Dr. Stephen Wearing is an Associate Professor at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). He has taught as Visiting Fellow at a number of Universities in his 25 year career at UTS, including Wageningen University, Netherlands (12 years); Newcastle University Australia (10 years) and Macquarie University, Australia (7 years). Dr Wearing has received awards from Industry and Government for his work in the Leisure and Tourism fields (in 2007 the Frank Steward Award for his major contributions to the Parks and Leisure industry and in 1992 from the Costa Rican Government for services to youth, conservation and community).His teaching has seen him awarded the Peak Teaching Award, an Australian Teaching and Learning Council Teaching Award in (2008) and the UTS Excellence in Teaching Award (2000). At both the World Leisure and Tourism International Centre of Excellence (WICE) and Australian Conservation Training Institute (ACTI) he was given special mention for his teaching. He has continually engaged with the community where he has served as Chair and Advisor to the Board of Youth Challenge Australia (YCA) (17 years) and Board Member of the Kokoda Track Foundation Board (3 years). Dr Wearing has also served on a number of steering committees for the Sustainable Tourism CRC, WICE and IUCN. He is a Fellow and Life Member of Parks and Leisure Australasia, and has been editor of the Parks and Leisure Australasia Journal for 12 years. He has authored 10 books in the field of leisure and tourism, over 50 refereed papers and a wide range of industry based articles.
2007: Tourism Taskforce Australia (TTF) Corporate Leadership Awards. Special Judges' Award for Innovation. This award recognises the University of Technology, Sydney's Youth Challenge Australia program as an outstanding example of innovation, encouraging tourism volunteers to work on grass roots development projects in regional and remote towns in the Northern Territory. TTF Australia is the peak industry group for the tourism, transport and infrastructure sectors. Full List of Winners demonstrates level of contribution. Contribution to Brand Australia - Sydney Opera House. 2. Industry Leadership & Best Practice - Gold Coast Tourism / Gold Coast City Council 3. Corporate Social Responsibility - Sinclair Knight Merz 4. Public Sector Management - Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority 5. Excellence in Partnerships - Tourism Victoria / Parks Victoria 6. Excellence in Public Affairs - Brisbane Airport Corporation 7. Judges' Special Award for Innovation - Youth Challenge Australia University of Technology, Sydney Tourism Taskforce Australia (TTF) Corporate Leadership Awards.2007: The Parks and Leisure Australia Awards of Excellence - Frank Stewart Award (2007), this award is the highest award for excellence and recognition given in this profession. It is bestowed on an individual member who has provided exceptional service over and extensive period to both the professional association and the parks and leisure industry. Its name recognises Frank Stewart, the first Federal Government Minister of Recreation who as a member of the Whitlam Government, demonstrated and excellent understanding of community values and principles . The judging criteria for the award include a demonstrated high standard of professional and outstanding leadership within the parks and leisure industry for a minimum of five year. Frank Stewart Award recipient for Parks and Leisure Australia (Including Honorary Life Membership).
EcotourismCommunity based and volunteer tourismEnvironmentalismSociology of leisure and tourismSocial Sciences in protected area management
2008: ALTC Australian Award for University Teaching - Work-based Learning Category.2000: Excellence in Teaching Award – UTSindustry project 1 & 2; community engagement; ecotourism planning and management; sustainable tourism management, protected area management; leisure and tourism planning; outdoor education; water based recreation; guiding and interpretation management.
Social Psychology and Theories of Consumer Culture: A Political Economy Perspective presents a critical analysis of the leading positions in social psychology from the perspective of classical and contemporary theories of consumer culture. The analysis seeks to expand social psychological theory by focusing on the interface between modern western culture (consumer culture) and social behaviour. McDonald and Wearing argue that if social psychology is to play a meaningful role in solving some of societys most pressing problems (e.g. global warming, obesity, addiction, alienation, and exclusion) then it needs to incorporate a more comprehensive understanding and analysis of consumer culture. Wide-ranging and challenging, the book offers a fresh insight into critical social psychology appropriate for upper undergraduate and postgraduate courses in personality, social psychology, critical and applied psychology. It will also appeal to those working in clinical, counselling, abnormal, and environmental psychology and anyone with an interest in the integration of social psychology and theories of consumer culture.
Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. 2013, International Volunteer Tourism: Integrating Travellers and Communities, 1st, CABI, UK.
International Volunteer Tourism: Integrating Travellers and Communities
Sharp, engaging and relevant, Tourist Cultures presents valuable critical insights into tourism - arguing that within the imagined-real spaces of the traveller self it becomes possible to envisage tourist cultures and futures that will empower and engage. Here is a framework for understanding tourism which is subject-centred, dynamic, and capable of dealing with the complexity of contemporary tourist cultures. The book argues that tourists are not passive consumers of either destinations or their interpretations. Rather, they are actively occupied in a multi-sensory, embodied experience. It delves into what tourists are looking for when they travel, be they on a package tour, or immersing themselves in the places, cultures and lifestyles of the exotic. Tourism is examined through a consideration of the spaces and selves of travel, exploring the cultures of meaning, mobilities and engagement that frame and define the tourist experience and traveller identities. This book draws on the explanatory traditions of sociology, human geography and tourism studies to provide useful insights into the experiential and the lived dimensions of tourism and travel. Written in an accessible and engaging style, this is a welcome contribution to the growing literature on tourism and will be important reading for students in a range of social science and humanities courses.
Wearing, S.L. 2009, The nature of ecotourism: The place of self, identity and communities as interacting elements of alternative tourism experiences., 1st, Lambert Academic Publishing AG & Co. KG, Saarbrucken, Germany..
This book examines the social construction of an alternative tourism experience. It does this intially by establishing that alternative tourism experiences can be possible for tourists coming form urban industrial societies, in that there is the possiblity of different experiences to those of mass tourism experiences as put forward in the literature (Rojek 1993; Mac Cannell 1976; 1992). It then seeks to examine the process of an alternative tourism experience through a specific case study. It poses two research questions for the case study that stem from the intial literature review. What are the elements of an alternative tourism experience and its process that may make it different from mass tourism? In seeking to discover these elements the thesis looks at how the tourists perceive the effects their experience had on them through their recollection of the on site experience. In order to understand this an examination is made of the tourists motivation for seeking the experience. This is combined with an investigation of the effect the experience may have had upon them through their recollection of the experience upon their return.
Wearing, S.L. & Neil, J.A. 2009, Ecotourism: Impacts, Potentials and Possiblities, 2nd, Elsevier, Butterworth-Heinemann, London, UK.
From Preface of Book The second edition keeps its original structure with Chapter Seven containing two new major case studies on trekking, the first on the Kokoda Track, Papua New Guinea and the second on Nepal. This edition has added 7 new mini case studies (which are found throughout the text) as well as a revision and update of those that were retained from the first edition. Given the breadth and depth of new knowledge published in ecotourism since since the first edition, the new edition contains references from 300 new sources. Readers will also note an added âsuggested readingsâ section at the end of each chapter in order for readers to pursue more in-depth and specific reading on the topics presented. There are also many more new photographs, maps and diagrams of the areas featured in the book, an updated glossary and another new section at the end of the book that provides web links to ecotourism orgnisations and other sustainable tourism resources.
Lyons, K.D. & Wearing, S. 2008, Journeys of discovery in volunteer tourism : International case study perspectives.
The fast-growing phenomenon of volunteer tourism encompasses a diverse range of activities, from conserving environments to working with host communities to alleviate poverty. However, understanding the complex relationship between volunteering and tourism requires a wide analytical framework. This book provides a broad and valuable insight into how volunteer tourism is growing and developing. Theoretical and empirical case studies from leading researchers in the field explore the experiences of the volunteer tourist and the power relationships between volunteers and host communities and commercial, non-commercial and government entities involved in developing and supporting volunteer tourism. The ambiguous and contested intersections between volunteering, travel and alternative tourism as a foundation for considering the future of volunteer tourism are also examined. © CAB International 2008. All rights reserved.
Lyons, K.D. & Wearing, S. 2008, Preface.
Wearing, S.L. 2001, Ecotourism: impacts, potential and possibilities, (Portuguese Edition), Manole, SÃ£o Paulo.
Wearing, S.L. 2001, Volunteer Tourism: Experiences that make a Difference, 1, CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK.
Wearing, S.L. 2000, Ecotourism: impacts, potential and possibilities, (Spanish Edition), Editorial Sintesis, S.A. Madrid.
Wearing, S.L. 1999, Ecotourism: impacts, potential and possibilities, (Korean Edition), Packsan, Seoul.
Wearing, S.L. & Neil, J. 1999, Ecotourism: Impacts, Potentials and Possibilities, 1st, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
Wearing, S.L. 1997, Developing ecotourism :a community based approach, Hepper Marriott and Associates, Melbourne, Victoria.
Cheng, M., Wong, A., Wearing, S.L. & McDonald, M. 2017, 'Ecotourism social media initiatives in China', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 416-432.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of social media by ecotourism management agencies and how this potentially changes the relationship between the ecotourist and the natural environment. It examines the meaning of ecotourism and the way that social media shapes visitor perceptions and meaning through an examination of the content of 775 Sina microblog postings from five leading ecotourism site management agencies in China. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the social media postings, a series of semi-structured interviews was also conducted with followers and management agencies. The findings provide an enhanced understanding of ecotourism marketing and its impacts on the ecotourist while also creating a framework for the use of social media to market ecotourism. The framework outlines the importance of the meanings associated with this form of communication through its promotional appeal to tourists and the outcomes for both the ecotourist and site management.
Grabowski, S., Wearing, S., Lyons, K., Tarrant, M. & Landon, A. 2017, 'A rite of passage? Exploring youth transformation and global citizenry in the study abroad experience', Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 139-149.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Travel, long recognised as a rite of passage, is often also touted as a transformative experience which
facilitates cross-cultural understanding, fosters an embrace of diversity and promotes global
awareness. This process is aligned with youth development and has a rich history in the tourism
literature. The importance of transformational travel, however, has now spread to programmes
across the higher education landscape, with the recognition that travel has the potential to
nurture a global citizenry. Additionally, for many young people, the motivation for studying
abroad is to assist in the transition to adulthood. In this way, educational travel is similar to an
'overseas experience' or a 'gap year'. It is often taken at an important time of transition in
emerging adulthood, for example, from school to work. We argue that this period of identity
formation for youth can be likened to a rite of passage much like the Grand Tour of the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was for young European men and women. Our paper
examines the role of the study abroad experience in promoting youth transformation and global
McDonald, M., Bridger, A., Wearing, S.L. & Ponting, J. 2017, 'Consumer Spaces as 'Political Economic Spaces'? A Critical Review of Social, Environmental and Psychogeographical Research', Social and Personality Psychology Compass, vol. 11, pp. 1-12.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
McDonald, M., Gough, B., Deville, A. & Wearing, S.L. 2017, 'Social Psychology, Consumer Culture & Neoliberal Political Economy', Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
McDonald, M., Wearing, S.L. & Wearing, S.L. 2017, 'Normalising 'Staged Authenticity' in Tourism: neoliberal governmentality and tourist encounters', Tourism Analysis.
Porter, D., wearing, S., McCauley, B., Wearing, M. & Foley, C.T. 2017, 'Exploring Male Adolescent Video Gaming as Leisure Consumption: It's not as simple as 'Bang Bang: You're dead!'', Leisure Studies.
© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group This paper examines the challenges of evaluating volunteer tourism and looks towards possibilities for rethinking the ways in which the phenomenon is conceptualised. We reflect on the debates and practices that have emerged since the first theoretical exploration introduced over 15 years ago in a book titled Volunteer tourism: Experiences that make a difference. This review paper commences with a discussion of the criticisms that have been targeted at both research and practice, and reflects on the need to rethink how volunteer tourism is evaluated. We argue that the volunteer tourism industry must respond to criticisms from academics and the media and move towards conscious choices that reframe volunteer tourism away from development aid towards intercultural mutuality and decommodification.
Wearing, S.L., Law, A., Wearing, M., Deville, A. & McDonald, M. 2017, 'From Longboards and veggie patches to Couch surfing and community gardens: living beyond the neoliberal fan club,', Annals of Tourism Research.
Wearing, S.L., Schweinsberg, S., Chatterton, P., Grabowski, S. & Reggers, A. 2017, 'Exploring the potential of Community Based Ecotourism in the REDD Forest Climate Change Initiative', Journal of Sustainable Tourism.
Deville, A., Wearing, S. & McDonald, M. 2016, 'Tourism and Willing Workers on Organic Farms: A collision of two spaces in sustainable agriculture', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 111, no. B, pp. 421-429.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. The purpose of this paper is to offer a conceptual analysis of the space created by the Willing Workers on Organic Farms (WWOOF) host as a part of the organic farming movement and how that space now collides with the idea of tourism heterotopias as the changing market sees WWOOFers who may be less motivated by organic farming and more by a cheaper form of holiday. The resulting contested space is explored looking at the role and delicate balance of WWOOFing as a form of sustainable tourism in the context of socially constructed understandings of space. Poststructural concepts of space suggest that it is impermanent, fragile and under constant threat of change. Space is constantly produced and reproduced in the process, spaces become sites where struggle and contestation occur, in this instance as one discourse or discursive practice, namely WWOOFing, intersects with and is influenced by the more dominant capital centric discourse of mass tourism.
Deville, A., Wearing, S. & McDonald, M. 2016, 'WWOOFing in Australia: ideas and lessons for a de-commodified sustainability tourism', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 91-113.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper considers Willing Workers on Organic Farms (WWOOFing) as a form of sustainable tourism with particular focus on its social and cultural dimensions and the means by which deep engagement in these appear to lead participants to a better awareness or understanding of ecological sustainability issues. It draws upon a grounded theory-based exploration of the perspectives and interactions of WWOOFers and WWOOF hosts in Australia, using 323 formal written surveys of hosts and 188 surveys of WWOOFers, together with 16 in-depth unstructured WWOOFer interviews, which collectively enhances understanding of WWOOFing as an emerging, unique and valuable form of sustainable tourism. By virtue of the highly engaged and symbiotic basis of the exchange involved, WWOOFing is commonly perceived to facilitate a transcendence of the role of tourist. The research indicates this is the product of a unique relationship forged in the WWOOFing context, which differs markedly to relationships forged in more typical fee-for-service tourism contexts in which there is a different relationship at play between power, authenticity and sustainability. This relationship is outlined in order to articulate the notion that WWOOFing represents a type of 'sustainability tourism that is unexplored in the sustainable tourism literature.
Lai, P.-.H., Hsu, Y.-.C. & Wearing, S. 2016, 'A social representation approach to facilitating adaptive co-management in mountain destinations managed for conservation and recreation', JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 227-244.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wearing, S.L. 2016, 'Volunteer tourism: popular humanitarianism in neo-liberal times', Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 92-93.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wearing, S.L., Ankor, J. & McDonald, M. 2016, 'Journeys of creation: Experiencing the unknown, the other and authenticity as an epiphany of the self', Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 157-167.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The purpose of this study is to offer an analysis of the tourist experience through a focus on
'epiphany', which is conceptualized as an interactional moment that creates change and
transformation in self-identity. We suggest that an epiphany in tourism can be understood by
analysing its links with the philosophical concepts of existential authenticity, the Other and the
unknown. In the experience of the unknown, the traveller becomes more conscious of authentic
modes of existence. This analysis explores the theoretical boundaries of the tourist experience by
focusing on the construction of self-identity and subjectivity through the process of travel.
Wearing, S.L., Edwards, D. & Foley, C. 2016, 'Understanding the Tourist Experience of Cities and Urban Places', Annals of Tourism Research.
Wearing, S.L., McDonald, M., Wearing, M. & Porter, D. 2016, 'Computer Games as Consumptive Leisure: Isn't it all just bang bang your dead?', Leisure Studies.
Grabowski, S., Wearing, S.L. & Small, J. 2016, 'Time as culture: exploring its influence in volunteer tourism', Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 26-36.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Volunteer tourism engages the volunteer in a cultural exchange that is personal and often influential in their life experience. This paper explores one aspect of this exchange, the idea of time in travel, and finds that the volunteer tourist experience is particularly influenced by cultural time differences. When volunteer tourists travel and return home, the emotions and behaviours which emerge in their narratives of experience are usually framed by a range of reference points. One of these is the notion of time. 'Time' appears to play a role in travel across cultures and continues to affect tourists when they return home. This idea is explored here through the experiences of 12 volunteer tourists. Although all of their experiences, both in-country and on re-entry, were very unique, each volunteer tourist spoke directly or indirectly about adjustment to cultural time differences and this was the key factor in their ability to adapt in both settings.
Reggers, A., Grabowski, S., Wearing, S.L., Chatterton, P. & Schweinsberg, S. 2016, 'Exploring outcomes of community-based tourism on the Kokoda Track, Papua New Guinea: a longitudinal study of Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques', JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, vol. 24, no. 8-9, pp. 1139-1155.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Godfrey, J., Wearing, S. & Schulenkorf, N. 2015, 'Medical Volunteer Tourism as an Alternative to Backpacking in Peru', Tourism Planning and Development, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 111-122.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Medical volunteer tourism (MVT) and backpacking are both alternatives to mass tourism; yet, while backpackers simply aim to 'get off the beaten track, medical volunteer tourists (MVTs) aim to additionally 'give back. This paper examines the experiences of MVTs in Peru and explores MVT as an alternative to backpacking for Generation Y. Findings are derived from a case study conducted of a commercial volunteer tourism organisation in Cusco, Peru. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 MVTs and 3 staff members. In this paper, we describe what the MVTs did at the local clinics, explore the contribution they made to the host community, discuss the benefits the MVTs themselves gained from the experience, and examine the similarities and differences between MVTs and backpackers. There is a wide overlap between the demographics, motivations, and experiences of MVTs and backpackers: they are generally young, stay for a longer rather than a brief period of time, focus on participatory activities, and often view their choice of travel as more ethical than mainstream mass tourism. However, MVTs differ from backpackers, in that they attempt to make a positive contribution to the host community, while simultaneously benefitting their own personal and professional development.
Wearing, S.L., Wearing, J., McDonald, M. & Wearing, M. 2015, 'Leisure in a world of 'com-pu-pu-pu-pu-pu-pu-pu-pu-pu-pu-puter-puter, puter games': a father and son conversation', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 219-234.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 Australia and New Zealand Association of Leisure Studies. This article is a conversation between an academic and his 14-year-old son and investigates the links between leisure and computer games. It focuses specifically on the son as an adolescent in the context of Western consumer society. It is interested in how he explores his leisure in relation to the computer game 'League of Legends' and how this indicates his adolescent self, which is a self that is increasingly targeted, marketed, packaged and purchased. This analysis illustrates how the consumer packaging of the adolescent self through commodified leisure creates in a neoliberal society the negotiated realities of youth experience and social identity. The paper argues that consumer culture manufactures a world of escape, particularly for adolescent boys. It allows him (J) to t ransform his world into one he has more control over, separate from his parents' imposed regime and in a way that resists other forms of market-based influence. This is achieved through the adoption of identities that are offered in the games (a choice) that appear to challenge authority, albeit produced within youth culture and marketing, purchased and consumed in the belief that it is resistance. There is also a sense of friendship and shared identity with others in forming teams online to play the game. In these games, forms of adolescent deviance, resistance and control are normalised as challenging, exciting and risky while providing associations with power, self-fulfilment and a degree of online celebrity and identity exchange. In the final analysis, the paper explores some possibilities for parents to enter this world and understand the children and their constructions of self-identity in Western consumer society.
Wearing, S., Ankor, J., McDonald, M. & Schweinsberg, S.C. 2015, 'The Nature of Aesthetics: How Consumer Culture has Changed our National Parks', Tourism Review International, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 225-233.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Tourism is essentially a modern Western social and cultural phenomenon, the analysis of which
has evolved from premodernism through to postmodernism. Tourism differs significantly from nonWestern
and historical forms of travel, being closely related to the emergence of modernity with
the emphasis on economic viability and consumer culture. The massive growth of tourism over the
20th century and the emergence of a multibillion dollar global tourist industry have impacted on
national parks as tourists increasingly seek nature-based experiences. This has occurred in conjunction
with increases in leisure time, disposable income, technological improvements in communication
and transportation, demographic changes, and a shift in the axis of personal identity and meaningful
social action from production to consumption. This article examines how aesthetics fits into this
evolution and the current role of national parks with a focus on the emergence of their production
through the mass media to a consumer market. Finally, we propose more reflexivity in regards to
tourism and place image production.
Joseph, J. & Wearing, S.L. 2014, 'Does Bear do it for you? Gen-Y gappers and alternative tourism', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 314-339.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Popular culture and travel are both major points of interest within the realm of leisure in contemporary consumer society. Respectively, they are both highly contentious and diverse fields. This paper explores the more specific areas of popular culture celebrities and alternative tourism in an effort to examine the influence that popular culture and travel engagements have on a segment of Generation Y (Gen-Y) – the gappers. These two areas of leisure activity shape social and cultural norms and influence the construction of self-identity amongst this generation. The aim of this exploratory research is to highlight some areas where popular culture and alternative tourism can be valued as constructive factors influencing a Gen-Y group. The theory of planned behaviour acted as a framework and was used to identify the influence that popular culture celebrity 'Bear' Grylls and his TV show Man vs. Wild had on the alternative tourism engagements of the Gen-Y gappers.
Law, A. & Wearing, S.L. 2014, 'ALR special issue - 'Alternative' cultures and leisure: creating pathways for sustainable livelihoods', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 249-251.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Stoner, K.R., Tarrant, M.A., Perry, L., Stoner, L., Wearing, S. & Lyons, K. 2014, 'Global Citizenship as a Learning Outcome of Educational Travel', Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 149-163.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Tarrant, M., Lyons, K. & Wearing, S.L. 2014, 'Global Citizenry, Educational Travel and Sustainable Tourism: Evidence from Australia and New Zealand', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 403-420.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Schweinsberg, S.C., Wearing, S.L., Kuhn, D. & Grabowski, S. 2014, 'Marketing National Parks for Sustainable Tourism: Bridging the Conservation Human Usage Divide Through Track/ Trail Based Interpretation', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 16, pp. 42-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S., Cunnigham, P., Schweinsberg, S.C. & Jobberns, C. 2014, 'Whale Watching as Ecotourism: How Sustainable is it?', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: an interdisciplinary journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 38-55.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, Schweinsberg, S.C., Lai, P. & Lyons, K. 2014, 'A Discussion of Coal Seam Gas in Australia's Hunter Valley Wine Tourism Region', Australian Parks and Leisure, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 29-52.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Cunningham, P.A. & Wearing, S.L. 2013, 'Does consensus work? A case study of the Cloughjordan ecovillage, Ireland', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1-28.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ecovillages have grown in number around the world since the early 1990s. This growth appears to be largely due to
the contested nature of post/modernity and the desire to establish a more simple, meaningful and sustainable lifestyle
that is centered on community. The end of the 1990s represented the high tide of neo-liberalism in most advance
liberal democracies. Ten years later, and the global economy still demonstrates signs that modes of capitalism have
intensified and spread under the influence of global and state orchestrated markets, giving rise to a search for
alternatives that might provide other mechanisms for organizing our lives. Cloughjordan Ecovillage is used to
examine how governance through a consensus-based decision-making approach works as an alternative in this
circumstance. Generally, intentional communities are organized around egalitarian principles and therefore
commonly embrace the ideology of consensus. The primary research question guiding this study was – Does
consensus work in the governance of alternative lifestyles? The preliminary findings of this case study suggest that
in spite of the impressive nature of the built infrastructure at this site, the community continues to struggle with
consensus-based decision-making as a form of self-organization and governance.
Cunningham, P.A. & Wearing, S.L. 2013, 'The Politics of Consensus: An Exploration of the Cloughjordan Ecovillage, Ireland', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1-28.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ecovillages have grown in number around the world since the early 1990s. This growth appears to be largely due to the contested nature of post/modernity and the desire to establish a more simple, meaningful and sustainable lifestyle that is centered on community. The end of the 1990s represented the high tide of neo-liberalism in most advance liberal democracies. Ten years later, and the global economy still demonstrates signs that modes of capitalism have intensified and spread under the influence of global and state orchestrated markets, giving rise to a search for alternatives that might provide other mechanisms for organizing our lives. Cloughjordan Ecovillage is used to examine how governance through a consensus-based decision-making approach works as an alternative in this circumstance. Generally, intentional communities are organized around egalitarian principles and therefore commonly embrace the ideology of consensus. The primary research question guiding this study wasDoes consensus work in the governance of alternative lifestyles? The preliminary findings of this case study suggests that in spite of the impressive nature of the built infrastructure at this site, the community continues to struggle with consensus-based decision-making as a form of self-organization and governance.
McDonald, M. & Wearing, S.L. 2013, 'A Reconceptualisation of the Self in Humanistic Psychology: Heidegger, Foucault and the Sociocultural Turn', Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 37-59.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Since the early 1970s humanistic psychology has struggled to remain a relevant force in the social and psychological sciences, we attribute this in part to a conceptualisation of the self rooted in theoretically outmoded thinking. In response to the issue of relevancy a sociocultural turn has been called for within humanistic psychology, which draws directly and indirectly on the conceptual insights of Michel Foucault. However, this growing body of research lacks a unifying conceptual base that is able to encompass its new perspectives (its call for a sociocultural turn) and the movement's theoretical antecedents (the actualising tendency). This analysis suggests a way forward by offering a potential reconceptualisation of the self in humanistic psychology through the existential-phenomenology of Martin Heidegger. We argue that Heidegger's conception of the self takes account of subjectivities produced in discourse and institutional practice, while acknowledging the human capacity for actualisation in his concept of the authentic-self.
This paper examines the current state of `volunteer tourism, both as a field of study and modern phenomenon. The foundation of the review rests upon themes initiated over 10 years ago in Volunteer Tourism: Experiences That Make a Difference (Wearing, 2001). The review begins with a discussion of the explosive growth of volunteer tourism (research and practice) and continues with an analysis of the literature utilizing a multiphasic format that reflects the volunteer tourism process. Specifically, the paper includes a review of research in the area of pre-trip motivations, continues through work focussing on the volunteer tourism experience itself with emphasis on the role of the volunteer tourism organization and the community, and ends with discussion of the literature in the areas of post-trip reflections and transformations. Conclusions include recommendations for future research.
Wearing, S.L., McDonald, M. & Wearing, M. 2013, 'Consumer Culture, the Mobilisation of the Narcissistic Self and Adolescent Deviant Leisure', Leisure Studies, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 367-381.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the consumer packaging of adolescent deviance through commodified leisure. It argues that under conditions of neoliberalism, deviant leisure is commodified by industry, emptying deviance of its political potential, selling it back to adolescents in the form of narcissistic self-identities. These self-identities appear to challenge authority, albeit produced within youth culture and marketing, purchased and consumed in the belief that it is resistance. Forms of adolescent deviance and narcissism are normalised as challenging, exciting and risky while providing associations with power, wealth, celebrity and physical beauty. In the final analysis, we explore some possibilities for the resistance of market-based constructions of self-identity for adolescents in western consumer cultures.
Reggers, A.L., Schweinsberg, S.C. & Wearing, S.L. 2013, 'Understanding Stakeholder Values in Co-Management Arrangements for Protected Area Establishment on the Kokoda Track, Papua New Guinea', Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 45-60.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Over recent years, a number of scholars have drawn attention to the importance of broad stakeholder participation in natural resource management. The general trend toward a more democratic attitude amongst many resource management practitioners has also amplified pressure for the development of processes whereby the full spectrum of stakeholders can engage in the development of sustainable natural resource management plans. Theories of co-management have formed an important part of research in this field for a number of years, and more recently there has been a concerted academic attempt to develop methodologies for operationalizing co-management. The aim of this paper is to present an operationalization of the action arena developed by Carlsson and Berkes (2005), which is a six-step methodological schema for enacting co-management arrangements in natural resource management. The action arena is essentially the community or resource system under investigation. Carlsson and Berkes (2005) note that first an understanding of the action arena is required prior to proceeding to the management tasks to be performed, and identifying the stakeholder linkages that must be analysed in order to determine opportunities for capacity building and strategies for conflict resolution.
Schweinsberg, S.C., Wearing, S.L. & McManus, P. 2013, 'Exploring sustainable tourism education in business schools: The honours program', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 53-60.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper examines the future of sustainability education in tourism honours programs in Australian tertiary institutions, an issue of international relevance as many tourism programs are located in mainstream business schools. Its suggests that while industry relevant skills acquisition is an important characteristic of undergraduate tourism education; the tourism honours year requires the opportunity for students to incorporate critical reflection into their study of tourism and in recent times particularly those issues related to sustainability. Sustainability embraces the critical and has sought to straddle neo-liberal and socialist positions through its incorporation of various strands of intellectual thought including equity, limits to growth, nature, poverty and development. In order to improve the quality of sustainability education in tourism honours programs the authors have looked for lessons that can be taken from geography. Within Australian tertiary institutions tourism programs are increasingly being incorporated into mainstream business faculties. Tourism offers an applied lens through which business students can be exposed to the various themes of business practice including: sustainability, ethics, marketing, economics and statistics. This paper does not argue against business focused tourism teaching but instead looks at ways in which renewed engagement with tourisms various disciplinary bases can equip Honours students with the visioning and critical thinking skills that are necessary for a rounded sustainability education
Cunningham, P.A., Huijbens, E. & Wearing, S.L. 2012, 'From Whaling To Whale Watching: Examining Sustainability And Cultural Rhetoric', Journal of Sustainable Tourism (Building a Decommodified Research Paradigm in Tourism: The Contribution of NGOs), vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 143-161.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper explores whaling and whale watching to determine the viability of their divergent practices - and explains why they coexist in some cases. Whale watching is often viewed as an ecotourism product and presented as an activity that is fast growin
Lyons, K. & Wearing, S.L. 2012, 'Reflections On The Ambiguous Intersections Between Volunteering And Tourism', Leisure Sciences, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 88-93.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper we critique the intersections between volunteering and tourism and consider how these have been treated in scholarly research. We highlight how current narrow definitions of volunteer tourism may be obscuring activities which could further
Lyons, K., Hanley, J., Wearing, S.L. & Neil, J.A. 2012, 'Gap Year Volunteer Tourism : Myths of Global Citizenship?', Annals Of Tourism Research, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 361-378.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The valorisation of cross-cultural understanding and promotion of an ethic of global citizenship are at the forefront of the recent development and proliferation of international `gap year travel programs and policies. Governments and industry alike promote gap year travel uncritically as a guaranteed pathway to the development of inclusive ideologies associated with global citizenship. In this paper we examine how the neoliberalist context in which gap year travel programs have proliferated does little to promote tolerance. We then consider the recent growth of `volunteer tourism as an alternative gap year youth travel experience and explore how the implied resistance to self-serving neoliberalist values that it engenders can become coopted by neoliberalism.
Tourism and Sustainable Development: Reconsidering a Concept of Vague Policies
is about sustainability and, in particular, sustainable development, and this book, by
Jorn W. Mundt, provides a review of its conceptual history, definitions and links to ¨
tourism. I like this book. It is a little eclectic and certainly not a standard text in the
area of tourism and sustainability. I would suggest it is a good read for those looking
for some alternative views and who have read some of the works that are more geared
towards the tourism textbook market. This book certainly is not that, which I see as
a positive thing
Schweinsberg, S.C., Wearing, S.L. & Darcy, S.A. 2012, 'Understanding communities' views of nature in rural industry renewal: the transition from forestry to nature based tourism in Eden, Australia', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 195-213.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This scoping paper examines the complex issue of assessing and understanding community views about the restructuring towards nature-based rural tourism of traditional agriculture and forestry rural economies and their activities that had hitherto shaped local identities. It shows how individual resident perceptions can be included within social impact assessment through the use of psychological methods and discusses the relative merits of using personal construct theory -based repertory grids. Ten repertory grid interviews were completed in Eden, New South Wales, Australia. The findings present both the resulting repertory grids and a more detailed discussion of the interpretation of the grids through two narratives that focus on residents considering what, in their opinion, constitutes a sustainable utilisation of local forest land. The discussion examines how the results of this type of analysis can be used to understand individual residents' decisions to support or reject nature-based tourism proposals in favour of traditional extractive forest-industry sectors. It shows how this assessment system could aid planners in reconciling stakeholder conflict over the ideal usage of public forest land by offering a structured means of giving heterogeneous rural communities a formal voice in tourism-planning processes.
Reggers, A.L., Faulkner, S. & Wearing, S.L. 2011, 'Stakeholder Collaboration in a Prospective World Heritage Area: The case of the Kokoda and the Owen Stanley Ranges', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 35-54.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The process of listing a World Heritage Area in developing countries is often much more complex than in the West. Often all stakeholders are not taken into consideration. This paper presents a case study of Kokoda and the Owen Stanley Ranges, currently a tentative World Heritage site, to show the complexities in stakeholder collaboration and attribution in the process of World Heritage designation. Six key stakeholders were identified in the study. Upon examination of four attributes of stakeholders: power; legitimacy; urgency; and proximity, it was found that all stakeholders in this case study have a high legitimacy in the listing process however only the local community holds high levels of power, urgency and proximity. Additionally it was found that several stakeholders, like the private sector, have too many weak relationships with other stakeholders, resulting in a lack of communication. These findings present the first step in understanding how it might be possible to improve the listing process of World Heritage Sites in developing countries through effective stakeholder collaboration.
Wearing, S.L., Buchmann, A. & Jobberns, C. 2011, 'Free Willy: the whale-watching legacy', Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 127-140.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore contemporary issues in film tourism with reference to the growth in related tourism fields. Design/methodology/approach The paper examines the relationship between growth in dolphin and whale watching and the popularity of the Free Willy series of films. Findings Observes that films can significantly influence aspects of ecotourism, especially in terms of the expectations of tourists. Practical implications The paper illustrates how new tourism niche markets are strongly influenced by nature-related films and discusses the implications for tourism stakeholders. Originality/value The paper reviews and reveals the potential for film-induced ecotourism.
This paper highlights that tourism, due to the fact it is a multi-faceted activity and by implication its management has similar multiple contexts, often leads to the exclusion of many who are part of that tourism context. One area that has been left on the fringes of tourism is how contemporary tourism management has othered those regarded as being removed from the neoliberal business foundation of tourism. One such group is the host communities in developing countries. The failure to involve and engage with host communities and develop collaboration in the process of planning and management for tourism is and has in the past been detrimental to the sustainability of tourism. In many cases, host communities have been ignored by the industry, with few or no mechanisms or processes put in place to enable them to participate in the management of tourism. This paper presents an overview of how this engagement of host communities can expand the market for tourism and lead to more satisfying visitor experiences, enhance the sustainability of these experiences and, thus, be considered good management practice within the industry.
The article analyzes the possibility of enlisting Kokoda Track and Owen of Papua New Guinea under the World Heritage Status. It was revealed that people within communities along the Kokoda Track are not aware of the World Heritage status and the benefits of being enlisted under the status, and that they are more concerned with basic services like food supply, health and education than the status. The Department of Environment and Conservation pointed out that tourism is a not a major sector in the Owen Stanley Ranges.
Wearing, S. 2010, 'A response to Jim Butcher and Peter Smith's paper 'making a difference': Volunteer tourism and development', Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 213-215.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wearing, S.L., Wearing, M. & McDonald, M.G. 2010, 'Understanding local power and interactional processes in sustainable tourism: Exploring village-tour operator relations on the Kokoda Track, Papua New Guinea', Journal of Sustainable Tourism (Building a Decommodified Research Paradigm in Tourism: The Contribution of NGOs), vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 61-76.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper explores the power relations in and between local villages and outside tourism operators on the Kokoda Track, Papua New Guinea (PNG). The analysis of power focuses on the contingencies of agency in the interactional order allowing greater participatory approaches to sustainable tourism. The notion of power applied in this case study is derived from Michel Foucaultâs concept of power relations. It is argued that local power and ensuing interactions are neither a zero sum gain or over-determined structurally, but a symbiotic process. By applying Foucaultâs concepts to the preparation of the Ecotrekking Strategy developed by the villages on the Kokoda Track, we illustrate how power is exercised through dominance, negotiation, rationalities and resistance, all of which are interwoven into day-to-day social interactions between tourism operators and local villages. The paper concludes with a discussion on the implications of this analysis for sustainable tourism development.
McDonald, M.G., Wearing, S.L. & Ponting, J. 2009, 'The nature of peak experience in wilderness', The Humanistic Psychologist, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 121-139.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study sought to identify the distinctive elements of wilderness settings that contribute to triggering peak experiences. Thirty-nine participants who had visited wilderness areas were recruited using a voluntary wilderness registration system operated by the Victorian National Parks Service, Australia. Using a postal survey, participants were asked to provide a written response to an open-ended question requesting them to describe, in their own words, a peak experience in the wilderness. A conventional approach to qualitative content analysis of the participants descriptions revealed that the aesthetic qualities of the wilderness setting and being away from the pressures, people, distractions, and concerns of the human-made world were key elements in their peak experiences. To gain an understanding of this phenomenon, the concept and theory of restorative environments was applied to the participants experiences. This analysis indicates that wilderness settings provide a mix of aesthetic pleasure and renewal that can lead to a triggering of peak experiences that provides the basis for individual spiritual expression.
Wearing, S.L. & Whenman, A.E. 2009, 'Tourism as an Interpretive and Mediating Influence: A Review of the Authority of Guidebooks in Protected Areas', Tourism Analysis, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 701-716.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This review sees to present the outcomes of a study which examined the potential effectiveness of guidebooks as a form of interpretation in reducing environmental impacts in a national park. It provides a review based on information gained from interviews with twenty nine trekkers undertaking the Overland Track in Tasmania, Australia. Results from the interviews where correlated with the literature and indicate that trekkers are more likely to use guidebooks at the planning stage of a trek in order to make decisions about what area to visit, what equipment to take, transport and accommodation. The guidebooks used by trekkers in this inquiry were found to have only a small amount of information on minimal impact messages and such messages were found to be poorly structured. As a result guidebooks were found to have little influence in mediating responsible environmental behaviour in protected areas. The study recommends that well structured minimal impact messages be incorporated into guidebooks using the Elaboration Likelihood Model of attitude change and persuasion to direct the process.
Wearing, S.L., Faulkner, S., Chatterton, P. & Ponting, J. 2009, 'Participatory planning for eco-trekking on a potential World Heritage site: the communities of the Kokoda Track', Pacific Economic Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 101-117.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is an approach to data collection in participatory research. In this approach, the researcher is required to acknowledge and appreciate that research participants have the necessary knowledge and skills to be partners in the research process. PRA techniques were used to collect data on the Kokoda Track, Papua New Guinea, illuminating the communities perceptions of eco-trekking and how they could better benefit from it. This case study is an example of the implementation of community-based eco-tourism development and of understanding the multiplicity of forces that support or undermine it
Darcy, S.A. & Wearing, S.L. 2009, 'Public-private partnerships and contested cultural heritage tourism in national parks: a case study of the stakeholder views of the North Head Quarantine Station (Sydney, Australia)', Journal of Heritage Tourism, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 181-199.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper examines the public perceptions of stakeholders towards a proposed cultural heritage public-private partnership (PPP) within a national park in Sydney, Australia. Governments in Australia are initiating PPPs for the purposes of designing, planning, constructing and operating projects that would traditionally be regarded as 'public goods'. The North Head Quarantine Station (Sydney, Australia) was one of the first proposed PPPs in national parks that moved beyond the licensing of private sector operations within park boundaries. The Quarantine Station is used as a case study to offer insights into the PPP process because of its place in the cultural heritage of Australia, its prime a facie tourism position within Sydney Harbour and its prolonged history of development. The case study provides a mechanism for examining public opinion on cultural heritage tourism issues in national parks through understanding stakeholder perspectives presented in newspaper media accounts. The accounts are analysed on political and environmental considerations with implications drawn for future developments.
McDonald, M., Wearing, S.L. & Ponting, J. 2008, 'Narcissism and Neo-Liberalism: Work, leisure, and alienation in an era of consumption', Loisir et Societe, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 489-512.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This article outlines the development of a framework that enables the classification of different interpretation research so that it can be linked to management needs in protected areas. The developed framework has been linked to selected case studies, thus enabling this research to be systematically placed in a protected area management context. A real life context for interpretation research is important if park managers are to take new knowledge of interpretation and apply it to their operational practices.
This article explores the relationship between national parks, tourism, marketing and promotion, both conceptually and practically. It examines the structure and nature of the relationship between these areas. The implications of tourism, and particularly ecotourism's worldwide growth, have been significant for national parks, particularly in Australia, where national parks are a crucial asset for building a sustainable tourism industry. Australia has an image among international markets as a clean, green destination and some of our most important tourism icons (such as Uluru and the Great Barrier Reef ) are within national parks. In fact, almost half of all international tourists to Australia currently visit a national park during their trip (more if the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is included). If the tourism industry is to meet its future potential, then it is essential that these important attractions are funded adequately, provide quality visitor experiences and are promoted appropriately.
Wearing, S.L. 2008, 'Pro-poor Tourism: Who benefits? Perspectives on tourism and poverty reduction', Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 616-618.
Wearing, S.L. & Lyons, K. 2008, 'Submission to the Ministerial Task Force into Tourism and NSW National Parks', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 36-38.
Wearing, S.L., Goodall, H., Byrne, D. & Kijas, J. 2008, 'Cultural diversity in the social valuing of parklands: Networking communities and park management', Australasian Parks and Leisure Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 20-29.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The paper focuses on cultural diversity and the social valuing of parkland as a consequence of local urban park use. The paper is based on a study investigating whether the social values attributed to parklands are intrinsic, are generated by the cultural perspectives of the different communities who use them, or are simply generated by management approaches. The study assesses the perceptions and uses of public open space by Aboriginal, Anglo-Australian and recently migrated communities inside and outside park boundaries in the Georges River area. The preliminary results of this study identifies the impacts on each cultural group, how these groups value the public open spaces in their area and how they respond to current management approaches. The paper concludes with an outlook on how to develop research tools to support and encourage a multicultural approach to park management and create community networks that recognise opportunities and provisions at parks in an ethnically diverse multicultural Australia.
Foley, C.T., Holzman, C. & Wearing, S.L. 2007, 'Moving Beyond Conspicuous Leisure Consumption: adolescent women, mobile phones and public space', Leisure Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 179-192.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper we explore mobile phones as a form of fashion accessory for young women in contemporary culture and the possible value of such fashionable items as a source of identity and self-worth. Despite reliance on the usual stultifying stereotypes produced by marketeers to promote mobile phones, we explore the possibility that increased access to public space generates for adolescent girls alternative choices of leisure experiences and possibilities of multiple enriching identities. The findings suggest that mobile phone use can impart a sense of self-confidence, sexuality and autonomy which defies the male gaze in public spaces and may allow adolescent women to reject traditional images of femininity at a formative stage in the life course and take steps to a further array of leisure choices. It may only be a temporary image that assists a sense of self at a vulnerable time in life, or it may infiltrate other aspects of subjectivity and assist an ongoing sense of self-confidence. However, this particular leisure activity can be seen as enabling, allowing entry to an arena, that of public space, that has hitherto been limited by the male gaze and other stereotypes of adolescent women. Through in-depth interviews with teenage mobile phone users and a review of the literature we have examined the success that this form of technology has had with this social group.
Wearing, S.L., van der Duim, R. & Schweinsberg, S.C. 2007, 'Equitable representation of local porters: Towards a sustainable Nepalese trekking industry', Matkailututkimus - Turismforskning - Finnish Journal of Tourism Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 72-93.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Tourism sustainability, as an accompaniment to economic growth from tourism development, is a significant issue in many developing countries. In Nepal, the internationally renowned trekking industry in localities such as Sagarmatha (Mt Everest) brings in tourist dollars for the national and local economies. However, it also has the potential to be detrimental to local communities. In examining the benefits of purely economic sustainability versus a more holistic interpretation of sustainable tourism which includes concern for local populations; this paper is focussed on the representation of local porters by the tourism industry. Through conceptual reference to colonialist tourism discourses we argue that it is only when the myth of tourism is deconstructed that researchers can adequately comprehend the changes that need to be made to trekking industries in Nepal which will allow for a truly sustainable tourism sector to develop.
Wearing, S.L. & Ponting, J. 2006, 'Reply to Jim Butcher's Response (Vol. 14 No. 3) to 'Building a Decommodified Research Paradigm in Tourism: The Contribution of NGOs' (Vol. 13, No. 5)', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 512-515.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Our paper `Building a Decommodified Research Paradigm in Tourism: The Contribution of NGOs argued that Western, neoliberal, free market paradigms continue to dominate the tourism research agenda. It was contended that alternative research paradigms are needed to enrich the field and to provide new ways of seeing, researching and doing tourism. Decommodified research paradigms, based upon feminist theory, ecocentrism, community development and post-structuralism, were put forward as the contribution of NGOs in this area.
Wearing, S.L. & Wearing, M. 2006, '"Rereading the subjugating tourist" in neoliberalism: postcolonial otherness and the tourist experience', Tourism Analysis, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 145-163.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
What is the religious or spiritual significance of the Australian natural environment to non-Indigenous Australians? This question is asked in relation to the parklands along the Georges River, in south-western Sydney, and some of the ethnic groups who live in the 'social catchment' of these parklands. The post-Reformation rationalist Christianity of Anglo-Celtic migrants led to a degree of institutional religious disengagement with nature, a disenchantment of places, that may tend to obscure the spiritual tone of the relationship that many Anglo-Australians clearly do have with the natural environment. Migrants from East Asia can be seen to be drawing their cultural links closer to the natural landscape as it exists in and around Sydney by engaging this landscape with wider narratives of emplaced spiritual presence. This situation is evident in the construction of Buddhist forest monasteries, the practice of meditation in the bush and in the mapping of geomantic forces and flows.
Ponting, J., McDonald, M.G. & Wearing, S.L. 2005, 'De-constructing wonderland: surfing tourism in the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia', Loisir et Societe/ Society and Leisure, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 141-162.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
van der Duim, R., Peters, K. & Wearing, S.L. 2005, 'Planning host and guest interactions: Moving beyond the empty meeting ground in African encounters', Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 286-305.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. 2005, 'How can volunteer tourism influence mainstream tourism?', Volunt-Tourist, vol. Dec, pp. 1-1.
Wearing, S.L. 2005, 'VolunTourism and community development', Volunt-Tourist, vol. Dec, pp. 1-1.
Wearing, S.L., McDonald, M.G. & Ponting, J. 2005, 'Building a decommodified research paradigm in tourism: The contribution of NGOs', Journal of Sustainable Tourism (Building a Decommodified Research Paradigm in Tourism: The Contribution of NGOs), vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 424-439.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper argues for a shift in tourism research that challenges models which prioritise commodified tourism experiences over alternative decommodified products. We feel the distinction between commodified and decommodified tourism can be demonstrated using Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) as a case study. Commodifying processes occur when the final outcome is defined as the economic use-value of a product or service. Current directions in tourism research often favour the pursuit of a commodified tourism product in the search for increased efficiency and global profits using research paradigms that narrowly pursue this direction. We argue that the negative impacts of such a trajectory restrict our ability to understand and analyse the tourism experience requiring decommodifying actions in tourism research to move forward; these we feel are best informed by alternative theoretical and philosophical perspectives that include feminism, ecocentrism, community development and poststructuralism. NGOs are used in this paper to provide an example of how the broadening of research philosophies allows access to approaches that pursue decommodification in tourism as they move beyond the almost exclusive pursuit of industry profits and place social, cultural and ecological value on local environments and economics
Wearing, S.L., McDonald, M.G. & Ponting, J. 2005, 'Decommodifying tourism:the contribution of non-governmental organizations', Journal of Sustainable Tourism (Building a Decommodified Research Paradigm in Tourism: The Contribution of NGOs), vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 422-424.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Current directions in tourism research often favour the pursuit of a commodified tourism product in the search for increased efficiency and global profits using research paradigms that narrowly pursue this direction. It argues that the negative impacts of such a trajectory restrict our ability to understand and analyse the tourism experience requiring decommodifying actions in tourism research to move forward; it uses alternative theoretical and philosophical perspectives that include feminism, ecocentrism, community development and poststructuralism to argue a case.
Schweinsberg, S.C., Wearing, S.L. & Archer, D.J. 2005, 'Exploring the Social Impacts of Bushfires on Visitor's Experiences in Australian National Parks', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 17-21.
Archer, D. & Wearing, S.L. 2003, 'Self, Space and Interpretive Experience: The Interactionism of Environmental Interpretation', Journal of Interpretation Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 7-23.
Interconnected Worlds: Tourism in Southeast Asia is an edited collection of case studies by a variety of international authors stemming from a conference co-organized by the National University of Singapore and the Singapore Tourism Board. The book contains papers broadly dealing with the theme of interconnections, including inter-country collaborations, tourism growth regions, corporate alliances, conceptual discourses on global-local dialectics, and the problems and challenges of regionalization. The editors hoped to construct a view of tourism with an examination of what they call ½new tourism½ or ½post-Fordist tourism½ using the concept of interconnections (p. vii). They note that the scope of the book allows an ½academic understanding of tourism that adds value to current research and debates in economic geography, geopolitics, cultural politics, globalization and the financial and environmental crises in Southeast Asia½ (p. viii).
Wearing, S.L., Archer, D.J. & Jackson, M. 2003, 'Nature for sale: the case for decommodifying interpretation and ecotourism', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 157-169.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Archer, D.J. & Wearing, S.L. 2002, 'Interpretation and marketing as management tools in national parks: insights from Australia', Journal of Leisure Property, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 29-39.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S., Cynn, S., Ponting, J. & McDonald, M. 2002, 'Converting environmental concern into ecotourism purchases: A qualitative evaluation of international backpackers in Australia', Journal of Ecotourism, vol. 1, no. 2-3, pp. 133-148.
Despite the provision of 'green' tourism products, research has failed to specifically explore tourists' environmental behaviour in terms of ecotourism purchases within a holiday destination. In exploring this issue the paper reviews a range of literature concerning the relationship between environmental concern and environmentally responsible purchasing behaviour, and presents a qualitative evaluation of the ecotourism purchasing behaviour of Australia's 'backpacker' market. Interviews were conducted with backpackers on completion of an ecotour, providing the basis for discussion of a range of possible explanations for the apparent inconsistencies between environmental concern and purchasing behaviour including problems with sampling, the lack of education and awareness about ecotourism products and accreditation programmes, and the apparent abandonment of environmental responsibility by tourists whilst on holiday. It is suggested that ecotourism marketing is directed at tourists in the pre-departure/planning phase of their holiday, perhaps through national tourism organisations in tourism-generating regions, to raise awareness of environmental issues surrounding tourism in natural areas; establish ecolabelling brand awareness and recognition of 'green' tourism products; internalise individuals' locus of control regarding environmental concerns in their everyday environment; and to circumvent the environmental ethical malaise which seems to override a tourist's normal environmental concerns and behaviour whilst on holiday.
Wearing, S.L. & Archer, D.J. 2002, 'Challenging interpretation to discover more inclusive models: the case of adventure tour guiding', World Leisure Journal, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 43-53.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. & McDonald, M.G. 2002, 'The development of community based tourism: re-thinking the relationship between tour operators and development agents as intermediaries in rural and isolated area communities', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 191-206.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. & Archer, D.J. 2001, 'Towards a framework for sustainable marketing of protected areas', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 33-40.
A profusion of touristic experiences of the last 20 years has generated a variety of means of theorizing, analysing and marketing tourism. This paper has sought to recentre the analysis on the ideas of a conceptualization of the self through the tourism experience. Predominant current conceptualizations of tourism as commiditized escapes have been re-examined and recontextualized in the light of feminised post structural viewpoints to bring a richer understanding of tourist experience(s). The potential for changes in self and identity through cross-cultural interactions is discussed. The approach taken is person centred, rather than those focussed on economics, marketing or management. Nevertheless we demonstrate the usefulness of such a people orientated perspective for all aspects of the tourism industry. At the same time the threads of an interactive, person centred approach are being woven together to emphasise the importance of interactions personal, communal and cultural in the tourist enterprise and to position the selves and identities of tourists and hosts at the ethical centre.
Wearing, S. & Neil, J. 2000, 'Refiguring self and identity through volunteer tourism', LOISIR & SOCIETE-SOCIETY AND LEISURE, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 389-419.
Wearing, S.L. & Wearing, B. 2000, 'Smoking as a fashion accessory in the 90s: conspicuous comsumption, identity and adolescent women's leisure choices', Leisure Studies, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 45-58.
Wearing, S.L. & Gartrell, N. 1999, 'Exploring ecotourism and community based research applications for joint management of national parks', World Leisure and Recreation, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 25-32.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The increasing focus on natural resource-based tourism within Australia is posing problems for national parks management agencies and Aboriginal communities involved in tourism. Pressure from tourism is having significant effects on the local Aboriginal community. In an attempt to deal with these issues joint management approaches to management of national parks have been evolving. However, evaluative research frameworks need to be developed that facilitate a cross-cultural flow of information, which promote the development of the cross-cultural understanding, and which maximise possibilities for Aborigines. This paper suggests the principles of ecotourism can be incorporated in developing ways of researching that will enable us to study how facilitation of community ownership and control of tourism can help the joint management of Australian national parks for tourist use. The application of these principles has the potential to develop research approaches that may encourage current management to develop frameworks in an essential first step toward managing tourism equitably in national parks.
Wearing, S.L. & Darcy, S.A. 1998, 'Ecotourism Options In Coastal Protected Area Management: A Case Study Of North Head Quarantine Station', Environmentalist, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 239-250.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The challenges faced by coastal protected areas in both promoting highly attractive sites and preserving the natural attributes of these sites have been given a new dimension with the opportunities presented by ecotourism. Realising the market potential of a protected area and, at the same time, conserving the unique features of an area is a difficult task. This paper explores the possibilities that backpacker tourism may offer the Quarantine Station in Sydney Harbour National Park, in Australia. The Quarantine Station is a signicant cultural heritage site that is located in a sensitive coastal national park within Sydney's metropolitan area.
Beckmann, E., Devlin, P. & Wearing, S. 1996, 'Interpretation in Environmental Education—An Introduction to the Papers in this Issue', Australian Journal of Environmental Education, vol. 12, pp. 1-2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The sub-editorial group which considered the interpretation papers in the following section consisted of Elizabeth Beckmann, who provided the introduction below, Pat Devlin and Stephen Wearing. Environmental interpretation occurs as part of the educational continuum that ranges from simple awareness-raising sought by promotional activities to the major attitudinal shifts often pursued in environmental lifestyle education. Interpretation has long been seen by natural resource managers and others not only as 'an educational activity…to reveal meaning and relationships (Tilden 1977) but also as a means of creating 'a desire to contribute to environmental conservation (Aldridge 1974). In 1996 how are we using interpretive theory, techniques and programs to contribute towards developing the cutting edge of environmental education? © 1996, Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.
In current sociological analyses of tourist experience, class, race, ethnicity, age and gender are being incorporated into frameworks which initially assumed that male views of the phenomenon are universal. In this paper we seek to incorporate gender into the fundamental conceptualization of the tourist and the tourist destination. Drawing on concepts from interactionist and poststructural feminist theories we critique the male bias in the conceptualization of the tourist as 'flaneur' and the tourist desination as 'image' for the tourist gaze. A concept of the tourist destination as 'chora', or interactive space is offered. The tourist then becomes a creative, interacting 'choraster' who takes home an experience which impacts on the self in some way. We suggest that such a feminized conceptualization adds a second dimension to the one dimensional perspective which predominates in current sociological analyses of the tourist phenomenon. © 1998 British Trust for Ornithology.
Wearing, S. & Larsen, L. 1996, 'Assessing and managing the sociocultural impacts of ecotourism: Revisiting the Santa Elena rainforest project', Environmentalist, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 117-133.
This paper outlines the second phase of an ecotourism project undertaken in the Santa Elena community, in the Monteverde region of Costa Rica. The community originally established a rainforest reserve with the help of Youth Challenge International in an attempt to provide a wider economic base and employment for the area. The project has been successful in the first phase in that it is now drawing an annual income of US$40 000 and it employs guides and management from the local community. In terms of the underlying principles usually aligned with ecotourism it has been successful but it is now necessary to evaluate the impacts this project is having on the community. The second phase of the project was to assess the sociocultural impacts of ecotourism on that community and the paper outlines this phase.
WEARING, B., WEARING, S. & KELLY, K. 1994, 'ADOLESCENT WOMEN, IDENTITY AND SMOKING - LEISURE EXPERIENCE AS RESISTANCE', SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH & ILLNESS, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 626-643.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper outlines an ecotourism project undertaken in the Santa Elena community in the Monteverde region of Costa Rica. The community is seeking to establish a rainforest reserve on a parcel of land that has been permanently leased to their high school by the Costa Rican Government. The Community and Youth Challenge International are developing an ecotourism project that will provide a wider economic basis for the area and employment for students graduating from the high school. This project seeks to achieve sustainable development and fulfil the development requirements of the population surrounding the project. This is in the belief that it is only when conservation projects benefit local communities, and are set up with an infrastructure that vests control within local communities, that genuine ecotourism is achieved. © 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Wearing, S. & Brock, M. 1991, 'Management of parks for tourism: an attitudinal survey of service personnel', Australian Parks & Recreation, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 29-35.
Aims to determine the attitudes of employees in the National Parks & Wildlife Service in New South Wales, analyse existing tourism policy within the Service, and suggest necessary changes. The paper briefly discusses policy reviews of other natural resource agencies in Australia and America. Interviews with Service employees reveal that tourism is seen as problematic due to a lack of staff and resources to cope with increasing visitor numbers, and that sacrifices are made at the expense of nature conservation and resource management. In conclusion the authors suggest that the Service be less passive and more proactive in its approach, with greater emphasis on the collection of accurate data on visitor trends, and that the relationship with the tourism industry be formalised and carried out at all levels of management and operation. -M.Z.Barber
The contribution of national parks to regional economies in Australia has been investigated by Stephen Wearing and Rob Parsonson of the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, with particular reference to the significance of the rainforest region to the tourism industry of the New England/Dorhgo National Parks. The results of visitor surveys were used as the basis for an economic analysis which found that rainforest-generated tourism had a significant impact on the local economy. If is suggested that a rainforest parks marketing strategy should be prepared, funded jointly by the Parks Service and local business. © 1991.
Wearing, S.L., Small, J. & Foley, C. 2018, 'Gender and the body in leisure and tourism' in Mansfield, Caudwell, Wheaton & Watson (eds), The Palgrave Handbook of Feminism and Sport, Leisure and Physical Education, Palgrave MacMillan, London, UK, pp. 95-110.
An overview of feminist research and theory in leisure and tourism.
Wearing, S.L. & Wearing, M. 2017, 'Eco-tourism or Eco-utilitarianism – exploring the new debates in Eco-tourism' in Williams, P. (ed), Special Interest Tourism: Concepts, Contexts and Cases, CABI, Oxon.
Wearing, S.L. & Wearing, M. (in press 2016) 'Eco-tourism or Eco-utilitarianism – exploring the new debates in Eco-tourism. , in Paul Williams (eds) Special Interest Tourism: Concepts, Contexts and Cases, CABI, Oxon, UK. https://cab.presswarehouse.com/books/bookdetail.aspx?productid=473983.
Wearing, S.L., Wearing, M. & Gabowski, S. 2017, 'Volunteer Tourism: Beyond the rhetoric and into the future' in Williams, P. (ed), Special Interest Tourism: Concepts, Contexts and Cases, CABI, Oxon.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L., Wearing, M. & Jobberns, C. 2017, 'Munch Crunch its Whale for Lunch: Exploring the politics of Japanese Whaling' in Animals as Food: Ethical Implications for Tourism.
Wearing, S.L., Wearing, M. & Jobberns, C. (in progress 2017) Munch Crunch its Whale for Lunch: Exploring the politics of Japanese Whaling, Carol S. Kline, Animals as Food: Ethical Implications for Tourism.
Small, J. & Wearing, S.L. 2017, 'Expanding Understanding: Using the 'Choraster to Provide a Voice for the Female Traveler' in Khoo-Lattimore, C. & Wilson, E. (eds), Women and Travel: Trends, Journeys and Experiences, Apple Academic Press, New Jersey.
Wearing, S.L. & Wearing, M. 2016, 'Decommodifying grassroots struggle against a neoliberalism tourism agenda: Imagining a local, just and sustainable ecotourism' in Mosedale, J.T. (ed), Neoliberalism and the Political Economy of Tourism, Ashgate Publishing Limited, England.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. & Wearing, M. 2016, 'Eco-tourism or Eco-utilitarianism – exploring the new debates in Eco-tourism' in Williams, P. (ed), Special Interest Tourism: Concepts, Contexts and Cases, CABI, Oxon.
Wearing, S.L. & Wearing, M. (in press 2016) 'Eco-tourism or Eco-utilitarianism – exploring the new debates in Eco-tourism. , in Paul Williams (eds) Special Interest Tourism: Concepts, Contexts and Cases, CABI, Oxon, UK. https://cab.presswarehouse.com/books/bookdetail.aspx?productid=473983.
Wearing, S.L., Wearing, M. & Gabowski, S. 2016, 'Volunteer Tourism: Beyond the rhetoric and into the future' in Williams, P. (ed), Special Interest Tourism: Concepts, Contexts and Cases, CABI, Oxon.
Godfrey, J., Wearing, S. & Schulenkorf, N. 2015, 'The Motivations of Medical Volunteer Tourists and a Discussion of the Underlying Ethics: A Qualitative Case Study from Cusco, Peru' in Slocum, S.L., Kline, C. & Holden, A. (eds), Scientific Tourism: Researchers as Travellers, Routledge, Abingdon, UK, pp. 131-147.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The purpose of this chapter is to explore the motivations and experiences of medical volunteer tourists (MVTs) from developed countries volunteering in developing countries, and to examine the underlying ethics relating to this form of volunteer tourism. We seek to develop an understanding of the relationship between scientific tourism and medical volunteer tourism, and to investigate experiences that provide both learning and training for MVTs to develop skills for their future medical careers.
Tarrant, M., Stoner, L., Tessman, K., Gleason, M., Lyons, L. & Wearing, S.L. 2015, 'Global Programs in Sustainability: A Case Study of Techniques, Tools and Teaching Strategies for Sustainability Education in Tourism' in Moscardo, G. & Benckendorff, P. (eds), Education for Sustainability in Tourism, Springer, Berlin.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. & Jobberns, C. 2015, 'From 'Free Willy' to 'Sea World': Has Ecotourism improved the rights of Whales?' in Markwell, K. (ed), Animals and Tourism: Understanding Diverse Relationships, Channel View Publications, Clevedon, UK, pp. 75-90.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L., Grabowski, S. & Small, J. 2015, 'Volunteer Tourism: Return of the Traveller' in Singh, T.V. (ed), Challenges in Tourism Research, Channel View Publications, UK, pp. 98-106.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Schweinsberg, S.C. & Wearing 2015, 'Transforming Nature's Value – Cultural Change Comes from Below: Rural Communities, the 'Othered' and Host Capacity Building' in Reisinger, Y. (ed), Transformational Tourism: Host Perspectives, CABI, UK, pp. 102-113.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, Tarrant, M., Schweinsberg, S.C., Lyons, K. & Stone, K. 2015, 'Exploring the global in student assessment and feedback for sustainable tourism education' in Moscardo, G. & Benckendorff, P. (eds), Education for Sustainability in Tourism, Springer, Berlin.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. & Wearing, M. 2014, 'On Decommodifying Ecotourism's Social Value: Neoliberal Reformism or the New Environmental Morality?' in Mostafanezad, M. & Hannam, K. (eds), Moral Encounters in Tourism, Ashgate Publishing Limited, Surry, pp. 123-138.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ankor, J.M. & Wearing, S.L. 2013, 'Gaze, Encounter and Philosophies of Otherness' in Moufakkir, O. & Reisinger, Y. (eds), The host gaze in global tourism, CABI, Oxfordshire, pp. 179-190.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This chapter considers the development of the concept of 'gaze' in Western cultural and critical theory. It then examines the 'flâneur' as a gazer and introduces the concept of the choraster, as the relationship of visitor and host in the space of the 'other' and self. The notion of gaze is thus expanded from one of disassociation to emphasize a more engaged set of experiences that can reflect the imagined-real of both the traveller space and the host community. It draws on philosophy for an understanding of the response to gaze in the touristic encounter and leads to a framework able to deal with the complexity of contemporary tourism experiences. This chapter contributes to an understanding of tourism that is subject-centred, dynamic and capable of dealing with the host's role in developing tourist cultures. It contributes to the building of theory that enables the gaze to be constructed from the diverse and unpredictable interactions that occur and make up the encounter - the space, the host community's values and the tourist's experience
Deville, A.M. & Wearing, S.L. 2013, 'WWOOFing tourists: beaten tracks and transformational paths' in Yvette Reisinger (ed), Transformational Tourism: Tourist Perspectives, CABI, Oxfordshire, pp. 151-168.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter highlights key findings from recent research that indicate the ways in which 'WWOOFing' - staying and working on organic farms through the Willing Workers on Organic Farms (WWOOF) organization - constitutes 'transformational tourism', exploring key les~ sons that can be learned from this rapidly growing but little understood travel-related phenomenon, It does so noting the context of grow~ ing ecological and social crises increasingly perceived as manifestations of environmental destruction, poverty, hunger, violence, domination and injustice, and recognizing the need to examine how to achieve major shifts in human outlook that are attached to real changes in behaviour that might transform the collective path of humanity. Recalling the purpose of the Grand Tour and Twain's (1869) declaration that 'travel is fatal to prejudice', tourism has held the promise for some time of helping to transform humanity, through personal exposure to and involvement with the many problems faced in common. Tourism might be seen as having the potential of being able to help orient humans to the super-ordinate goal of increasing the sustainability of all of their actions at all levels, itself a key step on the path to alleviation of old crises and averting new ones (Oskamp, 2000).
Wearing, S.L. & Cunningham, P.A. 2013, 'Whale Watching: Kaikoura NZ WTTC Community Benefit Award' in Benckendorff, P. & Lund-Durlacher, D. (eds), International Cases in Sustainable Travel & Tourism, WTTC, Goodfellow, Oxford, pp. 215-230.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. & Law, A. 2013, 'The leisured nature of tourism: A sociological gaze' in Tony Blackshaw (ed), The Routledge International Handbook of Leisure, Routledge, Oxon UK, pp. 280-292.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The sociology of tourism encounters a wide range of possible dimensions of analysis of the essentially spatially organized social relationships between 'away' and 'home', Key sociological themes have typically centred their attention on the kinds of identity relationships established in the networks of actors involved in tourism practices and the making of their meaning. Within the range of formulations available to interpret social engagement in tourism, the ontological distinction between 'away' and 'home' is what makes 'tourism' a thing separate from other things in our experiential repertoires and energizes the identity work that is always at stake when encountering the 'other' - constituent of 'away'. The movement of the physical body through space, and in order to reach for 'not home' (the exotic), is a key anchor-point for the work of three scholars whose ideas are canvassed here, and produces the conditions for analysis of how people engage in the touristic world at the moments of meetings with both the self and the 'other'.
Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. 2013, 'Alternative Tourism Experiences' in Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. (eds), International Volunteer Tourism: Integrating Travellers and Communities, CABI, UK, pp. 18-31.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The original version of this chapter fi rst appeared in Volunteer Tourism:
Experiences That Make a Difference, written in 2001. Here, we revisit the
major themes concerning alternative tourism experiences in order to demonstrate
where volunteer tourism sits on the tourism continuum, and how it contrasts
with mass tourism experiences.
Tourism in general has developed as a modern, largely Western endeavour,
the analysis of which has evolved from pre-modernism through to postmodernism.
Today modern tourism differs considerably from non-Western and
historical forms of travel, although it has some similarities (Graburn, 1995). In
particular, it has enabled the masses to travel and has been closely related to
the emergence of modernity (Cohen, 1995), where consumption is a main
tenet. The abundance of the modern Western touristic experiences during this
evolution, particularly since the 1980s, has generated a variety of means of
researching tourism. Tourism theories and research have emerged from a wide
variety of fi elds and disciplines, including psychology, sociology, geography,
ecology and anthropology.
A variety of categories and labels of touristic experiences have emerged
within the realm of alternative tourism that refl ect both marketing differentiations
and ideologically divergent forms of tourism. This includes (but is not
limited to) nature, green, special interest, pro-poor, adventure, communitybased,
war and ecotourism. Many of these forms have caught the imagination
of local communities, governments, international non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) and the mainstream tourism industry itself, with a variety of such
'alternative' projects being actively promoted, especially in developing countries
(Cohen, 1972; R.W. Butler, 1990; McGehee, 2002; Bowden, 2005).
Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. 2013, 'Communities as More than `Other' in Cross-cultural Volunteer Tourism' in Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. (eds), International Volunteer Tourism: Integrating Travellers and Communities, CABI, UK, pp. 116-125.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. 2013, 'Community Development in Volunteer Tourism Destinations' in Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. (eds), International Volunteer Tourism: Integrating Travellers and Communities, CABI, UK, pp. 39-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Description International Volunteer Tourism: Integrating Travellers and Communities
Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. 2013, 'Introduction-Beyond Experiences that Make a Difference' in Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. (eds), International Volunteer Tourism: Integrating Travellers and Communities, CABI, UK, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
International Volunteer Tourism: Integrating Travellers and Communities
Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. 2013, 'Looking at the Future of Volunteer Tourism: Commodification, Altruism and Accreditation' in Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. (eds), International Volunteer Tourism: Integrating Travellers and Communities, CABI, UK, pp. 128-135.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. 2013, 'Volunteer Tourism Projects: A Proposed Mechanism to Improve Working with Local Communities' in Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. (eds), International Volunteer Tourism: Integrating Travellers and Communities, CABI, UK, pp. 84-103.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. 2013, 'Volunteer Tourism: An Existential Perspective' in Wearing, S.L. & McGehee, N. (eds), International Volunteer Tourism: Integrating Travellers and Communities, CABI, UK, pp. 105-115.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L., Faulkner, S. & Sahabu, V. 2013, 'Religiosity paving the way for altruism through volunteer tourism in Kenya' in Blanchard, L. & Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (eds), Peace through Tourism: Promoting Human Security Through International Citizenship, Routledge, Abingdon Oxon UK, pp. 171-189.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Benson, A.M. & Wearing, S. 2012, 'Volunteer tourism: Commodified trend or new phenomenon?' in Moufakkir, O. & Burns, P.M. (eds), Controversies in Tourism, CABI, USA, pp. 242-254.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter argues that volunteer tourism has become a global phenomenon, with market predictions indicating growth in both size and value and with this growth has come the inevitable controversies that surround new trends or phenomena. It explains that in examining this phenomenon there is a need to examine a wider agenda beyond that of its size and growth. This chapter attempts to build around the ideas on the volunteer experiences from both their experiences and the experiences of the communities with which they interact. It also suggests that volunteer tourists cannot solely be aligned with neo-colonialism or neoliberalism. Volunteer tourism sits at the intersection of a great many areas such as mass tourism, international development and sustainability, and as such it is essential that we do not isolate our ideas to singular theories, approaches or practices, as this would then limit our ability to research and appreciate this phenomenon. This chapter provides an overview of this area and attempts to provide the reader with an analysis of its function and characteristics.
An event workforce comprises a range of different types of employees including paid staff, external suppliers, contractors and volunteers. Event organisers depend on volunteers who are recognised as an integral part of the workforce at local, regional, national and international events. This chapter describes how event organisations face a series of unique challenges and additional complexity when they are recruiting, training, managing, rewarding and retaining a volunteer workforce. With events increasingly depending on the volunteer worker, it has become essential to develop mechanisms of management that ensure the provision of a positive and satisfying volunteer experience, and the retention of volunteers.
Wearing, S.L., Wearing, M. & McDonald, M. 2012, 'Beyond commodification slow'in down the town to let nature grow: Ecotourism, social justice and sustainability' in Fullagar, S., Markwell, K. & Wilson, E. (eds), Slow Tourism: Experiences and Mobilities, Channel View Publications, United Kingdom, pp. 36-52.
Wearing, S.L., Wearing, M. & McDonald, M.G. 2012, 'Slow'n down the town to let nature grow: ecotourism, social justice and sustainability' in Fullagar, S., Markwell, K. & Wilson, E. (eds), Slow Tourism: Experiences and Mobilities, Channel View Publications, United Kingdom, pp. 36-50.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter develops an account of slow ecotourism that challenges objectifying and commodifying processes in local communities of both the developing and developed world. We argue for sustainable forms of slow ecotourism that promote social justice for host communities and high standards of environmental protection as a basis for the economic, social and environmental protection of these communities. Models and practices for tourist enterprises are suggested in later sections of this chapter that value local workforce participation and equity for host workers and their communities. We argue that 'slow ecotourism] needs to embrace principles of both social justice and sustainability to achieve this. The adoption of these principles would ensure that Indigenous and host communities receive equitable and positive redistributive socio-economic effects and poverty alleviation through the creation of jobs, as well as a fair share of the profits that may accrue from ecotourism. The focus on decommodification allows for anti-poverty strategies via alternative forms of exchange that are slow, informal and bartered.
Lyons, K. & Wearing, S.L. 2011, 'Gap year Travel Alternatives: Gen-Y, Volunteer Tourism and Global Citizenship' in Smith, K.A., Yeoman, I., Hsu, C. & Watson, S. (eds), Tourism and Demography, Goodfellow Publishers Limited, London, pp. 101-116.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Accounting for over one-twelfth of world trade and by far the largest movement of people across borders, international travel has been promoted by governments and the tourism industry as an important facilitator of global citizenship. It has been commonplace in the tourism literature to argue that tourism can and does function as an important contributor to the development of the attributes of global citizenship such as international and cross-cultural understanding, tolerance and sharing of values, mutual support, disabusing of stereotypes and exchange of values (Ketabi, 1996). Notwithstanding this global mobility, evidence of global citizenry and the tolerance it promotes is far from ubiquitous.
Wearing, S.L. 2011, 'Ecotourism and the commodification of wildlife: animal welfare and the ethics of zoos' in Warwich Frost (ed), Zoos and Tourism: Conservation, Education, Entertainment?, Channel View Publications, Canada, pp. 47-58.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Current directions in ecotourisrn reflect an increasing tendency towards the commodification of nature. The quest for profit from nature-based activities, particularly tourism, has spawned an industry lacking an ethic of care for nature and, specifically, the animals used in this new ecotourism regime. Economic rationalist approaches often place economic incentive before the intrinsic and intangible values of nature. This often results in the inappropriate development or use of natural resources and changes the capacity of the resource to meet the expectations of users.
Wearing, S.L. & Faulkner, S. 2011, 'Volunteer tourism and intercultural exchange: exploring the 'Other' in the experience' in Benson, A. (ed), Volunteer Tourism: Theoretical Frameworks and Practical Applications, Routledge, Oxon, UK, pp. 193-210.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Volunteer tourism as a form of international development has been posed as an alternative mechanism which has the potential to achieve different socio-cultural outcomes. In this guise it aims 'to establish direct personal/cultural intercommunication and understanding between host and guest' (Dernoi, 1988: 89). This chapter explores the volunteer tourist and their interaction with the host community. It is argued that the relationship between the volunteer tourist and the community gives shape to a richer understanding of the volunteer tourism experience, where more equal power relationships are evolving and where the experience is more inclusive of the 'Other'. Where tourism in less developed countries is frequently criticised as creating development that results in power inequalities between host and guest it is important to examine this issue for volunteer tourism.
Wearing, S.L. & Wearing, B. 2010, 'All in a day's leisure: gender and the concept of leisure' in Rojek, C. (ed), Leisure Studies: Key Issues for the 21st Century, Sage, UK, pp. 111-123.
Wearing, S.L., Lyons, K. & Evas, S.L. 2010, 'Volunteer tourism' in Liburd, J.J. & Edwards, D. (eds), Understanding the Sustainable Development of Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers Ltd, Oxford, UK, pp. 188-204.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The aim of this chapter is to provide students with a critical understanding of the phenomenon of volunteer tourism. It will consider how volunteer tourism occurs in diverse community settings with a particular emphasis upon international contexts. It emphasises the potential volunteer tourism has as a transformative form of sustainable tourism that extends beyond the finite limits of a particular volunteering experience. In this chapter, students will develop a foundational understanding of how this transformation is best realised, and ultimately aims to lead both volunteer tourists and host communities toward responsible and continuing participation in local and global development.
Wearing, S.L. & Ponting, J. 2009, 'Breaking down the system: How volunteer tourism contributes to new ways of viewing commodified tourism' in Jamal, T. & Robinson, M. (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Studies, Sage Publications, UK, pp. 254-268.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter argues that models of tourism based on commodified agendas continue to hold dominance in both the theory and practice of tourism. Tourism in the free market economy represents the commercialization of the human need to travel and exploits natural and cultural resources as means to profit accumulation. Despite impressive foreign exchange earnings, transnational tourism corporations operating in developing countries incur high rates of economic leakage. Through high rates of imports, profit repatriation, high levels of expatriate management staffing, and investment incentive schemes, neoliberalist models of tourism generally result in tourist experiences which not only prevent tourists and destination communities from interacting on an equal footing, but which also provide only limited contributions to local communities in developing countries (Meyer, 2007; Schilcher, 2007).
Goodall, H., Wearing, S.L., Byrne, D. & Cadzow, A.J. 2009, 'Fishing the Georges River: Cultural diversity and urban environments' in Wise, S. & Velayutham, S. (eds), Everyday Multiculturalism, Palgrave MacMillan, United Kingdom, pp. 177-198.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Lyons, K. & Wearing, S.L. 2008, 'All for a good cause? The blurred boundaries of volunteering and tourism' in Lyons, K.D. & Wearing, S.L. (eds), Journeys of Discovery in Volunteer Tourism, CABI, Oxfordshire, UK, pp. 147-154.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Research has provided a wealth of typological models that help classify tourist behaviours. These taxonomies have been developed based on a broad range of increasingly sophisticated criteria associated with social roles, motivations, activity types, socio-demographics, travel experiences, lifestyles, values and personality (Lyons, 2003). Indeed some of the case studies in this book classify particular forms of volunteer tourism. Proponents of typological research argue that it provides a valuable foundation upon which action can be taken. For example, the principles of market segmentation in tourism are based on the premise that particular types of travellers can be categorized and their needs identified and met through the development of niche products.
Lyons, K. & Wearing, S.L. 2008, 'Volunteer tourism as alternative tourism: Journeys beyond otherness' in Lyons, K.D. & Wearing, S.L. (eds), Journey of Discovery in Volunteer Tourism, CABI, Oxfordshire, UK, pp. 3-11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Seismic changes in leisure time, disposable income, mobility and communication technologies have created a context in which tourism has thrived. Grown and diversified to encompass a wide array of leisure travel behaviours that were not imagined even as recently as a couple of decades ago. Leading the way in this process of diversification is alternative tourism, which describes a form of tourism that rebukes mass tourism and the consumptive mindset it engenders and instead offers alternative, more discriminating, socially and environmentally sustaining tourist experiences (Wearing, 2001). The demand for alternative tourism has led to a diverse array of niche products and services, each the subject of critical scholarly analysis including educational tourism, farm tourism, cultural exchange tourism, scientific tourism and volunteer tourism, which is the subject and focus of this book.
Wearing, S.L. 2008, 'Marketing national parks using ecotourism as a catalyst: Towards a theory and practice' in Babu, S., Mishra, S. & Parida, B. (eds), Tourism Development Revisited: Concepts, Issues and Paradigms, Sage Publications, UK, pp. 132-149.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
His chapter seeks to explore the relationship between national parks, tourism, marketing and promotion, both conceptually and practically. It examines the structure and nature of the relationship between these areas. The implications of tourism, and particularly ecotourism's worldwide growth, have been significant for national parks, particularly in Australia, where national parks are a crucial asset for building a sustainable tourism industry. Australia has an image among international markets as a clean, green destination and some of our most important tourism icons (such as Uluru and the Great Barrier Reef) are within national parks. In fact, almost half of all international tourists to Australia currently visit a national park during their trip (more if the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is included). If the tourism industry is to meet its future potential then it is essential that these important attractions are funded adequately, provide quality visitor experiences and are promoted inappropriately.
Wearing, S.L., Deville, A.M. & Lyons, K. 2008, 'The volunteer's journey through leisure into the self' in Lyons, K.D. & Wearing, S.L. (eds), Journeys of Discovery in Volunteer Tourism, CABI, Oxfordshire, UK, pp. 63-71.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Volunteer tourism is in essence a form of leisure behaviour. Perceived freedom and choice (Neulinger, 1974), intrinsic motivation (Iso-Ahola, 1982), satisfaction and enjoyment (Kaplan, 1975), and identity and selfhood (Kelly, 1983) are central tenets of leisure that are dearly evident in emerging definitions of volunteer tourism (e.g. Wearing, 2001; McGehee and Santos, 2005). However, it is the relationship between volunteer tourism as leisure and the conceptualization of 'the self' that is the focus of this chapter.
Wearing, S.L. 2006, 'Conservation' in Barlett, R., Grafton, C. & Rolf, C. (eds), Encyclopedia of international sport studies, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 305-307.
Wearing, S.L. 2006, 'Ecosystem management' in Bartlett, R., Grafton, C. & Rolf, C. (eds), Encyclopedia of international sport studies, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 398-399.
Wearing, S.L. 2006, 'Environment' in Bartlett, R., Grafton, C. & Rolf, C. (eds), Encyclopedia of international sport studies, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 416-418.
Wearing, S.L. 2006, 'Marine sports' in Bartlett, R., Grafton, C. & Rolf, C. (eds), Encyclopedia of international sport studies, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 795-796.
Wearing, S.L. 2006, 'Water resources' in Bartlett, R., Grafton, C. & Rolf, C. (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sport Studies, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1440-1440.
Wearing, S.L. 2006, 'Water-based recreation.' in Bartlett, R., Grafton, C. & Rolf, C. (eds), Encyclopedia of International Sport Studies, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1438-1440.
Wearing, S.L. 2004, 'Examining best practice in volunteer tourism.' in Stebbins, R. & Graham, M. (eds), Volunteering as Leisure/Leisure as Volunteering - an international assessment., CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 209-224.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Jenkins, J. & Wearing, S.L. 2003, 'Ecotourism and protected areas in Australia' in Fennell, D. & Dowling, R. (eds), Ecotourism Policy and Planning, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 205-234.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
McDonald, M. & Wearing, S. 2003, 'Reconciling communities' expectations of ecotourism: Initiating a planning and education strategy for the Avoca beach rock platform' in Marine Ecotourism: Issues and Experiences, pp. 155-170.
Wearing, S.L. 2003, 'Acculturation' in Jenkins, J. & Pigram, J. (eds), The Encyclopaedia of Leisure and Outdoor Recreation, Routledge, London, pp. 4-5.
Wearing, S.L. 2003, 'Beach' in Jenkins, J. & Pigram, J. (eds), The Encyclopaedia of Leisure and Outdoor Recreation, Routledge, London, pp. 28-29.
Wearing, S.L. 2003, 'Commodification' in Jenkins, J. & Pigram, J. (eds), The Encyclopaedia of Leisure and Outdoor Recreation, Routledge, London, pp. 60-61.
Wearing, S.L. 2003, 'Gaze' in Jenkins, J. & Pigram, J. (eds), The Encyclopaedia of Leisure and Outdoor Recreation, Routledge, London, pp. 199-200.
Wearing, S.L. 2003, 'Preservation' in Jenkins, J. & Pigram, J. (eds), The Encyclopaedia of Leisure and Outdoor Recreation, Routledge, London, pp. 384-385.
Wearing, S.L. 2003, 'Professionalism' in Jenkins, J. & Pigram, J. (eds), The Encyclopaedia of Leisure and Outdoor Recreation, Routledge, London, pp. 388-388.
Wearing, S.L. & Neil, J.A. 2003, 'Expanding Sustainable Tourism's Conceptualization: Ecotourism, Volunteerism and Serious Leisure' in Williams, S. (ed), Major Works Tourism: Critical Concepts in the Social Sciences (4 volume set), Routledge, London, UK, pp. 233-254.
Wearing, S.L. 2002, 'Re-centring the self in volunteer tourism' in Dann, G. (ed), The Tourist as a Metaphor of the Social World, CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 237-262.
Wearing, S.L. & Neil, J.A. 2001, 'Expanding sustainable tourism's conceptualization: ecotourism, volunteerism and serious leisure' in McCool, S.F. & Moisey, R.N. (eds), Tourism, Recreation and Sustainability: Linking Culture and the Environment, CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 233-254.
Ralph, P.J., Brown, K., Wearing, S.L. & Nudd, B. 1998, 'GIS - A tool for integrating tourism and mariculture in Wallis Lakes' in Wearing Stephen (ed), Planning Recreation and Tourism with Australian Communities, HM Leisure Planning Pty Ltd, Melbourne, pp. 95-102.
Wearing, S.L., Labone, M., Shade, K. & Singh, H. 1998, 'Making Urban Parks Family Friendly' in Wearing Stephen (ed), Planning Recreation and Tourism with Australian Communities, HM Leisure Planning Pty Ltd, Melbourne, pp. 1-10.
Godfrey, J., Wearing, S., Schulenkorf, N. & Faulkner, S. 2016, 'Constructing Identity through the 'Moral Consumption' of Volunteer Tourism', CAUTHE 2016: The Changing Landscape of Tourism and Hospitality: The Impact of Emerging Markets and Emerging Destinations, Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education Annual Conference, Council for Australasian Tourism and Hospitality Education, Sydney, pp. 1281-1287.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Identity is associated with both travel experiences and consumption behaviours in contemporary consumer culture. Tourism experiences can be used to shape and reinforce identity; alternative tourism (e.g. volunteer tourism) in particular is closely associated with self-development. The volunteer tourism sector has been increasingly criticised in both academia and the mass media for creating a commercial product which potentially attracts more tourism-focussed volunteers who may be more likely to negatively impact the host community. Nonetheless, volunteer tourism is still widely associated with authenticity and altruism and arguably carries connotations of moral superiority compared to mainstream tourism. In this paper we argue that through the 'moral consumption' of volunteer tourism, Generation Y are able to access new forms of personal identity (e.g. altruistic, professional experience) and social identity (e.g. 'moral' tourist, global citizen). This paper is based on a case study of commercial volunteer tourists in Cusco, Peru.
Godfrey, J., Wearing, S. & Schulenkorf, N. 2015, 'Neo-Colonialism and the Volunteer Tourist Gaze: Commercial Volunteer Tourism in Cusco, Peru', CAUTHE 2015: Rising Tides and Sea Changes: Adaptation and Innovation in Tourism and Hospitality, Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education Annual Conference, School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Gold Coast, pp. 135-143.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In recent years volunteer tourism has become increasingly commercialised and this has shifted the relationship between the volunteer tourist, the volunteer tourism organisation and the host community. Compared to mass tourism, the more reciprocal tourist-host interaction of volunteer tourism has traditionally been assumed to create a more authentic travel experience resulting in increased cross-cultural understanding. However, this paper suggests that this is perhaps no longer the case in contemporary commercial volunteer tourism. The paper presents a case study of a large commercial volunteer tourism organisation in Cusco, Peru and explores the volunteer tourists' perceptions of Cusco and their interactions with the host community. Unlike early volunteer tourism research which suggested this alternative form of tourism could provide an alternate gaze, this paper proposes that the gaze created by contemporary commercial large-scale volunteer tourism reflects neo-colonial perspectives that reinforce differences rather than fostering understanding between volunteer tourists and the host community.
Godfrey, J., Wearing, S., Schulenkorf, N. & Faulkner, S. 2014, '(Not so) risky business: Commercially packaged volunteer tourism as a 'safer' travel option', New Zealand Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, University of Waikato, Hamilton, pp. 180-198.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bennett (2004, p. 112-113) suggested people in the developed world 'lead urban lives, dedicated to the avoidance of risk and therefore travel in order to challenge themselves. He referred to travelling as 'a sort of bungee-jump. It has the tang of adventure… but is safer than crossing the road. In this paper we expanded this metaphor of the bungee-jumper and applied it to volunteer tourists (VTs). Commercial volunteer tourism is personally challenging and requires a leap of faith into the unknown. However, like bungee-jumping, there is also a safety net. For the VTs in this case study, it was the structure and security provided by volunteer organisation.
Grabowski, S. & Wearing, S.L. 2014, 'Acculturation experiences of young volunteer tourists: Transition and self-understanding', Proceedings of CAUTHE 2014: Tourism and Hospitality in the Contemporary World: Trends, Changes and Complexity, Annual Conference of the Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, CAUTHE, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 235-246.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Tourism is a major contributor to the global annual movement of people. With this movement come cross-cultural interactions which are a key part of the tourist experience. This study explores one type of cross-cultural interaction, volunteer tourism, and in particular investigates the impact of acculturation on the volunteer. The findings indicate that volunteers experience acculturation through an understanding of self. The study particularly focuses on 18 - 30 year old volunteers who, it is often assumed, are at a period of transition in their lives which adds to the complexity of the experience. Therefore, it is useful to understand the stage they are at in their period of early adulthood in order to provide a more in-depth understanding of the acculturation experience.
Dadpour, R. & Wearing, S.W. 2013, 'Volunteer Tourism Agencies as Intermediaries; Communities' Empowerment Through the Production of New Knowledge', CAUTHE 2013: Tourism and Global Change: On the Edge of Something Big, CAUTHE 2013: Tourism and Global Change: On the Edge of Something Big, Christchurch, N.Z., Lincoln University.
The purpose of this paper is to invoke a Foucauldian framework in order to re-think the development of volunteer tourism by focussing on the relationship between intermediaries such as volunteer tourism organisations and rural and isolated local communities where this volunteering is occurring. Foucault's concepts of power/knowledge and governmentality provide a 'way of thinking' about this relationship that challenges the dominant discourse of the tourism industry. To further elaborate these alternative concepts, the researchers lead a discussion through a number of areas that impact volunteer tourism development. We examine here a conceptual framework that might be enabling and allow this to occur.
Godfrey, J.L., Wearing, S.L. & Schulenkorf, N. 2013, 'A critical case study of medical volunteer tourists in Peru', Sustainability Issues and Challenges in Tourism Conference, Sustainability Issues and Challenges in Tourism Conference, Bogazii University, Istanbul, pp. 43-47.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
While there has been an increasing amount of research on volunteer tourism, limited empirical work has explored the phenomenon of medical volunteer tourism. This paper examines a Peru-based commercial volunteer tourism organisation to investigate the experiences of skilled and unskilled volunteer tourists at local medical clinics in Cusco, Peru. An analysis of in-depth interviews with twelve volunteers suggests volunteers performed similar tasks at the medical clinics regardless of their medical background. While it appears the volunteers improved their Spanish language skills and acquired medical experience at under-resourced clinics, they may or may not have benefited the local community.
Schweinsberg, S.C. & Wearing, S. 2013, 'Coal seam gas and its impacts on destination image assessment: An investigation of wine tourism in the Hunter Valley, NSW', Annual Conference of the Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, Informit, Lincoln, New Zealand.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This project investigates the impact that media coverage of Coal Seam Gas (CSG) exploration in the NSW Hunter Valley is having on tourist perception of the wine tourism industry. We argue that the inclusion of social values methodologies (specifically Personal Construct Theory based repertory grids) in destination image assessment may provide a structured approach for measuring tourist sense of place. In this paper we report on the rationales behind the study, as well as outlining the ways in which repertory grid methodologies are being used to measure the impact of coal seam gas on tourist's sense of place.
Wearing, McDonald, M. & Schweinsberg, S.C. 2011, 'Colonial narratives/ cultural dialogues: The Palin effect in televisions transferal of otherness'', Australia and New Zealand Association of Leisure Studies 10th Biennial Conference, Australian and New Zealand Association for Leisure Studies, Dunedin, New Zealand.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how the narrator of travel shows/documentaries can possible
influences the attitudes and behaviour of pretrip tourists to host cultures. It use the lens of the theoretical
ideas of the 'Flaneur' and the 'Choraster' to enable a position to be constructed. Though the area of film and
television impact of on tourist behavior has been researched the examination of the impact of travel shows on
tourist culture is an under research area and yet its impact given the amount of television watched by
potential tourist is considerable. There seems to be lack of information regarding the impact of the type of
show to the resultant approach of the traveller to the destination culture often seen by the tourist as the
'other'. The travel television show which inspired the researchers to embark on this study was the narration of
the 'Himalaya' by Michael Palin. The researchers explored the series looking at Palin's role as a Flaneur in his
travels and how the idea of we will make the 'World British' is conveyed in the travel dialogue constructed
from his travel experiences. We take these experiences using qualitative approach and undertake a content
thematic analysis of the visual and dialogues that occur gathered from this show and compared with shows
where the approach is more inclusive of the destination population and culture.
Schweinsberg, S.C., Wearing & Darcy 2011, 'Exploring the use of repertory grids to examine the social impacts of tourism development in rural areas', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Research Centre (CCS) Social Impacts Conference, Sydney.
Cynn-Ponting, S., Wearing, S.L. & Black, R. 2011, 'Exploring practitioner conceptualisations of professionalism among Australian Ecotour Guides', 20th Annual Conference Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE), Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, CAUTHE, Hobart, Australia, pp. 1-5.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The emergence of professionalism in the ecotourism industry has been noted (cf. Fennell, 2003; Wearing, 1995; Weaver, 2001, 2008), however, there is a lack of literature that addresses the professionalism and the quality control of ecotourism (Black & Crabtree, 2007; Black & Weiler, 2005; Weaver & Lawton, 2007). Although empirical research on professionalism in ecotour guiding and the ecotourism industry is virtually non-existent, professionalism as it relates to ecotourism emphasises accreditation, certification and guide training, and educational programs (Fennell, 2003). The terms profession and professional have been adopted in the tour guiding literature as unproblematic, and are used arbitrarily and interchangeably in describing the occupation of tour guiding without clarification as to exactly what professional tour guiding involves (cf. Ap & Wong, 2001; Pond, 1993; Weiler & Ham, 2001b). For ecotour guiding to gain professional status it is imperative to understand what professionalism means for ecotour guiding.
Faulkner, S. & Wearing, S.L. 2011, 'Coming home: The effects of the volunteer tourism experience on the volunteer', 20th Annual Conference Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE), Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, CAUTHE, Hobart, Australia, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. & Faulkner, S. 2009, 'Volunteer tourism and intercultural exchange: Exploring the âotheredâ in this', Proceedings of BEST EN Think Tank IX: The Importance of Values in Sustainable Tourism & First International Symposium on Volunteering & Tourism, BEST EN Think Tank IX: The Importance of Values in Sustainable Tourism & First International Symposium on Volunteering & Tourism, University of Technology, Sydney, Singapore, pp. 120-120.
Tourism in less developed countries is frequently criticised as creating development that results in power inequalities between host and guest. Volunteer tourism as a form of international development has been posed as an alternative mechanism that has the potential to achieve different socio-cultural outcomes. In this guise it aims to establish direct personal/cultural intercommunication and understanding between host and guest. This study explores the volunteer tourist and their interaction with the host community. The cultural exchange with those who are âotheredâ by the mainstream tourism experience is the basis for a discussion that highlights the complexity of the relationship between hosts and guests. Within the limited literature on volunteer tourism, it is suggested that these tourists have very different motivations for travel compared with the more traditional tourists or mass tourists. Preliminary analysis of a volunteer tourism NGOâs volunteers (Youth Challenge Australia), suggests that most volunteer tourists expect to have high to very high exposure to cultural interaction. Additionally, they have a great deal of concern for several aspects of the culture and community that they will be visiting. They are prepared for an experience with vastly different outcomes to a traditional tourism experience. It is argued that the relationship between the volunteer tourist and the community gives shape to a richer understanding of the volunteer tourism experience, where more equal power relationships are evolving and where the experience is more inclusive of the âotheredâ. It is suggested that a reason for this might include the limited skill development of youth volunteers which requires them to learn from more skilled community members. Finally a discussion is offered with reference to the alternative mechanisms that are developed to engage youth in volunteering for development.
Faulkner, S. & Wearing, S.L. 2008, 'Coming Home: Re-entry Shock in Volunteer Tourism', CAUTHE, Proceedings of the 18th Annual CAUTHE Conference, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, Griffith University, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, pp. 1-5.
This study examines the motives that drive young people to participate in some form of volunteer or humanitarian activities while on a leisure trip and the benefits and impacts that the volunteer tourists derive from the experience on their return. More importantly it will take a longitudinal format and survey volunteers pre-departure and post-arrival to verify levels of reentry shock and their determinants.
Wearing, S.L. 2007, 'Introduction and overview of area', Volunteer Tourism Symposium (Hosted by National Institute for Governance and the Centre for Tourism Research, University of Canberra Supported by CAUTHE), Canberra University.
Wearing, S.L. & Chatterton, P. 2007, 'The practice of community based tourism: Developing ecotrekking for the Kokoda Track, Papua New Guinea', Proceedings of the 17th Annual CAUTHE Conference, University of Technology, Manly.
Wearing, S.L. & Wearing, M. 2007, 'Post colonial development and tourism: Hybridity, ethics and the subjecting tourist', Proceedings of the 17th Annual CAUTHE Conference, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, University of Technology, Manly.
Schweinsberg, S.C., Wearing, S.L. & Darcy, S.A. 2007, 'Exploring community sustainability potential in nature based tourism: The far south coast nature tourism and recreation plan', Proceedings of the 17th Annual CAUTHE Conference, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, University of Technology, Sydney, Manly, Australia, pp. 1-13.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Often nature tourism development is viewed as a path to changing the economic industry base, security, and by implication towards creating community sustainability in rural areas. This paper argues that a sole focus on economic growth is too narrow a representation of the linkages between the tourism industry and host communities. It asserts that community sustainability is better seen as an integrating, encompassing concern for the cultural, social, economic and environmental sustainability potential of the community in a particular locality. The objectives of the 2004 Far South Coast Nature Tourism and Recreation Plan are presented as a means of illustrating the challenge in developing a sustainable future for Australian rural communities.
Goodall, H., Cadzow, A.J., Bryne, D. & Wearing, S.L. 2007, 'Cultural diversity, heritage and the Georges River National Park', Cultural Heritage: a symposium of the Department of Environment and Climate Change, Maritime Museum, Sydney.
Goodall, H., Cadzow, A.J., Bryne, D. & Wearing, S.L. 2007, 'Gold and Silver: Vietnamese Australians and parks in Vietnam and Sydney', Cultural Heritage Conference, Department of Environment and Climate Change - ANMM, Darling Harbour.
Goodall, H., Cadzow, A.J., Bryne, D. & Wearing, S.L. 2007, 'Nets, Backyards and the Bush: prawns, wallabies and bluetongues: the conflicting cultures of nature on Sydney's Georges River', The Natural History of Sydney, Royal Zoological Society, Taronga Park Zoo.
Goodall, H., Cadzow, A.J., Byrne, D. & Wearing, S.L. 2007, 'People, Politics and Public Nature on the Georges River', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Conference, University of Technology, University of Technology Sydney.
Wearing, S.L., Goodall, H., Cadzow, A.J. & Bryne, D. 2007, 'Masculinity and Power Recreation on the Georges River', In the Pipeline: a symposium new directions on cultural research on water, Centre for Cultural Research, Parramatta.
Wearing, S.L., Goodall, H., Cadzow, A.J. & Bryne, D. 2007, 'Water flexibility: Vietnamese women's experiences of migrancy, gender relations and rivers in Sydney and Vietnam', In the Pipeline: a symposium new directions on cultural research on water, Centre for Cultural Research, Parramatta.
Wearing, S.L. 2006, 'Coastal and ecotourism policy and planning in Australia.', Fulbright-Hays Seminar Abroad participants, Fulbright-Hays Seminar Abroad participants, Sydney, Australia.
Cadzow, A.J., Goodall, H., Byrne, D. & Wearing, S.L. 2006, 'Waterborne: Vietnamese Australians' Memories of Place in Vietnam and Sydney', Dancing With Memory: International Oral History Association Conference, University of Technology, Sydney.
Goodall, H., Cadzow, A.J., Byrne, D. & Wearing, S.L. 2006, 'The Flow of Memory: rivers and the narration of change in urban and rural Australia', Dancing with Memory: International Oral History Association Conference, University of Technology, Sydney.
Goodall, H., Wearing, S.L., Byrne, D.R. & Cadzow, A.J. 2006, 'Green cities: rethinking suburban conservation campaigning in Sydney 1940 to 1990.', State of Australia's Cities 2005, Conference Proceedings, State of Australia's Cities 2005, Conference Proceedings, Sydney.
Wearing, S.L. & Archer, D.J. 2005, 'Developing an approach to marketing and demarketing of tourism for protected area management', Current Issues: Future Challenges - Parks and Leisure Australia National Conference 2005, Parks and Leisure Australia National Conference 2005, Parks and Leisure Australia, Tasmania, Australia.
Wearing, S.L. & Archer, D.J. 2005, 'Examining the impacts of changing approaches to interpretation: best practice research that contributes to sustainable tourism', Current Issues: Future Challenges - Parks and Leisure Australia National Conference 2005, Parks and Leisure Australia National Conference 2005, Parks and Leisure Australia, Tasmania, Australia.
Wearing, S.L., Goddard, J. & McDonald, M.G. 2005, 'Neoliberalism and the control of deviance: the evolution of narcissistic leisure', Kangaroo and Kiwi Kulture: Impacts on the Leisure Experience - 7th ANZALS Biennial Conference, 7th ANZALS Biennial Conference, ANZALS, Tauranga, New Zealand.
Darcy, S.A. & Wearing, S.L. 2005, 'Contested cultural heritage: an analysis of media representation of stakeholder views in local and regional newspapers on the NSW quarantine station', Kangaroo and Kiwi Kulture: Impacts on the Leisure Experience - 7th ANZALS Biennial Conference, 7th ANZALS Biennial Conference, ANZALS, Tauranga, New Zealand, pp. 20-20.
Byrne, D.R., Goodall, H., Wearing, S.L. & Cadzow, A.J. 2005, 'Enchanted places in the suburbs: seeing the Georges River', State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, -, Wollongong, NSW Australia.
Goodall, H., Wearing, S.L., Byrne, D.R. & Cadzow, A.J. 2005, 'Bushland in the city: natural or unnatural?', National Conference - State of Australia Cities, State of Australia Cities, -, Sydney, Australia.
Goodall, H., Wearing, S.L., Byrne, D.R. & Cadzow, A.J. 2005, 'Making greenspace: rethinking suburban conservation campaigning in Sydney 1940 to 1990', State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, -, Griffin University, Australia.
Griffin, T., Wearing, S.L. & Archer, D.J. 2004, 'Valuing our national parks: understanding the perspectives of infrequent park users from different socio-economic and cultural groups', CAUTHE 2004: "Creating Tourism Knowledge", Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 262-278.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Goodall, H., Wearing, S.L., Byrne, D.R. & Kijas, J. 2004, 'Recognising Cultural Diversity: The Georges River Project in South western Sydney', Sustainability and Social Science: Round Table Proceedings, Sustainability and Social Science, ISF, UTS & CSIRO Minerals, Sydney, Australia, pp. 159-185.
Wearing, S.L. & Archer, D.J. 2003, 'An 'interpretation opportunity spectrum': a new approach to the planning and provision of interpretation in protected areas', Riding the Wave of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, Australia, pp. 1-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Archer, D.J., Wearing, S.L. & Griffin, T. 2002, 'The interpretation opportunity spectrum (IOS): Developing an approach to managing interpretation and education', 9th International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, 9th International Symposium on Society and Resource Management.
Wearing, S. & Wearing, M. 1999, 'Decommodifying ecotourism: Rethinking global-local interactions with host communities', LOISIR & SOCIETE-SOCIETY AND LEISURE, pp. 39-70.
LABONE, M. & WEARING, S. 1993, 'TOWARD A SOCIOLOGY OF TOURIST CHOICE BEHAVIOUR FAMILY LEISURE CHOICES AND NATIONAL PARKS', LEISURE AND TOURISM: SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, pp. 609-614.
Wearing, S.L. 2005, 'Member, editorial board: "Leisure/ Loisir"', Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Waterloo, Canada.
Wearing, S.L. 2004, 'Member, editorial board: "Journal of Parks and Leisure, Australia"'.
Wearing, S.L. 2003, 'Chair, editorial board: "Australasian Parks and Leisure"'.
Wearing, S.L., Lyons, K. & Lyons, K. NSW Business Chamber 2016, The Sharing Economy: Issues, Impacts, And Regulatory Responses In The Context Of The NSW Visitor Economy, http://www.nswbusinesschamber.com.au/NSWBCWebsite/media/Policy/Tourism/…, no. http://www.nswbusinesschamber.com.au/NSWBCWebsite/media/Policy/Tourism/…, pp. 1-46, NSW.
Wearing, S.L., Small, J. & Grabowski, S. UNWTO 2016, Volunteer tourism: Transforming youth for a sustainable future, UNWTO Report, Transformative Tourism for Our Sustainable Future, pp. 48-51, Madrid, Spain.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Goodall, H., Byrne, D., Cadzow, A.J. & Wearing, S.L. UTSePress 2012, Waters of belonging : Al-miyahu Tajma'unah: Arabic Australians and the Georges River Parklands, pp. 1-55, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This series arises from Parklands, Culture and Communities, a project which looks at how cultural diversity shapes people's understandings and use of the Georges River and green spaces in Sydney's south west. We focus on the experiences of four local communities (Aboriginal, Vietnamese, Arabic and Anglo Australians) and their relationships with the river, parks and each other. Culturally diverse uses and views have not often been recognised in Australia in park and green space management models, which tend to be based on Anglo-Celtic 'norms' about nature and recreation. UTS and the Office of Environment and Heritage supported this research because they have been interested in how the more diverse cultural knowledges held by Australians today might offer support for managing green spaces more effectively.
Cadzow, A.J., Byrne, D., Goodall, H. & Wearing, S.L. UTSePress 2011, Waterborne: Vietnamese Australians and Sydney's Georges River parks and green spaces, pp. 1-43, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Waterborne: Vietnamese Australians and Sydney's Georges River parks and green spaces, has been created by talking with the Vietnamese Australians who live around the Georges River and who often visit its parklands. They explain here their memories of their early homelands, which are given a context with information about the histories of rivers and parks in Vietnam. Then these Vietnamese Australians talk about their hopes about parks in Australia and their actual experiences in the parks and rivers around their new homes near the Georges River.
Reid, M., Croy, G. & Wearing, S.L. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd 2009, The Integrated Pre-visit Communication Audit: A User Guide, pp. 1-49, Australia (Gold Coast Queensland).View/Download from: UTS OPUS
As a result of the increasing influence of tourism, natural and protected area management continues to evolve from management primarily focused around on-site management and conservation to one that more broadly encompasses a greater range of holistic recreation and tourism experiences. In dealing with this evolution national parks and protected area managers are now required to balance on-site interpretation activities with previsit marketing and demand management activities.
Wearing, S.L., Schweinsberg, S.C., Faulkner, S. & Tumes, K. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd. 2009, Understanding Track/Trail Experiences in National Parks: A Review, pp. 1-46, Gold Coast, Queensland.
Wearing, S.L., Schweinsberg, S.C., Faulkner, S. & Tumes, K. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd 2009, Understanding 'Track/Trail' Experiences in National Parks: A Review,, pp. 1-46, Australia (Gold Coast, Queensland).View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This desktop report aimed to draw attention to the various factors associated with track usage and visitor experience in national parks. A research classification spreadsheet was constructed in order to draw attention to the current state of academic research in this area. The main factors found to influence the track experience were congestion, interaction between trail user groups and environmental degradation. In addition to the classification of academic research this report also examined current management planning and visitor research conducted in three New South Wales national parks in order to provide examples of best practice that would be relevant to New South Wales stakeholders.
Reid, M., Wearing, S.L. & Croy, G. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd 2008, Marketing Of Protected Areas As A Tool To Influence Visitors' Pre-Visit Decisions, pp. 1-86, Printed in Australian (Gold Coast, Queensland).View/Download from: UTS OPUS
As the result of the increasing influence of tourism, natural and protected area management is evolving from one primarily focused around onsite management and conservation to one that more broadly encompasses a greater range of holistic recreation and tourism experiences. In dealing with this evolution, national parks and protected area managers are now required to balance onsite interpretation activities with marketing and demand management activities.
Wearing, S.L., Schweinsberg, S.C., Faulkner, S. & Tumes, K. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd 2008, Understanding track/trail experiences in National Parks: A Review, pp. 1-47, Gold Coast Queensland.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This desktop project aimed to draw attention to the various factors associated with track usage and visitor experience in national parks. The results will help to inform park managers how best to develop a strategic position on tracks and trails based on visitor experiences. This advice will be of assistance to managers for ongoing work regarding visitation planning and policy. The Blue Mountains National Park (BMNP), Kosciuszko National Park (KNP), and the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves (CERRA) are employed as case studies to examine best practice research into track/trail experiences. The technical report series present data and its analysis, meta-studies and conceptual studies, and are considered to be of value to industry, government and researchers. Unlike the Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centres Monograph series, these reports have not been subjected to an external peer review process. As such, the scientific accuracy and merit of the research reported here is the responsibility of the authors, who should be contacted for clarification of any content. Author contact details are at the back of this report.
Wearing, S.L., Archer, D.J. & Beeton, S. Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre Pty Ltd 2007, The Sustainable Marketing Of Tourism In Protected Areas: Moving Forward, Gold Coast, Australia.
Wearing, Moscardo, G., Schweinsberg, S.C. & Archer, D. 2007, Best Practice Interpretation Research for Sustainable Tourism: Framework for a New Research Agenda, CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd, Australia (Gold Coast Queensland).
Wearing, S.L. & Helson, H. TTF Australia published on website : www.ttf.org.au 2004, A natural partnership: making national parks a tourism priority - project paper 3/ marketing and promotion, pp. 114-164, Sydney, Australia.
Wearing, S.L. & Helson, H. TTF Australia Published 2004, A natural partnership: making national parks a tourism priority/ executive summary, pp. 1-24, Sydney, Australia.
Peer review : Project completed through the Sustainable Tourism CRC, wtih Dr, Karen Higgenbottom (Griffith University) as overall project manager and convenor of industry steering committee. Draft reports reviewed by project manager and steering committee. Exexutive summary produced and edited by same steering committee and authors.
Economic, environmental and social forces have changed the way we are developing our cities. A range of theoretical constructs have been explored to provide direction for contemporary analyses of urban tourism experience. This paper engages with a feminist perspective in our understanding of the way tourists explore and experience cities. It achieves this by expanding current sociological frameworks that assume the tourist is simply a wanderer in the urban environment. Drawing on interactionist and post-structural critique and Wearing and Wearing's (1996) theoretical framework of the flâneur and choraster, this paper demonstrates how a more feminized conceptualisation of the tourist experience as a creative and interactive process could have a transformative effect on our understanding of tourists' experiences of cities.