy, Conference on Environmental Governance and Democracy - Institutions, public participation and environmental sustainability: Bridging research and capacity development, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA, pp. 1-8.
Resource and environmental issues, including those relating to urban infrastructure, which are the subject of this paper, represent `wicked problems - problems which are contested; multi-dimensional; dispersed in space and time; impact multiple actors and communities including the voiceless, and have no single definitive solution (Rittel & Webber 1973). Decision-making processes in relation to urban infrastructure, including the development of strategies, of policies and of the project approval process itself are of central importance in improving outcomes for communities, for the environment and for future generations. This paper focuses on decisions regarding urban infrastructure to illustrate how current trends in relation to decision making, engagement and policy development are not sustainable, and suggests that there are pathways that can be followed which can improve the quality of decision making, and that the circumstances that prevail in many western industrialised countries in relation to civic engagement and decision making provide significant challenges, but also opportunities for change. My perspective as the author is as a participatory observer, undertaking contract research for policy development for a variety of government agencies, regulators and utility businesses. The stated mission of the research institute for which I undertake this research work is to `create change towards sustainable futures. This helps position my perspective in terms of a `normative-positive spectrum.
White, S. 2008, 'The role of water efficiency in Australian urban water planning', AWA Efficiency 2008, Gold Coast, Australia.
Turner, A.J. & White, S. 2007, 'A town like Alice: overcoming barriers to unlocking the potential of water efficiency', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju Island, Korea, pp. 935-936.
Turner, A.J., White, S., Kazaglis, A. & Simard, S. 2007, 'Have we achieved savings yet? The importance of evaluations when implementing demand management', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju Island, Korea, pp. 927-934.
Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R., White, S. & Gonzalez, F.C. 2007, 'The International Demand Management Framework: outcomes of Stage 1', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju island, Korea, pp. 421-423.
White, S., Turner, A.J., Fane, S.A. & Giurco, D. 2007, 'Urban water supply-demand planning: a worked example', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju Island, Korea, pp. 419-420.
Rickwood, P., Giurco, D., Glazebrook, G.J., Kazaglis, A., Thomas, L.E., Zeibots, M.E., Boydell, S., White, S., Caprarelli, G. & McDougall, J. 2007, 'Integrating population, land-use, transport, water and energy-use models to improve the sustainability of urban systems', State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, State of Australian Cities Conference, SOAC, Adelaide, pp. 314-324.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Riedy, C. & White, S. 2007, 'Pricing and decision-making in the Australian electricity, road transport and water sectors: towards sustainability?', Proceedings of the Australia and New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics Conference 2007, Australia and New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics Conference, Australia and New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics, Noosa, Queensland, Australia, pp. 1-23.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper considers the way in which pricing and decision-making processes in the Australian electricity, road transport and water sectors seek to balance multiple objectives. Specifically, it examines the ways in which the principles of National Competition Policy and the economic, environmental and social dimensions of sustainability are addressed in specific decisions about energy, transport and water infrastructure. In the electricity sector, we consider the planned roll out of smart meters and decisions on retail price regulation in NSW. We also consider emissions trading proposals affecting the electricity and transport sectors and the existence of energy and transport subsidies amounting to billions of dollars per year. Finally, we consider recent water planning decisions in South-East Queensland and Sydney. Despite a rhetorical commitment to principles of cost-reflective pricing and market efficiency by Australian governments, the primary objective in many of the cases considered appears to be political self-interest. Least cost options, environmental outcomes and social justice are rarely given the attention they deserve and systematic failures in decision-making processes are evident. We suggest ways to move towards sustainability pricing and decision-making by making prices more cost-reflective, adopting specific actions to address social justice concerns, using representative, deliberative processes to engage the community in decision-making and undertaking comprehensive sustainability assessments in the electricity, road transport and water sectors
Snelling, C.M., Turner, A.J., Riedy, C., White, S. & Cummings, S. 2007, 'Where does the water go? Best practice stock modeling for water using appliances', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju Island, Korea, pp. 307-314.
Chong, J. & White, S. 2007, 'Decisions for the urban drought: paternalism or participation?', 2007 ANZSEE Conference. Re-inventing Sustainability: A Climate for Change, ANZSEE Conference. Re-inventing Sustainability: A Climate for Change, Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics, Noosa Lakes, Queensland, Australia, pp. 1-24.
Turner, A.J. & White, S. 2006, 'Does demand management work over the long term? What are the critical success factors?', Sustainable Water in the Urban Environment II Conference, Sustainable Water in the Urban Environment II, AWA Conference, Sippy Downs, Queensland.
Turner, A.J., White, S., Beatty, K. & Gregory, A. 2005, 'Results of the largest residential demand management program in Australia', International conference on the efficient use and management of urban water, International conference on the efficient use and management of urban water, International Water Association, Santiago, Chile, pp. 58-65.
White, S., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D. & Turner, A.J. 2006, 'Putting the economics in its place: decision making in an uncertain environment', Ninth Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics, New Delhi, India.
White, S., Vecellio, L., Waugh, N. & Hicks, R. 2006, 'The Boomerang Tariff: financing development through fair trade', Ecological Sustainability and Human Well-Being, New Delhi, India.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Campbell, S. & White, S. 2005, 'Integrated Resource Planning for Transport: asking better questions', Urban Transport XI, International Conference on Urban Transport and the Environment in the 21st Century, WIT Press, Algarve, Portugal, pp. 619-629.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Current transport planning methods do not deliver accessibility in a sustainable waya phenomenon illustrated by the dominance of road construction as a means to provide access in cities. This research proposes a comprehensive evaluation methodology for investment decisions aimed at improving urban accessibilityIntegrated Resource Planning (IRP) for transport. Using IRP in transport planning means agreeing on a metric for improved accessibility in a location and then developing a range of options to meet this need. Each option is evaluated in terms of cost per unit of improved accessibility. We propose that cost effective decisions will only arise from comparison of the full range of options using a consistent methodology.
Turner, A.J., White, S., Smith, G., Al Ghafri, A., Aziz, A. & Al Suleimania, Z. 2005, 'Water efficiency - a sustainable way forward for Oman', Stockholm Water Symposium, Workshop 5, Stockholm Water Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden.
White, S. 2005, 'The coast, the dam and in-between: issues for Manly's future', Manly Futures Forum, Manly Council.
White, S., Cordell, D.J. & Turner, A.J. 2005, 'A single planning framework applicable to urban water management around the world: an international demand management framework', World Water Week, Stockholm Water Symposium 2005, Stockholm, Sweden.
Outdoor demand in arid climates generally represents a significant proportion of total demand and is often extremely seasonal in nature and difficult to characterise, leading to problems when building an end use model and determining which options will provide the highest water savings at the lowest cost. In the investigations undertaken for Alice Springs, a wide variety of low cost methods for gathering data were used to disaggregate water demand, build an end use model and assist in the development of the demand management (DM) program. These included: analysis of bulk water and customer metered demand; review of available data and documents on water issues; the use of a low cost residential water usage survey which was linked to customer metered demand; interviews with suppliers/maintenance specialists (e.g. pools, air conditioners and garden irrigation); and an experiment in relation to evaporative air conditioning systems. During these investigations it was found that the unit cost of the individual DM options ranged from as low as 0.20 AUD per kilolitre for some institutional efficiency options to 1.40 AUD per kilolitre for residential washing machine rebates. It was also found that due to the high energy costs associated with pumping water from the existing supply, considerable savings could be made by deferring borefield augmentation and operating costs. In fact for the proposed demand management program, combining 15 individual DM options, the savings in operating costs for water supply alone exceed the whole of society costs of the DM program. This paper will be useful to those dealing with water efficiency issues in arid zones by providing details on cost effective data/information sources and methods, the use of climate correction, the types of DM options available for arid zones and details of typical unit costs.
Mitchell, C.A., Turner, A.J., Fane, S.A., White, S. & Cordell, D.J. 2004, 'Water conservation is dead: long live water conservation', Proceedings of 2nd IWA Leading-Edge Conference on Sustainability: Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, 2nd International Water Association Leading Edge Conference on Sustainability: Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, IWA, Sydney, Australia, p. 53.
Berry, T., Carson, L. & White, S. 2003, 'We are all stakeholders: participatory decision-making and corporate sustainability', Corporate Social Responsibility & Environment Conference, University of Leeds, UK.
This paper is about extending stakeholder dialogue to include citizens in decision making which impacts on corporate sustainability policy frameworks using the tools of regulation and economic instruments, and communication strategies, have a significant influence on the level of corporate sustainability. Involving citizens, through the use of deliberative and representative (participatory) processes, in the creation of these frameworks is an effective way of reducing the influence of self- or sectoral-interests in the development of policy. Moving beyond self-interest is an essential requirement in the creation of change towards sustainable futures, for example, in order to ensure the appropriate consideration of social and environmental externalities. This paper will describe the methodology and outcome of a process of participatory decision making in relation to a legislative review of an example of extended producer responsibility: a deposit and refund system on drink containers. We conducted a citizensâ jury and televote, and established a reference group containing the key stakeholders. This case study illustrates how self-interest amongst stakeholders creates resistance to implementation of a public policy initiative that increases the level of corporate sustainability. The participating citizens by contrast, in this case study and others, are able to put self interest aside in their deliberations. We are all stakeholders in creating sustainable futures. Participatory decision-making builds a mandate for change that can raise the level of corporate sustainability in a transparent and accountable way.
Chanan, V., White, S., Howe, C.A. & Jha, M. 2003, 'Sustainable water management in commercial office buildings', Innovations in Water: Ozwater Convention & Exhibition, Perth, Australia.
Water conservation, efficiency and reuse are becoming increasingly important as the planet faces reduced groundwater and surface water levels, drought and changing climate patterns. There are numerous programs in Australia targeting improved efficiency in residential water use, but less has been done to reduce water demand in the commercial sector. There are some examples, including the Millennium Dome in London, the Olympic Park at Homebush Bay in Sydney and the Water Garden in Santa Monica in California (Santa Monica City Council, 1990) where some aspects of sustainable water management have been incorporated in a commercial setting. However, there have been few examples, particularly in Australia, that have considered maximising water conservation through the integration of the whole suite of water conservation measures such as rainwater capture, installation of water efficient fixtures, effluent reuse and evaporation and productive reuse of treated effluent in roof gardens. The first part of the paper examines the principles of the water quality cascade in relation to sustainable water management in commercial buildings, alternative water supply opportunities and the different water efficient technologies that can be used in commercial buildings. The second part reviews two studies of sustainable water management in commercial office buildings. Study One highlights the different aspects of water management in the 60L green building in Melbourne. The building is a refurbished 4- storey commercial building with construction completed in September 2002. The second study describes the research undertaken by the Institute for Sustainable Futures, for Sydney Water Corporation to determine the potential water savings from various water management options in a typical commercial high-rise building.
Day, D. & White, S. 2003, 'Minimum performance standards for showerheads in Australia: The benefits and the barriers', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, pp. 239-245.
This paper discusses the potential merits and opportunities of introducing national minimum performance standards (MPS) for water efficient appliances, in particular showerheads. At a national level the introduction of MPS for showerheads by 2005 is expected to result in a reduction in the demand for water by over 79 GL/annum by 2015. The reduction in energy consumption associated with reduced water heating needs by water efficient showerheads is 7.7 million GJ/annum, while greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced by 1.3 million tonnes CO2/annum, by 2015. This initiative will generate benefits to an array of stakeholders. These benefits include: increased allocation of water for environmental flows, reduced demand on groundwater sources, reduced wastewater flows and associated pollution, and financial benefits to water utilities, particularly if the utility is experiencing water supply or wastewater treatment constraints. Regulation will also protect the investment (estimated to be of the order of $16 million) that a number of water utilities are making in incentive and retrofit programs. The most effective form of regulation to achieve the greatest outcomes in terms of reducing water and energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is a regulation that controls the supply of showerheads on the basis of flow rate. The MPS being proposed is 9 L/minute, and regulation would involve mandatory labelling of showerheads and compliance with the AAA-rating. The legislative options and challenge of introducing such a requirement within the current regulatory environment are discussed.
Fane, S., Robinson, J. & White, S. 2003, 'The use of levelised cost in comparing supply and demand side options', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, pp. 185-192.
This paper explores the use of levelised cost in planning for infrastructure networks. Levelised cost provides a useful measure comparing supply or conservation options on varying scales on an equivalent basis. Comparison is made to annualised cost, a metric often used as a means of comparing different supply side options. Urban water supply is used as the primary example, however levelised cost is equally applicable to other infrastructure networks, such as electricity or gas. The levelised cost is calculated as the ratio of the present value of projected capital and operating cost of an option to the present value of the projected annual demand supplied or saved by the option. The paper demonstrates that levelised cost is the constant unit cost of supply, provided by an option at present value. It is also the average incremental cost of the option at the point of implementation. When translated to a unit cost, annualised cost does not account for unutilised capacity in large scale schemes, systematically under-representing actual costs. By using levelised cost this inherent bias is removed. Use of levelised cost would facilitate the inclusion of smaller scale and more incremental supply options into infrastructure networks providing both economic and environmental benefits.
Fane, S.A. & White, S. 2003, 'Levelised cost, a general formula for calculations of unit cost in integrated resource planning', Efficient 2003: Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply Conference, Efficient 2003: Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply Conference, Tenerife.
Sarac, K., Day, D. & White, S. 2003, 'What are we saving anyway? The results of three water demand management programs in NSW, Australia', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, pp. 215-222.
The use of demand management programs to achieve permanent and reliable decreases in water consumption through retrofits of water using equipment is relatively new in Australia, and has been carried out on the basis of models which predict savings, and on results of demand management programs undertaken overseas. The availability of information on actual savings achieved by demand management programs in Australia is extremely limited. This paper outlines the results of the evaluation of three retrofit programs undertaken in NSW, two of which involved a visit by a plumber to households to carry out a retrofit of indoor water using equipment at a subsidised price; the other taking a "hands-off" approach and relying on a discount incentive mechanism to increase the market share of water efficient showerheads.
Turner, A.J., Campbell, S. & White, S. 2003, 'End use modelling and water efficiency program for arid zones: the Alice Springs experience', Efficient 2003: Efficient Use and Management of Water for Urban Supply Conference, Efficient 2003: Efficient Use and Management of Water for Urban Supply Conference, Tenerife.
The main objective of sustainable urban water systems is to satisfy the water related needs of the community at the lowest cost to society whilst minimising environmental and social impacts. This paper explores these objectives in relation to effluent reuse in urban areas. It describes the evolutionary progress of urban water reuse from agricultural reuse, to large scale industrial reuse, and then to dual reticulation for urban developments. It argues that the next step in this progression is to more fully implement the principles of the water quality cascade, and to use the benefits associated with reducing sewage and water transport costs to trade off increased costs associated with distributed treatment and reuse systems. The other key message of the paper is that there is a logical order of investment in methods of sustainable urban water management, both in terms of unit cost and energy intensity, starting with improved efficiency of water use. These options, improved water efficiency, generally have the lowest unit cost, with typical levelised costs of $0.1-0.7/kL. They also result in a reduction of energy use from hot water savings and reduced pumping and treatment. Scheme supplies can vary typically from $0.2-1.2/kL, depending on the cost of augmentation, and have energy intensity levels in the range 300-1,000 kWh/ML. High level reuse can cost between less than $1/kL for large scale industrial reuse, to over $3/kL for dual reticulation schemes. The energy intensity of high level reuse can be as high as 4,000 kWh/ML.
White, S., O'Rourke, A. & Aisbett, E. 2003, 'Extending the responsibility: packaging and the beverage industry', Proceedings: 11th International Conference, Greening of Industry Network, Innovating for Sustainability: 11th International Conference, Greening of Industry Network, Greening of Industry Network, San Francisco, USA, pp. 1-16.
White, S., Milne, G.R. & Riedy, C. 2003, 'End use analysis: issues and lessons', Efficient 2003: Efficient Use and Management of Water for Urban Supply Conference, Efficient 2003: Efficient Use and Management of Water for Urban Supply Conference, Tenerife.
Day, D. & White, S. 2002, 'Minimum performance standards for showerheads in Australia-the benefits and the barriers', A unique approach to a unique environment, Enviro 2002 & IWA 3rd World Water Conference, AWA Bookshop, Melbourne, Australia, p. e21723a.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fane, S.A., Robinson, J. & White, S. 2002, 'The use of levelised cost in comparing supply and demand side options', A unique approach to a unique environment, Enviro 2002 & IWA 3rd World Water Conference, AWA Bookshop, Melbourne, Australia, p. e20605a.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Sarac, K., Day, D. & White, S. 2002, 'What are we saving anyway? The results of three water demand management programs in NSW', A unique approach to a unique environment, Enviro 2002 & IWA 3rd World Water Conference, AWA Bookshop, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
White, S. 2002, 'Influencing water demand - Overview and water efficiency and conservation', Water Symposium, Parliament House, Perth.
White, S. 2002, 'Sustainable urban water futures: the role of innovations', Working on Water: new trends in water resource management symposium, Adelaide, South Australia.
White, S. & Aisbett, E. 2002, 'Container deposit legislation - an independent assessment of the introduction of CDL in NSW', LGAQ Waste Conference 2002 - Funding the Future, Local Government Association of Queensland, Mackay, Queensland.
Fane, S.A. & White, S. 2001, 'What are the implications of distributed wastewater management in inner Sydney?', International Ecological Engineering Conference, International Ecological Engineering Conference, International Ecological Engineering Society and Engineers for Social Responsibility, Lincoln University, New Zealand, pp. 42-42.
Fane, S.A., Ashbolt, N.J. & White, S. 2001, 'Decentralised water reuse: the implications of scale for cost and pathogen risk', IWA 2nd World Water Congress: Efficient Water Management - Making It Happen Preprints (Abstracts), IWA World Water Congress, International Water Association, Berlin, pp. 20-20.
Sarac, K., Kohlenburg, T., Davison, L., Bruce, J.J. & White, S. 2001, 'Septic system performance: a study at Dunoon northern NSW', Conference proceedings from On-site 01, On-site 01 Conference: Advancing On-site Wastewater Systems, Lanfax Laboratories, Armidale, Australia, pp. 315-322.
White, S. 2001, 'Demand management and integrated resource planning in Australia', Efficient Use and Management of Water for Urban Supply, Efficient Use and Management of Water for Urban Supply, Madrid.
White, S. & Fane, S.A. 2001, 'Designing cost effective water demand management programs in Australia', IWA 2nd World Water Congress: Efficient Water Management - Making It Happen Preprints (Abstracts), IWA World Water Congress, International Water Association, Berlin, pp. 16-16.
White, S. 2000, 'National Report Australia', Water Supply, pp. 180-181.
White, S., Dupont, P. & Robinson, D. 2000, 'International Report', Water Supply, pp. 163-175.
Carew, A., Robinson, D. & White, S. 1999, 'The benefits of indoor water efficiency for on-site system performance', Proceedings of On-site '99 conference: making on-site wastewater systems work, On-site '99, Lanfax Laboratories, University of New England, Armidale, pp. 75-83.
Cartwright, T., White, S. & Carew, A. 1999, 'Rigorously reducing sewage flows - case study of water conservation in Mount Victoria', Proceedings of AWWA Victoria and NSW Joint Regional Conference - Water Down the Track, Water Down the Track- Victoria and NSW Branches of AWWA Joint Regional Conference, Australian Water and Wastewater Association, Albury, pp. 95-101.
This project aims to assess the degree to which water conservation can reduce the extent of proposed amplifications to the Mount Victoria sewerage system. Mount Victoria is a village of around 500 homes located in the Blue Mountains about 120 kilometres west of Sydney. Sydney Water has developed the Mount Victoria Program, which will offer customers the opportunity to refit their homes with water efficient appliances. This paper describes how the program was developed using least-cost planning principles. It also discusses a range of topics associated with the program including strategies to encourage maximum customer participation, the method used to select water efficient devices and how actual flow reductions will be quantified. Information from this study will assist other agencies in developing a total water management approach in the design of their water and sewerage facilities. In particular it will provide real data on the reduction in flows that can be achieved from water conservation.
White, S. 1999, 'Integrated resource planning in the Australian water industry', CONSERV 99 Proceedings, CONSERV99, American Water Works Association, Monterey, California.
This paper describes two of the most comprehensive water efficiency programs undertaken in Australia. These programs are noteworthy because they encompass all the major water end-uses and utilize a wide range of implementation mechanisms, including pricing, education, advisory services, auditing, loans, financial incentives, retrofitting and system management. They also incorporate significant monitoring efforts. Includes 3 references, table.
White, S. & Robinson, D.G. 1999, 'Costs and benefits of reducing wastewater flows through improving the efficiency of water using appliances', 18th Federal Convention of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association, Executive Summaries, 18th Federal Convention of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association, Australian Water and Wastewater Association, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 63-64.
White, S. 1998, 'Sustainable water management: a demand side approach', WaterTECH Conference Proceedings, WaterTECH Conference, Australian Water and Wastewater Association, Brisbane.
White, S. & Howe, C.A. 1998, 'Water efficiency and reuse: a least cost planning approach', Proceedings of the 6th NSW Recycled Water Seminar, Proceedings of the 6th NSW Recycled Water Seminar, Australian Water and Wastewater Association Incorporated, Sydney, pp. 115-120.
Whitmire, S.B. 1998, 'Core business and information management: Mergers, acquisitions and divestitures W117', PROCEEDINGS OF THE ARMA INTERNATIONAL 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE, 43rd Annual Conference of ARMA International, ASSOC RECORDS MANAGERS & ADMINISTRATORS, HOUSTON, TX, pp. 115-117.
Fane, S.A., White, S. & Robinson, D.G. 1998, 'Reduce, reuse or recycle? Economic evaluation of measures for improving environmental outcomes from wastewater systems', Environmental Engineering Research Event, Environmental Engineering Research Event, UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science & Technology, Sydney, pp. 363-368.
Liu, A., Turner, A.J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2017, Assessment of Future Water Efficiency Measures, pp. 1-85, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The Victorian water utilities have been active in the implementation of water efficiency for many years. Similar to other jurisdictions this intensified during the Millennium drought. The approaches employed during the drought involved both individual and joint water utility initiatives, often in collaboration with the Victorian government. These initiatives covered both the residential and non-residential sectors and were supported by the important collaborative research initiated in 2003 under the $50m Smart Water Fund (now closed). This research report 'Assessment of Future Water Efficiency Measures has been developed by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF), University of Technology Sydney, on behalf of the three Melbourne retailers, Melbourne Water, Barwon Water and the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning. The rapid study does not aim to be exhaustive but to begin to gather information to assist in taking stock of the current efficiency situation and to look on the horizon in terms of how efficiency might change. It aims to gather information that will be useful to assist in testing alternative potential scenarios of long term demand forecasts and new potential short and long term efficiency program opportunities that can be actioned when deemed appropriate into the future. There is significant additional conservation potential available as we look to the future in terms of new more efficient appliances and ways to interact with customers by tapping into new technical and behavioural opportunities.
Now an ideal time to reflect, to take stock of where the Australian water industry is at, to scan the trends, disruptions and innovation opportunities that lie ahead, to imagine what the water industry could look like in the next 20 to 30 years, and to work out what it would take to realise that vision. As the weight of history, the push of the present and the pull of the future unfold, there is a need to take control, innovate, advocate and consciously head in the desired direction to ensure that the collective vision of the future water industry is fulfilled.
The Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA), the peak industry body that represents over 70 public and privately, owned water or water related organisations, commissioned the Institute to research and write this discussion paper on the trends and potential disruptions to Australia's urban water futures.
Turner, A., White, S., Chong, J., Dickinson, M., Cooley, H. & Donnelly, K. the Alliance for Water Efficiency, the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney and the Pacific Institute 2016, Managing drought: Learning from Australia, pp. 1-93, University of Technology Sydney and the Pacific Institute for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
California is facing yet another year of unprecedented, record-breaking drought. At this time of need, US agencies have turned to Australia to identify the strategies that urban water utilities and water agencies adopted to survive its worst drought in recorded history, the Millennium Drought, which lasted from 1997 until it officially ended in 2012.
Cordell, D.J., Mikhailovich, N., Mohr, S.H., Jacobs, B. & White, S. Australian Government: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation 2014, Australian sustainable phosphorus futures: Phase II: Adapting to future phosphorus scarcity: Investigating potential sustainable phosphorus measures and strategies, no. RIRDC Publication No. 14/039, pp. 1-73.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This project investigates how Australia can manage phosphorus to ensure long-term food security, soil fertility, agricultural productivity, farmer livelihoods and environmental protection. The intended outcome overall is to deliver sustainable phosphorus adaptation strategies across a range of scenarios to increase the resilience of the Australian food system. An Australian phosphorus flows model, quantified and costed sustainable phosphorus measures and interactive future phosphorus scenarios, will enable stakeholders to identify policy implications and make informed policy decisions. This report presents the findings from Phase 2 of this project, Adapting to future phosphorus scarcity: investigating potential sustainable phosphorus measures and strategies. That is: 1. a Toolbox of sustainable phosphorus measures 2. a future scenarios model of sustainable phosphorus measures 3. a high-level influence diagram on which phosphorus vulnerability can be mapped 4. a conceptual framework for deliberating on, and synthesising adaptive pathways.
White, S., Herriman, E., Giurco, D., Cordell, D., Gero, A., Mason, L., May, D., Mohr, S., Moore, D. & Asker, S. CRC CARE 2014, Landfill Futures: : National Guideline Document, no. CRC CARE Technical Report 30, Adelaide.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This report looks at the past and present roles of landfills in Australian waste management and considers the requirements for a sustainable future. The research used a test case to apply an integrated resource planning model to waste. The results suggest that disposal to landfill may be an expensive and less preferred option compared to others, in many cases, but still have a role to play in specific contexts where the costs of other options are higher.
Langham, E., Downes, J., Brennan, T., Fyfe, J., Mohr, S.H., Rickwood, P. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2014, Smart Grid, Smart City, Customer Research Report, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Prepared by the UTS: Institute for Sustainable Futures as part of the AEFI consortium for Ausgrid and EnergyAustralia
Herriman, J., Fyfe, J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2013, Energy from waste: Resource recovery criteria, Sydney, Australia.
Langham, E., Ison, N., Brennan, T., Downes, J., Boronyak, L.J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2013, Smart Grid, Smart City: Analysis and Reporting. Stakeholder Engagement Report, Sydney, Australia.
Giurco, D., Moore, D.D., Mason, L.M., Herriman, J., Boyle, T.M. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Integrated Resource Planning for Waste: Technical report, pp. 1-37, Sydney, Australia.
Murta, J., Milne, G.R., Turner, A.J., White, S., Harris, S.M. & Mukheibir, P. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Options to improve the water and energy efficiency of existing evaporative air conditioners, pp. 1-47, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Murta, J., Milne, G.R., Turner, A.J., White, S., Harris, S.M. & Mukheibir, P. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Water and energy use efficiency of evaporative air conditioners: Stage 1 - scoping study, Sydney, Australia.
Cordell, D.J., Moore, D.D., Gero, A., Herriman, J., Mason, L.M. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Sustainability costs and challenges of waste management and mitigation in Australia: Technical report, pp. 1-51, Sydney, Australia.
Gero, A., Herriman, J., Cordell, D.J., Mason, L.M., Moore, D.D. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Landfill Futures: Stakeholder interview summary report. Technical report, pp. 1-43, Sydney, Australia.
Mason, L.M., Gero, A., Herriman, J., Cordell, D.J., Moore, D.D. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Understanding the Future of Landfills: Waste management policy in Australia. Technical report, pp. 1-55, Sydney, Australia.
White, S., Herriman, J., Giurco, D., Cordell, D.J., Gero, A., Mason, L.M., May, D., Mohr, S.H. & Moore, D.D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Landfill Futures: Synthesis report, pp. 1-6, Sydney, Australia.
Cordell, D.J., Jackson, M.L., Boronyak, L.J., Cooper, C., Mohr, S.H., Moore, D.D. & White, S. Australian Sustainable Phosphorus Futures and Institute for Sustainable Futures 2012, Phase 1: Analysis of phosphorus flows through the Australian food production and consumption system, pp. 1-57, Sydney, Australia.
Baumann, C., Asker, S.A., Giurco, D., Peterseim, J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Eco-industrial transition: A vision for economic and socio-ecological renewal at Swanbank, pp. 1-29, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Peterseim, J., White, S., Hellwig, U., Tadros, A. & Vanz, E. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Pre-feasibility study for a multi-fuel / concentrated solar power hybrid plant at Swanbank, QLD, Sydney, Australia.
Chong, J., Asker, S.A., O'Rourke, A. & White, S. Australian Business Foundation Ltd 2012, Green Chrysalis - Small and medium-sized enterprises: innovation and transformation towards Australia's low-carbon economy, pp. 1-91, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Dunstan, C., Boronyak, L.J., Langham, E., Ison, N., Usher, J., Cooper, C. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2011, Think small: The Australian decentralised energy roadmap: Issue 1, December 2011, pp. 1-110, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fane, S.A., Turner, A.J., McKibbin, J.L., May, D., Fyfe, J., Chong, J., Blackburn, N., Patterson, J.J. & White, S. Australian National Water Commission 2011, Integrated resource planning for urban water - resource papers, pp. 1-206, Canberra.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
White, S., Cordell, D.J. & Moore, D.D. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2010, Securing a sustainable phosphorus future for Australia: implications of global phosphorus scarcity and possible solutions, pp. 1-47, University of Technology, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Food production is fundamentally dependent on inputs of key natural resources, including water, energy and nutrients. Meeting the needs of a growing world population means agricultural fields will need to expand or intensify, either way requiring more fertilisers, including phosphorus (FAO, 2006). Unlike energy and water resources, there is very little discussion, research and policies that addresses long-term availability and accessibility of phosphorus for global food production. Yet the worlds main source of phosphorus phosphate rock is declining in both quantity and quality. Indeed, peak phosphorus is anticipated in the coming decades, after which demand will exceed suppl
Fane, S.A., White, S. & Retamal, M.L. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2010, Response to Hunter Water's submission to the Department of Planning regarding its application to build a dam at Tillegra on the Williams River, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Turner, A.J., Retamal, M.L., White, S., Palfreeman, L. & Panikkar, A. The Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation in assoc. with the Institute for Sustainable Futures 2010, Third party evaluation of Wide Bay Water smart metering and sustainable water pricing initiative project.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D., Chong, J., Kazaglis, A. & White, S. Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) 2010, Guide to Demand Management and Integrated Resource Planning (update on original 2008 Guide), pp. 1-174, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This Guide lays out a way to undertake urban water planning, using a consistent framework, which creates benefits for the whole community. It was originally developed by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology Sydney for the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) and has been updated with the support of the Australian Governments National Water Commission (NWC). The Guide is intended for both WSAA members and the broader Australian water industry
Fane, S.A., Retamal, M.L. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2009, Submission to the Department of Planning regarding Tillegra Dam proposal environmental assessment report, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Retamal, M.L., Glassmire, J., Abeysuriya, K., Turner, A.J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2009, The water-energy nexus: investigation into the energy implications of household rainwater systems, Sydney, Australia.
Cordell, D.J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2008, The Story of Phosphorus: Sustainability implications of global fertilizer scarcity for Australia - discussion paper, Discussion paper for the National Workshop on the Future of Phosphorus, pp. 1-21, Sydney.
Cordell, D.J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2008, The Story of Phosphorus: Sustainability implications of global fertilizer scarcity for Australia - synthesis report, Synthesis Report for the National Workshop on the Future of Phosphorus, pp. 1-12, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D., Kazaglis, A. & White, S. Water Services Association of Australia 2008, Guide to Demand Management, pp. 1-176, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Lee, L.Y., Plant, R. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2008, Think Water, Act Water: Evaluation of the ACT Government's Water Demand Management Program, pp. 1-41, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Giurco, D., Carrard, N.R., McFallan, S., Nalbantoglu, M., Inman, M., Thornton, N.L. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2008, Residential end-use measurement guidebook: a guide to study design, sampling and technology, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Turner, A.J., White, S. & Edgerton, N. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2007, Alice Springs Water Efficiency Study Stage III - Implementation of the Alice Springs Water Efficiency Program - Feasibility Study - Final Report, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Turner, A.J., Hausler, G., Carrard, N.R., Kazaglis, A., White, S., Hughes, A. & Johnson, T. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS and Cardno (Brisbane) 2007, Review of water supply-demand options for South East Queensland, pp. 1-146, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This independent review aims to assess the Queensland Government's proposed strategy for meeting the long-term water supply-demand balance for South East Queensland, of which the Traveston Crossing scheme is a major and controversial component. The review, conducted by a team from the ISF at the UTS and Cardno, concludes that a diverse portfolio of options can ensure supply security for South East Queensland (SEQ) well into the future, certainly to 2050. Such options include: increasing water supply availability (supply-side options); decreasing the demand for water (demand-side options); and meeting water supply needs during deep droughts (drought response options). A number of the elements of such a portfolio are already being implemented as part of the current Queensland Government strategy. With the extension and addition of low unit cost demand-side options and supply-side drought response readiness options, a clear conclusion of this study is that the proposed dam at Traveston Crossing on the Mary River is neither necessary nor desirable as a part of the portfolio for ensuring supply security to 2050. The increase in supply from this proposed dam will not assist in the short-term during the current severe drought in which water (from savings and supply) is needed over the next two to three years. Planned completion of the Traveston Crossing Dam Stage 1 is in 2012. Additional time will be needed for the dam to fill, which could take an additional two years, resulting in the yield from this source only potentially being available in 2014. Neither is the Traveston Crossing scheme needed for supply-demand balance in the longer term with the suite of other more appropriate drought response measures being implemented by the Queensland Government and strategy being proposed as part of this study. The proposed dam at Traveston Crossing on the Mary River represents a high total cost, high unit cost, high risk and high environmental and social impact option.
White, S., Turner, A.J., Kazaglis, A. & Carrard, N.R. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2007, Response to Queensland Water Commission Report 'Evaluation of ISF / Cardno report: Review of water supply-demand options for South East Queensland', pp. 1-31, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In February 2007, the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) and Cardno Australia released a Review of Water Supply-Demand Options for South East Queensland (the Review). The Review was submitted to the Senate Rural & Regional Affairs and Transport (RRAT) Committee Inquiry into Additional Water Supplies for South East Queensland. The key finding of the ISF/Cardno Review is that Traveston Crossing Dam will not be useful to provide water security in the current drought and is unnecessary to ensure water security for South East Queensland after the drought and for decades to come. The suite of supply and demand options â excluding Traveston Dam â which are currently being implemented as part of the South East Queensland Regional Water Supply Strategy (SEQRWSS) sufficient to ensure the supply-demand balance to around 2030. For the period 2030-2050, ISF/Cardno suggest a number of enhanced demand management programs that will maintain the supplydemand balance to 2050. The demand management measures suggested by ISF/Cardno are more cost effective than Traveston Dam (in terms of $ per kilolitre) and perform significantly better than Traveston Dam when assessed on social and environmental criteria including greenhouse impact. In the event that a period of water scarcity worse than the current drought occurs, ISF/Cardno propose that a âreadinessâ strategy be adopted whereby water supply projects with relatively short construction and delivery times are planned and approved but only built if and when absolutely necessary to defer a crisis in water supplies. This strategy avoids investing in infrastructure that may not be needed. This represents a lower cost strategy than building capital works pre-emptively. It is important to note that the water supply projects outlined in the ISF/Cardno Review are suggestions of appropriate âreadinessâ options.
Riedy, C., Simard, S., Snelling, C.M. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2007, Sydney Water Corporation end use model review: Stage 2 report (detailed review and recalibration), Sydney.
Herriman, J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Automated Metering - Scoping Paper, pp. 1-69, Sydney.
The Wide Bay Water Corporation (WBWC) AMR Remote Read Water Meter Project is an innovative approach to metering and water efficiency. It represents the first large scale use in Australia of remote read metering technology for a water utility, and will result in both a more streamlined meter reading process and more detailed time of use data for water consumption. This is a great opportunity for both WBWC and the Australian water industry. The experience of WBWC in this project will be a valuable resource for other utilities wishing to explore options for metering to meet water efficiency and water conservation objectives. This research report considers the costs and benefits of the project from both the Wide Bay Water perspective (acting as a pioneer, with associated costs related to investigation of technology and communication of project results); and also from the perspective of another utility taking up the technology after the WBWC project. The cost of a one-time conversion are about $287 per connection or $192 per connection if the costs of pioneering are removed. The annualised costs to WBWC are about $482,000, or $385,000 for a routine installation where pioneering costs are removed.
Herriman, J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Practitioners review of the EarthWorks Programme in Southern Sydney, pp. 1-37, Sydney.
ISF was asked to run a workshop for SSROC Council staff to reflect on their experiences of the EarthWorks program. This report is based on the outcomes of that workshop and additional submitted responses from council staff. It therefore provides a preliminary review of EarthWorks from a practitioner perspective. There are several paths now open to the councils and these options have been identified and outlined in this report. ISF has recognised that this is one input, and have recommended that further steps be taken to get feedback on these options. The key inputs of this review included: ÂA workshop with practitioners ÂAnswers to a short questionnaire on evaluation ÂSome information from DEC on historic and concurrent review processes The scope of the review was limited to consulting with waste educators in the Southern Sydney region with some experience of EarthWorks. The review did not include data from an empirical evaluation, or participant or agency perspectives. The focus was on program efficiency and efficacy rather than effectiveness (ie operational and tactical rather than strategic outcomes). The main constraints to the review were the limited resources (time) assigned to the review process, which therefore did not allow for input from a broad range of stakeholders or a comprehensive literature review. However despite this, some conclusions from the review are clear and beneficial: many councils in South Sydney are continuing to use EarthWorks as a basis for their community waste education programs, there are some common operational challenges to delivering the program, and there is an increasing tendency towards adapting the content of the program to meet broader sustainability objectives. A range of options for the future use of the program have been identified.
The Institute for Sustainable Futures is currently undertaking the ACTEW Integrated Supply Demand Planning Model Study. The project involves the development of a detailed water demand forecasting and options model using existing Water Services of Australia (WSAA) software. The options reflect the suite of responses to supplydemand imbalances as forecast by the model, and include both supply-side and demand management options. The project has been commissioned by ACTEW Corporation, and is co-funded by ACTEWAGL and the ACT Government's Office of Sustainability. A key feature of the study is the active engagement of the client in the development of the model, with a view of building in-house capacity and end-use modelling expertise. Three major project stages have been defined to enable key review points for theclient. Each stage involves one or more client workshops. Stage 1 - Planning of the process: review of available data Stage 2 - Situation analysis: development of Stage 3 - Development of the response (options) This report summarises the results from Stage 2 and identifies issues for discussion during delivery of the work in a client workshop on 6 December 2006
Central Highlands Water is required to reduce its water usage by 820 ML/a by 2015 in line with the targets for the Central Region Sustainable Water Strategy. This report reviews demand trends from the residential, commercial and concessional sectors along with non-revenue water usage to gain a historical understanding of water usage patterns. This covers both restricted and unrestricted periods. Together with population projections, this historical analysis provides a basis for initial projections of future demand on a sector basis. Additional detail has been included in the residential sector to understand demand for both single residential dwellings and flats/units as a separate category as their outdoor water usage is significantly less than for single residential dwellings. Options for reducing demand in the residential, commercial and concessional sectors were then developed and modelled, including the water savings, timing total resource costs (the total costs borne by CHW, Customers and Government) as well as who pays the costs for each option. Levelised unit cost (present value $/ present value kL of water saved or supplied) were used to rank the costs of options. It shows the total cost of the options to meet the targets and the breakdown by stakeholders and water saved by implementation year. An implementation plan, drawing on ISF experience in assisting other utilities to roll-out demand management programs was developed to outline the practical issues associated with staffing requirements, management strategies for each option, plus monitoring and evaluation strategies to ensure options are meeting savings targets. It is proposed that additional staff resources be dedicated to coordinating the implementation of the options. Option-specific implementation issues are detailed in the report.
This report forms part of a larger study (Stage 1 of the International Demand Management Framework (IDMF)) which has been undertaken under the auspices of the International Water Association Task Force 7 of the Specialist Group Efficient Operation and Management. Current practice often utilises litres per capita per day (LCD) to describe and forecast water demand; however this practice has been found to be limited for planning purposes within water utilities. In its place, an emerging way forward is based on disaggregation of demand and robust comparison of both demand and supply options to improve reliability. Disaggregation of demand into sectors and end uses allows accurate forecasting of demand and strategic design of demand management options which may be used in complement to supply options. The findings indicate that Canal de Isabel II has completed excellent work in certain areas, such as drought and risk management, management of water losses, knowledge of supply and distribution system, and sector and end use data collection. There remains significant opportunity for Canal de Isabel II to incorporate other improvements toward best practice, including the following: Âapproach the planning process in a coherent way that considers both demand and supply options and works through a logical sequence of steps Âutilise in-depth knowledge of sector and end-uses to strategically identify and design demand management options Âcompare demand and supply options using a consistent economic analysis so that the solutions with the lowest cost to society can be selected and implemented Âinvolve a larger group of stakeholders at appropriate points in the planning process Âconduct pilot and implementation of chosen demand management options to initiate on-going learning about what works and doesn't in the local context & Âmonitor and evaluate pilot and implementation programs using robust statistical methods.
White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Integrated Supply Demand Planning Model Study, pp. 1-29, Sydney.
The Institute for Sustainable Futures is currently undertaking the ACTEW Integrated Supply Demand Planning Model Study. The project involves the development of a detailed water demand forecasting and options model using existing Water Services of Australia (WSAA) software. The options reflect the suite of responses to supply demand imbalances as forecast by the model, and include both supply-side and demand management options. The project has been commissioned by ACTEW Corporation, and is co-funded by ACTEWAGL and the ACT Government's Office of Sustainability. A key feature of the study is the active engagement of the client in the development of the model, with a view of building in-house capacity and end-use modelling expertise. Three major project stages have been defined to enable key review points for the client. Each stage involves one or more client workshops. Stage 1 - Planning of the process: review of available data Stage 2 - Situation analysis: development of Stage 3 - Development of the response (options) This report summarises the results from Stage 2 and identifies issues for discussion during delivery of the work in a client workshop on 6 December 2006
White, S., Campbell, D., Giurco, D., Snelling, C.M., Kazaglis, A. & Fane, S.A. Metropolitan Water 2006, Review of the Metropolitan Water Plan: Final Report, pp. 1-94, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This report was commissioned by the NSW Cabinet Office to review the Metropolitan Water Plan 2004 (DIPNR, 2004a), and was undertaken by the Institute for Sustainable Futures at the University of Technology, Sydney and ACIL Tasman with technical advice from SMEC Australia. In February 2006, our interim review report (ISF, 2006) showed how the supply-demand balance in 2015 could be met with rain-fed supply and a suite of demand management initiatives, and how Sydneys water needs could be secured against the risk of severe drought by having the capacity to deploy groundwater and desalination.
Atherton, A.M., Riedy, C. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Moving on: the RTBU's public transport blueprint for Sydney - policy paper, pp. 1-81, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Atherton, A.M., Riedy, C. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2006, Moving on: the RTBU's public transport blueprint for Sydney - summary paper, pp. 1-36, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Water use in toilets accounts for more than 25% of total indoor residential water demand in Australia. As such, toilet demand should be an important area of focus for demand management programs in Australia. One obvious demand management approach is to accelerate the rate at which single flush toilets are replaced by efficient dual flush toilets. This report describes the development and use of a toilet demand model to estimate the water conservation potential of a retrofit of all single flush toilets in Australia with Caroma SmartFlush toilets (dual flush toilets with 4.5 litre full flush and 3 litre half flush). The toilet demand model is a stock model that tracks the evolution of the stock of different toilet types over time. The following types of toilet are included in the model: ÂSingle flush toilets (SF) ÂDual flush toilets with full flush of 11 litres and half flush of 5.5 litres (DF 11/5.5) ÂDual flush toilets with full flush of 9 litres and half flush of 4.5 litres (DF 9/4.5) ÂDual flush toilets with full flush of 6 litres and half flush of 3 litres (DF 6/3) ÂCaroma SmartFlush toilets with full flush of 4.5 litres and half flush of 3 litres (DF 4.5/3). An Australia-wide model is supported by separate models for capital cities and two regional centres (Goulburn and Toowoomba). Figure ES1 shows toilet demand projections for Australia under three scenarios: ÂScenario 1: Base case in which all toilets are single flush (i.e. no introduction of dual flush toilets) ÂScenario 2: Continued evolution of toilet stock without further intervention ÂScenario 3: A retrofit to replace all single flush toilets with DF 4.5/3 toilets in 2006-07. The figure shows the very significant impact that the introduction of dual flush toilets has had on total toilet demand in Australia. In 2006-07, the savings already achieved amount to 214 GL per year. A 2006-07 retrofit would immediately save an additional 79 GL per year.
McFarlane, D.J., Inman, M., White, S., Loh, M.T., Turner, A.J. & English, L. CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship 2005, Integrated resource planning for the integrated water supply scheme for: expert panel examining Kimberly water supply options, pp. 1-43, Canberra, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Through the State Water Strategy the Government of Western Australia has committed to using Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) in its water allocation and licensing processes (Government of Western Australia, 2003). There is currently limited experience in using IRP methods within the state and methods used elsewhere may need to be adapted to take account of the specific water environment within Western Australia, especially the relative complexity of the states water sources, the high outdoor use component and self-supply options such as domestic bores. Improved management of existing water resources (e.g. catchment thinning, plantation management) to release more water are also not well covered in many past uses of the method. The Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) commissioned and recommends the use of an End Use Model (since renamed, the Supply and Demand Planning Model) to detail how water is used on both a customer sector (e.g. domestic, commercial) and end use basis (e.g. toilet flushing, garden watering). Such a model allows water suppliers to better predict future demand (forecasting) and to develop options to meet a future water supply demand balance (backcasting). Importantly, it allows water supply and demand management options to be compared on a consistent economic basis. Alternative methods of assessing supply and demand options often only consider the financial impact on the water service provider, whereas the government needs to also consider the impact on consumers and on the general community
This report provides the findings of a review of the water efficiency programs being undertaken by the Water Corporation of Western Australia (WA). It has been undertaken to determine what might be improved to assist the Water Corporation to meet corporate and WA Government objectives, and to determine what other strategies might contribute to meeting those objectives. In addition the review has considered what would be required to implement best practice water efficiency programs, and to test the possibility that Perth could become one of Australia's most water efficient cities by tapping into greater conservation potential. The review has considered the large range of programs that the Water Corporation has in place to save water, including the WA Government funded Waterwise Rebate Program providing rebates on residential water efficient equipment. It has also investigated the regulatory environment in which the Water Corporation operates, the framework for economic assessment of water efficiency programs; the monitoring and evaluation of programs, and the internal support for development of water efficiency strategies. A model has been developed to estimate and summarise the relative unit costs and savings of the existing programs, and to estimate the potential for new extension programs to generate greater savings. These programs have then been compared with a range of reuse and supply augmentation options being considered by Water Corporation. The WA regulatory environment, as expressed through the WA State Water Strategy, places strong emphasis on the need to utilise an integrated resource planning framework for water supply and water efficiency programs. This framework requires that demand side be evaluated on the same basis as supply side options (source augmentation) and reuse options, based on the costs to all parties and that least cost options be investigated for implementation ahead of, or at least in conjunction with higher cost options.
White, S. & Cordell, D.J. Local Government and Shires Associations of New South Wales 2005, Beyond Recycling - An Integrated Waste Management Framework for Local Government - Part A: Developing an Integrated Waste Management Strategy and Empowering the Community, pp. 1-37, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Although the Australian community is concerned about the environment and committed to kerbside recycling, Australia creates more waste per person than almost any other country. Substantial increases in the cost of waste disposal over the past decade have not curbed total waste generation, and the net cost of kerbside recycling to local government continues to be substantial. Consistent with the Local Government Act 1993, significant efforts have been made in NSW and other States to manage waste in line with the principles of Ecologically Sustainable Development. However until recently these efforts have focused largely on managing the problem once waste has already been generated, such as increasing the efficiency of existing collection systems, new treatment technologies and turning waste into energy. There are significant opportunities for local government to explore other options in line with international developments in Extended Producer Responsibility. Such options typically operate higher up the waste hierarchy, and are more cost-effective than current practice, in addition to achieving greater environmental benefits.
Berry, T., Beatty, K. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2004, Review of hot water and energy use assumptions, pp. 1-18, Sydney.
In 2004 Agility Management produced two documents for AGL; Hot Water Impacts for New Dwellings for AGLGN Network NSW and Energy Usage Impacts for the ActewAGL Gas Network. The purpose of both documents was to determine the expected reduction in gas usage for residential dwellings over the next Access Arrangement period to 2010 based on a forecast of hot water load in new residential connections in the ACT and NSW. The aim of this report is to provide a review of the assumptions and logic contained in the above two reports along with any recommendations to changes to water end-use data. The review of the data assumptions found that the majority of the variables chosen to estimate the impacts of BASIX and Think Water Act Water were well chosen and reflected the best available knowledge. The logic that has been employed also appears sound and logical in the majority of its major assumptions. There is one major methodological assumption which we would recommend changing. This is the use of theoretical potential water savings from efficient devices as opposed to those measured from actual programs. In addition we have made suggestions regarding washing machine savings and the likely uptake of efficient equipment in the ACT. It is recommended that the levels of hot water savings due to adoption of water efficient devices be changed from 28% to 23% for NSW (BASIX) and 19% for the retrofits of existing housing stock in the ACT (TWAW). This lower level of savings is supported by results of the evaluation of savings from retrofit programs in NSW.
Berry, T., Edgerton, N., Milne, G.R., Jha, M. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2004, Feasibility study for a policy on water in government operations, pp. 1-78, Sydney.
The Australian Government seeks to promote and develop sustainable water management initiatives and policies, such as the Council of Australian Governmentsâ (COAG) National Water Initiative8. As part of these moves toward sustainable water management, there lies a strong recognition that it is imperative for the Government to lead by example. The Senate Inquiry9 into Australiaâs management of urban water captured this requirement in two of its recommendations, which called for the Australian Government to develop a strategy to progressively implement high standards of water efficiency throughout all its buildings and to fund the Joint House Department to implement the replacement of non-efficient water using devices with water efficient ones. The Australian Government has the opportunity to implement exemplary water use practices consistent with principles of sustainable water use. This could be achieved through the development of a policy for water in government buildings and operations, a âwater policyâ. This report is an initial feasibility study to examine the potential of such a policy, the results of which will be used to recommend whether or not to proceed with its development.
Fane, S.A., White, S., Edgerton, N., Campbell, S. & Chapman, R.L. Institute for Sustainable Futures and Centre for International Economics 2004, Meeting Sydney's water demand-supply balance: An evaluation of demand and supply side options for the NSW government plan - Securing Water for Our People and Rivers, pp. 1-45, Sydney.
This report provides an evaluation of options and scenarios for meeting Sydney's demand-supply balance.
White, S. & Cordell, D.J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2004, Beyond Recycling - An Integrated Waste Management Framework for Local Government - Part B: Recycling in Context - the Current Situation, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The NSW Nature Conservation Council, with funding from the NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, commissioned the Institute for Sustainable Futures at the University of Technology, Sydney, to carry out an independent review of the National Packaging Covenant and the National Environmental Protection Measure for Used Packaging Materials (the Covenant systema), in December 2003. This review was intended to evaluate the Covenant system's effectiveness in achieving both its stated objectives and broader environmental and social outcomes, including reduction in generation of packaging waste, specifically reduction in virgin materials used in packaging and a reduction in packaging material disposed to landfill. The National Packaging Covenant (NPC) is a voluntary agreement between industry, the Commonwealth Government, most State Governments and some local governments, to reduce packaging waste. It is supported by a regulatory measure, the National Environmental Protection Measure (NEPM), designed to encourage brand owners to sign the NPC. The NPC came into effect in August 1999 and is due to finish in July 2004. It is currently the subject of three separate reviews, including this one. The principle of a cooperative regulatory framework supported by a regulatory safety net is an appealing one, so there is a strong desire on the part of industry and some government agencies to provide the maximum possible opportunity for the NPC to demonstrate that it has provided benefits. This review has determined that the Covenant system is not an effective instrument for reducing the generation of packaging waste and therefore an alternative policy framework will be needed to achieve this goal. The evaluation is briefly summarised for each of the criteria.
Berry, T., Campbell, S., Riedy, C. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2004, Discussion paper: A new distributed infrastructure and services market, pp. 1-38, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This discussion paper was completed with the support of the Australian Council for Infrastructure Development (AusCID). It seeks to build the case, firstly, for change towards more distributed (or decentralised) infrastructure and service provision; secondly, for private sector involvement in that change; and thirdly for thinking about it from an industry perspective in terms of a new and very different market with a wealth of different opportunities. We are working to form a partnership between AusCID, ISF and other stakeholders to take the analysis to the next level and help to realise the opportunities identified. This work could involve assessing the nature and potential size of the market in distributed infrastructure and services, identifying and evaluating the opportunities within it, understanding the barriers and challenges in creating it and outlining some possible strategies to overcome those barriers. Three key drivers are helping to create new opportunities and a market in distributed infrastructure and services which looks very different to the traditional infrastructure market. We have defined this Distributed Infrastructure and Services (DIS) market as one involving products and services that: - increase efficiency and conservation - provide distributed and decentralised supply - involve change to the system as a whole These can be complementary to the existing infrastructure industry as well as offering new and very different opportunities. To help make the DIS opportunities a reality, we identified a need to understand the change and its potential from an industry perspective. We have started to do so in this discussion paper by examining the case for change in five categories: - the growth market - product and service opportunities - competitor development and opportunity - policy and economic incentives - existing business improvement
This review has been undertaken to provide advice to DIPNR regarding the potential for improvements to BASIX, prior to BASIX going live on July 1st 2004. As a regulatory support tool, BASIX has a great potential to reduce potable water demand. It provides a useful performance based approach to regulation, moving away from prescriptive requirements. The user friendly web based interface allows for the potential for broad reach and reduced compliance costs. The usefulness of this tool will depend largely on appropriate complementary and supplementary measures to support its implementation, including resources such as training and education for developers, builders and householders compliance monitoring economic incentives least cost planning and estate level planning. Without such support measures BASIX risks resulting in perverse outcomes such as increased water use or stakeholder opposition and resistance to cooperation. Many of these options are beyond the scope of DIPNR to implement, which further strengthens the requirement for a whole of government approach to water efficiency implementation. This review found that the key limitations of BASIX were largely a result of its inability to affect more than technical measures to reduce potable water demand at the stage of development consent. This means neither water efficient appliances nor behavioural measures could be influenced either at the development application stage or in the longer term. Furthermore, without compliance monitoring, economic incentives and appropriate training and education for the industry and community, there is little assurance that design savings will be achieved. This report suggests a number of recommendations to overcome these limitations and maximise the effectiveness of BASIX.
Chen, D., Campbell, S. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2003, Least Cost, Greatest Impact: a discussion paper on the applicability of Least Cost Planning to transport in Australia, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Jha, M., White, S. & Chanan, V. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2003, Integration of rain tanks, pp. 1-56, Sydney.
The Institute for Sustainable Futures was commissioned by Rous Water to analyse and evaluate the potential for rain tanks to act as a reliable water supply source supplementing the supply storages that service the Rous region. This study builds on a previous study of rain tanks that was undertaken as part of the Rous Demand Management Strategy (White, 1997) which investigated the potential for rain tanks as a supplementary supply source and also as a sole supply for new buildings. It was necessary to estimate the secure yield that results from integration of rain tanks with the mains water source on the supply system. This is because the effectiveness of any supply augmentation and upgrade option is measured by its ability to increasing the secure yield of the water supply system. Such an evaluation along with cost benefit analysis also enables a comparison of rain tanks with other supply side options. The study assumed that rain tanks could be retrofitted on all the 26,031 single residential dwellings in the Rous region. Rain tanks were modelled and analysed using different demand scenarios. Each demand scenario assumed the rain tank to meet specific household demands, or end uses. The following three demand scenarios were analysed: Demand scenario A: rain water meeting the demand for toilet flushing only. Demand scenario B: rain water meeting the demand for outdoor use only. Demand scenario C: rain water meeting the demand for outdoor, toilet and laundry use.
Snelling, C.M. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2003, Gold Coast water demand management scoping study, pp. 1-82, Sydney.
Gold Coast Water (GCW) commissioned The Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) to complete a scoping study taking a least cost planning approach to how GCW could better target its demand management initiatives and to outline the steps needed to develop a full Least Cost Planning (LCP) study. As such, this scoping study firstly provides a set of detailed recommendations for how the GCW should build on its current demand management program. Secondly, we make recommendations about the logical next steps that could be taken to complete an in depth LCP study that would combine supply and demand planning and help GCW meet the regions water needs into the future. Least Cost Planning is not only a method that helps define suitable and effective demand management programs, but is an integrated resource planning method for planning and managing both supply and demand. The conclusions and recommendations highlighted in this report should be used to help focus investment in demand management options and target those investments on groups within the customer base of Gold Coast Water. The conclusions from the Questions and Analysis are outlined below. More detailed conclusions and recommendations covering the detailed demand management initiatives and options are in Section 5, "Benefits and Planning".
Turner, A.J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2003, ACT Water Strategy: Preliminary Demand Management and Least Cost Planning Assessment, pp. 1-45, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The aim of the Brisbane City Least Cost Planning and Demand Management Study is to develop the principles and application of least cost planning (LCP), end use analysis and demand management for water service provision (including water, wastewater and stormwater services) in the planning and operation of Brisbane City Council (BCC) and Brisbane Water (BW), thus providing the City of Brisbane with the tools to enable provision of sustainable urban water services in the future. BCC, as the largest council in Australia, has inherited the water services responsibility of providing and treating water for 1.3 million people within South East Queensland (which includes Brisbane City and five surrounding local government areas), distributing water to the City of Brisbane (376,000 property connections), collecting and treating sewage from 368,000 property connections within Brisbane and managing the stormwater and protecting the 633 km of waterways within 33 catchments covering an area of over 1,100 km. Due to a number of constraints and drivers BCC will need to invest considerable capital in its current water services infrastructure over the next 50 years, of which a significant proportion will be needed within the next 20 years. This is illustrated in Figures 1 & 2, especially with respect to wastewater.
The AusLink Green Paper provides this government with a unique opportunity to make progress toward more sustainable transport and ISF is pleased to contribute to the process both through this submission and by providing research support if requested. In summary, AusLink is a necessary step for this government to take but falls short of our expectations. Without successfully embracing integration (Recommendation 1) neither efficiency nor environmental gains are likely to be realised. These can only be achieved by assessing all modal options equally, based on efficiency (Recommendation 2). This assessment must consider the total cost to the community, which can be facilitated using a Least Cost Planning framework (Recommendation 3). As it stands, AusLink seeks solutions to a doubling of the total freight task by 2020. On the contrary, this type of forward planning is the perfect opportunity to overtly commit to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport (Recommendation 4) and deliberately seek to prevent the total freight transport task from doubling Recommendation 5 by using integrated transport and land use planning and by employing transport demand management. The Green Paper identifies that road transport still handles 72percent of freight in tonnes and 37percent of the freight task in tonne-kilometres, carrying in particular significant amounts of priority delivery items and yet the document does not express targets for changing this modal share Recommendation 6. Visions for the future of freight, and indeed transport in Australia, need to be developed with the engagement of the community Recommendation 7. Submissions to a Green Paper are not sufficient in this regard and ISF looks forward to the next round of consultation and the revised documentation.
White, S., Robinson, J., Cordell, D.J., Jha, M. & Milne, G.R. Water Services Association of Australia 2003, Urban water demand forecasting and demand management: Research needs review and recommendations, pp. 1-56, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Urban Water Demand Forecasting and Demand Management - Research Needs Review and Recommendations This study undertook a preliminary investigation of current research into urban water demand. The objective was to conduct a preliminary review of this field, to provide the beginnings of a comprehensive database of industry knowledge in this area and to identify research gaps. It is anticipated that this will lead to a more considered approach to research funding by the Australian water industry and maximise the potential for transparency and collaboration
The water industry in Australia and internationally is on the brink of significant changes in its provision of services. These changes are being driven locally by an increasing interest in long-term holistic thinking (sustainability) (e.g. VicWaters publication of guidelines for triple bottom line reporting); changes in community preferences (e.g. research conducted for the Melbourne Water Resources Strategy Review) and recent technological advancement (e.g. onsite detention systems linked to small bore, flexible, sewer collection systems). The business of the water industry can be viewed as moving from commodity supply to services provision. YVW engaged the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) to help answer a series of questions What are the emerging trends in sustainable urban water service provision. How could YVW deliver sustainable urban water services in the future What are the opportunities for YVW. This report is a summary of the entire project. It includes summaries of our review of YVWs external context and the outcomes of the literature review, Workshop 1 and Workshop 2. The purpose of this document is to bring together the outcomes from the divergent and convergent phases of the project and integrate these into a coherent set of next steps for YVW.
Sarac, K. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2002, The Kalgoorlie-Boulder Water Efficiency Program, pp. 1-121, Sydney.
This report provides the results of an evaluation of the 1995-96 Kalgoorlie-Boulder Water Efficiency Program, and conclusions and recommendations regarding possible next steps to improve the efficiency of scheme water use. Evaluating the impact of water efficiency programs is a difficult task, and is rarely undertaken in a comprehensive way anywhere in the world. In this analysis, several different methods have been used to gain insight into different aspects of the program, to assess the impact of various measures, and to determine what might be improved in the future. These were: oa climate correction model of bulk water demand in Kalgoorlie-Boulder; oan evaluation of the impacts of the program on the water demand within participating households, through a comparison group analysis based on billing data; oa survey of households to determine what, if any, aspects of the outdoor portion of the program remained in place after five years, and to determine current attitudes to water use and water efficiency; and an estimate of the expected savings from the non-residential audits, based on data provided by Water Corporation.
The aim of the Burnett Region Least Cost Planning (LCP) Study is to develop a framework for meeting water related needs on a whole of catchment basis (irrigated agriculture, town water supplies, industry and environmental needs). The use of an LCP approach involves considering a range of options including investment in supply augmentation, recycling and water efficiency. Therefore allowing the development of an integrated 'triple bottom line' solution, which provides the services that water users require at the minimum economic, environmental and social cost. This document provides the findings of the Study and includes details on the background of the Study, studies already undertaken, regional physical and economic details, methodology used, current water supply and projected water demand. It then considers possible water demand/management efficiency measures possible (under various end-use sectors) and alternative reuse and smaller supply options other then the currently proposed Paradise Dam. Using these costed options a Hybrid Option has been developed, which achieves the requirements of the Paradise Dam but with significant additional financial, social and environmental benefits. The Study has been conducted in such as way as to provide a framework for considering LCP principles within other areas of Queensland. The Burnett Region has specifically been chosen as a pilot study to examine LCP principles due to the a wide range of complex water related issues that apply to this region.
White, S. & Campbell, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2002, Integrated Water Service Provision, pp. 1-89, Sydney.
This investigation aims to describe and analyse barriers to the integration of water services in the north coast region, and identify strategies to overcome them in the interests of river health. This work has revealed the following situation in terms of the existing provision of water services. The major pressures include escalating demands for water, fragmented management approaches, inconsistency in planning and financing of infrastructure, and development of centralised infrastructure which treats the water cycle in a linear way. These pressures combine to act as barriers to a more integrated approach. In a business as usual scenario, the region is likely to experience escalating demands for water supply, sewage discharge and stormwater management resulting from population growth. Projections of water demand in the region are based on population growth and an understanding of changes in appliance efficiency that are already occurring. It is possible that there will be a 23% increase in demand for water over the next 25 years, resulting in some 8,800 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions for pumping and treatment alone, equivalent to the stationary energy related emissions from 1,140 houses. The resulting increase in sewage flows would be approximately 17.5 ML/d, roughly equivalent to the sewage from Coffs Harbour. Fragmented approaches to the provision of water services arise from decision-making structures that regard water supply, sewerage services and stormwater as three separate activities. There is also a disconnection between the objectives for river health that apply at a catchment level, and the local planning and infrastructure development.
White, S. & Campbell, S. Healthy Rivers Commission of New South Wales 2002, Integrated Water Service Provision: Opportunities and Implications on the NSW North Coast Occasional Paper OCP 1007, Sydney?.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2001, Independent Advice on Container Deposit Legislation in the Northern Territory, pp. 1-23, Sydney.
This report provides independent advice on a proposal for a self funded container deposit system in the Northern Territory, submitted by the Keep Australia Beautiful Council (Northern Territory), and reviews an analysis made of the system by the Northern Territory Treasury. Overview of the proposed CDL system The proposed system consists of an 8 cent payment by consumers per beverage container to cover both the deposit and handling fee. The materials co-ordinator receives eight cents per beverage container for 100% of sales by the beverage fillers. Consumers return the used beverage containers to collection depots in regional centres, or retail stores in remote communities, to receive the 5 cent per container deposit refund. Licensed collection depots receive the deposit and handling fee from the materials co-ordinator, and are responsible for sorting the materials and readying them for sale. Both the KABC (NT) proposal and the NT Territory analysis see the role of a materials co-ordinator as a role undertaken by a group/organisation other than the beverage fillers themselves. All unclaimed deposits are proposed to be kept by the materials co-ordinator. Assessment of key input data Containers produced and returned Three scenarios for the number of containers produced were considered (80 million, 100 million and 140 million per annum). Two scenarios have been provided for the breakdown of containers by material types, one with high glass usage and one with low glass usage and high aluminium usage. The scenarios are expressed in both annual container numbers and tonnes of used container materials generated per annum. The assumed overall recovery rate of 85% and the associated sensitivity testing on recovery levels is consistent with the South Australian experience. The other major determinants of recovery rate are the convenience of return locations, and the container material itself.
White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2001, Independent Review of Container Deposit Legislation in New South Wales, Sydney.
White, S. & Day, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2001, North Richmond Demand Management Study, pp. 1-117, Sydney.
This report presents a least cost planning study for the North Richmond water delivery system (NRWDS). The prevalent issue in this system is the capacity of the water filtration plant to meet the demand for water on maximum demand days. The objective of this study is to determine the least cost means of meeting future maximum demands in the system. Specifically, the objectives of the analysis have been to determine the costs and benefits for reducing the demand for water relative to the costs of water infrastructure and increased supply. First stage involved a review of historical demands, including those for the large users in the region, and to develop a water balance. As consumption data specific to the NRWDS is not available, historical demand data for Hawkesbury local government area was reviewed. The current consumption levels for the various customer classes is as follows: single residential 820 L/hh/d, multi residential 450 L/hh/d, commercial 4,200 L/property/d, institutional 6,800 L/property/d (although this varies greatly between years) and industrial 2,200 L/property/d. Based on information from the Hydra database for the NRWDS the total metered consumption for 1999/2000 was approximately 5.7 million kL, of which residential demand accounts for over 70%, while the commercial, industrial and institutional sectors make up less than 10% each. Unaccounted-for water ranges between 10% and 15%. The average day flows for the system in the 1999/2000 financial year was approximately 18 ML/d, while the max day flow for the same year was 40 ML/d. The water balance provided the basis for the next stage which involved developing an estimate of future demands for water in the NRWDS. The methodology incorporates end-use analysis, in which the demand for water is disaggregated into sectors eg residential, industrial, primary producers and end-uses eg showers and toilets.
White, S., Aisbett, E., Awad, I., Bubna-Litic, K., Calvert, F., Chanan, V., Cordell, D.J., Hendriks, C., Lee, N., O'Rourke, A., Palmer, J., Robinson, J., Sarac, K. & Young, E. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2001, Independent Review of Container Deposit Legislation in NSW - Vol 3. Consultation and Social Research, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
White, S., Aisbett, E., Awad, I., Bubna-Litic, K., Calvert, F., Chanan, V., Cordell, D.J., Hendriks, C., Lee, N., O'Rourke, A., Palmer, J., Robinson, J., Young, E. & Sarac, K. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2001, Independent Review of Container Deposit Legislation in NSW - Vol 2. Costs and Benefits of Container Deposit Legislation in NSW, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
White, S., Calvert, F., Cordell, D.J., O'Rourke, A., Waters, S.C. & Young, E. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2001, Independent Review of Container Deposit Legislation in NSW - Vol 1. Extended Producer Responsibility: Principles, Policy and Practice in NSW, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Day, D. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2000, Evaluation of the Smart Showerhead Program, pp. 1-23, Sydney.
The Smart Showerhead Program This report provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Smart Showerhead Program, which was initiated in July 1998 and ran until October 1999. The basis of the program was the distribution of a voucher for a 10 dollar discount on a range of AAA-rated showerheads in participating stores. The total number of approved Smart Showerhead sales for the total program period was 8,907. The primary aim of this report is to assess the water savings achieved by the program. Evaluation Methodology A statistical evaluation was conducted on quarterly water consumption data. The evaluation method used to assess water savings is statistical analysis using a comparison group. The consumption for participants before and after the installation of a water efficient showerhead was compared with that for a comparison group for the same time periods. Program Water Savings Table 1 indicates the estimated average savings per household for the seasonal and annual data. The results of the statistical analysis of the Program demonstrate statistically significant water savings between the participant and comparison groups at a 5 percent significance level for the data from all seasons except autumn. The annual saving of 16.5 kL hh a was also statistically significant. These results are shown diagrammatically in Figure 1. Using the best estimate of water savings, the reduction in demand as a result of the Program is 147 ML a. This estimate includes free-riders, that is, participants who intended to purchase a AAA rated showerhead even without the program.
Day, D. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2000, Minimum performance standards for showerheads in Australia, pp. 1-57, Sydney.
This study has identified the most effective strategy for progressing regulation for minimum performance standards (MPS) for showerheads. The basic premise of this strategy is to undertake the regulatory process recommended by the Office of Regulation Review (ORR). In terms of achieving the desired outcomes the preferred form of regulation is explicit government regulation that establishes clear and standardised rules. This is the only form of regulation able to ensure industry wide coverage. Five legislative options have been identified, including local development and building controls, the Building Code of Australia, the energy labelling and Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS), the Trade Practices Act (and related State and Territory Acts) and plumbing regulations. Of these, the preferred option, although not necessarily the easiest, is to regulate showerheads through state and territory plumbing regulations. At present the state and territory acts that the plumbing regulations are made under do not provide the power of authority to regulate the supply of goods, only the installation. In order to ensure that only water efficient showerheads are available for sale the powers of authority will need to be amended so that plumbing regulations have the power to restrict the supply of plumbing appliances or goods (possibly on the basis of resource conservation efficiency or environmental outcomes). The advantage of this option is that it would provide the power to regulate for other water saving appliances at a later date. Regulating the sale of goods on the basis of conservation objectives would be ground breaking in Australia.
Dupont, P. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2000, Review of pollutants in road corridor runoff, pp. 1-37, Sydney.
This report presents the results of a literature review into pollutants in road corridor runoff and identifies their impacts on public health and the environment. Some possible solutions to the impacts identified are also presented. This project was undertaken by the Institute for Sustainable Futures for NRMA as a result of NRMA's desire to add value in a credible manner to its sponsorship of Clean Up Australia Day (CUAD) and Clean Up Australia Fix Up (FUA) projects. The NRMA has recognised that water and air pollution are perceived as two of the most important environmental issues within the community and that roads and motor vehicle use may contribute to both of these problems. This report is organised in the following way. Section three gives some background information on what stormwater is and the main pollutants. Section four details the mechanism of stormwater generation and the origins of the main pollutants in stormwater. Section five lists the most significant impacts of stormwater pollution on environmental and human health. Section six details the main differences between rural and urban stormwater issues with a specific look at some typical stormwater problems around Australia. Section seven contains some case studies reviewing actions taken in a number of Australian localities to address stormwater pollution problems. From section eight the report deals with solutions to stormwater problems. Section eight lists some specific solutions to stormwater pollution in dot point form. Section nine contains some discussion of the effectiveness of stormwater mitigation measures that have been implemented specifically examining the issue of source control versus pollutant removal. Section ten contains recommendations including practical steps the NRMA could take to tackle the issue of stormwater pollution from road corridors in conjunction with its sponsorship of CUAD and FUA Programs.
Dupont, P., White, S. & Lovell, H. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2000, Market Analysis for On Site Storage, pp. 1-43, Sydney.
The purpose of this scoping study for Sydney Water Corporation was to investigate the current market for rainwater storages for residential customers in Sydney Water's delivery area. A variety of rainwater storage systems were investigated but with the exception of the adoption of a small quantity of relatively new gutter storage devices (approximately 70 Sydney wide), rainwater tanks proved to be the dominant type of rainwater storage for the Sydney area. As a result the main focus of this report is rainwater tanks. This report also investigated greywater on-site storages and revealed that it is a relatively common and simple practice in Sydney to reuse greywater directly - generally from washing machines direct to the garden. It is however rare to store greywater in a tank largely because it tends to become septic after 24 hours and emits unpleasant odours. There are a number of specialised designed greywater systems that utilise high level treatment prior to storage, and at least one system that empties to sewer every 24 hours but there would probably be less than 10 of these in Sydney as a whole (Wattworks pers. comm.). One supplier interviewed indicated that rainwater tanks were occasionally used in areas where a temporary water main was fitted that could not supply peak water demand to customers. Examples cited were Boxhill, Riverstone and North Richmond. Other than header tanks fitted to high rise buildings, and occasional scheme water top-ups of rainwater tank systems during drought this was the only incidence discovered of rainwater tanks being used for on site storage of tap water.
Sarac, K., Day, D. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2000, Evaluation of the Shellharbour Residential Retrofit Program, pp. 1-28, Sydney.
The Shellharbour Residential Retrofit Program This report provides the results of an evaluation of water savings achieved through Sydney Water's Shellharbour Residential Retrofit Pilot Program. This was the pilot program for the Sydney Water Every Drop Counts Retrofit Program, the aim of which was to reduce indoor water demand in the residential sector. The program was conducted between April 1999 and July 1999, and offered households over $130 worth of water saving plumbing services and hardware at a cost of $15, or free for pensioners and low income households. A plumber visited each participating house to carry out one or more of the following efficiency measures: Â installation of a AAA-rated showerhead (flow rate of 9 Lmin at a pressure of 250 kPa) Â installation of tap flow regulators or aerators into kitchen and bathroom taps Â installation of a float valve or cistern weight if the toilet was single flush Â checking for leaks and making minor repairs. An information booklet titled 21 ways to save water was also provided to each participating household. Evaluation approach The evaluation was based on water meter readings provided by Sydney Water and was carried out using comparison group analysis of aggregate savings and savings based on efficiency measures undertaken. The results of the comparison group analysis were compared with those of the expected savings from a residential retrofit program modelled in Sydney Water's Least Cost Planning Study Phase Two Model. A total of 3,517 households participated in the Shellharbour Residential Retrofit Program, representing approximately 21 per cent of households to whom the program was offered.
White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2000, ESD Self Assessment, pp. 1-42, Sydney.
The Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney (UTS), has developed an ESD Self Assessment Package (ESDAP) in conjunction with local councils in the Australian Capital Region. The Package provides a practical self assessment process for councils to evaluate their current activities in the context of Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD). Undertaking this self assessment will enable Councils to meet their legislative requirements under the Local Government (Ecologically Sustainable Development) Amendment Act 1997, which requires Councils to integrate ESD into all activities and decision making processes. The ESDAP encourages local Councils to document all relevant work proposed or currently being undertaken. This documentation provides a vital baseline for organisations in identifying and recognising their current contributions to ESD and in monitoring their progress towards ESD. The ESDAP also assists Councils to plan future actions as part of their progress towards ESD, with progress towards ESD also able to be tracked for Local Government regions from year to year. The ESDAP uses ten general areas of sustainability as a basis for the assessment. Use of these general areas of sustainability is designed to act as an awareness raising exercise on ESD and to expand discussion and implementation of ESD beyond existing organizational boundaries of councils. These areas have been deliberately chosen so as not to reflect function or service areas within councils and to operate at organization wide, function and service levels. This approach also recognises the variety of different actions and approaches being used by councils to address the many local government challenges and issues.
The aim of this report is to present the results of water and wastewater modelling undertaken as part of a sustainable water consultancy for the ACF/Surrowee Green Building Project. The Institute for Sustainable Futures was engaged to develop a series of options, and to undertake modelling of the hydraulic, technical, economic and other aspects of these options and their implementation, in cooperation with the Design Team and other stakeholders. For a building of this type to achieve the goal of worldâs best practice environmental performance in a commercially viable office building, it is imperative that scheme water demand be reduced as much as possible. The practical limits of demand reduction were tested by detailed end-use modelling of various sustainable water management âoptionsâ incorporating water efficiency, reuse and dry sanitation technologies. The results of modelling and the cost benefit analysis indicate that many of the options would provide net financial gains if the potential benefits from running tours and also from sale of produce from the roofgarden were included.
Young, E., Carew, A. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2000, Ku-ring-gai Campus Refurbishment, pp. 1-16, Sydney.
The following report examines economic and other waste minimisation issues arising from a demolition and refurbishment undertaken at the University of Technology, Sydney's (UTS) Kuring-gai Campus. The aim of this was to identify how waste minimisation techniques could be applied to achieve reduced costs of waste disposal, increased rates of recycling and associated reduction in waste to landfill (Fishbein, 1998; Franklin Associates, 1998). Construction and Demolition Waste prevention, or source reduction is the reduction of the amount or toxicity of waste generated. This can be achieved by either reducing the quantity of materials used or by reusing existing materials. Recycling contrasts to source reduction as it is a technique for managing (separating and reprocessing) waste that has already been generated (Fishbein, 1998; Franklin Associates, 1998). Background The NSW State Government has legislated a waste minimisation target, this target aims to reduce waste going to landfill by 60 percent by 2000 (based on 1990 per capita levels). The decision to work towards a statewide 60 percent reduction in waste to landfill resulted from the very apparent waste crisis which is currently occurring in Sydney. The waste crisis has arisen from: an increase in the generation of waste associated with increased production and consumption levels; a shortage of suitable landfill sites; the need to minimise landfill area due to the environmental impacts (land, water and atmospheric) of currently operating landfill sites; an increasing shortage of resources; and the potential for waste products to become valuable resources.
Young, E., Carew, A. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2000, Waste Minimisation Study, pp. 1-26, Sydney.
This report provides the results of an analysis of waste generation at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). The report examines the current approach to cleaning, waste collection and waste disposal at UTS, and describes changes to the existing structure which would result in sizeable cost savings in the management of waste at UTS, and a substantial decrease in waste production. Current UTS waste generation UTS staff and students are estimated to generate 0.28 kg/person/day amounting to a total waste stream of 5,169 kg/day, based in part on data from other universities. This waste stream is estimated to consist of 45% paper and cardboard, 30% organics (mostly food waste), 10% plastic, 8% glass, 5% metals, and 2% of other materials (percentages by weight). A visual inspection of 240 litre waste bins at the UTS main campus was undertaken to test for consistency with the above estimates of waste generation levels, and this inspection supported the above results. Key recommendations: Waste & Cleaning Contract Extend Recycling Communication & Student Involvement Further Analysis Purchasing Policy Management
Waste minimisation can potentially decrease the amount of waste to landfill by approximately 80%, using readily available means. This project examines ways in which a similar reduction could be achieved at the Australian Technology Park (ATP) and put the ATP at the forefront of waste reduction in NSW. The limitations of the current solid waste management system at the ATP include the lack of recycling services and the poor location of the communal waste facilities.
Carew, A., Day, D., Lovell, H. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 1999, Towards a sustainable water future for Byron Shire, pp. 1-23, Sydney.
This is the report of a Scoping Study into water efficiency for Byron Shire Council. The objective of the Study is to make a preliminary assessment of the potential for reducing the demand for water in the Byron Shire area, and the associated reduction in sewage flows to sewage treatment plants in the area. The costs and benefits of reducing demand by improving efficiency have been calculated, based on a desktop study of water demand, population and tourism growth data and future water supply and sewerage augmentation works. The modelling and projections of water demand and the impact of the use of water efficient appliances has also taken into account previous demand management initiatives by Byron Shire Council, such as the 1991-92 pricing reforms, and by Rous County Council, as well as the impact of improving efficiency of toilets under a business-as-usual scenario. A range of options have been modelled. These include: regulations on the minimum water efficiency of new buildings; retrofitting of water efficient showerheads, tap flow regulators and the adjustment of toilet flush volumes; retrofitting of 6/3 litre dual flush toilets; retrofitting of water efficient equipment in non-residential buildings such as motels; encouraging the purchase of water efficient washing machines through a point-of-sale cash rebate; a targetted outdoor water use education and advisory program; installation of composting toilets and/or greywater treatment systems; installation of rainwater tanks; and the detection and repair of water reticulation system losses and other sources of unaccounted-for-water.
Carew, A., White, S. & Crennan, L. Institute of Sustainable Futures, UTS 1999, Effluent management plan for Illawong Lodge review, pp. 1-7, Sydney.
The following document is a review of the Effluent Management Plan for Illawong Lodge which was prepared by Terry Lustig of Environmental Management Pty Ltd in collaboration with IST (draft as at 26 September 1999). The Plan will be submitted for consideration and assessment by the National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS). Extension of IST's lease is contingent on NPWS approval of the Plan. If the Plan is accepted, design of an effluent management system will follow. The review is intended to provide a professional, independent assessment of the Plan and ensure that the Plan conforms with the best available solution for effluent management at Illawong Lodge within site, climate and resource constraints, and in compliance with the principles of Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD). ISF has found that the Plan provides a thorough and well considered review of the possible solutions for effluent management at Illawong Lodge and, subject to recommendations listed in the report, would form a sound basis on which to proceed to the design phase.
The town of Esperance is located on the coast of the Southern Ocean, 600 km to the east south-east of Perth. The town had a population of 8,547 in August 1996. The climate is Mediterranean in nature, and the annual rainfall ranges from 404 mm to 1004 mm with an average of approximately 585 mm/a (WA Department of Agriculture, 1988). The population of Esperance is projected to grow in the medium term due to the further development of the mining and processing industries in the Goldfields region to the north and due to the continuing movement of retirees to the seaside town. Esperance faces significant pressures on its water supplies due to the levels of groundwater usage, which are projected to increase due to population increase, and due to deteriorating water quality. The town is currently dependent on groundwater for virtually all of its water requirements. Scheme water is supplied to the community from the Water Corporation of W.A. (WCWA) borefield, situated to the west of the township. A number of large industries also draw on significant volumes of groundwater through private bores to sustain their operations. Major water using industries in the town include the CSBP fertiliser works, the wharf, and the concrete works. The majority of scheme water supplied by the WCWA is, however, used by the domestic sector. Both the WCWA bore field and the private bores in the township draw solely from groundwater sources which are shallow, unconfined or superficial aquifers. There is a strong likelihood that the current level of groundwater extractions in Esperance exceed the recharge rate for the aquifers supplying the town. An unsustainable level of groundwater use is indicated by a lowering of the water tables, both in the town and the surrounding region. This includes the area covered by the Water Corporation bore field. This trend of decreasing hydraulic heads in monitored bores has been observed over a number of years.
White, S. 1998, Regulating for economic water efficiency, discussion paper.
White, S. NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation 1998, Wise Water Management: a Demand Management Manual for Water Utilities Research Report No. 86, pp. 1-158, Sydney.
White, S. Nature Conservation Council of NSW Inc. 1994, The efficiency of water use: A preliminary assessment of options for improving water efficiency in the Sydney region, Sydney.
White, S. 2015, 'Spin the bottle: the fraught politics of container deposit schemes', The Conversation.