Having worked for the organising committee for the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Parlympic Games from 1998 to 2001, I developed an interest how sport mega-events are planned and managed. I completed my PhD on this topic and have since published five books including: Managing the Olympics (with Daryl Adair, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013); Managing the Football World Cup (with Daryl Adair, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014); Managing the Paralympics (with Simon Darcy and Daryl Adair, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017); Managing Sport Mega-Events (Routledge, 2017); and, Critical Issues in Global Sport Management (with Nico Schulenkorf, Routledge, 2017).
Can supervise: YES
sport mega-events, leadership development, sport broadcasting, sport management
sport management, sport marketing, Olympic Games and sport mega-events
This book explores the global developments in sport leadership and practice. Drawing on the vast and ever-growing leadership literature, the book examines advances in leadership theory and practice in the context of the challenges faced by those working in global sport management positions. It explores the various dimensions of leadership, with a particular focus on the development of leadership theory. It also looks at the operational and contextual elements of leadership in a global sport environment and finally reflects on the status quo, and explores future challenges and research opportunities for leadership and global sport management.
Critical Issues in Global Sport Management will provide researchers, students and practitioners with a collection of chapters that examine the latest concepts and challenges faced by the global sport industry. The book identifies and evaluates current issues and complexities faced by those charged with the responsibility of managing sport in compound business contexts as well as intricate social environments.
Frawley, S 2017, Managing Sport Mega-Events, Routledge.
What is lacking, however, is a book which identifies and evaluates the current issues and complexities faced by those charged with the responsibility of managing these mega-sport events. This book fills the gap.
Given the size of the Football World Cup and its economic impact it is surprising that this book is the first attempt to bring leading international mega-sport event researchers together to examine the management and organizational ...
© 2019 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand National Sport Federations are responsible for governing all aspects of a sport within their respective countries. In developing and promoting their sport National Federations must respond to multi-level complexity arising from internal stakeholder needs and commercial, government and social demands. While organisational complexity responses have been extensively researched, little of this work has considered the unique positioning of sport federations. Drawing on the theoretical perspective of institutional logics and complexity, the authors adopted a case study approach to investigate Triathlon Australia's response to its complex operating environment, conducting 18 in-depth semi-structured interviews with current and former board members, chief executives, senior managers, and government representatives responsible for national sport policy and funding. Interview data were complemented with an examination of Triathlon Australia's annual reports and Australian government policy documents (1998–2016 period). Four themes and several organisational responses' themes emerged from the inductive and iterated thematic data analysis: (a) external complexity – alignment, diversification, transcendence, negotiation; (b) interstitial complexity – empathy, formalisation, collaboration, specialisation; (c) internal complexity – division, balance, leverage; and (d) emotions – connection, harness. Driven by quasi-insolvency and admission into the Olympic programme, and national government policy requirements for funding, Triathlon Australia responded to its complex environment by embracing all logics, designs and agendas, unravelling new ways to solve or mitigate it via hybrid responses. Implications for both theory and practice are outlined.
There has been growing interest in gender diversity and the leadership development of women in recent years within the broader field of management studies. Understanding leadership development processes is important for the sport industry, in which organizations are becoming increasingly professional and commercially focused. Despite the increased attention on gender diversity and leadership development within the sport industry to date, the scope and application of organizational gender and leadership development theory within an Australian sport context has been limited. As such, the purpose of this study was to explore the leadership development practices adopted by key stakeholders of the Australian sports industry, with the intention to uncover how they impact the role of women in different organizations. Specifically, the research investigated the practices of three organizations that have a major stake in Australian professional sport.
Whales, L, Frawley, S, Cohen, A & Nikolova, N 2020, 'Everyday Things Change: Australian Athlete Communication During the Coronavirus Lockdown', International Journal of Sport Communication, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
During the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, Australian professional sport leagues were impacted by temporary league shutdowns. One example is the Suncorp Super Netball, the world's premier netball competition. This commentary paper explores the Suncorp Super Netball league shutdown from the perspective of the players. Our commentary has emerged from an ongoing ethnographic study supported by interviews with two players (a representative on the players association and a club captain) conducted during the league shutdown. Such a shutdown was the first in the history of the league, and it required an unprecedented response, coordinated by interdependent stakeholders. The authors outlined the importance of stakeholder communication in effectively navigating this extraordinary situation. In addition, the authors discussed the usefulness of technology-as-context for teamwork and leadership, given the limitations on physical interaction and geographical separation. In conclusion, the authors proposed recommendations for sport practitioners and potential research directions resulting from the coronavirus-related league shutdown.
Fujak, H, Frawley, S, Lock, D & Adair, D 2020, 'Consumer behaviour toward a new league and teams: television audiences as a measure of market acceptance', EUROPEAN SPORT MANAGEMENT QUARTERLY.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sugden, JT, Schulenkorf, N, Adair, D & Frawley, S 2020, 'The role of sport in reflecting and shaping group dynamics: The "intergroup relations continuum" and its application to Fijian rugby and soccer', Sport Management Review, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 271-283.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A significant body of knowledge exists around the role of intergroup relations in sport for development and peace (SFDP). However, while numerous SFDP studies have investigated overt conflict, scholars have typically overlooked the varied nature of intergroup relations in comparatively stable SFDP environments. In addressing that issue, this paper explores intergroup relations in the context of Fiji, a country which in recent years has moved from a society characterized by the politics of coup d'état to democratic government and relatively peaceful social relations. That said, Fiji has long been shaped by a fundamental cultural divide between Indigenous Fijians (iTaukei) and Fijians of Indian ancestry (Indo-Fijians): this is reflected in the de facto separatism between these groups in relation to their role in rugby union and Association football (soccer). In this paper, the authors present a qualitative framework—the Intergroup Relations Continuum (IRC)—by which to 'map' intergroup relations as they apply in Fiji according to identity, ethnicity and sport. While the IRC is applied here in a Fijian context, the model is intended to be generalizable, aiming to provide a practical instrument for researchers, sport managers, policymakers and local stakeholders.
Joachim, G, Schulenkorf, N, Schlenker, K & Frawley, S 2020, 'Design thinking and sport for development: enhancing organizational innovation', Managing Sport and Leisure, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 175-202.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Rationale/purpose: To determine if the field of sport for development (SFD) presents opportunities for the employment of design thinking approaches toward enhancing organizational innovation. Design/methodology/approach: We undertook a scoping study to determine if and how SFD research and practice aligns with five established themes of design thinking practice. Findings: Design thinking indicators are present across the breadth of SFD research. A total of 14 SFD articles display total thematic alignment with design thinking practice, particularly in regard to five key indicators of such alignment: (a) deep user understanding, (b) diversity of perspectives, (c) testing for user feedback, (d) futuristic thinking, and (e) bias toward action. Practical implications: Five key indicators represent logical points of entry for the employment of design thinking in SFD research and practice. Research contribution: Design thinking has become popular in the broad field of management, but this is the first study of the concept in the sport management domain.
Veal, AJ, Toohey, K & Frawley, S 2019, 'Sport participation, international sports events and the 'trickle-down effect'', Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, vol. 11, no. sup1, pp. s3-s7.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sugden, J, Adair, D, Schulenkorf, N & Frawley, S 2019, 'Exploring sport and intergroup relations in Fiji. Guidance for researchers undertaking short-term ethnography.', Sociology of Sport Journal, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 277-288.
There is a key tension associated with ethnographic explorations into the lives of people in the Global South – 'outsider' researchers from the Global North who lack experience of the environments they are seeking to understand. A considered response, therefore, is for scholars to seek physical immersion in a field – to live among those they are trying to understand. Such ethnographic inquiries are optimal when researchers have the capacity to engage over long periods of time. However, in some circumstances, this may not feasible. Thus, questions arise about the veracity of field work investigations that are not only temporally brief but undertaken by scholars who lack local experience. This paper reflects on the experiences of a researcher who was faced with those challenges. It provides guidance as to how scholars might prepare for short-term ethnography (STE) in field work, along with the limitations and constraints of such an approach. The research centered on a sport for development and peace study into intergroup relations and ethnic separatism in Fijian sport.
Frawley, SM, Favaloro, D & Schulenkorf, N 2018, 'Experience-Based Leadership Development and Professional Sport Organizations', Journal of Sport Management, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 123-134.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In recent years, there has been a significant interest around leadership development practices within the field of management. Leadership development is particularly important within the highly competitive sport industry, where leadership performance is under constant and ever-increasing scrutiny. For sport organizations, strong
leadership can be a source of significant competitive advantage, and hence, increased focus on leadership and investment into the development of talent has occurred. However, there has been a surprising lack of scholarly research into leadership and the associated processes within the sport management field, particularly from an Australian perspective. This paper addresses this gap as it examines the nature of experience-based leadership
development practices within three of Australia's leading professional sport organizations. Following a qualitative multicase study approach, the thematic analysis of 15 in-depth semistructured interviews with members of the senior executive of each case organization suggested that the national sport organizations placed significant emphasis on experience-based opportunities as a way of developing their workforce. Via the
adoption of McCall's experience-based leadership development
framework, four main themes emerged: the importance of experience-based opportunities for leadership development; leadership development through involvement and exposure to experiences; networking opportunities gained from experienced-based exposure; and the relationship between on-the-job experience and formal leadership education. These findings extend our knowledge of current leadership development and practices implemented in national sport organizations and highlight the importance of effective leadership within highly competitive sport markets. Based on these findings, implications are provided for current practice illustrating the benefits that an experience-based approach to leadership development within sport organiza...
Fujak, H, Frawley, S, McDonald, H & Bush, S 2018, 'Are Sport Consumers Unique? Consumer Behavior Within Crowded Sport Markets', JOURNAL OF SPORT MANAGEMENT, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 362-375.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Although sport broadcasting has received a considerable amount of academic attention, how sport content is valued and monetised from a broadcaster perspective remains relatively underdeveloped. This article adopts multisided market theory to test the broadcast value of Australia's two most valuable sport broadcasting properties, the Australian Football League and the National Rugby League. To do so, a content and ratings analysis was performed to quantify the interaction between content and viewership within broadcasts. The article concludes that innate game dynamics have a significant bearing on the value generated for broadcasters from sport content. Advertising aired during intermissions generated audiences 23% lesser than advertising within the match itself. Notably, the National Rugby League's most valuable timeslot was a delayed telecast, which although potentially reducing the audience size, allowed for an increase in the concentration of advertising within the telecast.
Reis, A, Frawley, SM, Hodgetts, D, Thomson, A & Hughes, K 2017, 'Sport Participation Legacy and the Olympic Games: The Case of Sydney 2000, London 2012 and Rio 2016', Event Management, pp. 1-52.
This article examines the effect of the expansion of an
international sporting competition on the volume and distribution of travel
required by competing teams. The Super Rugby competition has involved
various incremental iterations, starting with 10 teams from Australia, New
Zealand and South Africa. In 2016, three new teams were added to the
competition, one each from South Africa, Argentina and Japan. Even prior
to this expansion, the competition was unique in world sport, comprising
teams from three widely dispersed countries competing in weekly, high
intensity matches over a playing season lasting up to five months. The
article provides evidence of the change in travel demands, both in terms of
overall volume of travel for the season, as well as the distribution of travel
within season, following this recent expansion. Not unexpectedly, the
expansion of the competition has substantially increased the overall volume
teams are required to travel, although this increase was not uniform across
the competition. Despite some teams travelling more, the distribution of
travel has become more even and consistent throughout the season.
The Australian sporting landscape is characterised by centralised broadcasting agreements that leave individual clubs at the mercy of league and broadcaster objectives in determining the nature and degree of their broadcast exposure. As a by-product, the potential exists for variances in television coverage between clubs that may result in significant economic disparity. This article endeavours to quantify this variance and discuss the related management implications of findings by analysing television ratings for a sample of 2,297 Australian Football League and National Rugby League fixtures played between 2007 and 2011. The article concludes that there is significant variance in the coverage provided and corresponding cumulative audience exposure of clubs within both leagues that was likely to impact sponsorship desirability and ability to engage fans. Notably, there was distinct favouritism shown towards those traditionally perceived as "powerhouse" clubs. The degree to which free-to-air broadcasts and finals matches deliver superior audience outcomes to subscription-only telecasts and regular season matches was also quantified.
Fujak, H & Frawley, S 2016, 'The Relationship Between Television Viewership and Advertising Content in Australian Football Broadcasts', Communication & Sport, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 82-101.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The traditional view of football fans, especially in a country such as Australia, has often been an unflattering one, with fans cast as being young, male, and with a beer in one hand. This article performed a demographic analysis of television viewership within Australia's two largest football codes, the Australian Football League and the National Rugby League, to explore the demographics of this audience more closely. This was coupled with an advertising content analysis of corresponding football telecasts to consider the degree of synchronicity between audience and advertising. The article concludes both codes have an older, male-orientated audience skew. However, given that approximately 40% of the audience is female, both codes can lay claim to a more even-gender share of viewership than might be expected, given the highly masculine and physical nature of both sports. Notably, in-game advertising largely reflects its audience, with the majority of the advertisers selling products that appeal to both men and women. Commercial breaks within the broadcasts of both codes were also found to be strongly concentrated towards a small number of leading advertisers.
Frawley, SM 2016, 'The Global Impact of Olympic Media at London 2012', Sport Management Review, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 253-254.
Frawley, SM 2015, 'Organizational Power and the Management of Mega-Events: The Case of Sydney 2000', Event Management: an international journal, vol. 19, pp. 247-260.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The organization of a mega-event such as the Olympic Games is a complex task involving a multitude
of individuals and stakeholder groups. In 2000, Australia's largest city, Sydney, staged the
Summer Olympic Games. The agency given primary responsibility for these Games was the Sydney
Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG). Two additional organizations also played
a central role in the management of the event: the Australian Olympic Committee and the New South
Wales Government. This article explores the role played by the host national Olympic committee as
a key Olympic stakeholder in the organization of the Olympic Games. The research highlights that
organization of a mega-project, such as the Olympic Games, is not only the result of recent developments
but also of countless social and organizational figurations that developed over many years
prior to the winning of a bid to stage the event.
The central aim this paper is to evaluate the broadcast strategies of Australia's two leading commercial sports, the Australian Football League (AFL) and the National Rugby League (NRL), through a quantitative analysis of television ratings during the period 2007 to 2011. Specifically, the research is focused on assessing the degree of exclusivity and geographic reach embedded within each of the sports broadcast agreements. In doing so, the research considers the impact of strategy in providing value to the broadcasters and teams as well as utility to fans of each league within the framework of Noll's broadcasting principles.
Frawley, SM & Van den Hoven, P 2015, 'Football participation legacy and Australias qualification for the 2006 Football World Cup', Soccer and Society, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 482-492.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper examines the impact of qualification for the 2006 World Cup on football participation in Australia. Australia's qualification for the 2006 World Cup created widespread media coverage across the country, and this was amplified by the fact that it was only the second time the nation had qualified for the event. Contrary to a number of studies that have examined sport participation legacy and major events, this research presents data that suggest an overall positive trend in Australian football participation post Australia's successful World Cup qualification. Three of the four demographic categories examined in the study had witnessed increased football participation across the examined period.
In this paper, the interdependent and fluid organisational networks that form to organise Olympic Games are analysed using Norbert Elias's concept of human figurations. Rather than considering organisational situations and developments in static terms, Eliasian process sociology frames the place of organisations within the broader social and historical contexts in which they operate. From an Eliasian perspective, the organisation of a mega-project, such as the Olympic Games, is not only the result of recent developments but also of countless social and organisational figurations that developed over many years prior to the winning of a bid to stage the event. In this regard, the organisation of the Olympic Games is the result of both planned and unplanned consequences of organising over which no one individual ever has total control.
Fujak, H & Frawley, SM 2013, 'The Barassi Line: Quantifying Australia's Great', Sporting Traditions, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 93-110.
The Australian sports landscape features a cultural divide reflected by a distinction in preference between Australian Rules and Rugby football. This cultural phenomenon is associated with a geographic division, known as the `Barassi Line, which demarcates the divergent football preferences of South-Western and North-Eastern Australia. This article aims to assess the existence and strength of the Barassi Line, and discuss the implications of the results in terms of the current competitive environment. Television ratings for a sample of 2,297 AFL and NRL fixtures played between 2007 and 2011 are analysed to determine code specific interest at a region-by-region level.
Van Den Hoven, P & Frawley, SM 2012, 'Aussie Aussie Aussie, Guus Guus Guus. Guus Hiddink's reign as the coach of the Socceroos: a comparative cultural media analysis', Soccer and Society, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 97-106.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In 2005, a Dutch `super coach by name of Guus Hiddink achieved what many Australian football fans thought was an almost impossible task: he managed to lead the Australian football team to qualification for the 2006 FIFA World Cup. This was only the second time Australia had qualified to play in this tournament, with the previous success being 32 years prior, in 1974. The purpose of this essay is to explore how the Australian and Dutch media covered Hiddinks time as Australias national football coach. The research has utilized Hofstedes cultural dimensions theory in order to understand the similarities and differences between how both media represented Hiddinks time in Australia. As outlined by Hofstede, Australian and Dutch societies maintain a number of similarities. They are similar in respect to the cultural dimensions of power distance, individualism and uncertainty avoidance. It was found however that both nations were substantially different in relation to Hofstedes cultural dimension termed `masculinity versus femininity.
Veal, T, Toohey, KM & Frawley, SM 2012, 'The sport participation legacy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and other international sporting events hosted in Australia', Journal of Policy Research, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 155-184.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The legacy of an Olympic Games in a host city or country can take a variety of forms, including non-sporting benefits, such as enhanced urban infrastructure and national and international tourism profile, and sporting benefits, such as improved sporting facilities, strengthened sports organisations and potential increases in grassroots sport participation. This paper concentrates on the last of these, particularly in regard to the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. The paper examines claims by the Olympic movement concerning increased sports participation as a legacy and examines available evidence to consider whether the hosting of the Games boosted sports participation in Australia. While some estimates suggest that participation did increase following the hosting of the 2000 Olympics, the failure of relevant organisations to maintain an adequate and consistent data collection regime makes this conclusion extremely speculative. From 2001 onwards, with the existence of a more stable data collection system and increasing awareness of the idea of a sport participation legacy, it is possible to make more reliable estimates of the pattern of grassroots sports participation following the hosting of the 2003 Rugby World Cup and the 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth Games. However, even when reliable and consistent participation data are available, the question of causality in the context of the wider sport development and participation system remains to be addressed.
Morgan, AA & Frawley, SM 2011, 'Sponsorship legacy and the hosting of an Olympic Games: The case of Sydney 2000', Journal of Sponsorship, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 220-235.
This study examines the sponsorship legacy experienced by the Australian Olympic Committee (AOC) after hosting the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. (An earlier version of this paper was presented at the International Event Forum, held on the Gold Coast, Australia, in July 2009.) A multi-layered framework based on the work of Daellenbach et al. (2006) forms the basis of the analysis. Primary data were collected through in-depth interviews with 14 executives, who were associated with Olympic sponsorship and the Sydney Games. The results indicate the positive impact hosting the Games had on AOCs profile and credibility in the Australian sports industry. Conversely, the research found that AOCs post-Olympic sponsorship projections for the years 200104 were overly optimistic, with less than half of the forecast A$60m revenue stream being achieved.
Frawley, SM & Cush, A 2011, 'Major sport events and participation legacy: the case of the 2003 Rugby World Cup', Managing Leisure - An International Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 65-76.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Internationally, the past three decades has seen a significant growth in the staging of major sport events (Cashman, 2006). These events are staged by host organizers and supported by governments for many varied reasons. One rationale often provided by governments to justify their investment in such events is that they will encourage their population to become more physically active through sport participation. The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact hosting major sport events has on sport participation for a host nation. To address this research question, a recent major sport event hosted in Australia, namely the 2003 Rugby World Cup, is investigated. The findings from the study suggest that the sport of rugby witnessed an increase in sport registrations following the staging of the event. The increase, however, was substantially greater for the junior rugby category than the senior rugby category.
Frawley, SM & Toohey, KM 2009, 'The importance of prior knowledge: the Australian Olympic Committee and the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games', Sport in Society, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 947-966.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study investigates how the Australian Olympic Committee (AOC) was involved in the formation of the Sports Commission (SSC) within the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG) and as a critical contributor to the staging of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Using a figurational sociological framework, the intended and unintended consequences of the AOC's strategic and operational involvement are explored. The case shows how important early negotiations were in the case of the Sydney Olympics, when the host governments and Olympic Organizing Committees, in the period immediately following the winning of a bid, were inexperienced in Olympic negotiations and distracted by the euphoria of securing the Games. This left the more knowledgeable Olympic organization, the AOC, well placed to leverage its prior experience and extensive Olympic figurations, in order to gain a strategic advantage over the other Australian Olympic stakeholders. The research makes a contribution to Olympic studies, specifically in relation to the role of the host National Olympic Committee (NOC) in the organizing of an Olympic Games. Furthermore, the research findings have management implications for the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and future host NOCs, particularly in relation to the structuring of Olympic Organizing Committee governance arrangements
McCarthy, T & Frawley, SM 2008, 'Should I stay or should I go? Selecting a date for the Australian Tennis Open.', Managing Leisure - An International Journal, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 115-127.
In 2005, the Australian Tennis Open (Australian Open) celebrated its 100th year as Australia's leading tennis event. Under the stewardship of the national governing body, Tennis Australia, this major event has experienced a number of organizational challenges over its history. A key challenge faced by Tennis Australia over the past three decades, has been the regular withdrawal of highly ranked tennis players from the tournament year after year. The difficulties faced by Tennis Australia in attracting all of the top men's and women's players each year to the Australian Open prompted the organizers to discuss the option of moving the event to a time more suitable for the players. In 2004, Tennis Australia outlined the possible movement of the Australian Open from the traditional starting time in January to a later start in March. However, after considerable consultation Tennis Australia decided that a move to the later period in the year was not feasible. This paper drawing on a processual analytical framework, inspired by the work of Norbert Elias and Eric Dunning, examines the organizational dynamics that developed and changed over time leading up to the final decision made by Tennis Australia. The study highlights the interconnected and interdependent power relations that were cultivated over time by those stakeholders involved in the Australian Open.
Frawley, SM 2017, 'Sport mega-events: managerial dimensions' in Managing Sport Mega-Events, Routledge, London, pp. 1-7.
The two biggest sport events in the world today, by any measure, are the Summer
Olympic Games and the Football World Cup (Frawley & Adair, 2013, 2014).
Both events are held every four years and given the global media impact and
attention these two events achieve they can be truly classified as sport megaevents.
Cities and nations bid aggressively for the right to stage these events and
through doing so seek to accrue a range of (potential) benefits (Baade &
The main advantages often sought by bidding cities and nations include:
generating increased economic activity arising through international tourism,
infrastructure development and interconnected financial investment (Barney,
Wenn & Martyn, 2002); the chance to position, brand or re-brand a city or
nation (Hall, 2006); the ability to generate national pride and identity derived
from staging a successful event (Tomlinson, 2005); and helping the national
team achieve better results by competing on familiar territory, leading to further
positive social outcomes (Bloomfield, 2003).
While the benefits of hosting a sport mega-event at first seem attractive, the
staging of such large events requires extensive and detailed planning and
multifarious stakeholder management across local, national and international
institutions (Guttmann, 2002). The cost of failure, both financially and politically,
can therefore be significant (Searle, 2002). The complexity of sport mega-events
is highlighted by the number of groups and networks that become involved and
engaged (Young & Wamsley, 2005).
In this introductory chapter, we provide the background, purpose and context for Critical Issues in Global Sport Management. In the remaining 19 chapters of this book we invite readers to explore, learn, discuss and reflect on the latest concepts, issues and trends in managing sport.
In this final chapter of Critical Issues in Global Sport Management, we as editors reflect on a number of the key debates highlighted in the book. Moreover, with the use of practical examples, we critically discuss how current issues, challenges, and emerging trends in global sport are likely to develop in the future.
Adriaanse, JA, Cobourn, S & Frawley, S 2017, 'Governance, CSR and diversity: a critical field of study in global sport management' in Schulenkorf, N & Frawley, S (eds), Critical Issues in Global Sport Management, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 9-22.
Broadcasting represents a key component in the successful delivery of megaevents. Not only have broadcast rights become a critical financial pillar that underpins the functioning of mega-events, but also, and perhaps more importantly, television broadcasting remains the central mechanism that connects the event itself to the world. Taken further, it can be argued that the development of broadcast technology has in fact been a key contributor in the creation of the modern archetype that is today known as the 'sport mega-event'. This is perhaps best exemplified by the correlation between the increased size and scope of the Olympic Games and the Football World Cup and associated growth in broadcast valuations over the last three decades (Frawley & Adair, 2013, 2014). The broadcasting of mega-events can now be considered a relatively mature phenomenon. It is approximately 80 years since the first Olympic broadcast took place during the 1936 Berlin Games and 60 years since the first Football World Cup was broadcast in 1954 (IOC, 2014; Lisi, 2011). Yet, despite the dramatic growth in these two mega-events, the historical development of the broadcasting landscape for both has been dynamic and fluid rather than a linear pathway. This chapter therefore sets out to provide an overview of the growth in broadcast rights valuations for the two mega-events as well as an analysis of audience size and reach.
Professional sport has become reliant on commercially generated revenue, namely
through sponsorship partnerships and broadcast rights fees. Sport mega-events in
particular, are highly dependent on the financial and resource investment of their
sponsorship partners. Over the past 30 years, not only has sponsorship emerged
as a major source of revenue for sport events, it is also a key marketing tool for
sponsoring companies. Moreover, worldwide sponsorship has become a critical
component of marketing communications strategies.
Global sponsorship expenditure has escalated from US$2 billion in 1984
(Sponsorship Research International, 1998, cited in Meenaghan & Shipley,
1999) to US$55.3 billion in 2014 (IEG, 2015a). Sport accounts for the majority
of global sponsorship spend, receiving approximately 70 per cent of sponsor
investment (Chadwick, Liu & Thwaites, 2014). As sponsorship has proliferated
over the last three decades, the manner by which it has been activated and
leveraged has changed significantly. Sport sponsorship has evolved into a major
industry in the global marketplace. This chapter discusses the growth of
sponsorship and related trends within the sport mega-event industry.
Peters, D, Frawley, SM & Favaloro, D 2017, 'Leading the Team: The Role of the Chef de Mission atthe Paralympic Games' in Managing the Paralympics, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 175-191.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this chapter, we argue that the effective leadership of a National Paralympic team is critical for successful participation at the Paralympic Games. Games participation is important since the summer Games only occur every four years and are highly prized by numerous stakeholders, including athletes, coaches, sponsors, the media, and national and international sporting federations (Australian Paralympic Committee 2012). National Paralympic Committees (NPCs), Individual sports, athlete and stakeholder perceptions of the event are influenced by the performance of the national team and the related Games experience. National team success is of course dependent upon the quality of athletic talent and coaching, while the overall Games experience can be affected by many factors, including leadership, planning and access to the appropriate level of information and resources. Involvement in the Paralympic Games can therefore benefit a nation through increasing the level of national pride gained due to medal success by its athletes on the world stage, promoting sport recruitment and succession, generating public and sponsorship support, and by enhancing the reputation of team leadership and organizational capability.
In 2020 it will be 60 years since the first Paralympic Games in Rome
(International Paralympic Committee 2015a, b). Over that time the
Paralympics have grown into the world's third largest sporting event
behind the Olympic Games and Fédération Internationale de Football
Association (FIFA) World Cup. Each successive Paralympic Games has
made contribution to this growth: introducing new sports, encouraging
more countries to attend, increased scope of broadcasting, record
ticket sales, and alternative media channels to promote the event and
its athletes. From 1960 to 2020 this has led to 11-fold increase in athlete
participation, "from less than 400 in 1964 to over 4,250 at London
2012 and a projected 4,350 for Rio 2016" (International Paralympic
Committee 2015b). Geographically, those countries represented at the
Games have grown from 21 to 164 competing for some 500 medal event 23, evolving from an event for wheelchair athletes to numerous activities
involving nine different impairment types (International Paralympic
Committee 2015b). The summer Paralympics now has a cumulative TV
audience of 3.8 billion people and has an increasing presence on social
media: at London 2012, for example, some 1.3 million tweets mentioned
"Paralympic" (International Paralympic Committee 2015b). Like
the Olympics, the focus of these statistics has often been on the summer
Paralympics, but there has also been important growth in the winter
Paralympic Games (Legg and Gilbert 2011).
Hendriks, M & Toepoel, V 2013, 'Social impact of street soccer leagues' in Exploring the Social Impacts of Events, pp. 111-125.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Frawley, SM, Toohey, KM & Veal, AJ 2013, 'Managing Sport Participation Legacy at the Olympic Games' in Stephen Frawley (ed), Managing the Olympics, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 66-83.View/Download from: Publisher's site
One particular strategy employed by governments and government agencies to promote sport participation has been to support the hosting of international sport events. Governments and their agencies afe increasingly identifying the promotion of grassroots-sport participation as one of the opportunities, and anticipated outcomes, of hosting a mega-sport event such as the Olympic Games. For example, in regard to the London 2012 Olympic Games, UK Sport (2005) has stated that 'a comprehensive development strategy will encourage participation and boost all levels of a sport - everything from assisting potential medal winners to inspiring children to take up sport' (p. 74). Given the considerable amounts of public funds that are spent in the staging of mega-sport events, it is inevitable that there will be calls for evidence of the effectiveness of such events in delivering the promised outcomes, including sport-participation outcomes. While sport-funding agencies and governments have, in recent years, become more active in planning event legacies, including increased sport participation, research has demonstrated that there is little empirical data to show that the strategies employed to date have been successful. An extensive review of the literature has found little evidence that international sport events have a positive impact on stimulating physical activity and sport participation (Weed, Coren and Fiore, 2009). With this context in mind, the purpose of this chapter is to examine the impact that hosting the Olympic Games has on sport participation. The chapter starts by reviewing the research published to date in this area, and then presents a case study focused on the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games.
This chapter outlines how the task of managing sport at an Olympic Games has become increasingly more complex as the Games have grown in size as well as becoming more technologically and media interdependent. To provide contextual background, a brief review of this growth is discussed together with data on the event's scale and dimensionality, indicated by the changing number of events, athletes and spectators, and, by association, sports-related managerial and operational planning. Although the 16 days of sport competition is the most obvious manifestation of the Olympic movement, to date there has been surprisingly little published in academic literature specifically about sport-programme management and organization unlike other aspects of the Olympics, such as sponsorship (Barney, Wenn and Martyn, 2002), legacy (Cashman, 2006; Veal, Toohey and Frawley, 2012), security (Taylor and Toohey, 2007), economics (Preuss, 2000, 2007) and politics (Kidd and Donnelly, 2000). This chapter aims to redress this gap m scholarship by examining how sport is planned and organized at the Olympic Games. It begins by introducing principles of the Olympic Charter that gnide the management of Olympic sport. As the organization of sport at each edition of the Games involves a range of stakeholders, all with diverse agendas, these differing stakeholders' roles are discussed. Following this, an in-depth case study of a successful model for sport-programme organization, that of the Sydney 2000 Olympics, IS presented. To finish the chapter and provide alternative approaches to sport-programme management, descriptions of sport organization at subsequent Olympic Games to Sydney are provided.
Frawley, SM 2013, 'Sport participation legacy and the hosting of mega-sport events' in Greg Richards (ed), Exploring the Social Impacts of Events, Routledge, New York, pp. 97-111.
Over the past 30 years, a growing stream of research has been ~onducted that explores the social consequences and resulting impacts of staging mega-sport events, such as the Olympic Games (Cashman et at. 2004). We know that staging mega-sport events as large as the Olympic Games can create 'considerable turbulence' for a host community (Lesjo 2000: 282) and as a consequence of their size and scope these types of events are 'seldom embraced as "windows of opportunity" without opposition' (Hiller 1990: 120). Over recent years, an evcrbroadening range of studies have investigated both the productive and restrictive features and impacts that are generated by mega-sporl events and in particular those created when hosting the Olympic Games (Malfas et al. 2004). This chapter starts by providing a succinct overview of this literature. The main purpose of the chapter, however, is to discuss an area that surprisingly has been under-researched in the field of Olympics legacy studies. The research area in question specifically relates to the impact that the hosting of mega-sport events, such as the Olympic Games, has on sport participation within host communities. The second part of the chapter will discuss and analyse this literature.
This volume had a defined goa l: to critica lly examine the planning, management and delivery of the Olympics as a mega-event. It evaluated how organizers produce the Games, taking into account knowledge from previous Olym pics, as well as the emergence of models of best practice. This operational focus is an underexplored aspect of the Games, and so the book is merely a step towards gaining a more sophisticated understanding of what is required to run an Olympic mega-event. A single volume cannot do justice to the vast operational repertoire required of Olympic Games organ izers, so the book focused on a selection of key aspects of Olympic programme delivery. There are, of course, further areas to be researched; what follows is a sketch for additiona l scholarly inquiry. There are several important operational aspects of the Games that ought to be included in a further volume of essays devoted to the planning and delivery of Olympic mega-events. We offer eight key recommendations, in no particular order. First, preparing for and staging the Games require a sophisticated understanding of both logistics and supply chain management. The global scope and scale of the Olympics makes these operations particularly complex. The movement and co-ordination of equipment and goods involves the interaction of numerous parties and the transaction of associated data. There are logistical challenges in all of this: internal and external variables, government regulations, levels of infrastructure, periods of peak demand and so on.
Tile Olympics are, without doubt, the largest and most signifi cant IlIcga-event in the world, taking in a multitude of sports at both SumIlicr and Winter Games every two years. Planning for and staging the Olympics is one of the most complex tasks that event organizers and project management teams will ever undertake. The ambulatory nature of the Games, moving from one Olympic city to another every four yca rs, means that there are context-specific challenges for hosts, as wcll as start-up knowledge required for each event. Given the sca le, \cope and complexity of all th is, it is surprising that relatively little research has been published about the underlying logistics, organizaI ion and operation of the Olympic Games from event and project Ilianagement perspectives. The planning and delivery of such a massive enterprise, several years in the making but only two weeks by wily of performance, is of substantial interest to those vested with the responsibility of Olympic hosts. Beyond that, the planning and management of the Games is also important to those who analyse the Olympics, such as academics and journali sts, as well as those with an illterest in learning about how they are staged, such as teachers and sludents.
Frawley, SM & Toohey, KM 2011, 'The importance of prior knowledge: The Australian Olympic Committee and the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games' in Toohey, K & Taylor, T (eds), Australian Sport: Antipodean Waves of Change, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 111-130.
This study investigates how the Australian Olympic Committee (AOC) was involved in the formation of the Sports Commission (SSC) within the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG) and as a critical contributor to the staging of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Using a figurational sociological framework, the intended and unintended consequences of the AOC's strategic and operational involvement are explored. The case shows how important early negotiations were in the case of the Sydney Olympics, when the host governments and Olympic Organizing Committees, in the period immediately following the winning of a bid, were inexperienced in Olympic negotiations and distracted by the euphoria of securing the Games. This left the more knowledgeable Olympic organization, the AOC, well placed to leverage its prior experience and extensive Olympic figurations, in order to gain a strategic advantage over the other Australian Olympic stakeholders. The research makes a contribution to Olympic studies, specifically in relation to the role of the host National Olympic Committee (NOC) in the organizing of an Olympic Games. Furthermore, the research findings have management implications for the International Olympic Committee (lOC) and future host NOCs, particularly in relation to the structuring of Olympic Organizing Committee governance arrangements.
Frawley, SM & Toohey, KM 2005, 'Shaping sport competition: The SOCOG Sports Commission and the planning and delivery of sport at the Sydney 2000 Olympic games' in Adair, D, Coe, B & Guoth, N (eds), Beyond the Torch: Olympics and Australian Culture, ASSH, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 15-27.
Schulenkorf, N, Schlenker, K & Frawley, SM 2017, 'Leveraging Sport Events to Maximise Community Benefits in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Experiences from Samoa', ", 22nd European College of Sport Science (ECSS) Congress, Essen.
Frawley, S & Schulenkorf, N 2016, 'The Nexus of Corporate Social Responsibility and Sponsorship at the Olympic Games', 7th International Conference on Sport and Society, Honolulu.
Schulenkorf, N, Frawley, S, Sugden, J, Fujak, H & Siefken, K 2016, 'Sport-for-Development: Are we Crossing Borders in Research?', 21st European College of Sport Science (ECSS) Congress, Vienna.
Morgan, A, Frawley, SM & Schulenkorf, N 2016, 'A Critical Review of Coca-Cola's Olympic Games Sponsorship and Corporate Social Responsibility', European Association for Sport Management (EASM) Conference, Warsaw.
Fujak, H, Frawley, SM & Schulenkorf, N 2016, 'Ethnicity and Sport Preference: Implications for Future Australian Sport Consumption', Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand (SMAANZ) Conference, Auckland.
Sugden, J, Schulenkorf, N, Adair, D, Edwards, D & Frawley, S 2016, 'Sport for Peace or Sport for Development: Uncoupling two distinct genres', ISSA's World Congress of Sociology of Sport: Sport, Global Development and Social Change, Budapest.
Sugden, J, Schulenkorf, N, Frawley, S, Edwards, D & Adair, D 2016, 'Sport, Stereotypes and Racial Formation in Fiji', Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand (SMAANZ) Conference, Auckland.
Morgan, A, Frawley, SM & Schulenkorf, N 2015, 'CSR and Mega-Events: Sponsorship Compatibility and Alignment', North American Society for Sport Management Conference, Ottawa.
Organizations seek unique and innovative platforms in which to communicate their brand messages to the public
and other stakeholders. Event sponsorship presents an attractive and popular medium for these communications.
Effective sponsorship campaigns can build brand identities and provide differentiation in the competitive market.
Building a meaningful identity and instilling symbolic value into brands, is now a key priority for organizations in
both the private and public sectors (Alcañiz, Cáceres, & Pérez, 2010). Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is high
on the corporate agenda for these exact reasons. CSR is used to position organizations as socially responsible and for
them to develop a brand identity that aligns to social and ethical values.
There is now significant discourse on the brand building potential of both sponsorship and CSR activity. CSR
activities have been found to increase consumer loyalty (Du, Bhattacharya & Sen, 2007), brand credibility (BeckerOlsen,
Cudmore & Hill, 2006) and product purchase intentions (Gupta & Pirsch, 2006). In the context of sport
management, most CSR research has focused on similar areas, that is, the consumer response (e.g. Walker & Kent,
Frawley, SM 2013, 'Leadership Development and Australian Sport Organisations', Sport Management Australia and New Zealand, Dunedin.
Frawley, SM 2014, 'Human Rights or Human Right to Play Sport? The UN-IOC Relationship', Sport Management Australia and New Zealand, Dunedin.
Frawley, SM 2013, 'Sport Legacy and the Hosting of Mega-Sport Events', Play the Game, Aarhus.
Frawley, SM 2013, 'Beer and Barbie Dolls: Comparing the Demography of Australian Football Viewership to the Advertising Content of Football Broadcasts', International Sociology of Sport Association, Vancouver.
Frawley, SM 2013, 'Participation Legacy and the Hosting of Mega-Sport Events', International Sociology of Sport Association, Vancouver.
Frawley, SM 2012, 'Major Sport Events and Participation Legacy: The 2003 Rugby World Cup and the 2006 Football World Cup', Worlds of Football ll, Melbourne.
Frawley, SM 2012, 'Managing Sport at the Olympic Games: The Case of Sydney 2000', North American Society for Sport Management Conference, Seattle.
Frawley, SM 2012, 'Leadership Development and Succession Management Practices within Sport Organisations: An Australian Study', Sport Management Australia and New Zealand, Sydney.
Frawley, SM 2014, 'Sport Participation Legacy and the 2003 Rugby World Cup', Sport Management Australia and New Zealand, Sydney.
Frawley, SM 2014, 'An Analysis of Attendance and Viewership Patterns in Australian Football', Sport Management Australia and New Zealand, Sydney.
Frawley, SM 2012, 'Sport Participation Legacy and the Hosting of Mega-Sport Events in Australia', Australian Event Symposium 2012, Australian Event Symposium, Sydney, New South Wales.
Frawley, SM 2012, 'Sport Management Australia and New Zealand 2012 Conference Proceedings', SMAANZ 2012 - Sport Innovation and Engagement, University of Technology, Sydney, pp. 1-124.
Frawley, SM 2011, 'Organising Sport at Mega-Events: The Case of Sydney 2000', Sport Management Australia and New Zealand, Sydney.
Frawley, SM 2010, 'Blatchy's Blues: The Points of Attachment of Representative-Level Sport Fans', 16th SMAANZ Conference 2010, Sport Management Australia and New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand, pp. 29-29.
Morgan, AA & Frawley, SM 2009, 'The Olympic Games and sponsorship legacy: The case of Sydney 2000', The International Event Management Summit Conference Proceedings, The International Event Management Summit, Australian Centre for Event Management, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 418-434.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the sponsorship legacy experienced by the Australian Olympic Committee (AOC) after hosting the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. A multi-layered theoretical framework based on the work of Daellenbach, Davies and Ashill (2006) forms the foundation of this analysis. Primary data was collected through in-depth interviews with 14 executives, who were specifically associated with sponsorship and the Sydney Games. The findings indicate the positive impact hosting the Games had on the AOCs profile and credibility in the sport industry. Conversely, the research found that the AOCs post Olympic sponsorship projections for the years 2001- 2004 were overly optimistic with less than half of the forecasted A$60 million revenue stream being achieved.
Frawley, SM, Van Den Hoven, P & Cush, A 2009, 'Major sport events and participation legacy: The case of the 2003 IRB Rugby World Cup and Australia's qualification for the 2006 FIFA Football World Cup', The International Event Management Summit Conference Proceedings, The International Event Management Summit, Australian Centre for Event Management, Gold Coast, Queensland, pp. 391-403.
Frawley, SM 2008, 'The Gold Games? Sponsorship Legacy, the Australian Olympic Committee and the', Raising the Bar: Promoting Excellence in Sport Management, SMAANZ 2008, Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand, Fremantle, pp. 52-52.
Frawley, SM 2007, 'Sponsorship Legacy and the Host National Olympic Committee: The Case of Sydney 2000', Sporting Traditions XVI: Conceiving, Locating, and Narrating Sports History, ASSH, Canberra.
Frawley, SM, Toohey, KM & Veal, AJ 2006, '"Sport for all" and the legacy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic games', 13th Commonwealth International Sport Conference, 13th Commonwealth International Sport Conference (CISC 2006), CISC, Melbourne, Australia.
Frawley, SM 2005, 'The power of the host national olympic committee and the Sydney olympic games: delivering sport', Sporting Traditions XV, Sporting Traditions, ASSH, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 11-11.
Frawley, SM 2005, 'The impact of the SOCOG sports commission on the delivery of sport at the Sydney 2000 Olympic games', Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand, Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand, SMAANZ, Canberra, Australia, pp. 10-10.
Frawley, SM 2014, 'The Relationship between Team Identification and Organisational Identification: The Case of the Australian Rugby Union', SSRN.
Frawley, SM 2014, 'Evaluating Broadcast Strategy within Australian Football', SSRN.
Frawley, SM 2009, 'WP5: Sport For All & Major Sporting Events: Project Paper 1: Introduction to the Project', School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Working Papers Series.
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