Born in Bradford, England, Stewart Clegg was Reader at Griffith University (1976-84), Professor at the University of New England (1985-9), Professor at the University of St. Andrews (1990-3), Foundation Professor at the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur, (1993-6) before moving to UTS. He holds a small number of Visiting Professorships at prestigious European universities and research centres. He is one of the most published and cited authors in the top-tier journals in the Organization Studies field and the only Australian to be recognised a by a multi-method ranking, as one of the world’s top-200 “Management Gurus” in What's the Big Idea? Creating and Capitalizing on the Best New Management Thinking by Thomas H. Davenport, Laurence Prusak, and H. James Wilson (2003), Harvard: Harvard Business Review Press. Because the central focus of his theoretical work has always been on power relations he has been able to write on many diverse and ubiquitous topics – because power relations are everywhere! He is the author of two widely used textbooks on Management & Organizations: An Introduction to Theory and Practice (with Martin Kornberger andTyrone Pitsis) and Strategy: Theory and Practice (with Jochen Schweitze, Andrea Whittle, & Christos Pitelis), both published by Sage. He is also the chief editor of the Handbook of Organization Studies (with Cynthia Hardy, Walter F. Nord and Thomas B. Lawrence), Handbook of Power (with Mark Haugaard) and Handbook of Macro-Organizational Behaviour (with Cary Cooper), all published by Sage. In addition, he is a prolific contributor to leading journals in the fields of Organization Studies, Political Power, and Management. Outside work he enjoys cultural pursuits, travel, and wide reading in politics, history, current affairs, music and art.
Professor Stewart Clegg became honoured as the European Group for Organization Studies Honourary Member in 2017. This was the latest in a number of awards: in 1996 he had been awarded the Academy of Management’s George R Terry Award; in 2010 the Academy of Management awarded him the Practice Theme Committee (PTC) IMPACT award which ‘acknowledges good practice of impactful management scholarship’; in 2015 he was elected asa Fellow of the Academy of Management. The Academy of Management (AOM) is a leading professional association for scholars dedicated to creating and disseminating knowledge about management and organisations. The Academy of Management is the oldest and largest scholarly management association in the world. Today, the Academy is the professional home for 1ell over 20,000 members from 105 nations. The Practice Management Committee is focused on enhancing practice perspectives and issues within the Academy of Management. The Professor’s contribution to the field is summed up by the academy: Stewart Clegg is a leading international researcher recognised in a number of fields in the social sciences for his work in organisation studies and on power. Practice, power, and ethics have been central to his engagements in research, teaching, and management education during the last 35 years. His enormous impact on research and teaching as well as management practice is undisputable. From the first edition of Power, Rule and Domination in 1975 to the latest edition of Managing and Organizations, Stewart has continued to provide a critical eye on organisational practices, and his eloquent pen has provided his insights with an overwhelmingly diverse audience on an international stage – in research, teaching and the world of business. Stewart Clegg is recognised, by a multi-method ranking, as one of the world’s top-200 Management Gurus (and the only Australian) in What’s the Big Idea? Creating and Capitalizing on the Best New Management Thinking by Thomas H. Davenport, Laurence Prusak, and H. James Wilson (2003), Harvard: Harvard Business Review Press. http://vimeo.com/13994105
Organisation and Management Theory, Power, Theory, and Projects
Research, Organisation Studies, Power, Theory
With theoretical chapters, methodological insights and qualitative case studies of contemporary practices, this book is essential reading for students and practitioners involved with media management globally.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, M, Pitsis, TS & Mount, M 2019, Managing and Organizations : An Introduction to Theory and Practice (5th Edition), 5th Edition, SAGE Publications, London, UK.
A realist's guide to management, the authors capture the complex life of organizations, providing not only an account of theories, but also an introduction to their practice with examples from everyday life and culture discussing the key themes and debates along the way.
Used by nearly 50,000 students and tutors worldwide, Managing and Organizations has been praised for its breadth, innovative content and application to real life. Along with its full coverage of all the essential topics of organizational behavior, the book offers a critical perspective that gives the reader the tools to question dominant assumptions about organizations.
Cunha, MPE, Rego, A, Clegg, S & Simpson, A 2019, Positive Organizational Behaviour, Routledge.
Positive Organizational Behaviour: A Reflective Approachintroduces the most recent theoretical and empirical insights on positive organizational practices, addressing emerging topics such as resilience, job crafting, responsible leadership ...
Providing a fresh perspective on strategy from an organizational perspective through a discursive approach, this third edition features key theoretic tenets and emphasizes the practices of strategy. It encourages the reader to be open to a wider set of ideas, with a little more relevance, and with a cooler attitude towards the affordances of the digital world and the possibilities for strategy's futures. The key areas of strategy take a critical stance in the new edition, and also include areas less evident in conventional strategy texts such as not-for-profit organizations, process theories, globalization, organizational politics and decision-making as well as the futures of strategy.
Giustiniano, L, Clegg, SR, Pina e Cunha, M & Rego, A 2018, Elgar Introduction to Theories of Organizational Resilience, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Cheltenham, UK.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
With organizational environments becoming more unstable, uncertain and equivocal, the concept of resilience has become increasingly significant for management studies. Resilience connotes organizational, team and individual capacities to absorb external shocks and to learn from them, while simultaneously preparing for and responding to external jolts. This book pinpoints the essential aspects of managerial and organizational resilience and offers insights that stimulate critical thinking. As the concept of resilience is essentially made up of contrasting forces, the volume presents some innovative synthetic interpretation that allows a deeper comprehension of the phenomenon and provides managers and policy-makers with a solid basis for taking their decisions.
Updated to bring the material in line with the topical and contemporary ideas and debates on or about strategy and catering to students and their diverse learning styles, the second edition is an easy to use tool allowing students to switch from web resources to the print text and back again, opening windows on the world of strategy through cases that are vibrant and engaged, digital links that allow them to explore topics in more detail and video and other media that encourage relating theory to practice.
Providing a fresh perspective on strategy from an organizational perspective through a discursive approach featuring key theoretic tenets, this text is also pragmatic and emphasizes the practices of strategy to encourage the reader to be open to a wider set of ideas, with a little more relevance, and with a cooler attitude towards the affordances of the digital world and the possibilities for strategy's futures. The key areas of Strategy take a critical stance in the new edition, and also include areas less evident in conventional strategy texts such as not-for-profit organizations, process theories, globalization, organizational politics and decision-making as well as the futures of strategy. The new edition comes packed with features that encourage readers to engage and relate theory to practice and is complimented by a free Interactive e-book* featuring videos, cases and other relevant links, allowing access on the go and encouraging learning and retention whatever the reading or learning style. Suitable as core reading for undergraduate and postgraduate business management students of strategy and strategic management.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, M & Pitsis, TS 2016, Managing and Organizations, An Introduction to Theory and Practice Business, Management, 4th, Sage publications, London.
This book provides some answers to these pressing questions. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Change Management.
The book provides a fresh analysis of Gehry's working process and offers insightful perspectives on the context, negotiation, commission, design and construction of the Dr Chau Chak Wing building for the University of Technology Business School.
Given the power of multinational organizations in developed and emerging economies, and their role in economic growth, their leaders face particular moral and business challenges in the contemporary global economy. Drawing on the Positive Organizational Scholarship movement, this book explores how virtues and character strengths may be put at the service of positive organizational performance, stressing that virtues represent the 'golden mean' between the extremes of excess and deficiency, and discussing the perverse consequences of 'excessive virtuousness'. The book shares theoretical, anecdotal, and empirical evidence on the convergence between good virtues and good results, aiming to disseminate the idea that managers can be competent and competitive, whilst doing 'good things right'.
Prepare to be surprised. This book on idea work significantly enriches how we see, understand and do the everyday work of making ideas transformative. The book is simultaneously simple and profound, playful and serious, practical and theoretical. No doubt it will be useful and used by anyone who is curious about how ideas become real in everyday activities. The book both makes the process of idea work accessible and mysterious at the same time. No matter what your interest is in idea work, read a page, read a chapter, read the whole book any engagement with the book will excite novel thought and practical advice a rare and pleasing combination
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Pitsis, TS 2011, Managing and Organization: An Introduction to Theory and Practice, 3rd, Sage Publications, London.
Written by a team of leading academics, this groundbreaking new text is an invaluable guide to the core elements of strategy courses, that will challenge conventional thinking about the field. Key features: - Provides a coherent and engaging overview of the established 'classics' of strategy, while taking an innovative approach to contemporary issues such as power and politics, ethics, branding, globalisation, collaboration, and the global financial crisis. - A unique critical perspective that encourages you to reflect on the strategy process and strategic decision-making. - Packed with learning features, including a wealth of international case studies and accompanying discussion questions. - A website offering a full Instructors' Manual, video cases, podcasts and full-text journal articles.
© Mark Haugaard and Stewart R. Clegg 2009. The SAGE Handbook of Power is the first touchstone for any student or researcher wishing to initiate themselves in the 'state of the art' in this subject. Internationally acclaimed as at the top of their field, Stewart Clegg and Mark Haugaard have joined forces to select a collection of papers written by scholars with global reputations for excellence. These papers bridge different conceptual and theoretical positions and draw on many disciplines, including politics, sociology, and cultural studies.
© 2009 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Handbook is an essential resource for researchers and students across management and organization studies.
Carter, C, Clegg, SR & Kornberger, MM 2008, A Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book about Studying Strategy, Sage Publications, London.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Pitsis, TS 2008, Managing and Organizations An Introduction to Theory and Practice, 2nd, Sage, London.
Today there is widespread awareness of the fact that time has been under-investigated in organizational studies. This book addresses the need to bridge the gap between the predominantly "timeless" theories and models that scholars have produced and the daily experiences of employees and managers, in which time is salient and extremely important. These chapters offer a broad range of concepts, models, and methods that are tailored to this purpose. The first part of the book is devoted to the way in which people in organizations manage time, summarizing research findings, presenting novel ideas on a broad range of issues and examining issues such as whether time can be managed, how people are affected by deadlines and how do strategic changes in organizations affect individuals' careers and sense of identity. The second part is about time as embedded in collective behaviours and experiences, and in temporal regimes linked to organizational structures. It discusses ways to study such collective patterns and their relationships to management practices, and addresses topics such as sensemaking of dynamic events, rhythmic patterns and their impact on organizational effectiveness, time in industrial relations, and power and temporal hegemony. A third part with a single concluding chapter looks at possibilities for integrating the various approaches and provides suggestions for future research. This book adopts a pluralistic approach, arguing against timeless conceptions in organizational theory and behaviour and instead emphasising the importance of temporal analysis.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Pitsis, TS 2007, Ledning och Organisation, Liber, Oslo.
© Sage Publications 2006. A decade on after it first published to international acclaim, the seminal Handbook of Organization Studies has been updated to capture exciting new developments in the field. Providing a retrospective and prospective overview of organization studies, this Handbook continues to challenge and inspire readers with its synthesis of knowledge and literature. As ever, contributions have been selected to reflect the diversity of the field. New chapters cover areas such as organizational change, knowledge management and organizational networks.
Ethics has become big business but have businesses become ethical? This is a central question for today's managers.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Pitsis, TS 2005, Managing and Organisations: An Introduction to Theory and Practice, Sage Publications, London, UK.
Clegg, SR 2003, Modern organizations: organization studies in the postmodern world, Institute of Public Administration, Riyadh.
Kono, T & Clegg, SR 2001, Trends in Japanese Management, 1, Palgrave, London, UK.
Clegg, SR 1989, Frameworks of Power, SAGE.
Not only does the book provide an overview of the various frameworks of power advanced by these and other influential thinkers, but it also develops a new synthesis based on important work in both the sociology of science and the sociology ...
Clegg, S 1989, Frameworks of Power.
Devauny, FX & Clegg, SR 2019, 'The 'ontological turn' of anthropology: Implications for debates about ontologies in MOS', Theory, Culture and Society: explorations in critical social science.
Mikkelsen, EN & Clegg, S 2019, 'Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research: Toward Critical Reflexivity', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 166-179.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© The Author(s) 2017. Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research. In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict, and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work. Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit from a more reflexive approach and advance our understanding of conflict. In this essay, we emphasize how philosophical and political assumptions about conflict frame knowledge production within the field and we encourage future theory development to build on different notions of conflict to become better at coping with the complex and dynamic nature of conflict.
Ahuja, S, Heizmann, H & Clegg, SR 2019, 'Emotions and identity work: Emotions as discursive resources in the constitution of junior professionals' identities', Human Relations, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 988-1009.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
For junior professionals, notions of professional identity established during their education are often called into question in the early stages of their professional careers. The workplace gives rise to identity challenges that manifest in significant emotional struggles. However, although extant literature highlights how emotions trigger and accompany identity work, the constitutive role of emotions in identity work is under-researched. In this article, we analyse how junior professionals mobilize emotions as discursive resources for identity work. Drawing on an empirical study of junior architects employed in professional service firms, we examine how professional identities, imbued with varying forms of discipline and agency, are discursively represented. The study makes two contributions to the literature on emotions and identity work. First, we identify three key identity work strategies (idealizing, reframing and distancing) that are bound up in junior architects' emotion talk. We suggest that these strategies act simultaneously as a coping mechanism and as a disciplinary force in junior architects' efforts to constitute themselves as professionals. Second, we argue that identity work may not always lead to the accomplishment of a positive sense of self but can express a sense of disillusionment that leads to the constitution of dejected professional identities.
We explore the intrinsic ambiguity of speaking up in a multinational healthcare subsidiary. A culture change initiative, emphasising learning and agility through encouraging employees to speak up, gave rise to paradoxical effects. Some employees interpreted a managerial tool for improving effectiveness as an invitation to raise challenging points of difference rather than as something 'beneficial for the organization'. We show that the process of introducing a culture that aims to encourage employees to speak up can produce tensions and contradictions that make various types of organizational paradoxes salient. Telling people to "Speak up!" may render paradoxical tensions salient and even foster a sense of low PsySafe.
Aroles, J, Clegg, SR & Granter, E 2019, 'Death and the Penguin: modularity, alienation, and organizing', Culture and Organization, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 104-117.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The originality of this paper lies in the ways in which it explores how the depiction of organised crime within Andrey Kurkov's novel Death and the Penguin can inform our understanding of organisational modularity. This non-orthodox approach might open up new avenues of thought in the study of organisational modularity while further illustrating how novelistic worlds can inform accounts of organisational realities. Two main research questions underlie the paper. How can Andrey Kurkov's novel further our understanding of the complexity of organisational worlds and realities by focusing our attention on different landscapes of organising? How does Kurkov's novel help us grasp the concept of modularity by drawing attention to new forms of modular organisation? Drawing from our reading of Kurkov's novel, we primarily explore organisational modularity through Kurkov's depiction of organised crime and consider the themes of alienation and isolation in the context of modular organising.
© 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: This paper aims to describe the hidden presence of improvisation in organizations. The authors explore this presence through George Perec's notion of the infra-ordinary applied to the study of the learning organization and its paradoxes. Design/methodology/approach: Most studies of paradox and improvisation are qualitative and inductive. In this conceptual paper, the authors offer a conceptual debate aiming to redirect conceptual attention on studies belonging to the domains of learning, improvisation and paradox. Findings: The authors defend the thesis that improvisation is an example of a paradoxical practice that belongs to the domain of infra-ordinary rather than, as has been habitually assumed in extant research, the extraordinary. Research limitations/implications: The study draws research attention to the potential of the infra-ordinary in the domains of paradox, improvisation and learning. Practical implications: For practice, the study shows that improvisation can be a relatively trivial organizational practice as people try to solve problems in their everyday lives. Social implications: Most organizations depend upon the capacity of their members to solve problems as these emerge. Yet, organization theory has failed to consider this dimension. As a result, organizations may be unintentionally harming their capacity to learn and adapt to environments by assuming that improvisation is extra-ordinary. Originality/value: The study of paradox and improvisation from an infra-ordinary perspective has not been explicitly attempted.
Ninan, J, Clegg, S & Mahalingam, A 2019, 'Branding and governmentality for infrastructure megaprojects: The role of social media.', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 59-72.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper explores subtle strategies that megaproject teams develop in practice to manage stakeholders external to the project team. A governmentality approach is used to account for these strategies. A metro rail megaproject in India provides the case for the study. The strategies were identified through a content analysis of 640 project and non-project based Tweets posted by the metro rail organization. We augmented this dataset with the community's response through social media, as well as through semi-structured interviews that captured the project teams' responses. The findings indicate that the megaproject used various strategies: promoting the organization, giving progress updates, appealing to the community, as well as targeting of specific sections of the population. The effect of these attempts at governmentality through branding were observed in community discourses on social media platforms that echoed the strategic discourses projected by the megaproject while interviews enabled us to access the project team's responses. For the project community, the effects included a positive brand image, creating community brand advocates and building support for the project during contentious episodes. For the project team, the effects included job attraction, enhanced job perception as well as the creation of project team brand advocates. The relation between the governmentality instruments and their corresponding effects are theorized in six propositions.
Ninan, J, Mahalingam, A & Clegg, S 2019, 'External Stakeholder Management Strategies and Resources in Megaprojects: An Organizational Power Perspective', Project Management Journal.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Megaprojects involve managing external stakeholders with diverse interests. Using an Indian megaproject case study, we discuss how the project managed external stakeholders through strategies such as: persuasion, deputation, give and take, extra work for stakeholders, and flexibility. Drawing from theories and frameworks of power, we explain how these strategies emerge through a process of tactical clustering. We also analyze the resources available to the project team—such as recruitment discretion, government backing, and fund discretion—that influence these power dynamics and enable these strategies. We posit that changes in the resource base can significantly affect strategic action and, in turn, megaproject outcomes.
Clegg, S & Pierides, D 2019, 'Sociology of Organization, Honourable and Deferential', Studi di Sociologia, vol. 1, no. Paradigm Thinking in Organization Studies : Decline, Resistance or Development?, pp. 93-104.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this essay, we draw the attention of scholars contributing to the broad field of organisation studies, especially that part of it that constitutes the sociology of organisations, to a problem regarding the maintenance of social order in practical intellectual life as a university employee. We direct our readers' attention to the performance-related practices governing Business and Management scholars that are currently contributing to the most acute expression of this problem because they elaborate powerful individuating forces that undermine the existing social order, without putting forward any normative or positive commitment to what a different social order might be that would or should replace what was previously there. Our core concern is that this destructive tendency undermines the sociology of organisation as a legitimate form of social inquiry and ultimately undermines the capacity of organisational scholars to understand and improve social affairs.
This paper explores the trajectory of a novel evaluation device for customer satisfaction with service encounters and the performance of financial advisors. Drawing on literature on quantification and commensuration, boundary objects and bipartite collaboration, we explore the set-up and collaboration between employer and trade union in the design phase and the actual use and translation of the valuation system. The data stems from a multi-year, multi-site study of banking in two Nordic countries. The analysis illustrates how, when some operational managers started using the device to suit their own purposes, the process morphed from an initial agreement into a dispute. The paper shows how quantitative systems of evaluation easily diverge from their initially proposed purposes when in use, producing reactivity and resistance among organizational members. Some financial advisors were positive about the evaluation device and the opportunity it afforded to improve performance, whereas others regarded it as another surveillance attempt for enhancing management control. We also contribute to the literature by elaborating on the relationship between reactivity and resistance on individual and collective levels.
Clegg, SR & Baunsgaard, VB 2018, 'Strategy in Crisis'.
Clegg, SR, Nikolova, N & Knight, E 2018, 'The persons in the practices: How elite strategists' perceptions of their role shape strategic activities.'.
Sarkar, S, Osiyevskyy, O & Clegg, SR 2018, 'Incumbent capability enhancement in response to radical innovations', European Management Journal, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 353-365.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Schumpeterian market disequilibrium marked by entrepreneurial entry and incumbent exit has long held an important place in management literature. The extant literature has overwhelmingly championed the newcomer, despite incumbents' obvious advantages in resources, experience and market knowledge. The current research provides evidence for the effectiveness of the incumbent's strategy of capability enhancement (along an established technological trajectory) while responding to radical technological innovations. We develop a cognitive process model that integrates managerial cognition with capability development and deployment views, depicting the dynamics of the incumbent's capability enhancement process. We analyze the cognitive drivers of organizational actions in all stages (rigidity, triggering event, and capability renewal) and elucidate the role of top management cognition in
the processes of detecting and correcting errors in a strategic course of action. We ground our model in the case of a cork-stopper industry veteran's decline as corks ceded ground to screw tops and other
stoppers in the wine industry. How a major company fought back in response to the emergence of these, in the industry context, radical technological innovations, provides the basis for our narrative. The
proposed theoretical model contributes to literature on technology management (with regard to incumbent strategies in response to radical innovation threats) as well as the role of cognition in strategy (providing an explanation of the cognitive underpinnings of capability development).
Clegg, SR & Cuhna, MPE 2018, 'Liquid Organization', Organization Studies.
Major, MJ, Conceição, A & Clegg, SR 2018, 'When institutional entrepreneurship failed: the case of a responsibility centre in a Portuguese hospital', Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1199-1229.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the role of power relations in initiating and blocking accounting change that involves increased 'responsibilisation' and 'incentivisation', and to understand how institutional entrepreneurship is steered by power strategies.
An in-depth case study was carried out between 2010 and 2015 in a cardiothoracic surgery service (CSS) where a responsibility centre was introduced.
Introducing a responsibility centre within a CSS led to a change process, despite pressures for stability. The institutionalisation of change was conditioned by entrepreneurship that flowed through three circuits of power. Strategies were adapted according to changes in exogenous environmental contingencies and alterations in the actors' relationships.
The contributions of the paper are several: first, it demonstrates that the existing literature discussing the implementation of responsibility centres cannot be isolated from power issues; second, it expands understanding of the power dynamics and processes of institutional entrepreneurship when implementing accounting change; third, it shows how change introduced by exogenous political economic events structured organisational circuits of power and blocked the introduction of the change initiative.
Fam, D, Beal, C & Clegg, SR 2018, 'A retrospective institutional analysis of a 'path not taken' - the emergence of urine diversion systems in Australia', Journal of Organizational Change Management.
Cunha, MP, Cardona, MJ, Clegg, SR, Gomes, JFS, Rego, A, Sánchez, ID & Matallana, M 2018, 'Through the looking glass: leader personhood and the intersubjective construction of institutions', Journal of Political Power, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 378-402.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Institutions have been mainly understood in a dualistic way: as abstract, macro cultural logics, or as inhabited socio-cultural sites. This form of dualism divided people into cognitive cultural dopes or persons with a heart. Scholars are now trying to overcome dualistic modes of thinking about people in institutions, through the consideration of the persons as whole human beings. In this new theoretical approach, it is crucial to understand how institutions frame individual action and how individuals shape institutions. We study this duality by considering the lived experience of Colombia's presidential transition period from Uribe to Santos in the decade of the 2010s.
Coldevin, GH, Carlsen, A, Clegg, SR, Pitsis, TS & Antonacopoulou, EP 2018, 'Organizational creativity as idea work: Intertextual placing and legitimating imaginings in media development and oil exploration', Human Relations, vol. 72, no. 8, pp. 1369-1397.View/Download from: Publisher's site
How do we understand the nature of organizational creativity when dealing with complex, composite ideas rather than singular ones? In response to this question, we problematize assumptions of the linearity of creative processes and the singularity of ideas in mainstream creativity theory. We draw on the work of Bakhtin and longitudinal research in two contrasting cases: developing hydrocarbon prospects and concepts for films and TV series. From these two cases, we highlight two forms of work on ideas: (i) intertextual placing, whereby focal ideas are constituted by being connected to other elements in a larger idea field; and (ii) legitimating imaginings, where ideas of what to do are linked to ideas of what is worth doing and becoming. This ongoing constitution and legitimating is not confined to particular stages but takes place in practices of generating, connecting, communicating, evaluating and reshaping ideas, which we call idea work. The article contributes to a better understanding of the processual character of creativity and the deeply intertextual nature of ideas, including the multiplicity of idea content and shifting parts–whole relationships. Idea work also serves to explore the neglected role of co-optative power in creativity.
Cunha, MPE, Rego, A, Clegg, SR, Marcelino, AR & Jarvis, W 2018, 'Agentic Stewardship', Organization Studies.
Américo, BL, Carniel, F & Clegg, SR 2018, 'Accounting for the formation of scientific fields in organization studies', European Management Journal, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 18-28.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
There are few qualitative organizational accounts that explore the constitution of scientific fields in management. We developed a methodology for understanding the academic modes of scientific knowledge production in management research from the perspective of the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) and actor-network theory (ANT). SSK and ANT offer a way to account for how scientific fields in organization studies are enacted. Key to this process are splitting and inversion of statements; credibility and network formation; and the concepts of credit, trajectory, and position. Specific statements making key knowledge claims (e.g., handbooks, special editions) are situated in academic practices that obscure those rhetorical strategies that enable the production of a network of knowledge that can act, organizationally, as a more or less unified sub-field. We take as a starting point a collection of texts, dated 2011, which sought to systematize the main currents of a disciplinary sub-field during the last decade, focusing on how statements are transformed into scientific certainty and how the question of credibility is established. The sub-field is that of organizational learning (OL). The particular language of OL relies on approaches that make its epistemic assumptions intelligible within a network. It is a language that tends to reify and naturalize specific practices that become accredited as organization learning. The material/textual artifacts that sustain these practices, instead of being reified, can be reframed as enacting a scientific field whose resignification acts upon the network that enabled its existence.
Barti, M, Simpson, A & Clegg, SR 2018, 'Making a place out of space: The social imaginaries and realities of a Business School as a designed space', Management Learning.
Chan, A, Clegg, SR & Warr, M 2018, 'Translating Intervention: When Corporate Culture Meets Chinese Socialism', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 190-203.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Under socialist development, the contemporary Chinese Communist Party (CCP) refashions thought management with a changed message. The Party increasingly promotes Chinese cultural values, through a policy of designed corporate culture programs within state-owned and private enterprises. The culture is one that inculcates corporate cultural values 'imported' from corporate culture discourses in the Western business world. A curious 'translation of ideas' has occurred, ideas that have traveled from the Korean Peninsula and War, through the boardrooms of corporate America and into the mundane practices of the CCP, to build corporate culture. At the core of this culture are practices that Schein has termed coercive persuasion. This article discusses the role of coercive persuasion in two sites: (a) China's state-owned enterprises and (b) private businesses and social organizations. We conclude that as ideas travel, they may change in substance, whereas in form and functionality, they remain surprisingly similar.
Sarkar, S, Osiyevskyy, O & Clegg, SR 2018, 'Incumbent capability enhancement in response to radical innovations', European Management Journal, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 353-365.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. Schumpeterian market disequilibrium marked by entrepreneurial entry and incumbent exit has long held an important place in management literature. The extant literature has overwhelmingly championed the newcomer, despite incumbents' obvious advantages in resources, experience and market knowledge. The current research provides evidence for the effectiveness of the incumbent's strategy of capability enhancement (along an established technological trajectory) while responding to radical technological innovations. We develop a cognitive process model that integrates managerial cognition with capability development and deployment views, depicting the dynamics of the incumbent's capability enhancement process. We analyze the cognitive drivers of organizational actions in all stages (rigidity, triggering event, and capability renewal) and elucidate the role of top management cognition in the processes of detecting and correcting errors in a strategic course of action. We ground our model in the case of a cork-stopper industry veteran's decline as corks ceded ground to screw tops and other stoppers in the wine industry. How a major company fought back in response to the emergence of these, in the industry context, radical technological innovations, provides the basis for our narrative. The proposed theoretical model contributes to literature on technology management (with regard to incumbent strategies in response to radical innovation threats) as well as the role of cognition in strategy (providing an explanation of the cognitive underpinnings of capability development).
Wang, KY & Clegg, S 2018, 'SME resource acquisition in transition economies: power dependence and induced bribery', Business and Politics, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 331-359.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Researchers have extensively studied how large firms and SMEs use business and political ties to obtain tangible and intangible resources in transition economies. However, how SMEs establish these ties in the context of power-imbalanced dependence by using unethical and illegal 'strategic practice' such as bribery remains underexplored. Furthermore, how SMEs deploy strategies to mitigate such risky actions in the process of resource acquisition is also given limited attention in the literature. Lack of exploration of these issues leaves significant gaps in our understanding of how SMEs are able to initiate and operate their ties for survival and growth despite enormous institutional constraints. We analyze the negative and positive effects of power dependence on business resource acquisition via regression analysis using survey data drawn from 232 Chinese SMEs. The findings indicate that power-imbalanced dependence among SMEs is associated with their use of bribery to establish political ties with officials for access to resources. The moderating effect of power-mutual dependence on this relationship is also examined. Theoretical significance and managerial implications of these findings for SMEs in transition economies are discussed.
The work of Zygmunt Bauman, insofar as it addressed the organizational world, saw it initially as a total institution, one in which the organization, as a specific entity defined by those activities it envelops, was focused on the central task of liquidation (Bauman, 1989). du Gay (2002) critically interrogated the bureaucratic character of this total institution in an influential thesis that 'praised' bureaucracy as a normative ideal of modernity. It is not, however, this debate with the ghost of Max Weber that has been of most concern to contemporary management and organization studies. Rather, it a later image of organization as decomposing, fragmenting, opening, reforming and deforming. In a word, organization is becoming more 'liquid', such that boundaries, choices and control are shifting in the direction of increasing fluidity and plurality. Key themes that are identified are those of liquid society, composing liquid ethics, liquid dynamics, liquid selves and liquid spaces and aesthetics. There are, however, outer limits to liquid modernity as they are enacted in terms of myths that Bauman refers to as leading to Retrotopia: a sickly nostalgia for an imagined past as a source of inspiration, a mythical utopia, where things were better managed and organized. Thus, the outer limit of a liquid society becomes a retrospective and backward looking utopia: Retrotopia, a myth whose contours are outlined and whose implications for management and organization studies are expounded.
Clegg, SR 2018, 'Liquefying Modernity: Zygmunt Bauman as Organization Theorist'.
Berti, M, Simpson, AV & Clegg, SR 2018, 'Making a place out of space: The social imaginaries and realities of a Business School as a designed space', Management Learning, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 168-186.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
We chart the sociomaterial imaginaries and realities of a new Frank Gehry–designed University of Technology Sydney Business School as both a space and a place. We review the broad sociological literature on space, considering its philosophical and conceptual parameters. Lefebvre's work is central to such discussion, a centrality that we do not so much question as extend by turning attention from a macro-historical conception of space to consider the specificity of place and placemaking, contributing our 'place in space' heuristic model. We apply the model empirically through analysis of the design and occupancy of the business school, highlighting elements that concurrently produce the phenomenology of space and place. Our findings suggest that while organizational space ensconces power and the production of relationships, the translation of these into an identity ordering place is not a linear process. 'Spatial narratives', characterizing the imagined functions of the building, have been inconsistently materialized, and different actors have re-inscribed alternative functions and meanings in this new place. Theoretically, the article moves debate beyond the frame bequeathed by Lefebvre while building on it, proposing an analysis that affords equal emphasis to material elements (architectural features, furniture, policies) as to discursive elements (symbols, interpretations, narratives).
Pina e Cunha, M, Veiga Vieiera, D, Rego, A & Clegg, SR 2018, 'Why does performance management not perform?', International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 673-692.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The purpose of this paper is to ask why poor performance management practices persist in Portugal, in the middle of claims to increase productivity.
An inductive micro-practice analysis is used to understand barriers to management practice that do not require massive institutional changes.
The practice of performance management in Portugal typically displays three weaknesses: (1) insufficient planning (2) process and integrity issues, and (3) a non-meritocratic logic.
The paper discusses the important topic of persistence of bad practices, showing how institutionalized patterns might be difficult to eradicate even they are suboptimal.
The authors identity key issues in the functioning of performance management, therefore helping managers in developing remedies to improve the quality of their practice.
The paper explains the persistence of bad management practice whose continuity hinders not only organizations' effectiveness but also that of their members.
Clegg, S, Geppert, M & Hollinshead, G 2018, 'Politicization and political contests in and around contemporary multinational corporations: An introduction', Human Relations, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 745-765.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018, © The Author(s) 2018. This article looks at core arguments in international business, organization studies and surrounding academic fields that focus on the study of politicization and political contests in and around multinational corporations (MNCs). Two evident streams of debate are identified. Equally evident is that these streams hardly connect. One stream is mainly interested in studying politicization from the outside, whereas the other is mainly interested in politicization from within. As a way of connecting both streams, we introduce the circuits of power framework. Next, we introduce the contributions of our Special Issue, followed by concluding comments which distinguish five emergent themes. First, we show how the application of the circuits of power framework sheds new light on the study of political contests of MNCs. Second, we highlight that the role of nation states has not lost its significance as, for example, political corporate social responsibility (CSR) approaches would have us believe. Third, dominant ideologies play an important role in establishing and controlling circuits of power in and around MNCs. Fourth, it is vital to take labour issues into account in this field of study. Fifth, there is increasing evidence that asymmetric and hierarchical forms of organizing do not disappear in new MNC network forms.
Dille, T, Söderlund, J & Clegg, S 2018, 'Temporal conditioning and the dynamics of inter-institutional projects', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 673-686.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Association for Project Management and the International Project Management Association This paper presents an in-depth and processual case study of a major infrastructural innovation project involving diverse private and public-sector organizations. The case study shows how organizing developed recursively in response to diverging temporal requirements, induced by the temporal institutional complexity facing the project. We introduce the idea of temporal conditioning to demonstrate how large-scale temporary organizations dynamically cope with conflicting temporal institutional requirements by making use of three strategies: (1) temporal avoidance, (2) temporal splitting, and (3) temporal matching. With its focus on the emergence of the project, this paper adds to our understanding of the dynamics of organizing in temporary and institutionally pluralistic settings – settings that put greater pressures on our ability to deal with conflicting institutional requirements pertaining to time and timing. Accordingly, we offer a new perspective on the dynamics of large-scale projects and how they respond to a particular kind of institutional complexity.
Cunha, MPE, Neves, P, Clegg, SR, Costa, S & Rego, A 2018, 'Paradoxes of organizational change in a merger context', Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purpose: The reorganization of the Portuguese national healthcare system around networks of hospital centers was advanced for reasons promoted as those of effectiveness and efficiency and initially presented as an opportunity for organizational transcendence through synergy. The purpose of this paper is to study transcendence as felt by the authors' participants to create knowledge about the process. Design/methodology/approach: The paper consists of an inductive approach aimed at exploring the lived experience of transcendence. The authors collected data via interviews, observations, informal conversations and archival data, in order and followed the logic of grounded theory to build theory on transcendence as process. Findings: Transcendence, however, failed to deliver its promise; consequently, the positive vision inscribed in it was subsequently re-inscribed in the system as another lost opportunity, contributing to an already unfolding vicious circle of mistrust and cynicism. The study contributes to the literature on organizational paradoxes and its effects on the reproduction of vicious circles. Practical implications: The search for efficiency and effectiveness through strategies of transcendence often entails managing paradoxical tensions. Social implications: The case was researched during the global financial crisis, which as austerity gripped the southern Eurozone gave rise to governmental decisions aimed at improving the efficiency of organizational healthcare resources. There was a sequence of advances and retreats in decision making at the governmental level that gave rise to mistrust and cynicism at operational levels (organizations, teams and individuals). One consequence of increasing cynicism at lower levels was that as further direction for change came from higher levels it became interpreted in practice as just another turn in a vicious circle of failed reform. Originality/value: The authors contribute to the organizational literature on para...
Gaim, M, Wåhlin, N, e Cunha, MP & Clegg, S 2018, 'Analyzing competing demands in organizations: a systematic comparison', Journal of Organization Design, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Organizational scholars have shown increasing interest in the ways in which managers enact and respond to competing demands and the tensions they prompt as constitutive elements of their organizations. There is now a proliferation of conceptualizations of such competing demands that can be somewhat confusing. We will enhance conceptual clarity by identifying seven constitutive empirical characteristics of competing demands: these consist of the existence of dyadic relations, contradiction, interrelatedness, complementarity, compatibility, simultaneity, and the existence of push-pull forces. We construct a comparative classification of competing demands using these characteristics as our distinguishing features. The result is a more nuanced understanding of how managers approach competing demands that can help scholars to minimize arbitrariness, interpret results, and compare contributions in the area in a much-needed step toward understanding and designing organizations.
De Vaujany, F-X, Dandoy, A, Grandazzi, A & Clegg, SR 2018, 'Breaking the Waves: Practicing Phenomenologically Simultaneity in Management Research', Academy of Management Proceedings, vol. 2018, no. 1, pp. 14336-14336.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The temporality of organizations is increasingly at the heart of organization studies research. Nonetheless, there have been few research reports that explore the issue of time in the context of ongoing research practices and their performativity. Indeed, research practices in management are frequently bounded as successive waves in time and space. Knowledge building and knowledge communication, research and practice, teaching and research are disparate and often poorly interrelated practices. Major problems of interpretation in management and organization studies are grounded in different and even conflicting temporal orientations. In this article, a new phenomenological method combining auto-ethnography with action-research that ties these activities together is presented and applied, which we term Open, Walked, Events-Based Experimentation (OWEE). This new method aims at re-introducing simultaneity and fluidity in management research practices that are usually disconnected and doing this with a transformative ambition. It relies on the aesthetics, cultures, techniques and actors of collaborative communities and 'third-places', in particular coworkers and hackers. A learning expedition in Berlin is used to experiment and refine the research protocol. Merleau-Ponty's concepts of modes of expression, embodiment, visibility and event, are used to interpret and extend the process behind OWEE.
Pina e Cunha, M, Cardona, MJ, Clegg, SR, Gomes, JFS, Matallana, M, Rego, A & Sanchez, ID 2018, 'Through the looking glass: leader personhood and the intersubjective construction of institutions', Journal of Political Power, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 378-402.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Institutions have been mainly understood in a dualistic way: as abstract, macro cultural logics, or as inhabited socio-cultural sites. This form of dualism divided people into cognitive cultural dopes or persons with a heart. Scholars are now trying to overcome dualistic modes of thinking about people in institutions, through the consideration of the persons as whole human beings. In this new theoretical approach, it is crucial to understand how institutions frame individual action and how individuals shape institutions. We study this duality by considering the lived experience of Colombia's presidential transition period from Uribe to Santos in the decade of the 2010s.
Mikkelsen, EN & Clegg, SR 2018, 'Unpacking the Meaning of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research', Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 185-203.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this conceptual essay, we review the field of organizational conflict to unpack how it has been constructed genealogically and with what consequences by investigating three major shifts in theorization that have occurred over the past six decades. First, a move away from viewing conflict as dysfunctional to viewing it as constructive. Second, a shift from normative prescriptions to descriptions of what disputants do in conflict. Third, a shift from psychological functional analyses to studying conflict as an organizational phenomenon. We find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work: conflict as a distinct behavioral phenomenon, conflict as an instrumental means of achieving something else, and conflict as a social construction contingent on how reality is perceived. This conceptual essay adds to current thinking in organizational conflict research by emphasizing how philosophical and political assumptions about conflict can be seen to have framed knowledge production within the field when it is viewed historically.
Logue, DM, Clegg, S & Hollerer, M 2018, 'Inter-institutional Collaboration for Social Innovation: The Case of Social Impact Bonds as Translational Devices', Organization Studies.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Biesenthal, C, Clegg, S, Mahalingam, A & Sankaran, S 2018, 'Applying institutional theories to managing megaprojects', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 43-54.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd, APM and IPMA This paper contributes to Rodney Turner's initiative to develop a theory of project management from practice. Organizational scholars studying strategy suggest that more attention needs to be paid to practices involved in organizing, as well as the institutional contexts in which these practices are embedded. Taking a cue from strategy-in-practice approaches, it is proposed that institutional theories can be used to address some questions that have not been answered adequately regarding megaprojects. Institutional theories also seem to be gaining the attention of scholars investigating large, global, infrastructure projects as reported in engineering, management and construction journals. Increasingly, it is evident that the problem areas attached to these projects stretch beyond technical issues: they must be considered as socio-technical endeavours embedded in complex institutional frames. The authors suggest that studying how to deal with institutional differences in the environment of megaprojects has both theoretical and practical implications.
Clegg, SR, Killen, C, Sankaran, S & Biesenthal, C 2018, 'Practices, projects and portfolios: Current research trends and new directions', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 762-772.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Project portfolio management (PPM) bridges strategy and project management. Traditional research in PPM has primarily investigated the
rational, top-down and structural aspects of strategizing. By doing so, it has failed to focus on the underlying practices that are triggered by the
strategy and how these practices frame strategy implementation. Practice-based research provides a methodological lens to explore the reality of strategic enactment through the project portfolio. Practice-based perspectives are under-represented in PPM research; therefore the aim of this paper is to provide an agenda for further practice-based research in PPM. Central to this agenda is a concern with various aspects of practice,
including its discursivity, representation, dynamic capabilities, leadership and materiality.
Pitsis, A, Clegg, SR, Freeder, D, Sankaran, S & Burdon, S 2018, 'Megaprojects Redefined – Complexity vs Cost and Social Imperatives', International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 7-34.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview from the literature on how best to define megaprojects in contemporary contexts. There is a need for a definition that encompasses a complex matrix of characteristics, inclusive of positive and negative aspects, which are not necessarily industry or sector specific.Whilstmegaprojectshaveoftenbeendescribedanddefinedintermsofcost,they are more accurately delineated by their convolutions. Intricacies arise from political intrigues surrounding funding of such projects and managing and governing complex social and organizational relations.Points for future research are also identified.
Pollack, J, Biesenthal, C, Sankaran, S & Clegg, SR 2018, 'Classics in megaproject management: A structured analysis of three major works', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 372-384.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The paper explores three texts in the field of megaproject management that intersubjectively, in terms of community sentiment, might be
considered 'classics'. We deploy four criteria for a structured analysis that determines if the status of the works in question may be considered
classic. The works examined are Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition by Flyvbjerg, Bruzelius and Rothengatter; (2003) The Anatomy
of Major Projects by Morris and Hough (1987) and Industrial Megaprojects by Merrow (2011). Based on these works we conclude with aprospectus for future research that will serve to develop the field of research into megaproject management.
Cunha, MPE, Clegg, SR, Costa, C, Leite, AP, Rego, A, Simpson, AV, Sousa, MOD & Sousa, M 2017, 'Gemeinschaft in the midst of Gesellschaft? Love as an organizational virtue', Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 3-21.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Love is a powerful human process that has attracted the attention of scholars within the cultural and scientific domains. Thus far, the majority of management scholars have tended to neglect love as a relevant topic of theorizing and research. Given the recent interest in the phenomenon in allied fields such as sociology and psychology, this is surprising. We create, inductively, an archetypical image of how managers make sense of the meaning of love as an organizational phenomenon by means of a sample of Christian managers. The findings indicate that such managers associate love with two core dimensions. First, they describe love as an expression of virtue. Second, they link love with a sense of community-ship. Organizational love can thus be theorized as the exercise of constructing virtuous, other-oriented human communities that transcend the productive functions of work and respond to important human needs, fulfilling normative performativity.
Ahuja, S, Nikolova, N & Clegg, SR 2017, 'Paradoxical Identity: The changing nature of architectural work and its relation to architects' identity', Journal of Professions and Organization, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 2-19.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this article, we explore what happens in professional formation when the locus of its meaning, as it has been formed, is increasingly contradicted by professional practice. Specifically, we explore the problematic nature of architects' professional identity that is constituted in terms of the primacy of design aesthetics, in contexts where practice denies this identification. We highlight the tensions between identity and practices and suggest that while architects' traditional self-identification enables perpetuation of the profession's identity, it challenges the profession's standing in its relations with other professions and occupations. We refer to this as a paradox of identity. Although much has been written about the profound changes occurring in professional practices and professional jurisdictions, scant attention has been given to the ways in which professionals shape their identities in the context of changing practices. We conducted a year-long ethnography of contemporary architects engaged in large and complex projects in order to examine both the architects' and the profession's identity. Our contributions are threefold. First, we conceptualize misalignments between professional identity and professional practice as identity paradox that has consequences for identity work among professionals. Second, we highlight how professional identity construction is organized around competing and paradoxical identification. Third, the article contributes to sociological studies of architecture by generating insights about the identity work of architects engaged in large multi-organizational projects.
Dille, T, Söderlund, J & Clegg, SR 2017, 'Temporal conditioning and the dynamics of inter-institutional projects', Journal of Management Studies, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 673-686.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper presents an in-depth and processual case study of a major infrastructural innovation project involving diverse private and public-sector organizations. The case study shows how organizing developed recursively in response to diverging temporal requirements, induced by the temporal institutional complexity facing the project. We introduce the idea of temporal conditioning to demonstrate how large-scale temporary organizations dynamically cope with conflicting temporal institutional requirements by making use of three strategies: (1) temporal avoidance, (2) temporal splitting, and (3) temporal matching. With its focus on the emergence of the project, this paper adds to our understanding of the dynamics of organizing in temporary and institutionally pluralistic settings – settings that put greater pressures on our ability to deal with conflicting institutional requirements pertaining to time and timing. Accordingly, we offer a new perspective on the dynamics of large-scale projects and how they respond to a particular kind of institutional complexity.
Maclean, M, Harvey, C & Clegg, SR 2017, 'Organization Theory in Business and Management History: Present Status and Future Prospects', Business History Review, vol. 91, no. Special Issue 3, pp. 457-481.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A common lament is that business history has been marginalized within mainstream business and management research. We propose that the remedy lies in part with more extensive engagement with organization theory. We illustrate our argument by exploring the potentialities for business history of three cognitive frameworks: institutional entrepreneurship, evolutionary theory, and Bourdieusian social theory. Exhibiting a higher level of theoretical fluency might enable business historians to accrue scholarly capital within the business and management field by producing theoretically informed historical discourse, demonstrating the potential of business history to extend theory, generate constructs, and elucidate complexities in unfolding relationships, situations, and events.
This paper contributes to the literature on workplace creativity by combining insights on epiphanies with theory on the embodied and relational nature of understanding. We explore and develop the concept of epiphany, defined as a sudden and transient manifestation of insight. Primarily, we are interested in the implications of the concept's artistic and philosophical origins for organizational creativity. We start from a consideration of the importance of epiphany in the literary works of Joyce, who underlined the crucial aspect of the conjunction of different human senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching). Next, we draw up upon the theory of insights as embodied, experientially felt qualities, as described by Mark Johnson (2007) and predecessors in pragmatism. Using three sets of empirical snippets as aids to reasoning, we arrive at renewed understanding of epiphany as a phenomenon in creativity that is experientially multi-sensuous and collective rather than merely cognitive and individual. Epiphanies are typically manifest as a series of felt occurrences arising within collective practice, follow from a history of preparation, and do not solely involve breakthrough ideas but can also include feelings of doubt, movement, opening up or disconfirmation. Understanding epiphanies in this way extends research on organizational creativity as collective practice. The article suggests further attention be paid to the transient and noetic qualities of work on ideas in organizations, such as visual and material stimuli in sensorial preparations of creativity and the use of openness in marking felt insights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Pina e Cunha, M, Giustiniano, L, Rego, A & Clegg, S 2017, 'Mission impossible? The paradoxes of stretch goal setting', Management Learning, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 140-157.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Stretch goal setting is a process involving multiple and nested paradoxes. The paradoxical side of stretch is attractive because it holds great promise yet dangerous because it triggers processes that are hard to control. Paradoxes are not readily managed by assuming a linear relation between the here and now and the intended future perfect. Before adopting stretch goal setting, managers should thus be prepared for the tensions and contradictions created by nested or interwoven paradoxes. Achieving stretch goals can be as difficult for the managers seeking to direct the process as for designated delegates. While the increasing popularity of stretch goal setting is understandable, its unexpected consequences must be taken into account. The inadequate use of stretch goals can jeopardize the social sustainability of organizations as well as their societal support systems.
Pina e Cunha, M, Giustiniano, L, Rego, A & Clegg, S 2017, '"Heaven or Las Vegas": Competing institutional logics and individual experience', European Management Review.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Significant research has been dedicated to the study of the dual constitutive core at the field and organizational levels but less attention has been paid to the micro-dimensions of the collision of competing logics, namely in terms of how individuals experience and navigate through them and how that influences organizational ethos and strategy. We study how one individual, founder of the organization behind the independent music label 4AD, made sense and lived through the fundamental clash of two logics: 'music as art' and 'music as business'. We analyse how the personal struggles of the founder allowed the construction and maintenance of a strong, solid and continued organizational identity for 4AD. We uncover four factors accounting for the protection of 4AD's sustained artistic integrity in face of a transforming industry.
Clegg, SR, Cunha, MP & Rego, A 2016, 'Explaining Suicide in Organizations: Durkheim Revisited', Business and Society Review, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 391-414.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Drawing on Durkheim's concept of anomie, we address the under-explored phenomenon of anomic suicide in contemporary organizations and discuss the consequences of solidarity for organizations and society. The relations of social solidarity to issues of identity and insecurity are explored through the cases of France Telecom Orange and Foxconn. Remedial implications for organizing, considered as community building, are discussed. Durkheim wrote not only about anomic but also altruistic suicide. We will also analyze examples of this type of suicide. Some tentative suggestions are made for how to organize to minimize the incidence of suicidal violence in organizations.
Clegg, S, e Cunha, MP, Munro, I, Rego, A & de Sousa, MO 2016, 'Kafkaesque power and bureaucracy', Journal of Political Power, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 157-181.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The metaphor of Kafkaesque bureaucracy has attracted the imagination of organization theorists for decades. While the critical and metaphorical approach offers vibrant insights about organizing, it has not been complemented by systematic empirical analysis. We take a step in that direction and conduct an inductive study of how people experience and deal with the Kafkaesque bureaucracy. We focus on the Kafkaesque organization as constructed in process and practice by those who experience its effects as citizens and clients. Data uncovered three major affordances of Kafkaesque bureaucracy: inactiveness, helplessness and meaninglessness. These combine in a mutually debilitating configuration that constitutes the Kafkaesque bureaucracy as an effortful everyday accomplishment.
© The Author(s) 2016. This article outlines a novel approach to the role of models in innovation processes: showing how innovative architectural outcomes result from the strategic management of multiple physical models in a design process. Drawing on actor-network theory, we explore architect Frank Gehry's designing in action to trace the work done in translating design ideas with architectural models. We observe how certain practices constituted around material models are Gehry's means for unsettling and resetting the clients' receptiveness and willingness to embark upon a particular architectural path. We find that the physical models, as actants in these activity flows, are rendered strategic in ways currently overlooked. When approval for an innovative design is secured, through the unfolding of models, their strategic role is realized. Our approach goes beyond current accounts of the role and nature of architectural models to reveal how architectural models as strategic actants are mobilized in an innovation process.
Child, J, Clegg, S, Sorge, A, Wilson, D, Tsoukas, H, Courpasson, D, den Hond, F, Holt, R & Reay, T 2016, 'Professor David J. Hickson: Founding Father and First Editor-in-Chief of Organization Studies', ORGANIZATION STUDIES, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1401-1402.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ethical codes have been hailed as an explicit vehicle for achieving more sustainable and defensible organizational practice. Nonetheless, when legal compliance and corporate governance codes are conflated, codes can be used to define organizational interests ostentatiously by stipulating norms for employee ethics. Such codes have a largely cosmetic and insurance function, acting subtly and strategically to control organizational risk management and protection. In this paper, we conduct a genealogical discourse analysis of a representative code of ethics from an international corporation to understand how management frames expectations of compliance. Our contribution is to articulate the problems inherent in codes of ethics, and we make some recommendations to address these to benefit both an organization and its employees. In this way, we show how a code of ethics can provide a foundation for ethical sustainability, while addressing management intentions and employees' ethical satisfaction.
Seremani, TW & Clegg, S 2016, 'Postcolonialism, Organization, and Management Theory: The Role of "Epistemological Third Spaces"', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 171-183.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Logue, DM, Clegg, SR & Gray, J 2016, 'Social Organization, Classificatory Analogies and Institutional Logics: Institutional Theory Revisits Mary Douglas', Human Relations, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 1587-1609.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
As a social theory of organization, it is unsurprising that institutional theory draws upon the profound and ambitious work of the late anthropologist Mary Douglas. One of the foundational concepts of organizational institutionalism, institutional logics, directly draws upon her work. Yet, in recent times, this foundational role has faded from view as institutional theory itself becomes increasingly institutionalized as a vibrant branch of organization studies. This is unfortunate for there is much continuity in current work with that of Douglas, it now being 50 years and 30 years, respectively, since the publication of two of her formative works. The deep analogies that underpin classificatory systems and the processes by which they are sustained remain significant areas under continued investigation by institutional theorists. Thus, in this paper we revisit Douglas' core arguments and their connections to institutional theorizing. We specifically explore her contribution of 'naturalizing analogies' as a way of accounting for the unfolding of change across levels of analysis, extending, modifying and enriching explanations of how institutional change is reified, naturalized and made meaningful. We do this by providing empirical descriptions of meta-organizing analogies and field-level applications. We explain how Douglas' major theoretical works are of considerable relevance for current institutional theorizing. This aids particularly in informing accounts of institutional logics and the movement between individual cognition and collective signification.
Maclean, M, Harvey, C & Clegg, S 2016, 'Conceptualizing Historical Organization Studies', Academy of Management Review, no. October 1, 2016, 41 (4), pp. 609-632.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. We introduce the concept of zemblanity to organization studies to refer to the enactment of disaster when, in systems designed to impede risk, key actors nonetheless construct their own misfortune. The case of the Costa Concordia provides an opportunity to discuss organizational zemblanity. Active as well as passive behaviours by the Costa Concordia's Captain created a vicious circle of inappropriate decision-making with traumatic effects. These were complemented by structural elements to be found both in the individual behaviours of others (mainly, the vessel's first line of command) and the lack of other effective organizational controls, both in terms of structures and routines. As our discussion illuminates, there are two overarching elements in play: an excess of individual discretion and a lack of proper organizational controls. We go on to consider the significant implications for both theory and practice that flow from our analysis.
Giustiniano, L, Cunha, MPE & Clegg, S 2016, 'The dark side of organizational improvisation: Lessons from the sinking of Costa Concordia', Business Horizons, vol. 59, pp. 223-232.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 Kelley School of Business, Indiana University. High-reliability organizations operate in highly regulated sectors in which the main concern is ensuring the safety of people and goods. Despite high levels of formalization, organizations have to be sensitive to contingent situations and ready to face the unexpected, so the role of the people in command remains crucial. When unanticipated events and contingencies arise, organizational improvisation comes into its own. Improvisation is the deliberate fusion of design and execution in a novel production entailing the cognitive, rational, and event intuitive interpretation of prescribed rules and standards of conduct at various levels of aggregation. Standardization and improvisation are often represented as two conflicting demands rather than as necessarily interdependent; hence, the possible presence of improvisation in high-reliability organizations has been left underexplored. While most of the extant studies on improvisation have stressed the wisdom of improvised choices, not all improvisations are so successful. In this article we illuminate the dark side of organizational improvisation by analyzing the notorious case of the sinking of the Costa Concordia. The case shows how conformity to the formal adoption of standards and compliance to them can provide a shelter under which impromptu adaptation can be pursued, expressing the negative side of improvisation.
da Graça Batista, M, Clegg, SR, Pina e Cunha, M, Giustiniano, L & Rego, A 2016, 'Improvising Prescription: Evidence from the Emergency Room', British Journal of Management, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 406-425.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Global medical practice is increasingly standardizing through evidence-based approaches and quality certification procedures. Despite this increasing standardization, medical work in emergency units necessarily involves sensitivity to the individual, the particular and the unexpected. While much medical practice is routine, important improvisational elements remain significant. Standardization and improvisation can be seen as two conflicting logics. However, they are not incompatible, although the occurrence of improvisation in highly structured and institutionally complex environments remains underexplored. The study presents the process of improvisation in the tightly controlled work environment of the emergency room. The authors conducted an in situ ethnographic observation of an emergency unit. An inductive approach shows professionals combining ostensive compliance with protocols with necessary and occasional 'underlife' improvisations. The duality of improvisation as simultaneously present and absent is related to pressures in the institutional domain as well as to practical needs emerging from the operational realm. The intense presence of procedures and work processes enables flexible improvised performances that paradoxically end up reinforcing institutional pressures for standardization.
Ghobadi, S, Campbell, J & Clegg, S 2016, 'Pair programming teams and high-quality knowledge sharing: A comparative study of coopetitive reward structures', Information Systems Frontiers, vol. Volume 1 / 1999 - Volume 18 / 2016.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York There has been a growing research interest in understanding knowledge sharing in agile development. Yet, empirical research that sheds light on its underlying practices, such as pair programming, is evolving. This study uses insights from coopetition and software literature to focus inquiry on the relation between coopetitive rewards and high-quality knowledge sharing in pair programming teams. Theoretical hypotheses are developed and validated, suggesting that: 'coopetitive rewards influence high-quality knowledge sharing both directly and over time through their impact on the level of knowledge sharing satisfaction', and, 'the impact of coopetitive rewards on high-quality knowledge sharing is dependent upon task complexity and the history of working under similar reward structure'. This study generates new understanding related to the use of rewards in pair programming teams, and offers a rigorous and replicable seven-step experimental process for simulating coopetitive structures and investigating their role in pair programming and in similar collaborative contexts.
Clegg, S, Josserand, E, Mehra, A & Pitsis, TS 2016, 'The Transformative Power of Network Dynamics: A Research Agenda', ORGANIZATION STUDIES, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 277-291.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
van Marrewijk, A, Ybema, S, Smits, K, Clegg, SR & Pitsis, TS 2016, 'Clash of the Titans: Temporal organizing and collaborative dynamics in the Panama Canal Megaproject', Organization Studies, pp. 1-25.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recent studies of temporary organizing and project-based work explain how organizational actors establish and maintain clear role structures and harmonious relations in the face of precariousness by engaging in stabilizing work practices. This focus upon 'order' undervalues conflict-ridden negotiations and power struggles in temporary organizing. This paper demonstrates that in temporary organizing conflict and order may exist in tandem. Drawing close to the collaborative dynamics in a large-scale global project, we analyse the political struggles over role patterns and hierarchic positioning of client and agent in the temporary organization of the Panama Canal Expansion Program (PCEP). In such projects, the agent typically takes the position of project leader. In this case however, the client was formally in charge, while the agent was assigned the role of coach and mentor. The diffuse hierarchy triggered project partners to engage in both harmony-seeking social and discursive practices and to enter into conflict-ridden negotiations over authority relations in the everyday execution of the PCEP project. Our study contributes to existing literatures on temporal organizing by presenting a case of simultaneous practices of harmonization and contestation over mutual roles and hierarchic positions. We also show that studying collaboration between project partners involves, not merely analysing project governance structures, but also offering a context-sensitive account of everyday social and discursive practices. Finally, we reflect on a view of 'permanence' and 'temporariness' as themselves contested categories and symbolic sites for struggle.
Clegg, S, Geppert, M & Hollinshead, G 2015, 'Human Relations special issue call for papers Politicization and political contests in contemporary multinational corporations', Human Relations, vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 1662-1665.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In the following, I first identify some of the breadth of concern raised within academe subsequent to the global financial crisis (GFC) and then move to identify what some mainstream financial press outlets have done recently to foster debate about the systemic nature of concerns increasingly manifest since 2007. In certain Marxist-oriented social science circles, the current crisis was well prepared but, unfortunately, hardly visible in business education. We need a sociological understanding of the market to augment the limited understanding of orthodox economics. To understand how the GFC came to be the contributions of the virtually forgotten social theory are retrieved as pointers to understanding how the profound social and organizational changes leading up to and creating the GFC occurred. The implications of this literature for the curriculum of the business school should be profound, it is argued. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Clegg, S, Pina e Cunha, M, Rego, A & Story, J 2015, 'Powers of Romance: The Liminal Challenges of Managing Organizational Intimacy', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 131-148.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Problematic organizational relationships have recently been at the core of highly visible media coverage. Most analyses of
sexual relations in organizations have been, however, simplistic and unidimensional, and have placed insufficient systematic
emphasis on the role of governmentality in the social construction of organizational romance. In this article, we proceed in
two theoretical steps. First, we elaborate a typology of organizational romance that covers different manifestations of this
nuanced process. We think of these as organizational strategies of governmentality. Second, we elaborate and identify liminal
cases that fall into the interstices of the four predominant ways of managing sexual relationships in organizations. We think of
these as vases of liquid love and life that evade the border controls of regulation by governmentality. Finally, we relate these
issues to debates about the nature of the civilizational process and suggest hypotheses for future research.
Cunha, MPE, Neves, P, Clegg, SR & Rego, A 2015, 'Tales of the unexpected: Discussing improvisational learning', Management Learning, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 511-529.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Improvisation has been treated largely as if it were a conceptual monolith: all improvisations are similar. We challenge this theorizing by distinguishing forms of improvisation in organizations (semi-structured, episodic, subversive, resistive) and by exploring ways in which these forms interrelate in improvisational sequences. Improvisation is not just something individuals do; it is a learned capacity that organizations can manage. We introduce the dimension of improvisational formality and informality, adding a political dimension to the study of the topic. By combining forms in process sequences, we organize the existing literature under a systematic perspective facilitating theory development via an integrative understanding of how improvisation produces learning.
Deroy, X & Clegg, S 2015, 'Back in the USSR: Introducing Recursive Contingency Into Institutional Theory', Organization Studies, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 73-90.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Institutional theory's understanding of unplanned change in fragmented and complex environments has made the connection between institutional work at the micro level and institutional logics at the macro level a central issue. Change that is not planned is contingent on events. In practice an event, as a single occurrence of an unexpected, unanticipated or unacknowledged process, connects these levels, as the event is selected for attention, enacted in meaning, and organizationally coded. Not all events are selected, enacted and coded, of course. The recognition, attributes and potential of events depend on selections made from and meaning given to past events and those conceived as coming into being in the future perfect. The concept of recursive contingency describes how unique occurrences become connected in an evolving process over time; in doing so, it stresses the important role of the unexpected in regard to institutional change. Using a theoretical framework derived from Luhmann's work, in which institutions are seen as relatively autonomous self-closed subsystems generating contingency, we define an event as such by the fact that what it means and what is to be done with it cannot be decided by the application of a rule: choice is demanded that requires coding it as a specific type of event. A recursive view of contingency can be connected to an institutional theory of change in which the central role of institutional codes and networks of communication is stressed, producing a new theoretical approach to the explanation of institutional change. To illustrate the argument we make reference to one of the most significant counterfactual cases for questioning the solidity of institutions: the collapse of the key organization of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party.
Chan, A, Clegg, SR, Cunha, MPE & Rego, A 2015, ''The revolution will not be televised': the institutional work of radical change in China's Cultural Revolution', Journal of Political Power, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 61-83.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ghobadi, S & Clegg, S 2015, ''These days will never be forgotten …': A critical mass approach to online activism', Information and Organization, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 52-71.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Serendipity in organizations has often been perceived as a mysterious occurrence. We approach the process of serendipity via reconsideration of Honda's entry into the US market using an alternate templates analysis, showing that serendipity can be conceptually interpreted as the synthesis of preparation and openness to novelty, articulated through generative doubt. In this sense, it can be thought of as a dialectical process that thrives through the creative synthesis of the existing and the new. It is a practical accomplishment rather than an organizational form of mystery.
Logue, DM & Clegg, S 2015, 'Wikileaks and The News of the World: The Political Circuitry of Labeling', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 394-404.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Labels are important when organizations seek membership in an existing category, as are the agreed upon labeling practices of audiences that are already members of that category. The origins of labeling theory emerge from sociological examinations of deviant behavior and of deviant individuals. We return to this earlier emphasis and extend the analysis to organizations to demonstrate the contribution of a more politicized conception of labeling and categorizing for organization studies' literature. In drawing upon two empirical illustrations, that of Wikileaks and News Corp's The News of the World, we apply a 'circuits of power' framework to analyze the politics of labeling. We suggest that a more politicized conception than offered in current literature highlights the moral reasoning, disciplining, and symbolic violence that may be invoked by labels and labeling practices and also the circuits of power by which they may be maintained and disrupted.
Pina e Cunha, M, Clegg, S, Rego, A & Gomes, JFS 2015, 'Embodying Sensemaking: Learning from the Extreme Case of Vann Nath, Prisoner at S-21', EUROPEAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 41-58.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Cunha, MPE, Rego, A & Clegg, S 2015, 'The Institutionalization of Genocidal Leadership: Pol Pot and a Cambodian Dystopia', Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 6-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Misleadership is defi ned as leadership process involving a complex interplay of leader, follower, and
situational elements, inscribing a vicious circle of intensifying dysfunctional action. It is tempting to
see misleadership as the result of the madness of one leader. It is also misleading. Leadership research
has been insuffi ciently attentive to misleadership and, in particular, to the misleadership factors intervening
in genocidal processes. Discussed in the current article are the antecedents and the rule of the
Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia in the 1970s as an extreme case of misleadership. Lessons from the
Polpotist dystopia are derived and refl ections on possible contra-strategies are presented. In particular,
it is suggested that it is necessary to distinguish measures for social change that are admissible and
positive, from negative utopian visions that are negative, inadmissible, and facilitative of evil leadership.
Simpson, AV, Cunha, MPE & Clegg, S 2015, 'Hybridity, sociomateriality and compassion: What happens when a river floods and a city's organizations respond?', Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 375-386.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study we analyze the ethics of compassionate support provided by organizations to their employees during and after the Brisbane flood crisis of January 2011. The relationship between the social and the material is often taken for granted in discussions of compassion, which has largely been conceived as an emotion or an ethical virtue. By contrast, we see it as a variable state that is contingent on phenomenal events, social relations, organizational routines, technology and corporeality. These are entangled in temporal processes in which the ethics of organizing compassion are constituted. When traumatic events occur processes of sociomateriality can substantiate or negate organizational compassion.
Oliveira, J & Clegg, S 2015, 'Paradoxical puzzles of control and circuits of power', Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 425-451.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Simpson, AV, Clegg, S, Cunha, MPE & Marcelino, AR 2015, 'Expressões de compaixão: Práticas organizacionais no rescaldo de uma crise (Expressions Of Compassion: Organizational Practices In The Aftermath Of A Crisis)', Revista Brasileira de Estudos Organizacionais, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33-57.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Compassion is almost universally acknowledged as an important issue in the crisis management literature. The dominant perspective, however,
approaches compassion instrumentally as a practical tool for conveying
messages to achieve goals of protecting organizational assets. The findings of this study on the compassionate support offered (or not) to employees during and after the Brisbane flood crisis of January 2011 provide insight into crisis management as continuous process rather than a reactionary response to disaster when it arises. Three significant policy implications are generated in relation to organizational response and processes of compassion in times of crisis: First, compassionate discourses and categorization schemas should be clearly articulated within the organization before crisis (i.e. compassionate organizations express compassion as quotidian practice). Second, compassionate policies and practices need to be embedded in ongoing organizational routines and policies. Third, initiatives framed as compassion responses should not be assumed to necessarily create positive outcomes; rather, outcomes should be assessed on an ongoing basis.
Pina e Cunha, M, Rego, A, da Silva, AF & Clegg, S 2015, 'An institutional palimpsest? The case of Cambodia's political order, 1970 and beyond', JOURNAL OF POLITICAL POWER, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 431-455.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clegg, S, Geppert, M & Hollinshead, G 2015, 'Politicization and political contests in and around contemporary multinational corporations: An introduction', Human Relations, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 745-765.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Forseth, U, Royrvik, EA & Clegg, S 2015, 'Brave new world? The global financial crisis' impact on Scandinavian banking's sales rhetoric and practices', SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 471-479.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Logue, DM, Jarvis, WP, Clegg, S & Hermens, A 2015, 'Translating models of organization: Can the Mittelstand move from Bavaria to Geelong?', Journal of Management & Organization, vol. 21, no. 01, pp. 17-36.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Biesenthal, CE, Sankaran, S, Pitsis, T & Clegg, S 2015, 'Temporality in Organization Studies: Implications for Strategic Project Management', Open Economics and Management Journal, vol. 2, no. (Suppl 1: M7), pp. 45-52.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Project managers require temporal skills and the ability to improvise when linear assumptions confront the complexities of managing projects within a context of strategic calculation. While the management and organization (MOS) literature emphasizes the importance of temporal skills for managing uncertainty, ambiguity and complexity, a dearth of project management literature contributes to this discussion. By reviewing literature on time in MOS and linking it to the field of project management we seek to make an initial bridge of this gap and argue that in order to improvise project managers need temporal skills. Project management practitioners and researchers work with assumptions of what constitutes normal time and linearity in projects, despite the variety of situations and events faced in projects. Practitioners, students and researchers in project management need to develop more sophisticated temporal skills to deal with a variety of projects, situations and events strategically.
Clegg, S 2014, 'Confronting Managerialism: How the Business Elite and Their Schools Threw Our Lives Out of Balance', ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 566-576.
van Marrewijk, A, Veenswijka, M & Clegg, SR 2014, 'Changing collaborative practices through cultural interventions', Building Research and Information, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 330-342.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
After a parliamentary enquiry into construction industry malpractice, changes occurred in collaborative practices between clients and contractors in megaprojects within the Dutch construction sector. The enquiry meant that both clients and contractors were forced to acknowledge illegal practices of collusion and fraud. For those engaged in public–private relationships, a process followed of attempting to change collaborative practices. Three interventions in collaborative practices are recounted: (1) organizing personal networks between clients and contractors; (2) a competitive dialogue procedure; and (3) the right of withdrawal. These three interventions helped to change 'first order' practice, such as increasing mutual trust between client and contractor, supporting a mutual understanding of role positioning and dilemmas, and creating an understanding of the nature of the conflict but failed to change 'second order' practices. Two contributions to the understanding of project management are provided. New empirical data are presented on the challenges that public and private partners face in their attempt to implement new collaborative practices. It is shown how power is entangled in the emerging of new collaborative practices. The findings are based on a longitudinal ethnographic study of public–private collaboration in the Dutch construction industry in the period 2006–11.
Pina e Cunha, M, Clegg, S, Rego, A & Neves, P 2014, 'Organizational Improvisation: From the Constraint of Strict Tempo to the Power of the Avant-Garde', Creativity and Innovation Management, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 359-373.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clegg, S, Flyvbjerg, B & Haugaard, M 2014, 'Reflections on phronetic social science: a dialogue between Stewart Clegg, Bent Flyvbjerg and Mark Haugaard', Journal of Political Power, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 275-306.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clegg, S & Kreiner, K 2014, 'Fixing concrete: inquiries, responsibility, power and innovation', Construction Management and Economics, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 262-278.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Simpson, AV, Clegg, SR & Pitsis, TS 2014, 'Normal compassion: A framework for compassionate decision making', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 473-491.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this empirical paper, we present a model of the dynamic legitimizing processes involved in the receiving and giving of compassion. We focus on the idea of being `worthy of compassion and show how ideas on giving and receiving compassion are highly contestable. Recognition of a worthy recipient or giver of compassion constitutes a socially recognized claim to privilege, which has ethical managerial and organizational implications. We offer a model that assists managers in fostering ethical strength in their performance by encouraging reflection on the ethical complexity involved in compassion relations. The model emphasizes the dynamics of both the givers and receivers of compassion and so can also be used by organizations to both assess how others may view the legitimacy of their compassion relations and also to develop a positive organizational ethic of compassionate conduct. Dear Authors, We are pleased to inform you that the Senior Editor for Special Issues of the Journal of Business Ethics has reviewed and accepted your paper for inclusion in the Special Issue on Positive Organizational Ethics. We thank you for your patience during the extended review process. "The dynamics of compassion: A framework for compassionate decision making" makes an important contribution to the Special Issue. Given an additional revision round for some authors, we expect the issue to go into production this summer. All the best, Leslie, Debbie, and Lindsey
Simpson, AV, Clegg, SR & Pitsis, TS 2014, 'I used to care but things have changed: A genealogy of compassion in organizational theory', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 347-359.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Silva, T, Pina e Cunha, M, Clegg, SR, Neves, P, Rego, A & Rodrigues, RA 2014, 'Smells like Team Spirit: Opening a Paradoxical Black Box', Human Relations, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 1-24.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Despite the common usage of the term, researchers and practitioners have not been able properly to explain what team spirit is and what benefits and drawbacks it might bring to teams. Several definitions have been proposed, but not in a consistent manner. Using a qualitative approach, we worked with one football team to shed light on how individuals experience and characterize team spirit. Our results suggest that team spirit is built around four paradoxes: these are a paradox of selfless egoism; a paradox of results; a paradox of conflict, and a paradox of relationships. Essentially, team spirit can be viewed as an inter-subjectively shared facility with which individual members of a team can balance opposing tensions in a consistent way, managing to maintain a healthy synthesis between individual and collective needs and expectations, preventing the team from dominating the individuals, as well as specific individuals from capturing the team.
Pina e Cunha, M, Clegg, SR & Rego, A 2014, 'The ethical speaking of objects: ethics and the 'object-ive' world of Khmer Rouge young comrades', Journal of Political Power, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 35-61.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Simpson, AV, Clegg, SR, Lopes, MP, e Cunha, MP, Rego, A & Pitsis, TS 2014, 'Doing compassion or doing discipline? Power relations and the Magdalene Laundries', Journal of Political Power, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 253-274.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
We address the Magdalene Laundries. On the one hand this institution was constituted as a compassionate response to managing troubled young women; on the other hand it was seen as a disciplinary apparatus imposing total institutional life on its inmates. The antinomy of views about the institution is evident in the analysis we make of 116 comments by 66 commenters on an online newspaper article about the Magdalene Laundries. We analyse these comments in the context of broader concerns about contemporary approaches to the topic of organizational compassion. We argue that organizational compassion is a complex social process embedded within power relations that can be disciplinary in nature and create ambivalent rather than wholly positive outcomes.
Pina e Cunha, M, Clegg, S & Rego, A 2014, 'Lessons for leaders: Positive organization studies meets Niccolo Machiavelli (vol 9, pg 450, 2013)', LEADERSHIP, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 125-125.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pitsis, TS, Sankaran, SHANKAR, Gudergan, S & Clegg, S 2014, 'Governing projects under complexity: theory and practice in project management', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1285-1290.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clegg, S, Josserand, E, Mehra, A & Pitsis, T 2013, 'Organization Studies: Call for Papers Special Issue on 'The transformative and innovative power of network dynamics'', Organization Studies, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 864-866.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Adelstein, J & Clegg, SR 2013, 'And Rewind! Recycling Discourses of Knowledge Work and Knowledge Society', Management and Organizational History, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-23.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
While knowledge work is privileged by contemporary managerial discourse as a principal tenet of the present epoch, this paper examines an earlier knowledge society the Renaissance and argues that the contemporary designation of society as a `knowledge society is neither new nor unique. In contemporary discourse, much as during the Renaissance, institutional authorities sought to control unauthorized knowledge through disciplinary actions. There is also a parallel between the historical conditions that enabled the Renaissance to emerge and those preceding the emergence of a contemporary knowledge society. The paper argues that discourses of knowledge work and knowledge society may be seen as recycled, making what is old seem new again.
Nikolova, N, Clegg, SR, Fox, S, BjÃ¸rkeng, K & Pitsis, TS 2013, 'Uncertainty Reduction through Everyday Performative Language Work. The Case of Coaching', International Studies of Management & Organization, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 74-90.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this study, we focus on coaching in the context of small and medium-size enterprises in the creative industries. We draw on data collected from five business-coaching organizations over numerous coaching encounters with their clients. Using detailed conversational data drawn from these coaching encounters we analyze the ways in which business coaches practice "active listening" and "reflective questioning" in order to reduce the uncertainties they and their clients face when working together. We show that they do so through the strategy of positioning "performance" as central to their practice. Successful performances depend on the ability to convince clients that one's performance is what it represents itself to be: a performance that is brought off by detailed everyday language work, mimicking the client's language back on to the client. In this way, coaches demonstrate themselves as skilled analysts of everyday life and masters of listening.
Lancione, M & Clegg, SR 2013, 'The chronotopes of change: Actor-networks in a changing Business School', Journal of Change Management, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 117-142.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article investigates how a leading business school is reshaping its identity through a process that includes, but is not limited to, the building of a new facility designed by the Canadian architect Frank Gehry, as well as a major revision of the teaching programmes, ethos and branding. By investigating this process in an actor-network theory fashion, and introducing the notion of chronotope, the article answers three central questions related to the notion of change: How does organizational change happen in the daily life of a project? What gives unity to a chain of small relational changes? How can processual change possibly be managed? Theoretically, the article argues that change emerges in the micro-dynamics of organizing, fragments that are stitched together by macro-dominant narratives, in a constant process of translations that occur between human and non-human actants. The management of change is pursued through a constant micro-politics of network maintenance and enactment.
Clegg, SR, Cunha, M, Rego, A & Dias, J 2013, 'Mundane Objects And The Banality Of Evil: The Sociomateriality Of A Death Camp', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 325-340.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this article, we study one organization that played a pivotal role in the Cambodian genocide of the 1970s: the S-21 extermination center. We analyze, in particular, how processes of sociomateriality in the death camp contributed to create order and normalcy in an extreme and abnormal organization. A more nuanced view of agency ensues from this analysis, one that helps the understanding of how the creation of material spaces critically influences organizing, including the organizing of genocide.
Clegg, SR 2013, 'Anyone and Everyone, Potentially: For a Political Philosophy for All Humans, Without Limits', Journal of Political Power, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 157-164.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A complex normative political theory for liberalism; an ethnography of a life; reflections on the ontological nature of human being as consciousness, body and being in the world; a defence of the ideology of science as a norm of reason; a critique of identity politics, an opposition to all fundamentalisms; an account of the importance of manners for the civilising process and a reflexive account of being Jewish these are the concerns of this book. Clearly, it ranges far and wide, something that hardly makes it an easy book to review. I shall begin this review with an overview of the themes of the book before entering into a more detailed discussion.
Baunsgaard, VV & Clegg, SR 2013, ''Walls or Boxes': The Effects of Professional Identity, Power and Rationality on Strategies for Cross-Functional Integration', Organization Studies, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1299-1325.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are recognized as drivers of economic growth, yet commonly face low innovation and organizational success due to insufficient cross-functional integration. We pose the simple question: what factors hinder cross-functional integration from occurring? We analyse crossfunctional integration at management level by developing the framework of dominant ideological modes of rationality, composing professional identity, power relations and rationalities and through the construct of `members categorization devices (MCDs). The article builds theory from a longitudinal in-depth empirical investigation of `everyday micro-political processes involved in cross-functional integration by drawing on political and ethnomethodological perspectives. It provides novel findings on the dynamics between power relations and cross-functional integration, the influence of `thought worlds of different functions involved in the innovation process, and contributes empirical evidence that professional identity produces power relations and rationality. Implications for theory, method and practice are considered.
Based on the model of transcendent leadership, we suggest that subordinates need to display competences that mirror those of their leaders and propose transcendent followership as a framework for the responsibilities of followers in contemporary organizational environments. A transcendent follower is someone who expresses competence in terms of their management of relations with self, others and organization. Competence in the domain of self refers to being self-aware and proactive in developing individual strengths. Competence in the domain of others refers to the processes of interpersonal impact, in relation to leaders and peers. Competence in the domain of organization refers to collective maintenance and change. The article offers an integrated view of the roles and responsibilities of followers in dynamic organizational environments, presenting them as fellows rather than subordinates.
Simpson, AV, Clegg, SR & Pina e Cunha, M 2013, 'Expressing compassion in the face of crisis: Organizational practices in the aftermath of the Brisbane floods of 2011', Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 115-124.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Compassion is almost universally acknowledged as an important issue in the crisis management literature. The dominant perspective, however, approaches compassion instrumentally. The findings of this study on the compassionate support offered (or not) to employees during and after the Brisbane flood crisis of January 2011 provide insight into crisis management as a continuous process rather than a reactionary response when disaster arises. Three significant policy implications are generated: First, compassionate discourses and categorization schemas should be clearly articulated within the organization before crisis. Second, compassionate policies and practices need to be embedded in ongoing organizational routines and policies. Third, initiatives framed as compassion responses should not be assumed to necessarily create positive outcomes; rather, outcomes should be assessed on an ongoing basis
Smith, S, Winchester, D, Clegg, SR & Pang, VY 2013, 'Collaboration as a Strategic Service in Government Online Communities', Journal of Change Management, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 236-257.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigates strategic innovation changes designed to facilitate `Collaboration as a Service that were undertaken on information technology platform sites hosting online communities by NSW state government agencies in Australia. The initial platform hosted the Guardianship Tribunal site dealing with people that have disabilities. The second platform involved working groups (WGs). The third platform hosted knowledge resource centre user group sites. A WG focusing on climate change issues that collaborated within and across agencies, as well as with outside organizations was investigated. A feature of the climate change group is that it requires data and collaboration from many agencies with a future-oriented function and duration of 20+ years. Overall, the WGs perform better following the adoption and implementation of collaborative tools resulting in the benefits of there being a single-point document, reduced duplication of information and effort and a design that complements WG operational activities. Lessons were learned from changes in service delivery for the design of face-to-face services that drove pre-implementation factors and assisted change and collaboration in earlier platforms through enhancing later sites features and functionality limiting user resistance. However, the organizational change contributed to enhanced centralization and panopticism of organizational power relations.
Pina e Cunha, M, Clegg, SR & Rego, A 2013, 'Lessons for Leaders: Positive Organization Studies Meets Niccolo Machiavelli', Leadership, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 450-465.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Machiavelli should be a central and canonical text for management education, even in the age of positive organizational literatures. We give it this role by considering the case of the virtuous leader. Our proposition is simple: virtuous leaders live and act, like anybody else, in the power circuits that are constitutive of reality. Therefore, they participate in power dynamics that sometimes make them face the need to decide in ways that do not correspond to normative positive precepts. Machiavelli shows that even virtuous leaders must do what needs to be done, while trying to preserve ones values and move in the direction of noble, high purpose goals.
In this paper, we analyse the significance of compassion as an emotion in its relationship to various manifestations of power within the organisational context. We critique those theories of compassion that assume that compassion in organsational contexts is motivated only by a noble intent. The paper draws on a study of organisational responses to the flood that devastated the City of Brisbane Australia on the morning of 11 January 2011. We use a framework of `circuits of power to provide a triple focus on interpersonal, organisational and societal uses of power together with a model of coercive, instrumental and normative organisational power. We present our findings in a framework constructed by overlapping these frameworks. The unique contribution of this paper is to provide a conceptualisation of organisational compassion enmeshed with various modes of power exercised in and by organisations.
Clegg, SR, Jarvis, WP & Pitsis, TS 2013, 'Making Strategy Matter: Social Theory, Knowledge Interests and Business Education', Business History, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 1247-1264.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The tensions and challenges facing business education frame this paper, which takes a critical look at the historical evolution of business school education in the context of the present conjecture, with a particular emphasis on the role social theory can play in the analysis of strategy and ethics. Flyvbjerg's phronesis and Selznick's sociology are deployed to address the challenges facing business schools and their place in higher education. Kant's moral anthropology opens common grounds to both approaches. Our aim is to provide a platform from which business and university leaders can debate and discuss the current and future role and impact of business school education, particularly focusing on linking and cultivating ethical and strategic capabilities in management and organizational practices.
The paper analyses the social and environmental issues involved in disputes relating to the sustainability of the palm oil industry. These disputes have been aired in and around the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil. We start by developing a review of types of voluntary environmental initiative or green clubs, as they have also been called, in this context. The study is based on extensive fieldwork in the setting of the disputes (the island of Borneo) and analysis of the different levels in the global value chain of the palm oil industry, including local organizations, the industry structure overall, as well as the local governments of Malaysia and Indonesia. The use of the political ecology framework for the analysis of the palm oil industry contributes not only to the development of a more institutional-power perspective, but also provides solid grounds for the understanding of green clubs an increasingly important type of organization
Clegg, SR & Iterson, A 2013, 'The Effects of Liquefying Place, Time and Organizational Boundaries on Employee Behavior: Lessons of Classical Sociology', M@n@gement, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 621-635.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper explores how the liquefying of place, time, and organizational boundaries affects social control and self-regulation at the workplace. We address Norbert Eliass civilizing process theory (Elias 2000), and some of the criticism it has evoked, to explore the effects of both physical proximity and distance on control and behavior in work organizations. We hold that the theory still has relevance for contemporary organization and management theory with roots in the more classical traditions of the sociological discipline. Assuming that physical proximity at work is decreasing because of increased telework, the geographical spread of firms, and growing interorganizational collaboration, there is much to be gained by maintaining classical perspectives.
Beriwal, M, Clegg, SR, Collopy, F, McDaniel, R, Morgan, G, Sutcliffe, K, Kaufman, R, Marker, A & Selwyn, N 2013, 'Organizational Science', Educational Technology, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 42-52.
Pina e Cunha, M, Clegg, SR, Rego, A & Story, J 2013, 'From the Physics of Change to Realpolitik: Improvisational Relations of Power and Resistance', Journal of Change Management, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 460-476.
Courpasson, D, Dany, F & Clegg, SR 2012, 'Resisters At Work: Generating Productive Resistance In The Workplace', Organization Science, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 801-819.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Research has recognized the transformative dimension of resistance in the workplace. Yet resistance is still seen as an adversarial and antagonistic process that management can accept or reject; thus, understanding how resistance can actually influence w
Johnston, J & Clegg, SR 2012, 'Legitimate Sovereignty and Contested Authority in Public Management Organization and Disorganization: Barangaroo and the Grand Strategic Vision for Sydney as a Globalizing City', Journal of Change Management, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 279-299.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article takes an interpretive view of what `public management implies in the context of the strategies and processes involved in major infrastructure development, in this case, of prime harbourside public land, now known as Barangaroo, in the centre of the city of Sydney, New South Wales (NSW), Australia. This development, in part, is meant to position Sydney as a globalizing city, at the centre of financial services in the Asia Pacific region. The article uses Clegg's ideas of `circuits of power to develop an analytical framework and employs a qualitative, case study approach based on a wide range of documents and media reports in the public domain. It addresses the processes of public management in the Barangaroo development, focusing on strategic agenda setting and leadership; organizing by rules; contract relations; no-cost-to government policy; organizing by precedent, especially those embedded in institutional responsibilities and responses; and stakeholder management. It demonstrates that at each stage in the process these have been characterized less by the rhetoric of public management and more by a disorganization of this rhetoric by a complex politics flowing through distinct circuits of power. The critical finding is that public management in the context of a large economic infrastructure development, especially when government is attempting to position a city globally, is far more complex and political than the prevailing rhetoric of the New Public Management, of considered rationality, would suggest
World-renowned urban places struggle to retain the qualities that made them famous as the fabric of the city changes. Often their specific charms and qualities, indeed, their identity, are threatened by organization changes in the urban environment. This article shows how the `Champs-Elysées is fragmenting into anonymous subspaces that raise the risk of it becoming a non-place. We show the role of a specific institutional influence, the Comité des Champs-Elysées, which seeks to preserve the site despite the heterogeneity of its members. Two strategies emerge from their actions: deceleration of the flows of people is sought to slow and channel people on the Avenue within a modernized iconic space, while the constitution of events seeks to combine different sights and make them coexist together as a mosaic of experiences. The article concludes by showing the limits of influence of regulation that leaves the future of the space undetermined.
Clegg, SR, Pina e Cunha, M & Rego, A 2012, 'The Theory and Practice of Utopia in a Total Institution: The Pineapple Panopticon', Organization Studies, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1735-1757.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Genocide has been a constant presence in the history of humanity throughout the ages. Recently, calls to study the organization of genocide and genocidal organizations have been increasing. In this paper we study the functioning of the S-21 extermination camp, an instrument of Ângkar, `The Organization, which imposed genocide on the Cambodian people in the 1970s. We analyse the conditions that enable the organization of genocide, showing that three pillars seem to play essential roles: a utopian vision; support of this vision by total institutional spaces, and the control commitments of the people caught in the utopian vortex. Genocide appears as a potential outcome of the particular type of organization combining these three processes.
Pina e Cunha, M, Clegg, SR, Rego, A & Lancione, M 2012, 'The Organization (Angkar) as a State of Exception: The Case of the S-21 Extermination Camp, Phnom Phen', Journal of Political Power, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 279-299.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Organization theory, Clegg pointed out, has failed to address the role of organizations in some of the crimes of/against humanity, suggesting that more attention should be given to the case of total institutions. With this paper we respond to Cleggs invitation and study the S-21 extermination camp, in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We do so by engaging with the work of the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben, with the aim of investigating the organizational patterns that constitute the camp as a `State of Exception. Doing so shows us how organizations can become malign forces for evil. We explore the implications of this case for more general `Kafkaesque organization, that sometimes reproduce, in more benign forms, many of the practices found at S-21
Baunsgaard, VV & Clegg, SR 2012, 'Dominant Ideological Modes of Rationality: Organizations as Arenas of Struggle Over Members' Categorization Devices', Research in the Sociology of Organizations, vol. 34, pp. 199-232.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter explores dominant ideologies theoretically in Gil organizational selling. A framework is developed to advance our understanding 0/ how 'dominant ideological modes 0/ rationality' reflect predictability through the reproduction of accepted truths, hence social order in organization. Dominant ideological modes of rationality constitute professional identity, power relations, and rationality andframe prevailing mentalities and social practices in organization. It is suggested that members' categorization devices structure and constrain social practices. Supplementing the existent power literature, the chapter concludes that professional identity produces rationality. power and truth - truth being the overarching concept assembled through the rationalities assembled in
Bardon, T, Clegg, SR & Josserand, EL 2012, 'Exploring identity construction from a critical management perspective: A research agenda', M@n@gement, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 350-366.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In contemporary western society, questions of identity concerning who am I? and how should I act? (Alvesson, 2000: 1105) are now a central concern in peoples lives. Indeed, the western, liquidly modern context (Bauman 2000; 2001; 2003; 2005; Bauman & Haugaard 2008; Bauman & Tester 2001) is characterized, precisely, by absences: the loss of traditional sources of authority, such as family, union, or religion, foundations that used to provide individuals with a collective sense of belonging around commonly taken-for-granted bases of identification (Collinson, 2003). The absent spaces are now occupied by a multitude of ephemeral bases of identification that blur old dualisms such as capital and labour, man and woman, married or single. Culturally tribal fashionable codes of speaking, dressing, playing, and so forth, mostly grounded in consumption rather than production, increasingly provide experiences of belonging. In such a fragmented context, constructing a distinctive identity becomes a constantly shifting project (Knights & Willmott, 1989; Giddens, 1991; McAdams, 1996). Consequently, individuals tend now to problematize identity through projects of the self more likely undertaken at an individual or group level rather than as a part of an organized collective process that is automatically reproduced.
Boersma, K & Clegg, SR 2012, 'Strategies for Conceptualizing, Organizing and Managing Resilience in the Globalizing City', Journal of Change Management, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 273-277.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This Special Issue of Journal of Change Management addresses the idea that the development of a society of organizations (Perrow, 1991) is inextricably linked to an increasing prominence of the city. Cities gain their character as much from the organizations that are found in them as from the people who flow through the cityscape. Most significant organizations are embedded in major urban spaces and, even where they are located in more rural settings, they become major agents of change. More than 50% of all people already live in cities. Cities are thus complex sites in which are constituted the organizing and disorganizing of the everyday lives and (mis)fortunes of half the world's population. Future scenarios suggest that in the next 50 years the number of people living in cities will increase up to 75%, with most living in mega-cities of more than 20 million (Burdett and Sudjic, 2008). The city is increasingly the crucible of change in which organizations organize and are contested, where social movements articulate resistance and mobilize, where public policy issues are hammered out, agendas set and issues defined, where governance approaches are tried and tested, where businesses form networks, innovation occurs and ideas circulate with increasing velocity.
Bureaucracy is under attack and has been for some time, specially these past 30 years. This chapter will outline the specific qualities of bureaucracy, the challenges to it that different critics have posed and the possible futures of bureaucracy that are being imagined. In the 1980s, as a key part of an extremely liberal and influential critique of bureaucracy, new imaginings of how to organize corporations and public sector organizations began to emerge. By the late 1990s these had morphed into a view of the network or hybrid organization as the way of the future. The chapter will suggest that the global future of bureaucracy is not as simple as some of these criticisms suggest when they see it left behind in the emergence of innovative new forms. Instead, it is suggested, there is a spatial disaggregation of organizations occurring that heralds some unsettling new futures of organizations emerging
Courpasson, D & Clegg, SR 2012, 'The Polyarchic Bureaucracy: Cooperative Resistance In The Workplace And The Construction Of A New Political Structure Of Organizations', Research in the Sociology of Organizations, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 55-79.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Many bureaucracies still exist, and not just in the public sector. Increasingly, however, we would argue that they are more likely to evolve towards polyarchic forms because of the growing centrality of stakeholder resistance, especially that which is premised on empowerment of key employees. We suggest that managerial responses to this resistance are transforming bureaucracies through process of accommodation: upper echelon managers invent responses to contentious acts and voices so as to reintegrate 'resisters' while rewarding them for contesting decisions in a cooperative way. Understanding these processes help us understand why traditional bureaucracy is currently transforming itself as a resuit of the emergence of new forms of resistance in the workplace.
Clegg, SR & Gordon, RD 2012, 'Accounting for Ethics in Action: Problems with Localised Constructions of Legitimacy', Financial and Accountability Management, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 417-436.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Socially constituted systems of order emanate from tacit interaction. While they are reflected in an organization's culture, they do not necessarily align with the organization's authorised rules and codes of conduct. Such misalignment renders legitimacy in organizations problematic. The paper explores the relation between power and legitimacy by showing how such systems of order recursively establish, and are established by, forms of legitimacy that may not be formalised. Empirically, such forms of legitimacy thwarted a police organization's attempt to reform. Theoretically, an understanding of organizational change is connected to the relationship between power and legitimacy. The paper provides insights into how power influences the social construction of legitimacy within the context of public organizations.
Helin, S, Jensen, T, Sandstrom, J & Clegg, SR 2011, 'On The Dark Side of Codes: Domination Not Enlightenment', Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 24-33.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper, we show how a middle manager interprets the action of two employees as problematic and how he solves it by using the company's code of ethics as the basis for firing them. Our telling of the story unmasks a darker side of codes and we conceptualize it in terms of power and domination. The paper contributes to the literature on corporate codes of ethics (CCEs) and corporate ethics programs by showing that such codes need not necessarily play an enabling role in organizations. Rather than being instruments of enlightenment and self-regulation, they may be used as instruments to further domination.
The article analyses the dynamics of the interaction between events and business ethics within organizations. Events comprise those unpredictable things that happen. When they do, organizationally embedded managers will be responsible for making sense of these events. By being responsible, they are enacting ethics in the choices that they make for dealing with them. Events always raise ethical considerations because they are non-routine rather than a strict repetition of existing repertoires. Under certain circumstances, which we illustrate with a theory of the event, drawing on the work of Gilles Deleuze, we are able to investigate the de/institutionalizing of ethics theoretically. We draw on the new economic sociology to discuss the conditions of ethical and event de/institutionalization. Finally, we conceptualize the linkage between micro and macro dimensions framing the dynamics of business ethics in interaction with events.
Kornberger, MM & Clegg, SR 2011, 'Strategy as performative practice: The case study of Sydney 2030', Strategic Organization, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 136-162.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article focuses on the relation between strategy-as-practice and its power effects in the context of a strategy project (Sustainable Sydney 2030) undertaken by the City of Sydney. The following three interrelated questions guided the enquiry: How is strategy practised? What knowledge is it based upon? And what are its power effects? Based on a detailed empirical analysis of the strategy-making process, the article charts how strategy rendered the city knowable and how performative effects of strategizing mobilized the public and legitimized outcomes of the process while silencing other voices. The articles theoretical contribution is threefold: first, it shows that strategizing is performative, constituting its subjects and shaping its objects; second, that strategizing has to be understood as aesthetic performance whose power resides in the simultaneous representation of facts (traditionally the domain of science) and values (the realm of politics); third, and consequently, that strategy is a sociopolitical practice that aims at mobilizing people, marshalling political will and legitimizing decisions. The article concludes with reflections on five practical implications of the study.
Carter, C, Clegg, SR & Wahlin, N 2011, 'When Science Meets Strategic Realpolitik: The Case Of The Copenhagen Un Climate Change Summit', Critical Perspectives on Accounting, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 682-697.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper argues that the impasse over tackling climate change at the 2009 climate change summit is a result of the outcome of the prevailing power and politics at the summit. The paper discusses the sociological literature on power and notes that the f
e Cunha, MP, Rego, A & Clegg, SR 2011, 'Pot, Alias Brother Number One: Leaders As Instruments Of History', Management and Organizational History, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 268-286.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pol Pot is one twentieth century leader with a specific place in history as the orchestrator of one of that century's many significant genocides. As the commander of the deadly Khmer Rouge, he orchestrated the genocide perpetrated in Cambodia between 197
Pina e Cunha, M, Rego, A & Clegg, SR 2011, 'Beyond addiction: Hierarchy and other ways of getting strategy done', European Management Journal, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 491-503.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hierarchy is habitually presented as the right organizational infrastructure through which to deploy and achieve strategy. We analyze the strategy process, specifically the strategy/execution debate, from the perspective of hierarchy, and contrast the hierarchical mode where top management dominates by separating strategy/ formulation and execution with three alternative modes where the power circuits of strategy extend beyond the managerial elite and are shared by several strategic agents. These three possibilities are: (1) the porous hierarchical mode, in which the hierarchs/higher-ups transfer part of the power for shaping and informing the strategy to the base of the organization; (2) the distributed mode, in which the hierarchs have no direct influence but rather indirect moral authority over execution, and (3) the strategy as simple rules mode, in which strategy/execution is taken as a single iterative process where strategy evolves on the basis of a minimal structure that facilitates strategic interaction and prevents hierarchical control from stifling adaptation.
To date, organization theory's attempts to understand architecture firms have focused by and large on debates about increasing managerialization and economization of the profession. This paper suggests an alternative approach by conceptualizing architecture as practice that does not adhere only to a narrow economic logic of value creation but also focuses on the production of aesthetic value. We will introduce the concept of style to understand how architecture practice routinely breaks routines and follows the rule of rule breaking. We will analyze architecture practice as a form of organized heresy - a hegemonic engine for the production of difference. In order to illustrate our points we will draw on qualitative empirical fieldwork with an architecture firm (synonym Earth Architects).
Clegg, S, Dany, F & Grey, C 2011, 'Introduction to the special issue critical management studies and managerial education: New contexts? New agenda?', Management, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 271-279.
Clegg, SR 2010, 'Talking heads: Interview with Professor Stewart Clegg', Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 11, no. 2.
Clegg, SR 2010, 'A Titular Misnomer and a Degree of Analytic Error', Australian Review of Public Affairs, vol. March.
(hard cover) RRP $45.95.Australian Review of Public Affairs, March, http://www.australianreview.net/
Serendipity means the accidental discovery of something valuable. While it is sometimes presented as an element of organizational learning, it has rarely been addressed per se by organizational scholars. We discuss and elaborate the processes associated with serendipity in the organizational context. At its core, serendipity is a process of metaphorical association seeing something in another thing. New ways of seeing may provide the necessary ingredients for creativity and exploratory learning, which will counter organizational tendencies towards inertia and the ossification of dominant mindsets and practices.
In this paper, some peculiarities of a Southern European country are made explicit, namely, how the attraction of new, "global," management practices combines with deeply persistent, thus traditional, ways of imagining organization. The dominant Anglo-Saxon and Protestant models of management may not be fully adequate to characterize management and organization in the Latin Catholic countries of the south, or those postcolonial societies that they inscribed in Latin America. We present an interpretation of why what are glossed by moderns as dysfunctional management practices persist, sometimes despite their recognized inadequacy. The contributions advanced here may thus be relevant to researchers interested in the route of transition from closed to open societies and who are concerned that all models need to be appreciated in context.
Carter, C, Clegg, SR & Kornberger, MM 2010, 'Re-framing strategy: Power, politics and accounting', Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 573-594.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Purpose: This paper aims to analyse the rise and institutionalization of the discourse of strategic management. It seeks to advance an agenda for studying strategy from a sociologically informed perspective. Moreover, it aims to make a case for a critically informed, interdisciplinary approach to studying strategy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides an overview to studying strategy critically. It is a theoretically informed paper. Findings: The findings can be summarised as: first, strategy emerged as a major discipline in the 1970s; second, as a body of knowledge strategy has remained close to its industrial economics origins; and third, an agenda for the sociological study of strategy revolving around concerns of performativity and power is outlined. Originality/value: The paper offers a sociologically informed account of strategy.
Clegg, SR 2010, 'Organization Studies: Narrative and Reality', e Innovacion, vol. 5, no. 56, pp. 88-98.
McKinlay, A, Carter, C, Pezet, E & Clegg, SR 2010, 'Using Foucault to Make Strategy', Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1012-1031.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Purpose - The premise of the paper is that Foucault's concept of governmentality has important but unacknowledged implications for understanding strategy. Highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the governmentality approach, the paper seeks to suggest how governmentality can be used to conceptualise strategy. More generally, the paper seeks to contribute to the body of research on governmentality articulated by authors such as Peter Miller, Ted O'Leary and Nikolas Rose. Design/methodology/approach The paper reprises the argument that accounting is constitutive of social relations. It proceeds to discuss Peter Miller, Ted O'Leary and Nikolas Rose's seminal contributions to the conceptual development of governmentality. In outlining their work, the paper highlights the significance accorded to the emergence of standard costing and scientific management and its subsequent role in developing both the strategies and structures of managerial capitalism. The paper examines how this, in turn, was pivotal to the emergence of strategy as an important means through which organisations began to understand and conceive of themselves. The paper rehearses the standard criticisms made of governmentality within the accounting literature, before arguing that the concept emerges intact from the critique levelled against it. Proceeding to summarise Foucault's radical conception of power, the paper notes the elusiveness of Foucault's relationship with strategy. Elaborating on the nature of governmentality, the paper employs the concept to re-examine the managerial revolution. The objective is to explore its implications for understanding strategy.
Pina e Cunha, M, Rego, A & Clegg, SR 2010, 'Obedience and Evil: From Milgram and Kampuchea to Normal Organizations', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 291-309.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Obedience: a simple term. Stanley Milgram, the famous experimental social psychologist, shocked the world with theory about it. Another man, Pol Pot, the infamous leader of the Khmer Rouge, showed how far the desire for obedience could go in human societies. Milgram conducted his experiments in the controlled environment of the US psychology laboratory of the 1960s. Pol Pot experimented with Utopia in the totalitarian Kampuchea of the 1970s. In this article, we discuss the process through which the Khmer Rouge regime created an army of unquestioningly obedient soldiers including child soldiers. Based on these two cases, we advance a framework on how obedience can be grown or countered.
We propose a liminality-based analysis of the process of ethical leadership/followership in organizations. A liminal view presents ethical leadership as a process taking place in organizational contexts that are often characterized by high levels of ambiguity, which render the usual rules and preferences dubious or inadequate. In these relational spaces, involving leaders, followers, and their context, old frames may be questioned and new ones introduced in an emergent way, through subtle processes whose evolution and implications may not be easy to grasp even by those participating in them.
Issue is taken with the relative absence of the analysis of power from many leading institutional theory accounts of organizations. The category of institutional entrepreneurs is seen as a functionalist theory-saving device. The stress on norms, myths, a
Rhodes, CH, Pullen, A & Clegg, SR 2010, 'If I Should Fall From Grace...': Stories Of Change And Organizational Ethics', Journal Of Business Ethics, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 535-551.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Although studies in organizational storytelling have dealt extensively with the relationship between narrative, power and organizational change, little attention has been paid to the implications of this for ethics within organizations. This article addr
Brown, A, Kornberger, MM, Clegg, SR & Carter, C 2010, 'The 'Invisible walls' and 'Silent hierarchies': A case study of power relations in an architecture firm', Human Relations, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 525-549.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this article we investigate how power relates to the production of creative identities and outcomes. We report on an in-depth case study of an award-winning creative architecture firm. Our data show how talk about creativity and the creative identities of architects can be analysed as effects of power. Theoretically, our study represents an investigation into the disciplining of professional architects discourse about their selves, their organization, and their work. This article adds to debates on creative industries, demonstrating that creativity is deeply embedded in organizationally based relations of power.
van Marrewijk, A, Veenswijk, M & Clegg, SR 2010, 'Organizing reflexivity in designed change: The ethnoventionist approach', Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 212-229.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon the role of intervention-oriented scientists in the process of organisation development. The paper seeks to contribute to the growing interest in design studies for organisation development and argues that a focus on reflexivity is missing in current debate. The aim of the paper to develop critical reflexiveness for organization design studies by introducing the ethnoventionist approach. Design/methodology/approach The paper discusses the ideal forms of clinical inquiry, participative action research, ethnography, and the ethnoventionist approach. The ethnoventionist approach is described by its central aspects: a focus on reflexivity, a management (but not managerialist) orientation, commitment to obtaining a deep understanding, connecting the multi-layered context, and studying in pre-arranged longitudinal intervals. Findings The ethnoventionist approach uses organisational ethnographies to facilitate intervention strategies intended to improve organisations. An example of such an approach in the design of new collaborative practices in the Dutch construction sector is drawn on.
Clegg, SR & Baumeler, C 2010, 'Essai: From Iron Cages to Liquid Modernity in Organization Analysis', Organization Studies, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1713-1733.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Historically, the metaphor of the iron cage, as a key component of Webers sociological imagination, has played a central role in organization studies. It did so both in its initial role in the sociology of bureaucracy and in its reinterpretation in institutional terms. More recently, there have been claims that the metaphors should change. The implications of this for the analysis of organization are the subject of this paper. To address these changes, we draw on debates that have been current in the sociology of consumption, where there is an emergent consensus that there has been a shift to an increasingly liquid modernity. We ask, what are the implications of liquid modernity when viewed not solely in the sphere of consumption but when we shift focus back to the sphere of production to organizations?
Gustavs, JL & Clegg, SR 2010, 'Dna And The Politics Of Truth In Socially Organized Life', European Journal Of Cultural Studies, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 439-458.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
We apply a representation of the double helix to explain how truth is managed in the social organization of life. One chain, representing context, is made up of the three materialities through which we move - discourses, time and space.
The history of the business school as an institution stretches back 127 years to its foundations in the Wharton School in Philadelphia. Initially, it was an explicitly ethical project, centred on an ethic of professionalism, an ethics that was never stabilized and settled. Instead, a managerial ethic of the organization man was established in the USA during the post-war ascendancy and mimesis of the institution. From the 1980s onwards, in a response to the emergence of neo-liberal governmental projects, two strong and antithetical tendencies emerged. On the one hand, there was an enormous growth in economic rationalism organized around market fundamentalism. On the other hand, there was a growth of critical management, initially Marxist in derivation but increasingly Foucauldian. Just as labour process analysis seemed to run out of steam with endless empirical accounts of resistance so the Foucault effect seems to have become fixated with the gaze of surveillance and the panopticon. What next, after the ethic of the organization man and the administered society, the ethic of disinterest of science, the ethic of the survival of the fittest of neo-liberalism and the ethic of resistance characterizing critical management? The paper outlines some ideas from the Portuguese sociologist Boaventura de Sousa Santos to suggest a possible `fifth way of building more positive power relations in the business school and thus rekindling an ethical spark.
BjÃ¸rkeng, K & Clegg, SR 2010, 'Becoming DragonBankers: Constructing practice through processes of socially situated learning', Society and Business Review, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 48-65.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore organizational induction as socially situated learning processes. It presents an empirical study of inductees going through an induction program in a medium sized bank and discusses their induction as a dual process of becoming a practitioner and constructing practice. Design/methodology/approach The research performed is qualitative: ethnographic methods including participant observation and interviews are used, and analysed through an interpretative methodology. Findings The paper suggests that the divide between the teaching curricula in the induction course and the learning curricula in real life banking contribute to the inductees ability and desire to engage in the construction of customer service officer practice; the divide itself legitimizes differences in particularities of the practice, and enhances the inductees ability to enact, accomplish, and construct practice actively. Research limitations/implications The paper suggests induction should be viewed as opportunities for organizational learning as much as the training of newcomers to adhere to organizational standards. Originality/value The paper presents a novel empirical case exploring socially situated learning. Looking at the confluence of authoring and performative acts allows us to expose the agentic dimension of practices; thus emphasising the construction involved in any practising.
Rhodes, CH, Pullen, A & Clegg, SR 2010, ''If i should fall from grace...': Stories of Change and Organizational Ethics', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 457-614.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Although studies in organizational storytelling have dealt extensively with the relationship between narrative, power and organizational change, little attention has been paid to the implications of this for ethics within organizations. This article addresses this by presenting an analysis of narrative and ethics as it relates to the practice of organizational downsizing. Drawing on Paul Ricoeurs theories of narrative and ethics, we analyze stories of organizational change reported by employees and managers in an organization that had undergone persistent downsizing. Our analysis maintains that the presence of a dominant story that seeks to legitimate organizational change also serves to normalize it, and that this, in turn, diminishes the capacity for organizations to scrutinize the ethics of their actions. We argue that when organizational change narratives become singularized through dominant forms of emplotment, ethical deliberation and responsibility in organizations are diminished. More generally, we contend that the narrative closure achieved by the presence of a dominant narrative amongst employees undergoing organizational change is antithetical to the openness required for ethical questioning.
Rhodes, CH, Pullen, A, Vickers, MH, Clegg, SR & Pitsis, A 2010, 'Violence and workplace bullying: What are an organization's ethical responsiblities?', Administrative Theory & Praxis, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 96-115.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Understood as an act of violence intentionally perpetuated by one person over another, bullying is a direct affront to ethics, especially when ethics is seen to be grounded in a primary relationship with and responsibility for other people. Existing research has attended largely to providing individualized rather than organizational explanations of bullying and has not adequately interrogated bullying in relation to ethics. With this paper, we address the question What are organizations ethical responsibilities in responding to the bullying that occurs within them? We argue that although organizations cannot necessarily be held responsible for individual acts of bullying, they can be held responsible for asserting constant vigilance that seeks to address and minimize the presence of such acts. We call for organizations to act, not just to prevent or censure individual acts of bullying, but also to engage in an ongoing and active self-critique of all of their practices insofar as they support the institutionalization and normalization of bullying relationships.
Clegg, S 2009, 'Organising and disorganising: A dynamic and non-linear theory of institutional emergence and its implications', ORGANIZATION STUDIES, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 909-912.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clegg, SR & Starbuck, WH 2009, 'Unplugged: Can we still fix M@n@gement? The narrow path towards a brighter future in organizing practices', M@n@gement, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 332-359.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
While global warming stimulates debate on how to make organizations greener, the overheating of the world economy urges us to reconsider the ways in which we conceive management and organizing practices both as researchers and teachers. Exploitation as we know it may be behind us, but does this entail ideating a revolution to prepare a brighter future? Or are we simply facing a time of evolution? To put it more simply: is it time to unplug an overheating system and start from scratch, or can we still fix management and organizing practices? The path between an abstract scientism disconnected from reality and our subjection to short-term managerial interests is a narrow one. Both criticisms offer insight into our responsibility as researchers and teachers in the world as it is today. They can help us to redefine our connection with managerial practices and define the path we can follow to play a part in securing a brighter future.
This article presents findings from longitudinal ethnographic research of a mega-project alliance. For five years we followed the leadership team of a large Australian Alliance Program made up of a large public and several private organizations, analyzing 'practice' as novel patterns of interaction developed into predictable arrays of activities, changing and transforming while at the same time continuing to be referred to as 'the same'. In this article we focus on three such arrays of activities: authoring boundaries, negotiating competencies and adapting materiality. We suggest that these are essential mechanisms in becoming a practice. While most studies of practice deal with already established practices, the significance of our research is that we develop a notion of practice as it unfolds. In this way we can provide a better account of the constant change inherent in practices.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Gordon, RD 2009, 'Power, Rationality and Legitimacy in Public Organizations', Public Administration an international quarterly, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 15-34.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper we propose answers to the research question: how does power shape the construction of legitimacy in the context of public organizations? We suggest that while organizational structures of dominancy will be embedded, not all structures of dominancy align with those that are normatively presented as legitimate and authoritative. Such situations make the creation and sustenance of legitimacy problematic for organizational action. This paper advances our understanding of the relation between power, rationality and legitimacy by showing how structures of domination recursively constitute, and are constituted by, legitimacy that may not be authoritative. We show, empirically, how these relations prevented a police organization from reforming by breaking the recursive patterns of domination and legitimization. Theoretically, we argue that understanding organizational change must be connected to issues of power and legitimacy.
Gordon, RD, Clegg, SR & Kornberger, MM 2009, 'Embedded Ethics: Discourse and Power in the New South Wales Police Service', Organization Studies, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 73-99.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper we report an ethnographic research study conducted in one of the world's largest police organizations, the New South Wales Police Service. Our research question was, `How do forms of power shape organizational members' ethical practices?' We look at existing theories that propose the deployment of two interrelated arguments: that ethics are embedded in organizational practices and discourse at a micro-level of everyday organizational life, which is contrasted with a focus on the macro-organizational, institutional forces that are seen to have an impact on ethics. Resisting this distinction between the `micro' and the `macro', we build on these two bodies of knowledge to explain ethical change as deeply embedded in power relations that traverse the scale of social action.
I shall argue that the foundations of organization power were laid down in practice through theories of power - in the sense that they sought to explain power - but through quite pragmatic practices that were not necessarily regarded as embodying a theory of power, which I shall maintain they most assuredly did. Thus, in a second move, I shall argue that while these practices began with a focus on the body of the employee they moved on to consider their consciousness and soul. Third, I shall briefly consider the main themes in organization theories' treatment of power, organized around notions of system rationality and uncertainty. These have an implicit idealism attached to them, I shall suggest. Fourth, I shall switch focus to the broader canvass of social theory in the post-war era and suggest that this has also displayed a strongly idealist streak, focusing especially on the celebrated structuralist account of power as a matter of layered dimension that Steven Lukes (1974, 2005) produced. Fifth, I shall contrast the idealism of this approach with a more pragmatic conception of power, one that can be found in the perspectives with which I opened the paper, perspectives that derive from more Foucauldian-influenced currents of contemporary social theory. Drawing on these, I will suggest a different way of understanding Lukes' radical third dimension of power as a means of organizing and rationalizing innovations in power relations, drawing on the literature of the 'dominant ideology thesis' (Abercrombie et al. 1980) to do so. Finally, I shall suggest switching from the structuralist metaphors of dimensions to an imagery of flows as a more appropriate model for understanding power relations.
The generational properties of organization theory are an increasing topic for analysis, usually in terms of what is addressed and how it is addressed. Some writers have alerted us to the importance of those social issues that are not addressed. Combining the idea of generational scholarship with the idea of those non-issues that remain unaddressed, this paper highlights how some of the events of the Second World War, which authorities agree was a generational defining and demarcating experience, have been neglected in organization theory. Nowhere is this more clearly demonstrated than in the Holocaust. Strangely, this practical experiment in organizational design and practice seems to have elided almost all interest by organization theorists, whether functionalist or critical. The paper addresses this elision and draws on the work of Goffman, Foucault and Bauman to address the very material conditions of organizational power and raise some ethical issues about the commitments of organization scholars.
Peci, A, Vieira, M & Clegg, SR 2009, 'Power, Discursive Practices and the Construction of the 'real'', Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 377-386.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Starting with a critique of the epistemological and ontological bases of neo-institutionalism, in this article we defend the potential for the application of post-structuralist perspectives to the institutional approach. We contend that this theoretical approach, which incorporates an element, traditionally overlooked in institutional analyses, namely power, has the advantage of contributing to an enhanced comprehension of the dynamics of institutionalization. In conclusion, we believe that the area of organizational studies would benefit by a more all-encompassing vision of the processes of institutionalization, which would include power at its core, instead of considering institutions as non-changing variables. Undoubtedly, if we take empirical research into consideration, what we need is, from a historical perspective, understand the way by which the main discourses or narratives constitute, transform and are transformed by our objects of investigation, among which organizations certainly occupy a central place.
Clegg, SR 2009, 'Bureaucracy, the Holocaust and Techniques of Power at Work', Management Revue, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 326-347.
e Cunha, MP, Clegg, SR & Rego, A 2009, 'Archaic Modernity: The Case of Portugal', Management Research, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 191-201.
In an exercise in social theory, rather than an empirical investigation, we concentrate on the role of gossip - spreading 'news about the affairs of another' - in relation to the dynamics of power in organizations. Gossip has often been seen in functional terms, as both positive and negative for the organization. In this paper we challenge this functionalist approach. Gossip can be associated with what Freud called the narcissism of minor differences: the gossipers tend not to be too dissimilar from those gossiped about in terms of proximity. Propinquity may increase the animosity of gossip. We see formal organization as a self-regulating system that constantly refines its boundaries, and gossip is the dirt that trickles in and out of these boundaries, illegitimate, formally disdained and often destructive. The writer who has done most to encourage and clarify thinking about the nature of dirt is Mary Douglas, the anthropologist, especially her notion of expressive pollution. The paper concludes with some implications for ethics in practice viewed through power relations.
van Marrewijk, A, Clegg, SR, Pitsis, TS & Veenswijk, M 2008, 'Managing public-private megaprojects: paradoxes, complexity, and project design', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 591-600.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recent studies show that despite their growing popularity, megaprojects large-scale, complex projects delivered through various partnerships between public and private organisations often fail to meet costs estimations, time schedules and project outcomes and are motivated by vested interests which operate against the public interest. This paper presents a more benign and theoretically-grounded view on what goes wrong by comparing the project designs, daily practices, project cultures and management approaches of two recent megaprojects in The Netherlands and Australia, showing how these projects made sense of uncertainty, ambiguity and risk. We conclude that project design and project cultures play a role in determining how managers and partners cooperate to achieve project objectives to a greater or lesser extent.
Strategy is supposed to lead an organization through changes and shifts to secure its future growth and sustainable success, and it has become the master concept with which to address CEOs of contemporary organizations and their senior managers. Its talismanic importance can hardly be overstated. Thus, strategic management is increasingly understood as the task of the top management team. While seminal works on strategy bear the imprint of modernist rationality (Ansoff, 1965; Porter, 1980), there have been numerous contributions to the strategy literature that can be characterized as more reflexive and critical (e.g. Clegg et al., 2004). More expressly sociological in nature, they have placed emphasis on, inter alia, how power and politics shape the strategies that emerge (Mintzberg, 1987; Pettigrew, 1985); the strategic choices made (Child, 1972); the language games that constitute strategy (Barry and Elmes, 1997); as well as how strategy is best understood through interpretative approaches (Schwenk, 1989), structuration theory (Whittington, 1992) or epistemology (Knights and Morgan, 1991). Such works set out an alternative to the neat assumptions of ubiquitous rationality underpinning orthodox strategy.
Organizational gossip has largely been discussed in terms of effects at the individual level. In this article we turn our attention to the organization level. The article makes a research contribution that addresses gossip that spreads fact-based rumours about organizations in terms of their shifting role in circuits of power. The research question asks what happens when organizations officially formulate themselves as doing one thing while other organizational actors that are influential in significant organizational arenas (in which these formulations circulate) counter that these formulations are patently false. Theoretically, we draw on the literature on organizational gossip and rumour as well as on the politics of non-decision-making. Our argument is advanced by reference to a case study of the Australian Wheat Board and UN Resolution 661. Basically, organizational gossip plays a key role in the production of interorganizational power dynamics, an insight previously neglected.
e Cunha, MP, Cabral-Cardoso, C & Clegg, SR 2008, 'Manna from Heaven: The Exuberance of Food as a Topic for Research in Management and Organization', Human Relations, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 935-963.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Organizations have, in the past, often been discussed as if they were Cartesian mentalities, planning agendas, learning from doing, processing information, reducing equivocality, mimicking and copying, floating disembodiedly apart from the actors who work in these organizations. We are offered representations of organizations as organically grounded metaphors that minimize the biological facticity of employees: namely, their need for food. While the inputs to organizations conceived as if they were quasi-systems are well explored, and the emotional and `irrational' side of organizations is increasingly discussed, the necessity of inputs to the biological systems that staff them is not. Nonetheless, despite the lack of explicit scholarly attention to food at work, its importance guarantees its hidden presence in the organizational literature, often in the context of more `serious' themes. We identify four approaches to the relationship between food, work and organization. For dessert, we propose a research menu that aims to uncover several possibilities for making the role of food in organizational life more explicit.
This article deals with the phenomenon of criticism in organizations. Existing organizational literature, where it has addressed criticism, mostly tends to see it as an extraordinary phenomenon. By contrast, in this article, the authors argue that criticism may also originate from strongly embedded and more ordinary practices. Thus, there is a theoretical need for considering those critical practices that are structurally and/or formally institutionalized within the organization. They reflect the organizational status quo and promote a reproduction of existing structures of power/knowledge. Drawing on ideas from practice theory, institutional theory, and Foucault's analytics of power/knowledge regimes, the authors introduce a typology that distinguishes forms of criticism according to the degree to which they are coupled with particular organizational practices, their rationalities, and corresponding power relations. They then focus on those forms of criticism that are strongly linked to organizational practices and illustrate the ambiguous effects of such an 'organization of criticism'
Clegg, SR 2008, 'Relationships of ownership, they whisper in the wings....', From Higher Aims to Hired Hands: The Social Transformation of American Business Schools and the Unfulfilled Promise of Management Education, vol. 1.
In their rejoinder, Jarzabkowski and Whittington do not concede one point. They even defend the resource-based view of the firm, despite its well-known limitations (the fact that some of its major limitations have been staked by someone labelled a `sociologist does not, from our perspective, make it any more palatable). Their defensiveness is surprising, though perhaps in keeping with Whittingtons (2007) pithy description of S-A-P (strategy as practice) as being akin to `a pushy younger sibling, making a lot of noise.
Turcotte, M, Clegg, SR & Marin, J 2008, 'Enacting Ecological and Collaborative Rationality through Multi-Party Collaboration', International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, vol. 3, no. 3/4, pp. 234-261.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The article presents the case study of a partnership between a metallurgy company and an NGO concerned with environmental protection. The partnership constituted an attempt to reconcile the firm's economic objectives with those of the citizens who lived in the area on which it had an ecological impact. Driven by high ideals, the multistakeholder partnerships were an innovation inspired by the ideal speech situation theory and a focus on learning and innovation. The partnership seemingly created an arena defined by norms of 'disinterested rationality' with an objective of innovating and progressing toward sustainable development. The partnership had only a marginal influence on the firm's activities, which were mainly determined by market forces and economic logic. The article concludes with a rather critical perspective on the outcomes of the case in terms of learning, innovation and change, with a theoretical lens inspired by theories on learning, legitimacy and power. The article contributes to the understanding and definition of legitimacy in a polyphonic context, where different views coexist or confront. Legitimacy is neither an outside nor static institutional feature, but rather resembles a kaleidoscope of perceptions that are defined, temporarily granted and redefined through discursive interactions. In such a context, moral arguments are confronted with other moral arguments while actors redefine their knowledge and cognitive frameworks. Practical recommendations are formulated for the convenors of multistakeholders partnerships, activist groups and firms.
Turcotte, MFB, Clegg, SR & Marin, J 2008, 'Enacting ecological and collaborative rationality through multiparty collaboration - A case of innovation in governance', International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, vol. 3, no. 3-4, pp. 234-261.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The article presents the case study of a partnership between a metallurgy company and an NGO concerned with environmental protection. The partnership constituted an attempt to reconcile the firm's economic objectives with those of the citizens who lived in the area on which it had an ecological impact. Driven by high ideals, the multistakeholder partnerships were an innovation inspired by the ideal speech situation theory and a focus on learning and innovation. The partnership seemingly created an arena defined by norms of 'disinterested rationality' with an objective of innovating and progressing toward sustainable development. The partnership had only a marginal influence on the firm's activities, which were mainly determined by market forces and economic logic. The article concludes with a rather critical perspective on the outcomes of the case in terms of learning, innovation and change, with a theoretical lens inspired by theories on learning, legitimacy and power. The article contributes to the understanding and definition of legitimacy in a polyphonic context, where different views coexist or confront. Legitimacy is neither an outside nor static institutional feature, but rather resembles a kaleidoscope of perceptions that are defined, temporarily granted and redefined through discursive interactions. In such a context, moral arguments are confronted with other moral arguments while actors redefine their knowledge and cognitive frameworks. Practical recommendations are formulated for the convenors of multistakeholders partnerships, activist groups and firms. Copyright © 2008, Inderscience Publishers.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a critique of Bent Flyybjerg's work that has high relevance to the project management (PM) literature. Design/methodology/approach The paper takes the form of a narrative with argument and analysis. Findings The paper challenges readers, PM academics and practitioners to view PM with a political perspective. This paper was delivered at the ICAN 2007 Conference (which is the focus of this issue), which was entitled Mission Control: Power, Knowledge and Collaboration in Project Practice. Originality/value This paper triggers and sustains the debate about the influence of power and its unintended consequences that may affect projects. The review raises PM issues worthy of consideration that are often neglected.
Turcotte, M, Antonova, S & Clegg, SR 2008, 'Power and learning in managing a multi-stakeholder organization: an initiative to reduce air pollution in Ontario, Cananda, through trading carbon credits', The Journal of Power, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 317-337.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The paper explores a case study of a multi-party collaboration that used learning in an inter-organizational context to address an environmental problem by experimenting with emission reduction credits trading. Learning was associated with politics: individual learning with non-decision-making or two-dimensional power, while inter-organizational learning with three-dimensional power and the construction of hegemony, while strategic institutional learning occurred through the creation of obligatory passage points.
The history of the present is assessed in terms of forecasts that proved to be spectacularly incorrect. Debate about power in the past was largely state-centred but the realisation that the opposite of the state is not a free market but a political anarchy seems to have been forgotten. The society of the spectacle, to use Guy Debord's concept, reigns supreme today, but in ways unimagined by European situationists. The spectacle ignites a new politics of identity, constituted in terms that depart radically from the older terms of class analysis. While some analysts have spoken of the rise of the risk society it is necessary today to add the state of insecurity to contemporary characterisations, whether represented in reality or rhetoric. Global identities constituted by religiosity sit uneasily within nation states as containers of identity and the attempts of states to reaffirm national identity in the face of its rejection by significant subsections of the population is most likely to achieve a rhetorical racheting up of tensions. Consequently, the state of insecurity leads to increasing surveillance and control as a societal project for which every failure is the guarantee of further resources, tighter surveillance and an increasing simulacrum of control.
Cunha, JV, Clegg, SR & Cunha, MPE 2008, 'Structuring for Globalization: The Minimal Network', FEUNL Working Paper, no. 536.
Cunha, MPE, Clegg, SR & Rego, A 2008, 'The Institutions of Archaic Post-Modernity and Their Organizational and Managerial Consequences: The Case of Portugal', FEUNL Working Paper Series, no. 528.
Rhodes, CH, Clegg, SR & Anandakumar, A 2008, 'Ethical Vitality: Identity, Responsibility and Change in an Australian Hospital', International Journal of Public Administration, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1037-1057.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article reports and reflects on a narrative ethnographic account of organizational change in a large public hospital in Australia. We describe how the conduct and identity positions of people in the hospital were related to three prevalent discourses; one of authoritarian professionalism, one of collaboration and open disclosure, and one of inspection and retribution. We suggest that the presence of multiple and competing organizational discourses on which to base decisions, highlighted the need for managers to take a personal stake in deciding their own conduct. We propose the notion of ethical vitality as a means of registering the ways that ethical responsibility can only come alive in organizations when people take, and are in a position to take, a reflexive responsibility for their conduct. On this basis, we suggest that the presence of multiple ethical norms and rules in organizations, on a plural model, might actually make people in organizations more rather than less ethically responsible
Wang, KY & Clegg, SR 2007, 'Managing to lead in private enterprises in China: Work values, demography and the development of trust', Leadership, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 149-172.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Quist, J, Skalen, P & Clegg, SR 2007, 'The power of quality models: The example of the SIQ model for performance excellence', Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 445-462.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Most contemporary total quality management (TQM) practice is influenced, directly or indirectly, by structured, acontextual and standardized quality models. The present paper focuses on the strategic introduction of one such model, namely the Swedish Institute for Quality (SIQ) model for performance excellence, in a Swedish public-sector organization, which we refer to as 'the Authority.' We take our theoretical stance from Foucault's concept of 'power/knowledge.' In describing the case, we focus on the management team of one of the Authority's ten regions. Our analysis shows the members of the management team using the SIQ model to objectify both the organization and themselves as managers. However, contrary to many critical or managerial accounts, the SIQ model was not totalizing: management subjectivities changed but were not entirely reconstituted, and some resistance to them was generated by the members of the management team, in their role as professionals
Schwarz, G, Clegg, SR, Cummings, T, Donaldson, L & Miner, JB 2007, 'We see dead people?: The state of organization science', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 300-317.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This essay responds to John Miner's (1984) assessment of the state of organizational science. Slightly more than two decades ago, Miner found little evidence of a correlation between organizational scholars' ratings of the importance of a theory, its use, and its estimated validity. In response, he suggested the need for organizational science to readjust its goals, paradigms, and basic processes so that it develops as a discipline. Despite this challenge, the intervening years have seen the field become seemingly more paradigmatically fragmented, promoting discussion on its place in the social sciences. The essay presents four reviews in response to what has followed since Miner's original study. It offers a judgment on Miner's evaluation, a suggestion for the field's development, a position paper, and a response from Miner. Combined, the ensuing dialog offers practical suggestions to the problem of a seemingly perennially emerging organizational science
In this paper, we propose an understanding of what personnel professionals consume when they adopt black-box management initiatives (Scarbrough, 1995; Wilson, 1992). Second, we explore the way in which professional associations and, hence, institutional actors pursue their own professional projects (Abbott, 1988) within a context of political legitimacies and illegitimacies. Thus, in a double move, we seek to explore the linkages between managerial methods used by institutions to increase their jurisdiction or their authority to speak (Foucault, 1972) and the processes of isomorphism.
Lopes, FD, Clegg, SR, Vieira, M & Gudergan, S 2007, 'Institutional Environments in the Formation of International Joint Ventures: A Brazillian Case Study', Revista Eletrônica deGestão Organizacional, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 171-197.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR & Courpasson, D 2007, 'The end of history and the future of power, 21st Century Society.', Twenty-First Century Society, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 131-154.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ray, T & Clegg, SR 2007, 'Can we make sense of knowledge management's tangible rainbow? A radical constructivist alternative', Prometheus, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 161-185.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Some may recall, or have read about, those heady days when history allegedly ended, as the Berlin Wall collapsed(3). When the wall came down it seemed to may observers as if, with the end of communism at least in Europe the only threat to existing democratic political power was vanquished. Liberal, plural democracy, the open society and open organizations seemed to stretch as a vista into a future full of promise offering peace in our time, with all its assumed dividends, and the triumph neither of the will nor the state but of decent, ordinary democracy. Surely the chance to build a better world of organizations was imminent?
Cunha, MPE, Cardoso, CC, Rego, A & Clegg, SR 2007, 'From 'This Job is Killing Me' to 'I Live in the Life I Love and I Love the Life I Live', or from Stakhanov to Contemporary Workaholics', FEUNL Working Paper Series, no. 519.
In this article we develop a conceptualization of business ethics as practice. Starting from the view that the ethics that organizations display in practice will have been forged through an ongoing process of debate and contestation over moral choices, we examine ethics in relation to the ambiguous, unpredictable, and subjective contexts of managerial action. Furthermore, we examine how discursively constituted practice relates to managerial subjectivity and the possibilities of managers being moral agents. The article concludes by discussing how the 'ethics as practice' approach that we expound provides theoretical resources for studying the different ways that ethics manifest themselves in organizations as well as providing a practical application of ethics in organizations that goes beyond moralistic and legalistic approaches.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Rhodes, CH 2007, 'Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability', Sociological Review, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 393-409.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper we develop a conceptualisation of organizational decision-making as a practice that is, necessarily, ethical. The paper starts with a discussion of the notion of decision-making as it relates to organizational rationality and the relationsh
Clegg, SR, Rhodes, CH & Kornberger, MM 2007, 'Desperately Seeking Legitimacy: Organizational Identity and Emerging Industries', Organization Studies, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 495-513.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this article we examine the process of organizational identity formation in emerging industries. We argue that organizational identity is best understood in terms of the relationship between temporal difference (i.e. the performance of a stable identity over time) and spatial difference (i.e. by locating organizational identity in relation to other firms, both similar and different). It is the relationship between these two forms of difference that enables the construction of a legitimate sense of organizational identity. Our discussion is illustrated using empirical material from a study of the emerging industry of business coaching in Australia.
e Cunha, MP, Clegg, SR & Kamoche, K 2006, 'Surprises in management and organization: concept, sources and A typology', British Journal of Management: challenging management theory and practice, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 317-329.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
We discuss why surprises, defined as events that happen unexpectedly or expected events that take unexpected shapes, are important to organizations and should be considered in the organization and management literature as an umbrella concept, encompassing a variety of related phenomena. The concept of organizational surprises is unpacked and a typology is built around the (un)expectedness of the issue and the (un)expectedness of the process. This typology uncovers the several types of surprising events that organizations may face, and contributes to the literature by identifying how different types of surprises require distinct managerial approaches.
Hollows, J & Clegg, SR 2006, 'Brand development: institutional constraints on Chinese businesses', Management Research News, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 386-401.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Purpose This paper addresses the reasons why Chinese businesses have long been identified as subordinate to world-class brand owners; why global own brand developments are considered to be beyond their competence. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, we use an institutional perspective to examine the difficulties faced by Chinese firms in own brand development, using empirical data derived from a research project into the business strategies of Hong Kong firms, and contrasting these with the case of what is one of China's most successful foreign ventures, Haier. Findings The familial form appears to be transforming, due to the employment of a growing stratum of professional middle managers and Chinese family business firms appear to be developing into fully functionally integrated hierarchies capable of product and market development of own branded products. Three institutional supports make this possible. First, the development of parts of the People's Republic of China (PRC) into a quasi-market economy created a regionally close and large market. Second, technology transfers from leading overseas consumer product brand owners supported the development of more sophisticated products and firm capabilities. Third, a steady supply of skilled graduates from Hong Kong and the mainland enabled firms to move further up the value chain and exert more control over their manufacturing and related activities. To go truly global, however, more is required: social capital that connects the firm to the local and national party elites, something that mainland firms may find easier than those from Hong Kong.
Kornberger, MM, Clegg, SR & Carter, C 2006, 'Rethinking the polyphonic organization: Managing as discursive practice', Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 3-30.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Literary approaches problematize the practice of knowing in relation to managing. Drawing on Kafka, Lyotard, Rorty and others, our overarching objective here is to widen and deepen linguistic approaches to management and organization studies. We elaborate the concept of the polyphonic organization: starting from Kafka's reading of the story of the Tower of Babel, we reflect on polyphony and, using Lyotard's concept of the différend, we explore the linguistic gaps that constitute the polyphonic organization. Interpreting these different language games as a driving force behind organizational sensemaking, we theorize on the connection between change, power and language. Management as a discursive practice focuses linguistically on deconstructing and translating between language games divided by the differend.
Courpasson, D & Clegg, SR 2006, 'Dissolving the iron cages? Tocqueville, Michels, bureaucracy and the perpetuation of elite power', Organization, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 319-343.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Modern management theory often forgets more than it remembers. What's new? is the refrain. Yet, we suggest, there is much that we should already know from which we might appropriately learn, Lest we forget. The current paper takes its departure from two
Pitsis, TS & Clegg, SR 2006, 'The paradox of managerial wisdom', Leadership Excellence, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 19-20.
Peci, A, Vieira, M & Clegg, SR 2006, 'A construcao do "real" e praticas discursivas', Revista de Administracao Contemporanea, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 51-71.
Josserand, EL, Teo, ST & Clegg, SR 2006, 'From bureaucratic to post‐bureaucratic: the difficulties of transition', Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 54-64.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
– Modern bureaucracies are under reconstruction, bureaucracy being no longer 'modern'; they are becoming 'post' bureaucratic. Defining the post‐bureaucratic organization as a hybrid form provides insight into the intrinsic difficulties involved in the refurbishment of large complex organizations. The purpose of this paper is to examine these difficulties empirically.
– The paper describes the case of an Australian public sector agency, subject to 'corporatization' – a metamorphosis from a strictly public sector outlook to one that was imputedly more commercial. It focuses on the transition from personnel management to strategic HRM in the HR function.
– A series of difficulties affected these changes: difficulties in inventing a new identity; differences in perception of that identity; organizational philosophy towards strategic HRM; unsuitability of extent networks; and identity conflicts. Two factors emerge as the core explanation for the difficulties encountered: the 'stickiness of identity' and the difficulties associated with network development.
– The paper outlines the difficulties experienced in the putative 'refurbishment' of a large public sector agency as it made its way to 'corporatization'.
The paper takes the assumptions of bounded rationality as the premise for organization theorizing. It draws a distinction between a science of objects and a science of subjects, arguing the latter as the more appropriate frame for organization analysis. Organization studies, it suggests, are an example of the type of knowledge that Flyvbjerg, following Aristotle, terms phronesis. At the core of phronetic organization studies, the paper argues, there stands a concern with power, history and imagination. The core of the paper discusses power and the politics of organizing, to point up some central differences in approach to the key term in the trinity that the paper invokes. The paper concludes that organization theory and analysis is best cultivated not in an ideal world of paradigm consensus or domination but in a world of discursive plurality, where obstinate differences in domain assumptions are explicit and explicitly tolerated. A good conversation assumes engagement with alternate points of view, argued against vigorously, but ultimately, where these positions pass the criteria of reason rather than prejudice, tolerated as legitimate points of view. In so doing, it elaborates and defends criteria of reason.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Why is organization theory so ignorant? The neglect of total institutions', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 426-430.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Organization theory has, on the whole, failed to adequately address the role that organizations have played in some of the crimes of humanity. The tools to do so have long been available to the discipline, in work by scholars such as Goffman on total institutions, Foucault on disciplinary mechanisms, and Bauman on the Holocaust. The article retrieves the work of these scholars to raise some important questions left begging by much contemporary scholarship.
Over the past decades there have been persistent radical critiques of management. Previously the goal was to apply forms of Marxian analysis to the world of management and organizations, usually seeing it as a sphere of false consciousness distorted and
Ibarra-Colado, E, Clegg, SR, Rhodes, CH & Kornberger, MM 2006, 'The ethics of managerial subjectivity', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 45-55.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper examines ethics in organizations in relation to the subjectivity of managers. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault we seek to theorize ethics in terms of the meaning of being a manager who is an active ethical subject. Such a manager is so i
Tantoush, T, Clegg, S & Wilson, F 2005, 'CADCAM integration and the practical politics of technological change (vol 14, pg 9, 2001)', JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE MANAGEMENT, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 304-304.
According to a specialized research area within environmental sociology - ecological modernization theory - the shift towards seeking to protect the environment constitutes a broadly emergent sociological phenomenon: the radicalization of modernity. The
Gustavs, JL & Clegg, SR 2005, 'Working the knowledge game? Universities and corporate organizations in partnership', Management Learning, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 9-30.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
As a result of changing conditions of funding, emanating in a sense of crisis about viability and the need to find new sources of revenue, many universities in Australia and elsewhere are moving into new areas of application in novel partnerships with co
Clegg, SR 2005, 'A life in part', Organization Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 291-309.
Life, art and science are irremediably intertwined: how, where and with whom one shares the brief moments of existence necessarily affect what one thinks, how one writes, and what one will address. Being a scholar is a vocation, as Weber knew only too we
Steven Feldmans introduction is prefaced by a short remark from William James extolling the importance of prayer to the establishing of a self that is responsible to the `higher tribunals. From there on it becomes increasingly clear that Feldmans task is to direct us toward such higher tribunals. In the preface Feldman advises us that he establishes a theory of moral tradition, designed to investigate the historical and cultural context of moral commitment. It should be clear that this is theorizing with definite auspices: the religious beliefs that Feldman `professes (and Webers caustic remarks on the professing of religion in his essay `Science as a Vocation are, I think, worth recalling here) are as central to the enterprise as they are absent. They are central in the grounding of the book as a moral project while they are absent because they are never spelled out clearly as a set of specific commitments.
This article introduces the special issue on interorganizational relationships. It presents the articles composing this special issue
All readings take place in the here-and-now, even of texts written back there and then. Nowhere in management and organization theory has this been truer of anyone than Max Weber. Unread in English during his lifetime, it was nearly 30 years after his de
Little, S & Clegg, SR 2005, 'Recovering experience, confirming identity, voicing resistance: the Braceros, the Internet and counter-coordination', Critical Perspectives on International Business, vol. 1, no. 2/3, pp. 123-136.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Purpose - This paper investigates how the learning trajectory of corporations utilising information and communication technologies has been matched by the labour movement and social movements associated with it. Design/methodology/approach The paper investigates new communication dynamics of labour in the international setting. It then focuses on a broader and richer set of online practices by labour by drawing on material placed on the world wide web by members of and advocates for the Braceros (the strong arms) migrant Mexican workers. These practices follow on a history of effective use of the new information communication technologies by the Zapatista movement in Mexico. Findings The paper places these activities in the context of globalisation and the global movement of capital and labour. It argues that the practices of online communication associated with the Braceros can be harnessed to move beyond the reactive shadowing of capital by labour. Instead innovative and proactive forms of monitoring policies and critiquing outcomes become possible.
Clegg, SR, Burdon, S & Nikolova, N 2005, 'The Outsourcing Debate: Theories and Findings', Journal of Management & Organization, vol. 11, no. 02, pp. 37-52.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper we rethink and reframe organizational learning in terms of organizational becoming. We see these concepts as two mutually implicating ways of exploring and simultaneously constituting the phenomena of organization. Bearing in mind that the
Clegg, SR & Courpasson, D 2004, 'Political hybrids: Tocquevillean views on project organizations', Journal Of Management Studies, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 525-547.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Porras, ST, Clegg, SR & Crawford, JD 2004, 'Trust as networking knowledge: precedents from Australia', Asia Pacific Journal of Management, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 345-363.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clegg, SR, Carter, C & Kornberger, MM 2004, 'A 'maquina estrategica': fundamentos epistemologicos e desenvolvimentos em curso.', Revista de administracao de empresas, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 21-31.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Porras, ST & Clegg, SR 2004, 'La institucionalizacion de las redes de empresa como un instrumento de politicas publicas compartivas eficases', Administracion y Organizaciones, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 13-34.
Cunha, MPE, Kamoche, K & Clegg, SR 2004, 'Clues, Cues and Complexity: Unpackuing the Concept of Organizational Surprise', FEUNL Working Paper, no. 45.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Rhodes, CH 2004, 'Noise, parasites and translation - theory and practice in management consulting', Management Learning, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 31-44.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clegg, S 2003, 'Captive of the system: Why governments fail to deliver on their promises - and what to do about it', ORGANIZATION STUDIES, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1199-1201.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clegg, S, Hudson, A & Steel, J 2003, 'The emperor's new clothes: globalisation and le-learning in Higher Education', BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 39-53.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clegg, SR & Ray, T 2003, 'Power, rules of the game and the limits to knowledge management: lessons from Japan and Anglo-Saxon alarms', Prometheus, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 23-40.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Much of the Knowledge Management (KM) literature assumes that all relevant knowledge can be represented as information and 'managed'. But the meaning of information is always context-specific and open to subsequent reinterpretation. Moving over time or between contexts affords scope for new meanings to emerge. Making sense of information signals (speech, body language, tone-of-voice or whatever)--Aand the absence of such signals--Ainvolves dimensions of individual and collective tacit knowledge that are frequently misrepresented or ignored in mainstream KM. By relating power and knowledge to 'rules of the game', it is possible to consider how the contexts in which information is rendered meaningful are bounded, as well as crucially related in the stretch between macro-level processes and micro-level practices. In the knowledge debate, Japan stands as a counterfactual to Anglo-Saxon expectations about formal rules, liberal individualism and market-rational entrepreneurship. While seminal accounts of knowledge creation in Japanese companies impelled the West towards KM, there has been no corresponding KM-boom in Japan. Our interpretation of the processes by which Japanese and Anglo-Saxon practices are situated suggests that KM is limited by the separation of knowledge from power and information from meaning.
Clegg, SR & Ross-Smith, AE 2003, 'Revising the boundaries: management education and learning in a postpositivist world', Academy of Management: Learning and Education, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 85-98.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2003, 'Strange fruit hanging from the knowledge tree: or, carry on carping', Management Learning, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 375-378.
In this paper we reflect on organizational space and its implications for organization and management. In contrast to dominant discourse in management and organization theory we address the ways in which corporate buildings, as social objects, provide a materiality to organization. Developing the concept of the architecture of complexity, we focus on space as the precondition of processes of organizing. The productive power of space lies in its potential to create and trigger complexity, as it pre-structures movement and flows of communication. Reflecting on two concrete spatial organizations (the fold and heterotopia) we suggest that the interplay of order and disorder and inside/outside relation, which these spaces provide, are spatial preconditions of organizational change and creativity.
Carter, C, Clegg, SR, Hogan, J & Kornberger, MM 2003, 'The polyphonic spree: the case of the Liverpool Dockers', Industrial Relations Journal, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 290-304.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wang, KY & Clegg, SR 2003, 'The influence of the dichotomy of organizational values on decision-making', Zhongguo Renmin Daxue Xuebao - Journal of Renmin University of China, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 85-93.
Clegg, SR 2003, 'Guest editor's introduction to special forum: constituting management in china', Asia Pacific Journal of Management, vol. 20, pp. 299-306.
Since the time of the earliest civilisations trade across frontiers and regions has occurred but it was only at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century that significant transnational activity emerged. The primary casualties of globalization appear to be low skilled workers in traditional manufacturing countries who either see their jobs slip away overseas, or experience a painful slide in their wage rates as their employers strive to reduce costs. Secondly, whole countries and regions find they have been sidelined by the forces of international trade and investment and, instead of experiencing a growing involvement and benefit from the global economy, may encounter a greater sense of dependence and isolation. Particularly vulnerable are the relatively unskilled and under-educated, especially in labour market systems that do not develop very active and interventionist labour market policies.
Pitsis, TS, Clegg, SR, Marosszeky, M & Rura-Polley, T 2003, 'Constructing the Olympic dream: A future perfect strategy of project management', Organization Science, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 574-590.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Betts, J, Clarke, P & Clegg, S 2002, 'The discourse of success and failure in organisational learning', International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, vol. 2, no. 1-2, pp. 97-112.
In this paper we argue that there are two dominant paradigms or ideal types in organisational learning cultures, each constituted by different discourses. The first paradigm characterises a discourse of 'failure', exemplified by conformity and prescription. The second, competing paradigm is one that is characterised by the discourse of 'success'. This is a transformational paradigm. It is loosely organised around what can be done to grow, improve and change the situation. We use case study material created using a generative methodology to exemplify our arguments. The case study material is drawn specifically from the public sector in the UK and the changes we describe have features unique to the anglophone world. However, we would suggest that the broader ramifications of our model reflect real processes that have international significance. © 2002 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Wang, KY & Clegg, SR 2002, 'Trust and decision making: are managers different in the People's Republic of China and in Australia?', Cross Culture Management, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 30-45.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bunzel, D, Clegg, SR & Teal, G 2002, 'Disciplining customers at the grand seaside hotel', Journal of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management ANZAM, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1-13.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR, Pitsis, TS, Rura-Polley, T & Marosszeky, M 2002, 'Governmentality matters: designing an alliance culture of inter-organizational collaboration for managing projects', Organization Studies, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 317-337.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clegg, SR 2002, 'Lives in the balance: a comment on Hinings and Greenwoods disconnects and consequences in organization theory', Administrative Science Theory, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 428-441.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clegg, SR & Kono, T 2002, 'Trends in Japanese management: an overview of embedded continuities and disembedded discontinuities', Asia Pacific Journal of Management, vol. 19, pp. 269-285.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clegg, S & Tantoush, T 2001, 'Introduction - The political technologies and technological politics of organisational change', JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE MANAGEMENT, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 7-8.
Garrick, J & Clegg, SR 2001, 'Stressed-out Knowledge Workers in Performative Times: A Postmodern Take on Project-based Learning', Management Learning, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 119-134.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Tantoush, T & Clegg, SR 2001, 'CADCAM Integration and the Practical Politics of Technological Change', Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 9-27.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Leung, AS & Clegg, SR 2001, 'The Career Motivation of Female Executives in the Hong Kong Public Sector', Women in Management Review, vol. 16, no. 1-2, pp. 12-20.
Reports a study of female executives (n = 30) working in the public sector in Hong Kong. The research captures a set of organisational practices in transition: from a colonial to a post-colonial setting, and from a bureaucracy that offered jobs for life to one that offers them on contract terms. The concept of career motivation is explored in the study through three dimensions of career resilience, career insight, and career identity. Overall, younger executives (n = 19) had higher levels of career motivation and were striving to attain additional responsibility and authority in work assignments, while senior executives (n = 11) were concerned with holding on to their previous accomplishments and competence in their occupational role. Moreover, the more ambiguity and uncertainty existing in the government office, the lesser the levels of career motivation. The results and their implications for future studies of career motivation are discussed.
Clegg, SR, Ibarra-Colado, E & Clarke, T 2001, 'Organization Studies Today: A Challenge for Management and Organization Studies in the Coming Century', Nankai Business Review, vol. 1, pp. 51-58.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR, Clarke, T & Ibarra, E 2001, 'Millennium management, changing paradigms and organization studies', Human Relations, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 31-36.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Many forms of knowledge may in practice enter management calculations. Many sites exist where they may be encountered: not only university courses but also popular books, training sessions, magazines, web-sites, the popular press, as well as the usual networks of sociability. There are many sites from which practical orientations might develop. The important point is that, in practical terms, university academics enjoy neither an exclusive nor a privileged role: they are not legislators of what is management knowledge but simply among its many interpreters (Bauman, 1987). For all intents and purposes, however, given the institutionalized norms of journal publication, many university academics continue to practise their craft as if they were legislators rather than particular interpreters. For others, the audiences in the lecture theatres and of the more popular journals and books, the craft of organization studies provides a set of popular recipes and tools that can serve as solutions to the problems of managing modern organizations, promoting a series of rules, representations, procedures and technologies of, and for, management thinking, rather than contingent scientific `proofs.
Hardy, C, Phillips, N & Clegg, SR 2001, 'Reflexivity in Organization and Management theory: A study of the Production of the Research 'Subject'', Human Relations, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 531-560.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this article, we draw on actor-network theory (ANT) to re?exively investigate the role of the researcher and the research community in the production of a research subject. We review our earlier work, which explores how the dynamics of refugee systems help to produce the research subject in this case, the refugee. We then use ideas from ANT to move beyond the more conventional institutional and discursive analyses that are used in these articles. We include not just the activities of actors in the refugee system in our analysis, but also our own activities as researchers, as well as those of the broader research community. We use the concept of translation to explore the role of these actors in the processes of social construction that produce refugees as a subject of academic study, which is related to, but distinct from, the `social subject produced in the social setting under study. Generalizing from our own research experience, we argue for a reconceptualization of re?exivity in organization and management theory, which moves beyond the common view of heroic individuals struggling to understand and manage their role in their research towards an understanding of reflexivity as involving the research community as a whole
Soliman, F, Clegg, SR & Tantoush, T 2001, 'Critical Success Factors for Integration of CAD/CAM Systems with ERP Systems', International Journal of Operations and Production Management, vol. 21, no. 5/6, pp. 609-629.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Current advances in information technology and, in particular, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems, have led organisations to undertake significant investments in these systems. Next generation manufacturers require both systems to maintain or gain a competitive advantage, reduce risks and improve productivity and viability. In addition, recent attention to the implementation of CAD/CAM systems highlights their important role in automating complex design and next generation manufacturing processes. In the next millennium more manufacturers are likely to implement CAD/CAM and ERP systems and hence issues in the integration of CAD/CAM with ERP systems must become a major concern. Accordingly, this paper will: explore the problems of integration of CAD/CAM systems with ERP systems; study how the severity of these problems relates to CAD/CAM integration success; propose a set of critical success factors (CSF) for the integration of CAD/CAM with ERP systems; suggest hypotheses to study the relevance of these CSF for successful integration of CAD/CAM with ERP systems. In addition, the paper also demonstrates the importance of successful integration of CAD/CAM systems with other applications for next generation manufacturers. These findings suggest that integration of CAD/CAM systems with ERP systems is complex, involving many factors.
Soliman, F, Clegg, S & Tantoush, T 2001, 'Critical success factors for integration of CAD/CAM systems with ERP systems', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OPERATIONS & PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT, vol. 21, no. 5-6, pp. 609-629.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clegg, SR, Clegg, SR & Sewell, G 2001, 'Conflict: Organizational from Frameworks of Power', Conflict: Organizational. International Encylopaedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp. 2550-2554.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The idea of knowledge work has been around for some time. Mintzberg spoke about 'knowledge intensive firms' outlining differences between knowledge intensive organizations and professional bureaucracies. A professional bureaucracy, for instance, typically relies on standardized knowledge, skills and routines, relying on typical professional features: codification, strong and clearly defined professional associations and codes of ethics. In the past professional identities have been shaped by (at least) symbolic association with such features. With sweeping changes to professional life and organization, many 'knowledge workers' no longer belong to any of the traditional disciplinary professions. Cross-disciplinary approaches are often now in favour and the symbolism that might have once reinforced professional identity has all-but been replaced by the new competencies required in the high-tech era: extensive communication, problem-solving and coordination skills. The labour market is not stable and, as Mintzberg aptly put it, 'knowledge intensity' has become a premium product. © 2000, MCB UP Limited
Clarke, T, Clegg, S & Ibarra, E 2000, 'Estudios Organizacionales Y Paradigmas Gerenciales: Elementos Esenciales De Una Nueva Retorica,', Denarius: Revista De Economia Y Administracion,, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 121-158.
A Spanish critique of contemporary paradigms in management
Clegg, SR, Linstead, S & Sewell, G 2000, 'Only penguins: a polemic on organization theory from the edge of the world', Organization Studies, vol. 21, no. 0, pp. 103-117.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A proliferation of paradigms is occurring in management thought and practice, defining paradigms as means of understanding the world and a basis for informing action. Frequent paradigm shifts are essential for survival in a business context of constant innovation. While the idea of paradigms has been widely received in management, it has been so more as a contested than a settled domain. Management paradigms are far more numerous than those of the natural sciences that Kuhn studied. Kuhn expected the long periods of normality to be marked by an absence of paradigmatic questioning and strife. In management, at any time, there are a number of competing paradigms available. Kuhn was concerned to chart how changing realities of investigation were tied up with changing perceptions. In business the focus has been much more on the changing realities rather than changing perspectives. In any system that is ecologically interdependent, if you change any paradigmatic part then you change the whole. When there is sufficient change and fluidity in a system then we can speak of a 'paradigm shift' : that period when a shift occurs from one paradigm set to another, the transition from one wave to the next. In these conditions uncertainty and ambiguity will apply. Discontinuous change is a step shift in the rate of change that invalidates existing assumptions and begins to transform the rules of competition.
Cunha, MPE, Vieira da Cunha, J & Clegg, SR 2000, 'Management: Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis', FEUNL Working Paper, no. 395.
Clegg, SR, Linstead, S & Sewell, G 1999, 'Only Penguins: A Polemic on Organization Theory from the Edge of the World', Organization Studies, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 103-117.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The paper is a reflection on some of the conditions associated with being an Australian Management scholar in the Organization Studies field. © 1999, Walter de Gruyter. All rights reserved.
Clegg, S 1999, 'Informal learning in the workplace: Unmasking human resource development', JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE MANAGEMENT, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 255-258.
Clegg, S 1999, 'Max Weber and Michel Foucault: Parallel life works', SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 175-180.
A critique of the globalization thesis which suggests convergence towards uniformity in institutions and values. On the contrary the world is composed of a rich diversity of cultures, values and beliefs which are enduring, and make a significant contribution to the social and cultural richness of the world at a time of enforced homogenisation.
This paper investigates the theoretical challenges involved in developing an administrative innovation: managing collaborative quality. The emergence of new collaborative organizational forms has left managers in a quandary: how can they manage quality where several organizations come together to produce a product or deliver a service? In the past most quality definitions and techniques focused exclusively on intra-organizational quality. In strategic alliances, networks, project organizations and other collaborative arrangements, such an intra-organizational focus leads to severe limitations. This paper shows how the current status of collaboration and quality research poses serious challenges for companies that want to develop innovative approaches to managing collaborative quality. © Blackwell Publishers Ltd 1999.
Clegg, S 1999, 'Globalizing the intelligent organization - Learning organizations, smart workers, (not so) clever countries and the sociological imagination', MANAGEMENT LEARNING, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 259-280.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Orssatto, RJ & Clegg, SR 1999, 'The political ecology of organizations: Toward a framework for analyzing business-environment relationships', Organization and Environment, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 263-279.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The authors propose a framework to analyze the terrain of political relationships and actions in which environmental strategies and practices are embedded. The framework constitutes the political ecology of organizations. The concept of an organizational field is proposed as the optimal level for the analysis of business-environment relationships. Central to the framework is an anatomy of power (a mapping of the structuring of power relations). The framework is applied to the automobile industry. Initially, the influential approach of double dividends is analyzed from the perspective of political ecology. The main theoretical elements of the framework are subsequently introduced by using empirical examples of experiments with alternative cars (lightweight electric vehicles) and modes of transportation (car sharing) drawn from the Western European context. Through the use of the framework, one can identify the pressure points that are capable of fundamentally transforming the automobile system and, more generally, other macro systems of production and consumption.
Clegg, S 1998, 'Do organizations have feelings?', WORK EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIETY, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 789-790.
Clegg, S 1997, 'Masculinities in organizations - Cheng,C', JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE MANAGEMENT, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 383-385.
Clegg, S 1997, 'The workers of nations: Industrial relations in a global economy - Jacoby,SM', CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 188-192.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clegg, SR 1997, 'Management and organization: Relational alternatives to individualism - Hosking,DM, Dachler,HP, Gergen,KJ', ORGANIZATION STUDIES, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 339-340.View/Download from: Publisher's site
George, R & Clegg, SR 1997, 'An inside story: Tales from the field - Doing organizational research in a state of insecurity', Organization Studies, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1015-1023.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Doing successful organizational research is difficult. Doing the same in difficult circumstances proves worthy of discussion. This short paper illustrates the realities experienced by a management researcher while doing doctoral field work in Sri Lanka.
Hardy, C & Clegg, S 1997, 'Relativity Without Relativism: Reflexivity in Post-Paradigm Organization Studies', British Journal of Management, vol. 8, no. 2 SPEC. ISS..
This paper shows how organization studies controls the subject through its use of representational devices. Different theoretical and methodological approaches may appear to offer epistemological guarantees concerning the validity of data about the research subject but they remain representations, beyond which we can know nothing except through representation. Research is not about wrenching truth from a recalcitrant 'reality': the devices it uses to represent its research subject create and control in the way they silence to give voice to aspects of that subject. All data are 'collaborative products' created in accordance with the practical procedures and background assumptions of the participating actors' (Knorr-Cetina, 1981). Thus the relations between research subject, researcher and the protocols that comprise the research process both embody and obscure power. For this reason, it is important that theory strives for a high degree of reflexivity (Marcus, 1994) in accounting for its own theorizing, as well as whatever it is that it theorizes about. In this paper, we critically examine different research approaches, including those of Aston, to show the dangers that can arise when research is carried out without regard to reflexivity. We offer some criteria for carrying out reflexive research which, we believe, is one of the major challenges facing post-paradigm organization studies. As we shall see, reflexivity shows us how far we have come in the thirty years since Aston.
Clegg, S 1996, 'American anti-management theories of organization: A critique of paradigm proliferation', Australian Journal of Management, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 195-205.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Thomas Clarke and Elaine Monkhouse (eds), 1994 hardback, Rethinking the Company, London: Finance Times/Pitman Publishing. Copyright © 1995, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
CLEGG, S 1995, 'UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL-THEORY - LAYDER,D', SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 188-190.
Clegg, SR 1995, 'Commentaries: Parkers Mood', Organization Studies, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 565-571.
Jermier, JM & Clegg, SR 1994, 'Crossroads—Critical Issues in Organization Science: A Dialogue', vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-13.
Weber, credited with having founded organization theory, did so inadvertently, as the study of the ideal type of bureaucracy. A contrary interpretation suggests organization analysis would be a branch of cultural studies with the analysis of values at its core. The contemporary theorist who has come nearest to carrying out a Weberian project with respect to the analysis of organizations, without acknowledging that this was so, was Foucault. Foucault's imputed foundations for the analysis of organizations bring into effect two liberations from the Weberian legacy. The first liberation is from analysis of organizations principally as structure, the predominant interpretation of Weber in the literature. The second liberation is not to lapse into the obverse of the structuralist view, a perspective that seeks to interpret individuals through the practice of verstehende. Structural analysis has no truck with individuals and their subjectivity, unless these become privileged by being embedded in strategically powerful representations in the organization. By contrast, analyses that function principally at the level of interpreting the putative motives, intentions and other attributes of subjectivity that, supposedly, are recoverable from an interpretative understanding of the individuals that compose organizations, rarely grasps the means and forms whereby some subjective representations become strategically sovereign. While the former offers an overstructuralized account of organizations, the latter offers-one that is understructuralized. In the former, individuals are regarded as bearers of a structural rationality worked out by impersonal forces of size or efficiency, while in the latter individuals are conceived of as subjectivities abstracted from structure. More appropriately, analysis should focus on how it is possible that certain structures of subjectivity and modes of what passes for rationality get constituted. At the core of this analysis are a post-Foucauld...
CLEGG, S 1992, 'GIDDENS THEORY OF STRUCTURATION - A CRITICAL APPRECIATION - BRYANT,CGA, JARY,D', SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 576-598.
CLEGG, S 1992, 'GIDDENS,ANTHONY - CONSENSUS AND CONTROVERSY - CLARK,J, MODGIL,C, MODGIL,S', SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 576-598.
CLEGG, S 1992, 'SOCIAL-THEORY OF MODERN SOCIETIES - GIDDENS,ANTHONY AND HIS CRITICS - HELD,D, THOMPSON,JB', SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 576-598.
CLEGG, SR 1992, 'INDUSTRIAL-RELATIONS AT WORK - THE AUSTRALIAN WORKPLACE INDUSTRIAL-RELATIONS SURVEY - CALLUS,R, MOREHEAD,A, CULLY,M, BUCHANAN,J', WORK EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIETY, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 148-150.
CLEGG, S 1991, 'CORPORATE CULTURE - FROM VICIOUS TO VIRTUOUS CIRCLES - HAMPDENTURNER,C', BRITISH JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 628-629.
CLEGG, SR 1991, 'PLUS-CA CHANGE', ORGANIZATION STUDIES, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. U1-U1.
CHUA, WF & CLEGG, S 1989, 'CONTRADICTORY COUPLINGS - PROFESSIONAL IDEOLOGY IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL LOCALES OF NURSE TRAINING', JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 103-127.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Baxter, J, Boreham, P, Clegg, SR, Emmison, J, Gibson, DM, Marks, GM, Western, J & Western, M 1989, 'The Australian Class-structure - Some Preliminary-results From The Australian Class Project', Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Sociology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 100-120.
This paper describes the class structure of the Australian workforce in terms of the theoretical approaches developed by Erik Olin Wright. The two class profiles presented and discussed are Wright's contradictory class location schema and his second schema based on the exploitation of assets. The distributions of class according to occupational group, gender and age are also discussed
Boreham, P, Clegg, SR, Emmison, J, Marks, GM & Western, J 1989, 'Semi-peripheries Or Particular Pathways - The Case Of Australia, New-zealand And Canada As Class Formations', International Sociology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 67-90.View/Download from: Publisher's site
CLEGG, SR 1988, 'THE COOPERATIVE WORKPLACE - POTENTIALS AND DILEMMAS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY AND PARTICIPATION - ROTHSCHILD,J, WHITT,JA', ORGANIZATION STUDIES, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 115-117.View/Download from: Publisher's site
CLEGG, SR 1987, 'STRUGGLETOWN - PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LIFE IN RICHMOND 1900-1965 - MCCALMAN,J', CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 170-171.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mchoul, A & Clegg, SR 1987, 'Language And Institutional Reality - Reply And Response', Organization Studies, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 363-374.
CLEGG, SR 1986, 'IN DEFENSE OF ORGANIZATION THEORY - A REPLY TO THE CRITICS - DONALDSON,L', SOCIOLOGY-THE JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 294-295.View/Download from: Publisher's site
CLEGG, SR 1986, 'THE CONSTITUTION OF SOCIETY - OUTLINE OF THE THEORY OF STRUCTURATION - GIDDENS,A', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 167-170.
CLEGG, S 1985, 'MEMORIES OF CLASS - THE PRE-HISTORY AND AFTER-LIFE OF CLASS - BAUMAN,Z', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 275-276.
CLEGG, S 1981, 'POLITICAL MANIPULATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE POWER - ETZIONIHALEVY,E', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 92-93.
CLEGG, S 1980, 'POWER - ITS FORMS, BASES AND USES - WRONG,DH', SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 694-695.
CLEGG, S 1979, 'EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION IN AUSTRALIA - NEW LEGITIMACY', SOCIAL ALTERNATIVES, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 59-65.
This paper explores the trajectory of a novel evaluation device for customer satisfaction with service encounters and the performance of financial advisors. Drawing on literature on quantification and commensuration, boundary objects and bipartite collaboration, we explore the set-up and collaboration between employer and trade union in the design phase and the actual use and translation of the valuation system. The data stems from a multi-year, multi-site study of banking in two Nordic countries. The analysis illustrates how, when some operational managers started using the device to suit their own purposes, the process morphed from an initial agreement into a dispute. The paper shows how quantitative systems of evaluation easily diverge from their initially proposed purposes when in use, producing reactivity and resistance among organizational members. Some financial advisors were positive about the evaluation device and the opportunity it afforded to improve performance, whereas others regarded it as another surveillance attempt for enhancing management control. We also contribute to the literature by elaborating on the relationship between reactivity and resistance on individual and collective levels.
Clegg, SR & Cunha, MPE 2019, 'Post-Leadership Leadership: Mastering the New Liquidity' in Carroll, B, Firth, J & Wilson, S (eds), After Leadership, Routledge - Taylor and Francis, New York, pp. 175-194.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
© 2019 Taylor & Francis. This chapter discusses liquid selves, liquid organisations and liquid aesthetics as three facets of a post-canonical theory of leadership relations. Leadership changes in liquid spaces, becoming a form of post-leadership leadership. Bauman distinguishes between solid and liquid modernity. Solid modernity represents the world of conventional organisation and management theory. Liquid selves are valorised as free selves: free to choose, free to take responsible action for their self, free to construct their own biographies and projections of self. These are all self-centred, even as they project synoptically to others. More established liquid organisations will prefer a signature architect, preferably a starchitect. Hancock suggests that liquid organisations will seek to structure fun, novelty and excitement into the experience of being at work. The work itself becomes liquid-it spills over into downtime, occupies the wakeful creative moments of the organisational members and travels with them as they use their portable digital devices.
Clegg, S & Pina E Cunha, M 2019, 'Management, Organizations and Contemporary Social Theory' in Clegg, S & Pina e Cunha, M (eds), Management, Organizations and Contemporary Social Theory, Routledge, 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN, pp. 1-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Social theorists speculate about large-scale social questions, asking of any phenomenon, how is it possible? This book addresses how various social theories contribute key insights into the nature of organizations and management.
With theoretical chapters, methodological insights and qualitative case studies of contemporary practices, this book is essential reading for students and practitioners involved with media management globally.
Clegg, S & Palshaugen, O 2019, 'Context and continuities: A plea for media research in media res (pp.154-164)' in Clegg, S, Bygdas, A & Hagen, AL (eds), Media Management and Digital Transformation, Routledge, pp. 154-164.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Clegg, SR, van Rijmenam, MH & Schweitzer, J 2019, 'The Politics of Openness' in Seidl, D, Whittington, R & Von Krogh, G (eds), Cambridge Handbook of Open Strategy, Cambridge University Press, pp. 307-325.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recently, openness has become a new approach in strategizing as ownership and control of internal assets are no longer vital to achieving competitive advantage (Chesbrough & Appleyard, 2007). Nowadays, knowledge is widespread and open systems are generally regarded as beneficial in terms of organizational design and work culture. However, openness also comes with politics and it is not a practice that will necessarily be welcomed by all. Openness changes the power dynamics within an organization; there are critics as well as friends, as we shall explore. Openness is a process that can change over time, becoming more or less open as events occur and contingencies or actors change. We are interested in how dominant organizational actors can seemingly manipulate 'open systems' strategically.
Shearer, C, Clegg, SR & Johnston, J 2018, 'The Impact of Contemporary Management Ideas: their influence on the Constitution of Public Sector Management Work' in Mitev, N, Morgan-Thomas, A, Lorrino, P, Dde Vaujany, F & Nama, Y (eds), Materiality and Managerial Techniques: New Perspectives on Organizations, Artefacts and Practices, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 103-132.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Public sector reforms informed by contemporary management ideas that have taken place across Anglo-American polities since the 1980s were focused on economic rationalist concepts and managerialist approaches that prevailed in the private sector. Hence, concepts such as efficiency and effectiveness were advocated for the public sector, often on the assumption that they were relevant and could be applied easily. Private sector management concepts, principles, processes and practices were promoted under the mantra of 'let the managers manage' to be followed by 'make the managers manage'. Critics have deemed public sector reforms, inspired by contemporary management ideas, as unsuitable in application to the public sector, given the unique character of public management (Brunsson, 2006; Gregory, 2003; Moe, 1994; Savoie, 1994; Sundstrom, 2006; Talbot, 2001; Williams, 2000). Nonetheless, these ideas became very fashionable in the English-speaking world.
This chapter discusses the impact of contemporary management ideas couched as public sector reforms from the 1980s onward and specifically addresses the question of how contemporary management ideas have influenced Departmental Secretaries and their work. The role played by the Departmental Secretaries, central agencies and the government of the day, in the acceptance or rejection of contemporary management ideas, as well as the analysis of how such ideas travelled, were translated, trans-ferred and transformed, is also considered.
Clegg, SR & Pinha e Cunha, M 2018, 'Liquefying modernity: Zygmunt Bauman as organization theorist' in Clegg, SR & Pinha e Cunha, M (eds), Management, Organizations and Contemporary Social Theory, Routledge, London.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, S 2018, 'Globalizing the intelligent organization: Learning organizations, smart workers, (not so) clever countries and the sociological imagination' in Goverde, H (ed), Global and European Polity?: Organisations, Policies, Contexts, Routledge Revivals, London, pp. 41-64.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Henri Goverde 2000. Nowadays men and women often feel that their private lives are a series of traps. They sense that within their everyday worlds, they cannot overcome their troubles, and in this feeling, they are often quite correct: what ordinary men and women are directly aware of and what they try to do are bounded by the private orbits in which they live; their visions and their powers are limited to the close-up scenes of job, family, neigh-bourhood; in other milieux they move vicariously and remain spectators. And the more aware they become, however vaguely, of ambitions and of threats which transcend their immediate locales, the more trapped they seem to feel.
Pina e Cunha, M & Clegg, SR 2018, 'Persistence in paradox' in Farjoun, M, Smith, WK, Langley, A & Tsoukas, H (eds), Perspectives on Process Organization Studies: Dualities, Dialectics, and Paradoxes in Organizational Life, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 14-34.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clegg, SR 2018, 'Organizations, Sociology of' in Ryan, JM (ed), Core Concepts in Sociology, Wiley, USA.
Clegg, S & Turcotte, MF 2018, 'Le cas de Magnola: La gestion du risqué versus le principe de précaution' in Turcotte, MF (ed), La responsabilite societale de l'organisation, Presses de l'Universite du Quebec, Paris, France, pp. 105-118.
Rodrigues, FR, Cunha, MP, Rego, A & Clegg, SR 2017, 'The Seven Pillars of Paradoxical Organizational Wisdom: On the use Of Paradox as a Vehicle to Synthesize Knowledgeand Ignorance' in Wisdom learning: Perspectives on wising-up business and management education, Routledge, UK, pp. 98-116.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The classical conception of dialectics is introduced and its applicability and applications in management and organization studies considered. Given its provenance in Hegelian and Marxist thought one might not expect managerialist thinkers to have embraced the central notion of contradictions—one would be mistaken. After considering managerialist accounts of contradictions, which it argues are non-dialectical, this chapter considers how the classical trinity of never-ending unfolding thesis/anti-thesis/synthesis, the result of which forms a new thesis for the endless return of the dialectic and, animated by the central elements of contradiction to the dialectic, might be used in management and organization studies. Instances of positive and negative dialectics are considered before moving to a consideration of gaps and future research, concluding, as is customary, with conclusions.
© 2017 by Emerald Publishing Limited. The East India Company can lay claim to being the world's first company whose operations involved systematic organization of multiple countries. It was a pioneer and innovator: It was one of the first companies to offer limited liability to its shareholders; it laid the foundations of the British empire; it spawned Company Man; it developed its own 'university'. It was a trader, merchant, mercenary, military force and civil administrator; a pioneer bureaucracy as well as being a lean operation. Using an analytic lens drawn from contemporary discussion on MNCs the article reviews the role of the East India Company over its life and draws parallels with contemporary MNCs.
Rodrigues, FR, Pina e Cunha, M, Rego, A & Clegg, S 2017, 'The seven pillars of paradoxical organizational wisdom: On the use of paradox as a vehicle to synthesize knowledge and ignorance' in Wisdom Learning: Perspectives on Wising-Up Business and Management Education, Routledge, pp. 98-116.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clegg, SR 2017, 'People, Management, and the Corporation after the Global Financial Crisis' in Bhatt, P, Jaiswal, P, Majumdar, B & Verma, S (eds), Riding the New Tides: Navigating the Future through Effective People Management, Emerald, New Delhi.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Berti, M, Clegg, SR & Jarvis, W 2017, 'Future in the past: a philosophical reflection on the prospects of management' in Wilkinson, A, Armstrong, SJ & Lounsbury, M (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Management, Oxford University Press, England, pp. 145-185.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Management studies has 'lost its way' by advancing instrumental research too frequently foreclosing its larger ethical and practical implications. The authors argue for bracketing the excessively technical and scientistic orientation of much management research by requestioning the purposes, presuppositions and prejudices on which management and organization theories have been based. They explore philosophical approaches capable of grounding a restored public trust. These range from the use of phronesis (practical wisdom) in Business School curricula, rather than either pure techne or pure theoria, to recovering exemplars of codetermination in workplace practices and cultures that affirm in practice a deeper regard for human dignity than mere resource efficiency. These examples offer antidotes to entrenched managerialism in neoliberalism, embedding social and ecological concerns in organizational purposes. Management legitimacy is enhanced when viewed as a process accomplishing ends that support rather than alienate public confidence.
Clegg, SR, Sankaran, S, Biesenthal, C & Pollack, J 2017, 'Power and sensemaking in megaprojects' in Flyvbjerg, B (ed), The Oxford Handbook of Megaproject Management, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 238-258.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Becker-Ritterspach, FAA, Blazejewski, S, Dorrenbacher, C & Geppert, M 2016, 'Foreword: Micropolitics in the Multinational Corporation' in Micropolitics in the Multinational Corporation Foundations, Applications and New Directions, Cambridge University Press 2016, University Printing House.
An organizational politics perspective on intra-firm competition in multinational
corporations. Management International Review, 50(4): 533–559. Bélanger, J.
and Edwards, P. 2006. Towards a political economy framework: TNCs as
Clegg, SR 2016, 'Foreword: Micropolitics in the Multinational Corporation: Foundations, Applications and New Directions' in Foreword: Micropolitics in the Multinational Corporation: Foundations, Applications and New Directions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. xv-xvii.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Orsato, RJ, Clegg, SR & Falcao, H 2016, 'The Political Ecology of Palm Oil Production' in The political ecology of palm oil production featured in Sustainability and Organizational Change Management, Routledge, Routledge, London, pp. 63-78.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Cunha, MPE, Clegg, SR, Rego, A & Story, J 2016, 'From the Physics of Change to Realpolitik: Improvisational Relations of Power and Resistance' in Clegg, S & Matos, JAD (eds), Sustainability and Organizational Change Management, Routledge, London, pp. 79-95.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Change and resistance to change constitute a long-lasting couple in the organizational literature. We problematize the mechanistic action-reaction types of analyses, uncover some fragilities in the current debates, and offer minimal structures and the improvisations they favour as possibilities for reconsidering the roles attached to the participants in change processes beyond the established separation between agents and recipients. Improvisation is a space where the established orders of organizing are challenged and alternative orders are allowed to flourish. We suggest that structural interventions, such as minimizing structure, shifting roles and combining paradoxical requirements, help to diffuse resistance to change and to recreate the nature of change in organizations.
Mukherjee, A & Clegg, SR 2016, 'Théorie des organisations: l'espace perdu? (Organisational Theory: Wasted Space?)' in de Vaujany, FX, Hussenot, A & Chanlat, JF (eds), La théorie des organisations: Nouveaux tournants (Organisational Theory: New Twists), Economica, 49, rue Hericart, 75015 Paris, pp. 199-226.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2016, 'Power and Organizations: A Brief but Critical Genealogy' in Mir, R, Willmott, H & Greenwood, M (eds), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy in Organization Studies, Routledge, London, pp. 517-524.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In this paper we analyse the significance of compassion as an emotion in its relationship to various manifestations of power within the organizational context. We critique those theories of compassion that assume that compassion in organizational contexts is motivated only by a noble intent. The paper draws on a study of organizational responses to the flood that devastated the City of Brisbane Australia on the morning of January 11, 2011. We use Clegg's (1989) research framework of 'circuits of power' to provide a triple focus on interpersonal, organizational and societal uses of power together with Etzioni's (1961) model of coercive, instrumental and normative organizational power. We present our findings in a framework constructed by overlapping Clegg (1989) and Etzioni's (1961) frameworks. The unique contribution of this paper is to provide a conceptualization of organizational compassion enmeshed with various modes of power exercised in and by organizations.
Clegg, SR 2015, 'Endnote: Essaying History and Management' in McLaren, PG, Mills, AJ & Weatherbee, TG (eds), in Routledge Companion to Management and organizational History, Routledge, London, pp. 387-401.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wang, K, Clegg, SR, Tang, C & Fang, Y 2015, 'Chapter eleven incremental innovation and knowledge exploitation in SMES: Learning and social facilitation' in Soliman, F (ed), From Knowledge Management to Learning Organisation to Innovation: The Way Ahead!, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR, Mikkelsen, EN & Sewell, G 2015, 'Conflict: Organizational' in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 639-643.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Power has been seen as an 'essentially contested'
concept (Lukes 1974). Some of the major recent
contours of this contestation will be addressed in this
Clegg, SR & Baunsgaard, VV 2015, 'Innovation: A Critical Assessment of the Concept and Scope of Literature' in Agarwal, R, Selen, W, Roos, G & Green, R (eds), The Handbook of Service Innovation, Springer, Germany, pp. 5-25.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
We begin by asking: what is innovation, and note the problems of defining both context and novelty in the usual essentialist answers. Within the literature, nonetheless, a range of types of innovation is identified, which we delineate. One way of trying to address the critique of innovation as essentialist is to try and demarcate degrees and dimensions of innovativeness. Given the specificity of this Handbook with service innovation, we next consider this particular type of innovation, looking especially at the literature associated with the view that profit is increasingly to be found in what is termed Service-Dominant (S-D) logic. We conclude the chapter by reiterating some problems in innovation research that any further extension of the term to 'service innovation' will have to contend with.
Naar, LV & Stang Våland, M 2015, 'Tales from the Field. If buildings could talk' in Naar, L & Clegg, SR (eds), Gehry in Sydney. The Dr Chau Chak Wing Building, UTS, Images Publishing, Mulgrave, Victoria, pp. 253-271.
The book provides a fresh analysis of Gehry's working process and offers insightful perspectives on the context, negotiation, commission, design and construction of the Dr Chau Chak Wing building for the University of Technology Business School.
Naar, LV & Clegg, S 2015, 'Concept. Seeing the building through models' in Naar, L & Clegg, SR (eds), Gehry in Sydney The Dr Chau Chak Wing Building, UTS, Images Publishing, Mulgrave, Victoria, pp. 89-105.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The book provides a fresh analysis of Gehry's working process and offers insightful perspectives on the context, negotiation, commission, design and construction of the building.
Clegg, S & Kornberger, M 2015, 'Analytical frames for studying power in strategy as practice and beyond' in Golsorkhi, D, Rouleau, L, Seidl, D & Vaara, E (eds), Cambridge Handbook of Strategy as Practice, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, UK, pp. 389-404.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This chapter provides a systematic reflection on how power can be used as an analytical framework to study strategy. Such an endeavour faces the difficulty of having to deal with two rather large bookshelves: one collects those authors who share a concern with power, albeit that they might not use the term 'strategy'; on the other shelves, the writers on strategy often tend to have a more implicit than explicit interest in theories of power. To make things even more difficult, the two bookshelves are usually placed in different parts of libraries. Philosophers, sociologists, political scientists, organization theorists and others may well be interested in power but business school professors study strategy in overwhelmingly economic terms with competition conceived as warfare by other means. It is ironical that, for all the forceful imagery of strategy writing, often drawing on military metaphors, there is a dearth of explicit accounts of power relations and strategy. The irony attaches to the fact that strategy is so consciously aimed at changing power relations – in the market, in the organization, or vis-à-vis government regulators; it speaks of 'forces' and (value) 'chains', of competition and advantages, but, strangely, it neglects issues of power. We find Lawrence Freedman's introductory quote one of the most apt definitions of strategy, as it alludes to the important fact that power is dynamically created in specific contexts, and that it is power that makes it possible to accomplish an objective. For Freedman (2013), strategy is the 'central political art', as it is concerned with getting more out of a situation than the balance of power would initially suggest. It is in this sense that strategy is concerned with the creation of power. Perhaps it is telling that Freedman is a professor of war studies (and thus his books are located on yet another shelf in the libraries).
Soliman, F 2015, 'From Knowledge Management to Learning Organisation to Innovation: The Way Ahead!' in From Knowledge Management to Learning Organisation to Innovation The Way Ahead!, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 1-7.
This book propagates the argument that innovation is heavily influenced by learning, which in turn is driven by knowledge.
Clegg, SR 2014, 'A Rough Guide for Post-Doctoral Researchers' in Reflections on a Scientific Career: Behind the professor's CV, Copenhagen Business School Press, Denmark, pp. 17-32.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
e Cunha, MP, Rego, A, Clegg, SR, Neves, P & Oliveira, P 2014, 'Unpacking the Concept of Organizational Ingenuity: Learning from Scarcity' in Honig, B, Lampel, J & Drori, I (eds), Handbook Of Organizational and Entrepreneurial Ingenuity, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, pp. 34-56.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2014, 'Organiisationsteori – et historisk overblik [Organisation Theory - A historical Overview]' in Vikkelsø, S & Kjær, P (eds), Klassik ofg Moderne Organisations Teori [Classics of Modern Organisation Theory], Hans Reitzels Forlag, Copenhagen, pp. 11-19.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR & Baumeler, C 2014, 'Liquid Modernity, the owl of Minerva and technologies of the emotional self' in Kociatkiewicz, J & Kostera, M (eds), Liquid Organization, Routledge, Oxon, pp. 35-57.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2013, 'Foreword' in Jeff Manza (ed), Oxford Bibliographies in Sociology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 17-18.
Clegg, SR & Kreiner, K 2013, 'Power and Politics in Construction Projects' in Drouin, N, Muller, R & Sankaran, S (eds), Novel Approaches to Organizational Project Management Research: Translational and Transformational, Copenhagen Business School Press, Copenhagen, pp. 268-293.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR & Kreiner, K 2013, 'Foreword' in Drouin, N, Müller, R & Sankaran, S (eds), Novel Approaches to Organizational Project Management Research: Translational and Transformational, Copenhagen Business School Press, Copenhagen, pp. 17-18.
Clegg, SR 2013, 'Management' in Jeff Manza (ed), Oxford Bibliographies in Sociology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 1-1.
Clegg, SR & Turcotte, M 2013, 'Le cas de Magnola: la gestion du risqué versus le principe de précaution' in Marie-France Turcotte (ed), Responsabilité Sociétale de lOrganisation, Presses De I Universite Du Quebec, Montreal, pp. 109-122.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR, Pina e Cunha, M & Rego, A 2013, 'To the Victor go the Spoils! Distributed Agencies, Inhumanities and the Case of Comrade Duch of the Khmer Rouge' in Vaujany, FD & Mitev, N (eds), Materiality and Space: Organizations, Artefacts and Practices, Palgrave Macmillan, United Kingdom, pp. 216-239.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2013, 'Power' in Jeff Manza (ed), Oxford Bibliographies in Sociology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 1-1.
Rego, A, Clegg, SR & Pina e Cunha, M 2012, 'The Positive Power of Character Strengths and Virtues for Global Leaders' in Cameron, KS & Spreitzer, GM (eds), The Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 366-384.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In a globalized world, transnational companies are implicated in power relations with many other organizations, including states, and are responsible for millions of people's lives and livelihoods. Building positive organizational performance and contributing to the creation of a better planet requires having global leaders with positive qualities in senior positions in these organizations. In this chapter, using Peterson and Seligman's (2004) framework, we explore how the character strengths and virtues of global leaders can make them more effective and better able to develop flourishing organizations and people within and around them in the contexts in which they operate. We also explore how global leaders with such positive qualities are more motivated to accept and/or look for global leadership development opportunities, and better able to learn from such opportunities. Some research directions are also considered.
Clegg, SR 2012, 'The Language of Power and the Power of Language' in Grant, D, Hardy, C & Putnam, L (eds), Organizational Discourse Studies, SAGE Publications Ltd, London, pp. 29-38.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In this paper earlier research by the author (Clegg 1975) is used as an occasion for reflecting more generally on the adequacy of approaches to the study of language and power in organization analysis. Three approaches, the ethnographic, conversation analysis and a materialist approach, are discussed. The limitations, both in practical and analytic terms, of a language approach to power are drawn from a discussion of the inclemency rule and other data.
Clegg, SR & Pitsis, TS 2012, 'Phronesis, Projects and Power Research' in Flyvbjerg, B, Landman, T & Schram, S (eds), Real Social Science, Cambridge University Press, UK, pp. 66-91.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Adelstein, J & Clegg, SR 2012, 'Negotiating a knowledge economy: Juggling knowledge, truth and power' in Rooney, D, Hearn, G & Kastelle, T (eds), Handbook on the Knowledge Economy, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 38-53.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
3 Negotiating a knowledge economy: juggling knowledge, truth and power Jennifer Adelstein and Stewart Clegg INTRODUCTION When Peter Drucker (1969, p. 349) identified knowledge as the central component of an innovative economy and society, in many ways he was echoing his fellow Austrian Joseph Schumpeter (1942) in recognizing the power of innovation. It took another 30 years or so for knowledge to be catapulted into a titular role in management. In large part, it was the failure of another project that prepared the path for Knowledge Management (KM). The failed path was Business Process Re-engineering (BPR), and its rethinking of old Tayloristic models unwittingly drove out much tacit knowledge that organizations did not know they had until they lost it. It was in the wake of the widespread failure of BPR projects that concerns with Knowledge with a capital K emerged as mainstream management fare. Knowledge became influential in discourses concerned with first-world social and economic development, such as the `knowledge economy (Adler, 2001; Machlup, 1962 ; Mokyr, 2002), `knowledge society (Drucker, 1993; Hargreaves, 2003), `information economy (Boisot, 1998; Brown and Duguid, 1998; Wolff, 2005) and other similar terms. The rhetoric attached to the concepts of a knowledge economy and knowledge society situated the signifier as the basis of global world order. Knowledge began to influence economics discourses and become a constitutive part of the discourses of globalization (Jessop, 2004; Robertson, 2008). In all dominant discourses, particular truths attain a level of authority and legitimacy that transcends the specificity of...
Clegg, SR 2012, 'Transforming Organizations' in Arnaud Sales (ed), Sociology Today: Social transformations in a Globalizing World, SAGE Publications Ltd, London, pp. 197-212.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In thi chapter I wilJ fust outline what was for much of the post-war era the dominant conventional approach to thinking about organizations, known as contingency theory. When contingen y theory was first developed in the 1960s, looser organic organizations were a novelty and the donlinant form was that of large mechanistic bUJ'eaucracie . How times change. Today, in U1e We t, bureaucra ies are giving way to new organizational fonns that are much closer to organic organizations. Many organizations today are increasing ly adopting a network form, with many of their inputs and ac tivi tie. hived off to other organizations with which they network. The most radical form of network is a rhizome, a freeflowing system of organic rools preading and colonizing available environments. As older form manufacturing is increasingly shifted to organizations in Asia, the best hope for organ izations and jobs in the West may weU be a network of rhizomalic organizations, focused on design, urrounding the global retailers and brand that disseminate the outsourced cheaply provided goods from Asia.
Gordon, RD, Clegg, SR & Kornberger, MM 2012, 'Embedded Ethics: Discourse and Power in the New South Wales Police Service' in Clegg, SR & Haugaard, M (eds), Power and Organizations, Sage Publications, London, pp. 169-198.
Courpasson, D & Clegg, SR 2012, 'Dissolving the Iron Cages? Tocqueville, Michels, Bureaucracy and the Perpetuation of Elite Power' in Clegg, SR & Haugaard, M (eds), Power and Organizations, Sage Publications, London, pp. 369-391.
Clegg, SR & Gray, J 2012, 'Organization Theory, Power and Changing Institutions' in Boje, DM, Burnes, B & Hassard, J (eds), The Routledge Companion to Organizational Change, Routledge, USA and Canada, pp. 245-260.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The sociology of organizations is very largely a post-Second World War American invention but it built, initially, on Max Weber's work as it was translated in the post-war era . At the outset the sociological classics were a potent source of inspiration, especially Weber: today that is no longer the case (Adler 2009: 5). The critical function of the classics as being a signifier for disparate world views that encapsulate deep and compelling insights into the human condition has been largely abandoned (Alexander 1987). One refreshing sign of the times, however, is the recent publication of The Oxford Handbook of Sociology and Organization Studies, edited by Paul Adler, in 2009. The usual candidates, Marx, Weber, and Durkheim, are considered, as well as many others (some of whom might have been surprised to be called sociologists).
Pina e Cunha, M, Clegg, SR & Rego, A 2012, 'Surprising Organization' in Pitsis, TS, Simpson, A & Dehlin, E (eds), The Handbook of Managerial and Organizational Innovation, Edward Elgar Publishing, London, pp. 295-316.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2012, 'Foundations of Organizational Power' in Haugaard, M & Kevin, R (eds), Political Power: The Development of the Field, Barbara Budrich Publishers, Opladen, pp. 89-125.
Hardy, C, Phillips, N & Clegg, SR 2012, 'Reflexivity in Organization and Management Theory: A Study of the Production of the Research 'Subject'' in Mills, A & Durepros, G (eds), Case Study Methods in Business Research, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks CA, pp. 185-212.
Clegg, SR, Pina e Cunha, M & Rego, A 2012, 'The Evil of Utopia' in Jurkiewicz, CL (ed), Foundations of Organizational Evil, SAGE Publications Ltd, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 225-244.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR & Baumeler, C 2012, 'From Life in Cages to Life in Projects: Metaphors for Moderns' in Davila, A, Elvira, M, Ramirez, J & Zapata-Cantu, L (eds), Understanding Organizations in Complex, Emergent and Uncertain Environments, Palgrave Macmillan, New York / Basingstoke, pp. 185-206.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Dreyfus, S, Hood, S & Strenglin, M 2011, 'Introduction' in Dreyfus, S, Hood, S & Stenglin, M (eds), Semiotic margins: Meaning in multimodalities, Continuum, London, UK, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2011, 'Under Reconstruction: Modern Bureaucracy' in Harris, M, Hopfl, H & Clegg, SR (eds), Managing Modernity: Beyond Bureaucracy, Oxford University Press, Oxford UK, pp. 202-229.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Modern bureaucracies are under reconstruction. First, bureaucracy no longer being 'modern', those organizations formerly known as bureaucracies are seeking to become 'post'- bureaucratic, and second, as the ecology of the dot.com boom indicates, newly founded organizations often strive not to be bureaucratic. What, precisely, constitutes the post-bureaucratic is less clear. Often, the postbureaucratic is defined in terms of hybrid new organization forms.
Clegg, SR 2011, 'Management; Global Models' in The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Globalization, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 1-4.
Clegg, SR 2011, 'Power, Legitimacy and Authority' in Delanty, G, Taylor, SP & Soderlund, J (eds), The Routledge International Handbook of Contemporary Social and Political Theory, Routledge, London, pp. 215-225.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Any sociological discussion of the relations between power, legitimacy, and authority must start with Max Weber, and some vexed issues of translation, for it was Weber who first developed a systematic account of these tertns as the cornerstone of his social theory. The chapter will begin with an outline of Weber's views of power, legitimacy, and authority, and the interpretation of these in translation. It will then move to consideration of the functionalist theoretical context into which Weber was translated and its extension in Parsons' work. Finally, the chapter will address the recent centrality of dimensional analysis to debates about power in which it is argued that the most subtle and profound power relations are those where actors assume the legitimacy of systems of belief that do not represent their real interests.
Clegg, SR, Bjorkeng, K & Pitsis, TS 2011, 'Innovating the Practice of Normative Control in Project Management Contractual Relations' in Morris, PWG, Pinto, JK & derlund, JS (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Project Management, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 410-437.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In the chapter we begin by considering the institution of contract and approaches to it. We follow this with an analysis of an institutional innovation, the development of alliancing as a specific form of contract premised on a far more normative mode of control than the disciplinary mechanisms of surveillance which have traditionally been seen as more typically associated with conventional contracts. A new way of managing projects is evolving, as we report in this chapter. We consider some of its advantages as well as some of its disadvantages.
Harris, M, Clegg, SR & Hopfl, H 2011, 'Introduction: Managing Modernity: Beyond Bureacracy' in Clegg, SR, Harris, M & Hopfl, H (eds), Managing Modernity: Beyond Bureaucracy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 1-10.
Bureaucracy has long been seen as a cornerstone of the advanced industrial societies, and even as constitutive of modernity itself. Yet, one of the most striking features of contemporary debate is that this hitherto dominant form has been dismissed as outmoded by commentators of virtually all persuasions. Whilst 'post-bureaucratic' has become one of the most widely used terms to describe a new and emergent organizational type, other coinages employed in the same sense include 'the boundaryless corporation', 'the virtual organization', and the 'network enterprise'. A recurrent theme is the belief that we are seeing an historical 'end' to the era of large complex organizations (Davidow and Malone 1992; Dent 1995; Miles et al. 1997; Heckscher 1991, 1994; Heckscher and Applegate 1994; Kofman and Senge 1993; Child and McGrath 2001).
Clegg, SR 2011, 'Power' in Tadajewski, M, Maclaran, P, Parsons, E & Parker, M (eds), Key Concepts in Critical Management Studies, Sage Publications, London, pp. 194-197.
The concept of power is probably the most contested term in social theory. The key contemporary literature that uses the term can be traced back to the early writings of Niccoli Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes saw power as equivalent to a causal relation, whereby, mechanically, some action causes another as a reaction, while Machiavelli was more inclined to discuss power in terms of strategy. Hobbes' influence has been most marked in debates about power in which the conception of it as a causal relation has been predominant. Hobbes has been more influential in discussions of power that see the concept in terms of a capacity that causes things to happen, while Machiavelli has been more influential on approaches to power that see it in terms of the overall structuring of social relations as a field of complex forces, strategies and tactics.
Clegg, SR & Kornberger, MM 2010, 'An Organizational Perspective on Space and Place Branding' in Go, FM & Govers, R (eds), International Place Branding Yearbook 2010, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 3-11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Today, it is commonplace to say that we live in what has been called a society of organizations (Perrow 1991), one in which questions of power and control exercised by organizations become crucial. One consequence of this is the ubiquity of theories of organization that focussed on what economists had glossed as the "firm" - without really attending too much to what actually transpired within the great variety of organizations that this term might cover - as well as those many organizations that it might not cover. Economics was interested in the idea of a free market. Initially, the firm was seen as the home of hierarchy - the alternative to markets (Williamson 1975). But the more society, economics and organizations were studied, the greater became the gloss on what occurred within the firm: to accommodate networks, alliances, communities of practice, human and non-human assemblages, rhizomes ... until the idea of free market exchange became the exception, not the norm. This shift in perspective has important implications: free market models, known as neoclassical economics, implied that rational actors made decisions based on economic calculations. The social and the political were eliminated from the economic, as well as the cognitive, limits that produce "bounded rationality" (Simon 1982). Against the sterility of the models thus produced, organization theory, which began its career fixated on bureaucracy, developed various antithetical models. Central to all of these are notions of nonnecessity and of choice.
Scholars have paid a great deal of attention to the changing role and nature of fashion, both conceptually and practically. They have underlined how present-day societies find thei,. identity and formulate thei,. understanding of change not simply by referring to technological progress, economic growth or cultural transformation in society, but also through the medium of fashion. Today few individuals would deny the powerful role of fashion in everyday life. The media presents us with an array of images from the real to the fantastic. Large multinational corporations and powerful fashion houses shape the discourse of fashion, influence public opinion and sct in place global productive and distributive structures. Fashion is thus a specific vision of change that is shaped by practices, economic systems and actors. Fashion is also heavily contested, opposed and criticised. It retains in the public mind strong connections with vanity, frivolity, waste and folly. It can be conveniently blamed for everything from psychological illness, the ratings of Miss World, nastiness on Project Runway and the death of baby animals. \There is something about fashion that can make people ve!'y nervous' remarks Vogue editor Anna Wintour in the 2009 film The September Issue.
Clegg, SR & Carter, C 2009, 'Globalization and organizational behaviour' in Clegg, S & Cooper, C (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Behavior, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 496-508.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2009, 'Introduction: Why a handbook of marcro-organizational behavior' in Clegg, S & Cooper, C (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Behavior, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 1-37.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Most research in organizational behavior is micro in focus, beraying the deep embeddedness of the discourse in psychology, the study of individuals. Thus, the distinctive feature of micro-organizational behavior is that it is the study of the behavior of individuals and groups in the organization, as seen from a psychological perspective. If there are similar disciplinary auspices for macro-organizational behavior they relate to sociology, strategy and economics.
Haugaard, M & Clegg, SR 2009, 'Introduction: Why power is the central concept of the social sciences' in Clegg, S & Haugaard, M (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Power, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 1-24.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The concept of power is absolu0ely central to any understanding of society' The ubiquity of the concept can be seen by a comparative Google search. The score for 'social power' is 376 million hits, for 'political power' 194 million which compares with 334 million for .society', 253 million for 'politics', 52 million for 'sociology', 'social class'at 280 million and .political class' at 111 million. Of course, such measures are crude but the fact that the combined 470 million social and political power hits outstrip any of the other categories, including the combined hits for 'social' and 'political class', indicales the absolute centrality of theconcept. However, despitethis ubiquity itis arguably oneof themostdifficultconcepts to make sense of within the social sciences. Nonetheless, it has been a core concept for as long as there has been speculation about the nature of social order (Wolin 1960)'
Clegg, SR 2009, 'Managing power in organizations: The hidden history of its constitution' in Clegg, SR & Haugaard, M (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Power, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 310-331.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Management as a practice of power involving the imposition of will is directed at framing not only the conduct of others but also oneself. It is a form of govemment linking how to mandate'with 'how to obey'. Managing implies power because it involves governing the conduct of oneself and others. Managing in any epoch will be a particular skill that involves execution and doing. It will be active, a practice. Moreover, it will not merely be a practice of the self - one doesn't just learn how to be a manager - but it is also a practice of the many others who are to be managed. Others must leam to be managed just as those who will manage them must leam that which constitutes managing in any given place and time.
Writing a conclusion to such a large and varied volume as this was a task that demanded some consideration. Obviously, we had commissioned the pieces that we did because we thought that the authors invited were the best able to address the topics that they were invited to address. Yet, we wanted to engage with the contributors in this conclusion, not to treat them irreverently but not to teat tlem too reverently either. We wanted to engage in tribute and critique of their efforts, in the most positive and constructive sense of these terms; tribute as praise, review, as acknowledgement. In doing this we pay tribute to our contributors, in attempting to probe and understand the limitations Lotft of the concept itself and the contributors' understandings of it. We seek to deploy reasoned judgement in our readings, drawing on a broad background of analysis, one that is capable, we hope, of the interpretive leaps needed for seasoned and systematic inquiry into the conditions and consequences of the use of a concept as central and as contested as'power'. Having made this decision, there was the question of how we should organize our ideas.When we started to write the conclusion we were on opposite sides of the earth, so the opportunities for face-to-face discussion were precluded. Mark suggested that we might try *d conduct a conversation by e-mail, as a dialogue about the chapters, pulling out the points and implications that seemed significant. So this is what we did. The conversation started with Mark.
Philadelphia was the home of F. W. Taylor, a noble forebear for management scholars, many might think. From the steel mills of that great city much of what is taken for granted as modern management began. Further to the north, in Chicago and Detroit, there are other fountainheads of management's truths. 1 want to take a journey through the industrial heartland of the US, starting in Chicago, a journey that will take us through two very different conceptions of what management is and should be, which 1 shall encompass as an orientation that accepts the nature of reality as is and seeks to create employees and knowledge that are 'work ready' to meet it, and an orientation that is 'future oriented', one thar looks at what is and thinks it could be better. Taylor and Ford, of Philadelphia and Detroit, reflect the first position; Sinclair and Ezra Park, of Chicago, the second. 1 shall narrate a journey linking these figures before arriving at the 'forward thinking, work ready' conclusion.
Banerjee, SB, Carter, C & Clegg, SR 2009, 'Managing globalization' in Alvesson, M, Bridgman, T & Willmott, H (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Critical Management Studies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 186-212.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
THIs chapter discusses some approaches to globalization that contribute to a critical management studies (CMS) agenda. The vast majority of the literature in management and organization theory takes an inveterately mainstream approach to globalization and lacks a critical perspective. Articles in scholarly journals such as the lournal of International Business Studies and the Colombia Journal of World Business tend to focus on the opportunities and risks posed by globalization and how firms can leverage competitive advantage in a global market. Topics that are studied include entry strategies into developing markets, cross cultural marketing and management issues, outsourcing, technology transfer, and joint ventures. Few scholars question the naturalness or implied superiority of Western economic development models and their links to globalization, focusing instead on the problems with knowledge that either limit researchers' ability to recognize divergence or the inability of existing theories to explain or capture such divergence.
In this chapter, I will introduce the notion of the researcher, especially as a doctoral student, as someone who is expected to think for a living. Thinking for a living, it will be suggested, means following ideas - even if they take us out of what we define as our intellectual paddock and lead us to stray into neighbouring or even distant terrain' For organizational scholars, however' thinking for a living is not sufficient' We have to relate how our thinking for a living relates to the way that others are working for a living in relation to those organizations that employ them, that they relate to and work with. Thus, the second movement is to consider the relation between thinking for a living and working for a living'
Pina, ECM, Vieira, DCJ & Clegg, SR 2009, 'Improvisational bricolage: A practice-based approach to strategy and foresight' in Costanzo, LA & MacKay, RB (eds), Handbook of Research on Strategy and Foresight, Edward Elgar, UK, pp. 182-199.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR & Lounsbury, M 2009, 'Weber: Sintering the iron cage' in Adler, PS (ed), The Oxford Handbook of Sociology and Organization Studies, Oxford University Press, New York, USA, pp. 118-145.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2009, 'Time, organizations and pragmatism' in Zijlstra, F, Van Iterson, A & Ten Horn, L (eds), Time Changes Work: Liber Amoricum for Robert A Roe, Universitaire Pres Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands, pp. 166-173.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
It is in the scriphrres that it is stated, by Matthew (Matthew y, 20)' that "By their works ye shali know them.' I know Robert Roe persondY .as a fine man' a ,.r,rp.tl,orrs scholar, a man of broad interests; Uy E works I.know him for his concerns with the concepts of 'time'. And it is through the works, especially those on time, that I wish to approach the person.
Pina e Cunha, M, Rego, A, Clegg, SR & Cabral-Cardoso, C 2009, 'From "This job is killing me" to "I live the life I love and I love the life I live"' in Reddy, S (ed), Workaholism: Perspectives and Experiences, ICFAI Books, Punjagutta India, pp. 29-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
If we define efficiency in terms of maximizing output from a given - or lesser - number of workers, it can be considered that, in some cases, Frederick Taylor's science has achieved a remarkahle success. Contemporary organizations managed to create such a state of conmitment (be it spontaneous or hnposed), that people have adopted excessive working as lifestyte. Life is organized aroundwork, with work occupying - more and more territory from the tormer privale life. We discuss the notion of excessive worffing, present several forms of excessive working, contest the idea that excessive working is necessarily noxious, and challenge researchers critically to discuss their practical saccess. As the saying goes, there can be too much of a good thing.
Clegg, S & Lounsbury, M 2009, 'Weber: Sintering the Iron Cage Translation, Domination, and Rationality Stewart Clegg' in The Oxford Handbook of Sociology and Organization Studies: Classical Foundations.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Oxford University Press, 2009. All rights reserved. This article emphasizes how Weber's approach to bureaucracy was first and foremost a cultural theory. In addition, it shows how the very notion of rationality for Weber was multiplex and culturally embedded. Conceptualizing organizational environments as comprised of multiple modes of rationality and forms of domination can lead to an understanding of the 'iron cage' as more porous than is traditionally thought, thus opening up new lines of multilevel analysis. This article therefore aims to sinter the iron cage. Sintering is a method to make metal porous, and the porosity allows lubricants to flow through the medium of the metal. The article briefly highlights some of Weber's key works and reviews scholarly developments in organizational theory that have stemmed from his scholarship. It then discusses how some lines of inquiry have been eschewed in favor of others, and how a reengagement with some core foundational ideas can spur new lines of theoretical development.
© Oxford University Press, 2013. All forms of organization are forms of organization of social relations. All social relations involve power relations. Power is evident in these relations as relations not only of ownership and control but also of structuration and design. These relations may take many forms. They may be embodied as financial capital, intellectual capital, or social capital, for instance. Such relations are likely to be both differentially distributed and socially constructed as well as existing in differential demand in differentiated markets. Power is also evident in the various forms of knowledge that constitute, structure, and shape these markets and organizations. It is these power/knowledge relations that this article addresses. The aim of this article is to address analytically the methods of managing and organizing, which members of various organizational bodies and communities find conventional to use.
Clegg, SR 2008, 'If people are strange, does organization make us normal?' in Barry, D & Hansen, H (eds), The SAGE Handbook of New Approaches in Management and Organization, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 436-446.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR, Hermel, P & Foley, K 2008, 'The power implications of qualilty management: Some first thoughts' in Foley, K & Hermel, P (eds), The Theories and Practices of Organization Excellence: New Perspectives, SAI Global, Sydney, Australia, pp. 295-334.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2008, 'Positivism and post-positivism' in Thorpe, R & Holt, R (eds), The SAGE Dictionary of Qualitative Management Research, Sage, London, pp. 155-157.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Pitsis, TS 2007, 'McDonaldization' in Ybema, S & Bijlsma-Frankema, K (eds), Organizational Science, Sage Publications Ltd, London, pp. 48-50.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Pitsis, TS 2007, 'Conformance and obedience and groupthink' in Ybema, S & Bijlsma-Frankema, K (eds), Organizational Science, Sage Publications, London, pp. 117-120.
Carter, C, Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM, Laske, S & Messner, M 2007, 'Introduction' in Carter, C, Clegg, S, Kornberger, M, Laske, S & Messner, M (eds), Business ethics as practice : representation, discourse and performance, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 1-9.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Pitsis, TS 2007, 'Whose meaning?' in Ybema, S & Bijlsma-Frankema, K (eds), Organizational Science, Sage Publications Ltd, London, pp. 111-113.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Pitsis, TS 2007, 'Managing power and politics in organizations' in Ybema, S & Bijlsma-Frankema, K (eds), Organizational Science, Sage Publications, London, pp. 478-496.
Clegg, SR, Wang, KY & Berrell, M 2007, 'Business Networks and Strategic Alliances in China: An Introduction' in Clegg, SR, Wang, K & Berrell, M (eds), Business Networks and Strategic Alliances in China, Edward Elgar Publishing, London, UK, pp. 3-27.
Pitsis, TS & Clegg, SR 2007, 'Interpersonal Metaphysics - "We live in a political world": The paradox of managerial wisdom' in Kessler, EH & Bailey, JR (eds), Handbook of Organizational and Managerial Wisdom, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, USA, pp. 399-421.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2007, 'Bureaucracy and the public sector governmentality' in George Ritzer (ed), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. 376-378.
Carter, C & Clegg, SR 2007, 'Institutional theory, new.' in George Ritzer (ed), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 2351-2352.
Clegg, SR & Carter, C 2007, 'Management' in George Ritzer (ed), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. 2710-2719.
Carter, C & Clegg, SR 2007, 'Management fashion' in George Ritzer (ed), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. 2729-2731.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'Preface' in Power without Glory - A Genealogy of a Management Decision, Copenhagen Business School Press, Denmark, pp. 9-12.
Clegg, SR & Courpasson, D 2007, 'The emergence of modern management' in Organization Science, SAGE Publications Ltd, London, pp. 17-30.
Clegg, SR, Courpasson, D & Phillips, N 2007, 'The curious case of Max Weber' in Organization Science, SAGE Publications Ltd, London, pp. 31-47.
Clegg, SR, Courpasson, D & Phillips, N 2007, 'The Hawthorne experiments' in Ybema, S & Bijlsma-Frankema, K (eds), Organization Science, SAGE Publications Ltd, London, UK, pp. 61-73.
Anandakumar, A, Pitsis, TS & Clegg, SR 2007, 'Everybody hurts, sometimes: The language of emotionality and the dysfunctional organization' in Research Companion to the Dysfunctional Workplace: Management Challenges and Symptoms, pp. 187-215.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'The bounds of rationality' in Schram, S & Caterino, B (eds), Making Political Science Matter: debating knowledge, research and method, New York University Press, New York, USA, pp. 171-187.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR & Kornberger, MM 2006, 'Introduction: rediscovering space' in Clegg, S & Kornberger, M (eds), Space, Organization and Management Theory, Liber & Copenhagen Business School Press, Malmo, Sweden, pp. 8-16.
Clegg, SR & Kornberger, MM 2006, 'Organising space' in Clegg, S & Kornberger, M (eds), Space, Organization and Management Theory, Liber and Copenhagen Business School Pres, Malmo, Denmark, pp. 143-162.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR & Pitsis, TS 2006, 'The art of alliancing: from imperative control to collaborative coordination' in Boyce, G, Macintyre, S & Ville, S (eds), How Organisations Connect: investing in communication, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 32-53.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Bureaucracy' in Beilharz, P & Hogan, T (eds), Sociology: place, time & division, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 429-432.
Clegg, SR, Gudergan, S, Kornberger, MM & Ray, T 2006, 'Managing local practices in a networked world' in Kornberger, M & Gudergan, S (eds), Only Connect: neat words, networks & identities, Liber and Copenhagen Business School Press, Malmo, Sweden, pp. 190-209.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR & Hardy, C 2006, 'Representation & reflexivity' in Clegg, S, Hardy, C, Lawrence, T & Nord, W (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organization Studies, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 425-443.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Hardy, C & Clegg, SR 2006, 'Some dare call it power' in Clegg, S, Hardy, C, Lawrence, T & Nord, W (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organization Studies, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 754-775.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Nord, W, Lawrence, T, Hardy, C & Clegg, SR 2006, 'Introduction' in Clegg, S, Hardy, C, Lawrence, T & Nord, W (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organization Studies, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Parker, B & Clegg, SR 2006, 'Globalization' in Clegg, S, Hardy, C, Lawrence, T & Nord, W (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organization Studies, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 651-674.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR, Pitsis, TS, Marosszeky, M & Rura-Polley, T 2006, 'Making the future perfect: constructing the Olympic dream' in Hodgson, D & Cicmil, S (eds), Making Projects Critical, Palgrave Macmillan Ltd, Hampshire, UK, pp. 265-293.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Bureaucracy' in Turne, B (ed), The Cambridge dictionary of sociology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 47-48.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Management' in Turner, B (ed), The Cambridge dictionary of sociology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 348-349.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Managerial revolution' in Turner, B (ed), The Cambridge dictionary of sociology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 349-350.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Organisation man' in Turner, B (ed), The Cambridge dictionary of sociology, Cambirdge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 424-424.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Organisations' in Turner, B (ed), The Cambridge dictionary of sociology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridege, UK, pp. 426-427.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Organisation theory' in Turner, B (ed), The Cambridge dictionary of sociology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 425-425.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Deferential workers' in Turner, B (ed), The Cambridge dictionary of sociology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 126-126.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Blumer H.' in Turner, B (ed), The Cambridge dictionary of sociology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 41-42.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Phillips curve' in Turner, B (ed), The Cambridge dictionary of sociology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 439-440.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Organisational culture' in Turner, B (ed), The Cambridge dictionary of sociology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 425-426.
ARC Special Projects (ASSA)
Clegg, SR & Rhodes, CH 2006, 'Conclusions: Possible ethics and ethical possibilities' in Clegg, S & Rhodes, C (eds), Management Ethics: Contemporary Contexts, Routledge, Abingdon, OX, UK, pp. 172-176.
Clegg, SR & Rhodes, CH 2006, 'Introduction: questioning the ethics of management practice' in Clegg, S & Rhodes, C (eds), Management Ethics: contemporary contexts, Routledge, Abingdon, UK, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
ARC Special Projects (ASSA)
Clegg, SR 2005, 'Globalizing business' in Calhoun, C, Rojek, C & Turner, B (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Sociology, SAGE Publications Ltd, London, UK, pp. 492-515.
Linstead, S, Clegg, SR & Sewell, G 2005, 'Casting the other to the ends of the Earth: marginal identity in organisation studies' in Pullen, A & Linstead, S (eds), Organization and Identity, Routledge, Abingdon, UK, pp. 223-243.
Ray, T & Clegg, SR 2005, 'Tacit knowing, communication and power: lessons from Japan' in Little, S & Ray, T (eds), Managing Knowledge: An Essential Reader, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 319-347.
Linstead, S, Clegg, S & Sewell, G 2005, 'Casting the other to the ends of the earth: Marginal identity in organisation studies' in Organization and Identity, pp. 204-222.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clegg, SR, Ray, T & Carter, C 2004, 'Japan as institutional counterfactual: knowledge, learning and power' in Hodgson, DE & Carter, C (eds), Management Knowledge and the New Employee, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Aldershot, UK, pp. 84-102.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Hardy, C & Clegg, SR 2004, 'Power and change: a critical reflection' in Boonstra, JJ (ed), Dynamics of Organization Change and Learning, John Wiley and Son Ltd, West Sussex, UK, pp. 343-365.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2004, 'Case studies in construction: recollections of an accidental researcher' in Marschan-Piekkari, R & Welch, C (eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods for International Business., Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 585-587.
Ray, T, Clegg, SR & Gordon, RD 2004, 'A new look at dispersed leadership: power, knowledge and context' in Storey, J (ed), Leadership in Organizations: current issues and key trends, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, pp. 319-336.
Westwood, R & Clegg, SR 2003, 'The discourse of organization studies: dissensus politics, and paradigms' in Westwood, R & Clegg, S (eds), Debating Organization: Point-Counterpoint in Organization Studies, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, London, pp. 1-42.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR & Stokes, JR 2003, 'Bureaucracy, power and ethics' in Bishop, P, Connors, C & Sampford, C (eds), Management, Organisation and Ethics in the Public Sector, Ashgate Publishing Limited, London, UK, pp. 145-159.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR & Kornberger, MM 2003, 'Modernism, postmodernism, management and organization theory' in Locke, E (ed), Postmodernism and Management: Pros, Cons and the Alternative, Elsevier Science, London, pp. 57-88.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Modernism and postmodernism may be thought of as either moments or movements. We argue for thinking of them as moments, essentially related to each other, rather than movements that literally have historical specificity. From this perspective what is modern and what is postmodern is always shifting, such that their nature is problematic, essentially contested and shifting. Rather than use contemporary examples to make these points, we prefer to refer to quite historical examples, because the modalities become much sharper and can be seen in clearer focus. Hence, we discuss Machiavelli and Caravaggio as precursors of the postmodern and Hobbes and Boyle as precursors of the modern. Obviously, there is an irony in our intent: given the claims to currency of the debates with which we frame the paper then reference to some classical sources serves to hose down debate and fix it in a sharper, cleaner form. While it will become evident that our sympathies are not with modernism, it should become equally clear that we hold much of the representation of postmodernism to be as much at error as we do the fixing of the modern in the frame of the empiricist, the positivist, and the scientific. For us, all these terms are equally problematic, and have been so ever since we began to first think we might be modern whether in art, social science or science. We conclude by addressing why, in the present, these classical debates should have migrated to the study of organizations.
Clegg, SR 2003, 'Managing organization futures in a changing world of power/knowledge' in Tsoukas, H & Knudsen, C (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Organization Theory: Meta-Theoretical Perspectives, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 536-567.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clarke, T & Clegg, S 2002, 'Future Paradigms for Public Service' in Jun, JS (ed), Rethinking Administrative Theory, Praeger, Wesport Connecticut, pp. 171-186.
Discussion of the development of new paradigms of management in the public service internationally
Clarke, T & Clegg, S 2002, 'A Paradox of Governance: Convergent Policy and Divergent Practice in Corporate Governance in Asia' in Clegg, S (ed), Management and Organisation Paradoxes, John Benjamins Publishing, Amsterdam, pp. 247-274.
Despite the drive towards adopting similar governance policies and institutions in Asian business, the reality of very divergent beliefs and practices survives.
de Cunha, JV, Clegg, SR & e Cunha, MP 2002, 'Management, paradox, and permanent dialectics' in Clegg, S (ed), Management and Organization Paradoxes, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 11-40.
Clegg, SR 2002, 'Why distributed discourse matters' in Holmes, L, Hosking, DM & Grieco, M (eds), Organising in the information age, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Aldershot, UK, pp. 4-12.
Clegg, SR 2002, 'Radical revisions: power, discipline and organizations' in Clegg, S (ed), Central Currents in Organization Studies II - Contemporary Trends, Sage Publications Ltd, London, UK, pp. 162-179.
Hardy, C & Clegg, SR 2002, 'Relativity without relativism: reflexivity in post-paradigm - organization studies' in Clegg, S (ed), Central Currents in Organization Studies II - Contemporary Trends, Sage Publications Ltd, London, UK, pp. 144-162.
Clarke, T & Clegg, SR 2002, 'Management paradigms for the new millennium' in Clegg, S (ed), Central Currents in Organization Studies II - Contemporary Trends, Sage Publications Ltd, London, UK, pp. 371-394.
Clegg, SR 2002, 'Max Weber and contemporary sociology of organizations' in Clegg, S (ed), Central Currents in Organization Studies II - Contemporary Trends, Sage Publications Ltd, London, UK, pp. 300-333.
Clegg, SR 2002, 'Bounded rationalities and context dependence' in Clegg, S (ed), Central Currents in Organization Studies i - Frameworks and Applications, Sage Publications Ltd, London, England, pp. 7-23.
Clegg, SR 2002, 'Power' in Sorge, A (ed), Organization, Thomson Learning, London, UK, pp. 299-313.
Clegg, SR 2002, 'From frameworks of power' in Frameworks of power, Manchester University Press, New York, USA, pp. 249-273.
A critique of the proliferation of management paradigms associated with new technology, globalisation, stakeholders and sustainability
How intelligence becomes embodied in organisations
Clarke, T & Clegg, S 1999, 'Intelligent Organizations' in Clegg, S, Ibarra-Colado, E & Bueno-Rodrigues, L (eds), Global Management: Universal Theories and Local Realities,, Sage, London, pp. 177-201.View/Download from: Publisher's site
How intelligence is embedded and used in organisations
Clarke, T & Bostock, R 1996, 'Who Rules the Corporation? International Corporate Governance,' in Palmer, G & Clegg, S (eds), Constituting Management: Markets, Meaning and Identities, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 155-174.
An analysis of the constellation of leadership and governance in major international corporations in different regions of the world.
Clegg, S, Barrett, M, Clarke, T, Dwyer, L, Gray, J, Kemp, S & Marceau, J 1996, 'Management Knowledge for the Future: Innovation, Embryos and New Paradigms' in Clegg, S & Palmer, G (eds), The Politics of Management Knowledge, Sage, London, pp. 190-236.
A survey of management thinking on new paradigms
The facts about the future of management have yet to be socially constructed but the fashion trends are clear and they may well be an occasion for Fado on the part of certain management scholars, those for whom a humanistic appreciation of management as a discipline and a practice was always foremost. Humanism is on the retreat and the present cycle of managerial innovation sees a favouring of machine over human imagery (Abrhamsson and Eisenman, 2008) that has the potential of paradoxically being both as liberating for humanity as it is dehumanizing.
Clegg, S & Carlsen, A 2019, 'From ideas of power to the powering of ideas in organizations, EURAM session Organising creativity for innovation', Multidisciplinary perspectives, theories, and practices, Lisbon, Portugal.
Clegg, S 2019, 'Management, Organizations and Contemporary Social Theory (Keynote presentation to EURAM Doctoral Consortium)', EURAM Doctoral Consortium, Lisbon, Portugal.
The field of management and organizational studies has developed to include Positive Organizational Scholarship, in which the notion of virtue is a central concern. Organizational virtues have been variously portrayed as linearities, balances, and curvilinearities. In this paper we explore another possibility: framing virtues under the lens of paradox. When viewed as paradoxes, virtues are seen as characteristics embedded in processes fraught with the tensions of a democratic ethos, expressing potential for synergy and trade-off. The virtue resides in the processes of democracy dealing with the paradoxes that the virtues entail, in a process without finitude. We discuss the organizational implications resulting from perceiving positivity as paradox.
Clegg, SR 2017, 'What has happened and what is to be done', Critical Management Studies Conference, Adelphi Hotel, Liverpool UK.
Clegg, SR 2017, 'Power Relations and Temporality in Megaprojects', Keynote Presentation to Temporary Organizing Workshop, Free University of Berlin.
Ahuja, S, Nikolova, N, Heizmann, H & Clegg, SR 2017, 'Professional Client Interactions: Co-constructing Professional Identity', European Group for Organisational Studies, Copenhagen, Denmark.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ahuja, S, Nikolova, N & Clegg, SR 2017, 'Expertise and professional identity in client-professional interactions: A case of architectural firms', Professional Service Firms Annual Conference, Stockholm, Sweden.
The concern with openness is well established in organization theory providing a common language for observing, understanding and predicting system behaviours. Beside more conventional views of systems, which favour an objectivised view of relations between organizations and, therefore, recommendations for setting the conditions of their mutual openness, Luhmann's theoretical framework shows that openness is problematic per se for social systems as organizations. Systems endogenously construct their differentiation from other systems through closure. Any systemic society is based on closure and specific cognitive rules, not on openness and objectivised communication. In the language of systems theory, openness is a lure as a systemic analysis of the fragmentation of power shows. We use Clegg's (1989) 'circuits' approach to a systems theory of power to make connections with Luhmann (1979): there are many points of comparison between them, including the key role of events, the centrality of social constructions and the autopoietic nature of the circuits of power.
Bardon, T, Josserand, EL, Clegg, S & Rhodes, C 2016, 'Biocracy and the hijacking of ethics: Are new forms of organization control irresistable?', 32nd EGOS Colloquium 2016, European Group for Organisational Studies Colloquium (EGOS), Naples, Italy.
Ahuja, S, Nikolova, N & Clegg, SR 1970, 'Self-identification as a resistance strategy: The changing nature of architectural work and its relation to architects' identity', European Group for Organization Studies, Naples, Italy.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Sewell, G, Phillips, N, Clegg, S & Mol, J 2016, 'How Institutions Really Think: Mary Douglas and Meaningful Organizations', Academy of Management, USA.
Clegg, SR 2015, 'Bauman and Strategy', 24 Hours of Strategy Workshop, Newcastle University Business School.
Clegg, SR 2014, 'Mega Projects: Power and Innovation in their Management', SAP Business Transformation Summit, Berlin.
Logue, DM, Clegg, S & Höllerer, M 2015, 'Social Impact Bonds as translational devices: conjoining public, private, and non-profit sectors. European Group for Organization Studies (EGOS), Athens, 2015.', European Group for Organisational Studies Colloquium (EGOS), Athens.
Berti, M, Simpson, AV & Clegg, S 2015, 'Design, designing and designs: "a new school of thought"', European Group for Organisational Studies Colloquium (EGOS), Athens, Greece.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Mukherjee, A, François-Xavier, DV, Clegg, S, Berti, M, Simpson, AV & Naar, L 2015, 'Making space for the material in the social world: Critically applying Lefebvre's triad to organisational space', European Group for Organisational Studies Colloquium (EGOS), Athens, Greece.
Killen, CP, Clegg, S, Biesenthal, C & Sankaran, S 2015, 'Time to make space for practice-based research in project portfolio management', Asia Pacific Researchers in Organisational Studies (APROS) / European Group for Organization Studies (EGOS), Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Practice-based research is extending understanding in the disciplines of strategy and project management, in part as a result of strong advocacy of research from 'strategy-as-practice' and 'projects-as-practice' perspectives. Such perspectives provide holistic contextual information and reveal the evolutionary and responsive nature of project and strategy processes. As environments shift and become more complex, dynamic capabilities are required for projects to flourish. Normative project management approaches are being challenged and practice-based project portfolio management (PPM) research is emerging. Increasingly, PPM defines the space between strategy and project management, with a key project focus on temporality. There is a need for further development and encouragement of practice-based approaches in PPM research that are alert to the becoming of projects as spatial manifestations that unfold in (different conceptions of) time. We identify three themes in project and portfolio management research that employ practice-based and strategically anchored perspectives. We illustrate the trajectory of early work on strategy and the front end of projects through to the development and application of increasingly sophisticated theoretical perspectives in project portfolio management (PPM) research. The dynamic capabilities perspective is shown to provide a strong theoretical foundation for investigating PPM and its role in implementing and informing strategy through projects. Theoretically grounded and practice-based research represents the interplay between structure and practice, with these reciprocally and recursively shaping each other over time. Building on these examples we call for practice-based research in PPM, and we suggest a convergence of strategy-as-practice perspectives and practice-based PPM research.
Shalbafan, S, Leigh, E, Pollack, J & Sankaran, S 2015, 'Using simulation to create a time-bound, space-constrained context for studying decision-making in project portfolio management using the Cynefin® framework', Asia-Pacific Researchers in Organization Studies (APROS), UTS, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Livingston, G, Kelly, L, Lewis-Holmes, E, Baio, G, Morris, S, Patel, N, Omar, RZ, Katona, C & Cooper, C 2014, 'Introduction', HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, NIHR JOURNALS LIBRARY, pp. 1-+.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clegg, SR 2014, 'Rationality in the City?', Stream 53 of the EGOS Conference, EGOS Colloquium, Rotterdam.
on Designing Innovative and Responsible Organizations: Cities, Communities and Workplaces
Clegg, SR 2014, 'Powers of Romance: The Liminal Challenges of Managing Organizational Intimacy', Presentation to the Organizations, Artifacts and Practices Conference, Rome.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clegg, SR 2014, 'The East India Company: Mega-Project', 28th ANZAM Annual Conference on Reshaping Management for Impact, UTS, Sydney.
Clegg, SR 2014, 'Managerialism and the growth of the firm', 28th ANZAM Annual Conference on Reshaping Management for Impact, UTS, Sydney.
Showcase Symposium: Penrose @ 100: Resources And (Dynamic) Capabilities In The 21st Century
Clegg, SR 2014, 'How to do good research and get it published', Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, UTS, Sydney.
Clegg, SR 2014, 'Design in thinking at UTS', international strategic management conference, UTS, Sydney.
Clegg, SR 2014, 'Is there rationality in the city', EGOS Conference, Rotterdam.
Powell, CVE, Kolamunnage-Dona, R, Lowe, J, Boland, A, Petrou, S, Doull, I, Hood, K & Williamson, PR 2013, 'Introduction', HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, NIHR JOURNALS LIBRARY, pp. 1-+.
Logue, DM, Clegg, S & Munir, K 2013, 'Troubled Times, Big Issues, Institutional Crises: Insights from Organization Theory. European Group for Organization Studies (EGOS), 2013, Montreal, Canada.', European Group for Organization Studies, Montreal, Canada.
The goal of this manuscript is to further explore the identity work performed by individuals when they are confronted with post-bureaucratic practices attempting to regulate their ways of be(hav)ing. In this respect, we argue that technologies of the self are key to exploring identity work further as they constitute the actual practices through which individuals work on themselves in order to govern who they are and how they behave on a daily basis. In a case study involving the introduction of a post-bureaucratic management practice in a service firm, we identify four ideal types for how individuals perform their identity work. We show how taking into account the role of technologies of the self in this process furthers our understanding of identity work and provides insights into how post-bureaucratic practices attempt to regulate individuals' identity in contemporary organizations.
Schweitzer, J, Pitsis, T & Clegg, S 2012, 'Strategy discourse as collaborative design practice: Can design thinking benefit strategy development?', European Group for Organisational Studies Colloquium (EGOS), Helsinki, Finland.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper provides an investigation into strategic processes, focusing on identifying the processes, practices and capabilities characterising intra- and inter-organisational collaboration that foster strategy development and innovation through creativity in thinking and problem solving. To do so we build our research framework at the intersection of four theoretical foundations: integrative design practice (or design thinking), inter-organizational collaboration, dynamic capabilities and practice theory.
Pitsis, TS, Gudergan, S, Clegg, SR & van Mearrewijk, A 2008, 'Phenominal projects: alliances as a process of becoming', First International Symposium on Process organization Studies, Sage, Pissouri, Cyprus.
Clegg, SR 2008, 'The heart of darkness', Between the Lines: Dis-membering the Dark Side of Organization Conference, Between the Lines: Dis-membering the Dark Side of Organization Conference, Organization Conference, Sheffield.
Clegg, SR 2008, 'Foundations of Organization Power', Presentation to the Nobel Symposium on The Foundations of Organizations, Nobel Symposium on the Foundation of Organizations, Nobel Symposium, Stockholm.
Clegg, SR 2008, 'The politics of gossip and denial in inter-organizational relations', International Conference on Power: Forms, Dynamics and Consequences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
Becker, H, van Iterson, A & Clegg, SR 2008, 'Strategies of secrecy in organizations: A framework for interpreting concealment, revelation and gossiping in the work place', Stream 30: Evil tongues at Work? The Unmanaged Space/S of Organizational Gossip, Stream 30: Evil tongues at Work? The Unmanaged Space/S of Organizational Gossip, EGOS 2008, Amsterdam.
Clegg, SR 2008, 'Power and Organizations', The Nobel Symposium "Foundations of Organization", Saltsjobaden Swedan.
Clegg, SR 2008, 'There are no truths outside the gates of eden', EGOS & FGV: Second Latin America-Europe Meeting on Organizational Studies, Rio de janeiro, Brazil.
Hall, M, Clegg, SR & Sillince, J 2008, 'The Importance of Learning to Differentiate between 'Hard' and 'Soft' Knowledge', INNOVATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN BUSINESS GLOBALIZATION: THEORY & PRACTICE, VOLS 1 AND 2, 10th International-Business-Information-Management-Association Conference, INT BUSINESS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ASSOC-IBIMA, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA, pp. 1224-+.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'Ten propositions concerning security, terrorism, and business', Global Business Symposium on Security, Terrorism and Business, Global Business Symposium, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and Judge Business School.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'Something is happening here, but you don't know what it is, do you, Mister Jones?', Keynote address to the British Academy sponsored Workshop on Post-bureacracy and Organizational Change in the Knowledge Society, The British Academy sponsored Workshop on Post-bureacracy and Organizational Change in the Knowledge Society, University of Essex, University of Essex.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'The jungle and the academy', Academy of Management, AoM, Academy of Management, AoM.
Presenting to All Academy Panel on "Good for whom? The enduring debate between Frederick Talyor's Scientific Management Principles and Upton Sinclair's socialist ideals.
Clegg, SR, Toucotte, M & Marin, J 2007, 'Enacting ecological and collaborative rationality through multi-party collaboration.', Academy of Management Organizations, Academy of Management Organizations, Philiadelphia, USA.
Presentation to Academy of Management Organizations and the Natural Enviornment section.
Quist, J, Skallen, P & Clegg, SR 2007, 'The power of quality models', Academy of Management Critical Management Studies section, AoM, AOM, Philadelphia, USA.
Presented to session on Critical Perspectives on Mergers, Quality and Knowledge work, AoM.
Clegg, SR, Pitsis, TS & Bjorking, K 2007, 'The management of large engineering projects: debating a research agenda', Presentation to Professional Development Workshop dedicated to sharing and comparing different research agendas on the management of large engineering (infrastructure) projects, AoM., AOM, Philadelphia, USA.
Presentation to Professional Development Workshop dedicated to sharing and comparing different research agendas on the management of large engineering (infrastructure) projects, AoM.
Bjorking, K, Clegg, SR & Pitsis, TS 2007, 'Catching memes: Emerging practices in an alliance program', EGOS, EGOS, EGOS, Vienna.
Paper presented to The Evolution of Practices track, EGOS.
Chan, A & Clegg, SR 2007, 'Total institutions as instruments of cultural genocide & their peculiar echoes in organization and management theory', EGOS, EGOS, EGOS.
Presentation to sub-theme 10: Genocide, individuals and organization - Choices, actions and consequences for contemporary contexts, EGOS.
Rhodes, CH, Clegg, SR & Pullen, A 2007, ''If I should fall from grace....': Narrative, Ethics, and Organizational downsizing', European Academy of Management 2007 Conference, European Academy of Management, EURAM, Paris, France.
Paper presented to the track on Management Ethics and the Politics of Identity at EURAM.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'The politics of rumour in inter-organizational relations', Department of Management, Lancaster University Seminar, Lancaster University.
Presented to the Department of Management
Clegg, SR 2007, 'Cutural revolution's peculiar echoes in organization theory', Department of Management, Universidade Nov Presentation, Lisboa, Universidade Nov..
Presentation to Universidade Nov, Department of Management.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'The futures of power and the end of history', Eastern Academy of Management Meeting Plenary Presentation, Amsterdam.
Plenary presentation to the Eastern Academy of Management meeting held in Amsterdam.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'The politics of gossip', Department of Management, University of Bath Presentation, University of Bath.
For the Department of Management.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'Technology, place and practice', Copenhagen Business School Invited Presentation, Copenhagen Business School.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'How to publish in top organization journals', University of Paris-Dauphine Presentation, University of Paris-Dauphine.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'Enacting Ecological and Collaborative Rationality through Multi-party Collaborations', University of Paris-Dauphine Presentation, University of Paris-Dauphine.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'Power in Organizations - A personal view', University of Paris-Dauphine, University of Paris-Dauphine.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'Critical and Discourse Approaches to Power', University of Versailles Presentation, University of Versailles - Saint-Quentin-En-Yvelines.
Deroy, X & Clegg, SR 2007, 'Events, Ethics and Rules: Beyond Risk Management', EURAM, EURAM, EURAM, Paris.
Paper presented to the track on Management Ethics and The Politics of Identity at EURAM.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'The future of organization studies', University of Innsbruck Public Lecture, University of Innsbruck.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'Publishing in top-tier journals', Department of Management, University of Innsbruk Workshop, University of Innsbruk.
Workshop for the University of Innsbruk, Department of Management.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'When organizational gossip matters: The relation between formulation and gloss', University of Paris-Dauphine Presentation, University of Paris-Dauphine.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'The politics of gossip', The Stockhom Centre of Organisational Research (Score) Presentation, University of Stockholm.
Clegg, SR 2007, 'In search of the critical in Latin American management/organization studies', AOM, AOM, Philadelphia, USA.
Presentation to Professional Development Workshop Critical Management Studies Division
Clegg, SR 2006, 'The organizing society', ICF European Coaching Conference, Brussels, Belgium.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'After Foucault: Making sense of power.', 20th IPSA World Congress, Fukuoka, Japan.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Messner, M 2006, 'The organising society.', 22nd EGOS Colloquium, Bergen, Norway.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'The heart of darkness: Total institution and evilness.', 30th Encontro ANPAD, Salvador, Brazil.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Organisational coaching: From the inside', ICF European Coaching Conference, Brussel, Belgium.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Why is organisation theory so ignorant? Small world.', Critical Management Studies Workshop Program, Atlanta, USA.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Organizational coaching: From the inside out and outside in - Constructing the new discipline of coaching', ICF European Coaching Conference - Interactions in Coaching, ICF European Coaching Conference, Brussel, Belgium.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'From the working body to a mind in a soulful machine', WVI ISA World Congress of Sociology, WVI ISA World Congress of Sociology, Durban, South Africa.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'Why is organization theory so ignorant? Small world, big issues, and the neglect of total institutions', Critical Management Studies Workshop Program, Stream: Power in Organizations, Power in Organizations, Atlanta, USA.
Courpasson, D & Clegg, SR 2006, 'Bringing power back into organization studies: Refashioning the bureaucratic ideal type', 66th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Academy of Management, Atlanta, USA.
Clegg, SR 2006, 'From bureaucracies to polyarchies: The production of political performance in organizations', American Political Science Association, American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, USA.
Clegg, SR 2005, 'We see dead people? Reflective debate on John Miner's vision for organization science', American Academy of Management, American Academy of Management, Hawaii.
Gordon, RD, Clegg, SR & Rhodes, CH 2005, 'The MBA and institutionalised hypocritical isomorphism in management education', 2005 APROS Colloquium, Asia Pacific Researchers in Organisation Studies, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
Clegg, SR, Gordon, RD, Hermens, A, Kornberger, MM, Rhodes, CH & Ross-Smith, AE 2005, 'Strange brew: the MBA and institutionalised hypocritical isomorphism in management education', 4th International Critical Management Studies Conference, 4th International Critical Management Studies Conference, -, Cambridge, UK.
Bubna-Litic, DC, Wolfram Cox, J, Westwood, R, Brewis, J & Jack, G 2003, 'Introduction', "The Pleasure of Periphery/ The Malady of Marginality:SCOS 2003 conference Symposium, 21st Standing Conference on Organizational Symbolism, Standing conference on organizational Symbolism, University of Cambridge, UK, pp. 1-2.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Carter, C 2003, 'The differend, strangers and democracy: theorizing polyphonic organization', Conference Proceedings - Democracy in a Knowledge Economy, 63rd Annual Meeting: The Academy of Management, Academy of Management, Seattle, USA, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pitsis, TS, Clegg, SR & Marosszeky, M 2003, 'Constructing the Olympic dream: A future perfect strategy of project management.', 3rd World Project Management Week, World Project Management Week, Eventcorp, Australia, pp. 1-34.
Clegg, SR, Rhodes, CH & Kornberger, MM 2003, 'Managers as moral subjects? decision making, undecidability and the organizational ego', Proceedings - New World: Translating the Past, Narrating the Present & Organising the Future, 10th APROS International Colloquium 2003, Area de Estudios Organizacionales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Oxaca, Mexico, pp. 1-17.
Carter, C, Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Mueller, F 2003, '"No guru, no method, no teacher" - no way!', Proceedings New World: Translating the Past, Narrating the Present & Organising the Future, 10th APROS International Colloquium 2003, Area de Estudios Organizacionales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Oaxaca, Mexico, pp. 1-36.
Gordon, RD & Clegg, SR 2003, 'The constitution of power and corruption: an ethnography of and in transition', Proceedings of New World: Translating the Past, Narrating the Present & Organising the Future, 10th APROS International Colloquium 2003, Area de Estudios Organizacionales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Oaxaca, Mexico, pp. 1-42.
Clegg, SR, Kornberger, MM & Carter, C 2003, 'For management', New World: Translating the Past, Narrating the Present, Organizing the Future, Tenth International APROS Colloquim, Oaxaca, Mexico.
Paper presented to the Language, Change and Organization Management as Discursive Practice Stream
Clegg, SR 2002, 'Keynote presentation - 'Paradoxes of virtual collaboration'', The Adoption and Diffusion of IT in an Environment of Critical Change, IFIP TC8 WG8.6 International Working Conference, International Federation of Information Processing, Sydney, Australia, pp. 179-186.
Pitsis, TS, Clegg, SR & Marosszeky, M 2002, 'Managing through the future perfect tense: a project odyssey', Proceedings of the British Academy of Management Conference 2002, British Academy of Management Conference 2002, Middlesex University, London, UK, pp. 1-29.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Marosszeky, M, Clegg, SR, Pitsis, TS & Rura-Polley, T 2002, 'Institutionalising Alliances in Construction Projects', European Academy of Management, European Academy of Management, European Academy of Management, Stockholm Sweden.
Clegg, SR 2002, 'Paradoxes of virtual collaboration (Keynote presentation)', The Adoption and Diffusion of IT in an Environment of Critical Change, No, International Federation of Information Processing, Sydney, pp. 179-186.
Pitsis, TS, Rura-Polley, T & Clegg, SR 2001, 'The Implications of 'Future Perfect Planning' for Quality Management', Proceedings of 5th International and 8th National research Conference on Quality and Innovation Management, 5th International and 8th National research Conference on Quality and Innovation Management, The Euro-Australian Cooperation Centre Victoria, Melbourne, pp. 437-450.
Clegg, SR 2000, 'Taking stock: changing theoretical and executive paradigms for the 21st century', ASAC - IFSAM 2000 - The 28th Annual ASAC Conference and 5th IFSAM World Congress, ASAC & IFSAM, Montreal, Canada, pp. 0-0.
Clegg, SR 2000, 'The vicissitudes of power', Managing for the New Millennium: The Leap Ahead - ANZAM 2000 Conference Proceedings, Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, Australia & New Zealand Academy of Management, Sydney, NSW, pp. 0-0.
CLEGG, SR & REDDING, SG 1970, 'CAPITALISM IN CONTRASTING CULTURES - INTRODUCTION', CAPITALISM IN CONTRASTING CULTURES, CONF ON FIRMS, MANAGEMENT, THE STATE AND ECONOMIC CULTURES, WALTER DE GRUYTER, HONG KONG, HONG KONG, pp. 1-28.
CLEGG, SR 1970, 'SOCIOLOGIES OF CLASS AND ORGANIZATION', ORGANIZATION THEORY AND CLASS ANALYSIS, SESSION OF THE COLLOQUIUM OF THE EUROPEAN GROUP FOR ORGANIZATION STUDIES : TECHNOLOGY AS THE TWO EDGED SWORD OF TECHNICAL CHANCE, WALTER DE GRUYTER, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, pp. 1-51.
CLEGG, SR, HIGGINS, W & SPYBEY, T 1970, 'POST-CONFUCIANISM, SOCIAL-DEMOCRACY AND ECONOMIC CULTURE', CAPITALISM IN CONTRASTING CULTURES, CONF ON FIRMS, MANAGEMENT, THE STATE AND ECONOMIC CULTURES, WALTER DE GRUYTER, HONG KONG, HONG KONG, pp. 31-78.
Clegg, S 2019, 'Managing the Anthropocene'.
Sustainability for the future.
Paper presented to the University of the Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
Clegg, S 2019, 'The Politics of Openness'.
Paper presented to the Catolica Porto Business School, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal.
Harvey, C, Maclean, KM & Clegg, SR 2017, 'Organization Theory in Business and Management History: Present Status and Future Prospects'.
Clegg, SR 2017, 'Liquefying modernity: Zygmunt Bauman as organization theorist'.
Clegg, SR 2017, 'The East India Company'.
Clegg, SR 2017, 'Comments on White Paper: A Vision of Responsible Research in Business and Management: Striving for Credible and Useful Knowledge'.
Clegg, SR 2017, 'Power and efficiency narratives in strategic organization and management'.
Logue, DM, Clegg, S & Hollerer, M 2016, 'Inter-institutional Collaboration for Social Innovation: The Case of Social Impact Bonds as Translational Devices'.