Simone Faulkner (nee Grabowski) is a Lecturer at the University of Technology Sydney. She has a PhD in Tourism Management and holds a first class Honours degree in Tourism Management and a BA (International Studies) from UTS. Her current research areas include cross-cultural communication, consumer behaviour, sustainability, community development, and disability and diversity management. She explores these in the study of expatriates, repatriates, international students and volunteer tourists.
Since 2005 Simone has been teaching in the Tourism, Leisure and Events Management programs at UTS. She currently coordinates Managing People and Organisations and International Management Field Study for students completing the Bachelors of Business or Management. Some of the courses she has taught are Professional Internship, Organisational Dialogue, International Management Field Study, Strategic Management, Sustainable Tourism, Tourist Behaviour, Research Methods and Government and Policy. She is a Category 1 supervisor and is currenlty supervising four PhD students.
Since 2012 Simone has been the coordinator of the Tourism and Volunteering Special Interest Group of CAUTHE (Council of Australasian Tourism and Hospitality Educators). She is also a reviewer for several tourism and third sector journals including Annals of Tourism Research and VOLUNTAS.
Member of CAUTHE (Council of Australasian Tourism and Hospitality Educators)
Coordinator of the Tourism and Volunteering Special Interest Group of CAUTHE (Council of Australasian Tourism and Hospitality Educators)
Can supervise: YES
volunteerism, sustainability, consumer behaviour, cross-cultural psychology, ecotourism, community development and disability and diversity management
international management, professional internship, tourist behaviour, sustainable tourism, destination management, strategic management, research methods,
Onyx, JA, Darcy, S, Grabowski, S, Green, J & Maxwell, H 2018, 'Researching the social impact of arts and disability: Applying a new empirical tool and method', Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 574-589.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper has a twofold focus: to establish a method of assessing the potential social impact of arts and disability projects and to apply this method to ten such projects. It does so by using a newly developed 'ripple' model that conceptualises social impact in terms of the development of active citizenship on the part of all participants over time. The model identifies ten factors (programme activity, welcoming, belonging, programme social values, individual social values, programme networks, individual networks, skills and creativity, programme wider social impact, and individual wider social impact) which evolve through four progressive stages. The original model is empirically adapted for application to arts and disability projects. Qualitative data were collected in the form of interviews, surveys and media reports across ten case studies, each representing a major arts and disability project offering a professional outcome for an external audience. The qualitative data were coded to provide a simple scoring tool for each case. The results support the application of the model in this context. Furthermore, findings indicate three critical conditions which enable projects to generate considerable positive social impact beyond the individual; ensemble in nature; project embeddedness; and networks and partnerships.
Foley, C, Faulkner, S, Small, J & Wearing, SL 2018, 'Women of the Kokoda: From Poverty to Empowerment in Sustainable Tourism Development', Tourism, Culture and Communication, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 21-34.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The purpose of this article is to explore the power dynamics negotiated by women in local communities in Papua New Guinea (PNG) as they stake a claim in the development of sustainable tourism that is emerging along the Kokoda Track. The traditional understanding of power dynamics has been the "power as domination" perception, which attributes authority to dominant actors who exercise control over others. To comprehend the women's role in the development of ecotrekking along the Kokoda Track, we offer an alternative understanding of power struggle by invoking Foucault's notions of power and Gidden's structuration perspective. By applying these two philosophies, we illustrate how strategies of dominance, negotiation, and resistance are interwoven into day-to-day social interactions between women, men, tourism operators, and local communities. The particular focus of this article is on microbusiness projects along the track, a strategy pursued by the Kokoda Development Program. Women in the communities were generally happy to be supported to establish their own tourism businesses. This is particularly significant as women have traditionally had fewer opportunities than men to make money from trekkers: the main income from tourists into the villages has been through portering services, a predominately male activity. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of this analysis for the empowerment of women in rural and remote communities through sustainable tourism development.
Grabowski, S, Wearing, S, Lyons, K, Tarrant, M & Landon, A 2017, 'A rite of passage? Exploring youth transformation and global citizenry in the study abroad experience', Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 139-149.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Travel, long recognised as a rite of passage, is often also touted as a transformative experience which
facilitates cross-cultural understanding, fosters an embrace of diversity and promotes global
awareness. This process is aligned with youth development and has a rich history in the tourism
literature. The importance of transformational travel, however, has now spread to programmes
across the higher education landscape, with the recognition that travel has the potential to
nurture a global citizenry. Additionally, for many young people, the motivation for studying
abroad is to assist in the transition to adulthood. In this way, educational travel is similar to an
'overseas experience' or a 'gap year'. It is often taken at an important time of transition in
emerging adulthood, for example, from school to work. We argue that this period of identity
formation for youth can be likened to a rite of passage much like the Grand Tour of the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was for young European men and women. Our paper
examines the role of the study abroad experience in promoting youth transformation and global
Grabowski, S, Wearing, SL & Small, J 2016, 'Time as culture: exploring its influence in volunteer tourism', Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 26-36.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Volunteer tourism engages the volunteer in a cultural exchange that is personal and often influential in their life experience. This paper explores one aspect of this exchange, the idea of time in travel, and finds that the volunteer tourist experience is particularly influenced by cultural time differences. When volunteer tourists travel and return home, the emotions and behaviours which emerge in their narratives of experience are usually framed by a range of reference points. One of these is the notion of time. 'Time' appears to play a role in travel across cultures and continues to affect tourists when they return home. This idea is explored here through the experiences of 12 volunteer tourists. Although all of their experiences, both in-country and on re-entry, were very unique, each volunteer tourist spoke directly or indirectly about adjustment to cultural time differences and this was the key factor in their ability to adapt in both settings.
Reggers, A, Grabowski, S, Wearing, SL, Chatterton, P & Schweinsberg, S 2016, 'Exploring outcomes of community-based tourism on the Kokoda Track, Papua New Guinea: a longitudinal study of Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques', JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, vol. 24, no. 8-9, pp. 1139-1155.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Schweinsberg, SC, Wearing, SL, Kuhn, D & Grabowski, S 2014, 'Marketing National Parks for Sustainable Tourism: Bridging the Conservation Human Usage Divide Through Track/ Trail Based Interpretation', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 16, pp. 42-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Reggers, AL, Faulkner, S & Wearing, SL 2011, 'Stakeholder Collaboration in a Prospective World Heritage Area: The case of the Kokoda and the Owen Stanley Ranges', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 35-54.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The process of listing a World Heritage Area in developing countries is often much more complex than in the West. Often all stakeholders are not taken into consideration. This paper presents a case study of Kokoda and the Owen Stanley Ranges, currently a tentative World Heritage site, to show the complexities in stakeholder collaboration and attribution in the process of World Heritage designation. Six key stakeholders were identified in the study. Upon examination of four attributes of stakeholders: power; legitimacy; urgency; and proximity, it was found that all stakeholders in this case study have a high legitimacy in the listing process however only the local community holds high levels of power, urgency and proximity. Additionally it was found that several stakeholders, like the private sector, have too many weak relationships with other stakeholders, resulting in a lack of communication. These findings present the first step in understanding how it might be possible to improve the listing process of World Heritage Sites in developing countries through effective stakeholder collaboration.
The article analyzes the possibility of enlisting Kokoda Track and Owen of Papua New Guinea under the World Heritage Status. It was revealed that people within communities along the Kokoda Track are not aware of the World Heritage status and the benefits of being enlisted under the status, and that they are more concerned with basic services like food supply, health and education than the status. The Department of Environment and Conservation pointed out that tourism is a not a major sector in the Owen Stanley Ranges.
Wearing, SL, Faulkner, S, Chatterton, P & Ponting, J 2009, 'Participatory planning for eco-trekking on a potential World Heritage site: the communities of the Kokoda Track', Pacific Economic Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 101-117.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is an approach to data collection in participatory research. In this approach, the researcher is required to acknowledge and appreciate that research participants have the necessary knowledge and skills to be partners in the research process. PRA techniques were used to collect data on the Kokoda Track, Papua New Guinea, illuminating the communities perceptions of eco-trekking and how they could better benefit from it. This case study is an example of the implementation of community-based eco-tourism development and of understanding the multiplicity of forces that support or undermine it
Wearing, SL, Grabowski, S & Small, J 2015, 'Volunteer Tourism: Return of the Traveller' in Singh, TV (ed), Challenges in Tourism Research, Channel View Publications, UK, pp. 98-106.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Grabowski, S 2013, 'Acculturation, re-entry and transformation: The story of a volunteer tourist' in Reisinger, Y (ed), Transformational Tourism: Tourist Perspectives, CABI, USA, pp. 183-198.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter analyses the impacts of the international volunteer tourism experience on the individual upon their return to home country. It is argued that international volunteer tourists have a profound experience that leads to an affective, behavioural and cognitive change. The cyclical act of travelling, immersing in another culture and returning home transforms the individuals so that their identity is changed; different from the one with which they left home. It is shown that the concepts of acculturation and re-entry are helpful in explaining the volunteer tourist transformation
Wearing, SL, Faulkner, S & Sahabu, V 2013, 'Religiosity paving the way for altruism through volunteer tourism in Kenya' in Blanchard, L & Higgins-Desbiolles, F (eds), Peace through Tourism: Promoting Human Security Through International Citizenship, Routledge, Abingdon Oxon UK, pp. 171-189.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. & Faulkner, S. 2011, 'Volunteer tourism and intercultural exchange: exploring the 'Other' in the experience' in Benson, A. (ed), Volunteer Tourism: Theoretical Frameworks and Practical Applications, Routledge, Oxon, UK, pp. 193-210.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Volunteer tourism as a form of international development has been posed as an alternative mechanism which has the potential to achieve different socio-cultural outcomes. In this guise it aims 'to establish direct personal/cultural intercommunication and understanding between host and guest' (Dernoi, 1988: 89). This chapter explores the volunteer tourist and their interaction with the host community. It is argued that the relationship between the volunteer tourist and the community gives shape to a richer understanding of the volunteer tourism experience, where more equal power relationships are evolving and where the experience is more inclusive of the 'Other'. Where tourism in less developed countries is frequently criticised as creating development that results in power inequalities between host and guest it is important to examine this issue for volunteer tourism.
Faulkner, S 2017, 'The Cyclic Volunteer Tourism Experience', Proceedings of the 27th CAUTHE conference, CAUTHE 2017: Time for big ideas? Re-thinking the field for tomorrow, CAUTHE, University of Otago, Dunedin.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper presents a model of volunteer tourism acculturation as a cyclic process. In this process volunteer tourists engage with volunteer tourism through their relationships with others and three different cultures at several stages; pre-departure, in-country and re-entry.
Godfrey, J, Wearing, S, Schulenkorf, N & Faulkner, S 2016, 'Constructing Identity through the 'Moral Consumption' of Volunteer Tourism', CAUTHE 2016: The Changing Landscape of Tourism and Hospitality: The Impact of Emerging Markets and Emerging Destinations, Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education Annual Conference, Council for Australasian Tourism and Hospitality Education, Sydney, pp. 1281-1287.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Identity is associated with both travel experiences and consumption behaviours in contemporary consumer culture. Tourism experiences can be used to shape and reinforce identity; alternative tourism (e.g. volunteer tourism) in particular is closely associated with self-development. The volunteer tourism sector has been increasingly criticised in both academia and the mass media for creating a commercial product which potentially attracts more tourism-focussed volunteers who may be more likely to negatively impact the host community. Nonetheless, volunteer tourism is still widely associated with authenticity and altruism and arguably carries connotations of moral superiority compared to mainstream tourism. In this paper we argue that through the 'moral consumption' of volunteer tourism, Generation Y are able to access new forms of personal identity (e.g. altruistic, professional experience) and social identity (e.g. 'moral' tourist, global citizen). This paper is based on a case study of commercial volunteer tourists in Cusco, Peru.
Darcy, S, Onyx, J, Faulkner, S, Green, J & Maxwell, H 2016, 'Quantifying and qualifying the individual and collective social impact of the arts: Disability arts partnership projects', Arts Activated, Arts Activated, Sydney, pp. 1-2.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper examines a study that investigated the social impact of creative participation in NSW Arts and Disability Partnership Projects (ADDP). The primary aim of the study was to research the social impact of creative participation in ADDP. The 12 projects each comprised different art mediums, organisational partnerships, levels of involvement, and types of artists with disability. Additionally, the research study sought to determine the broad social impact that funded projects have on: artists and/or other participants with disability; organisations within the funded programs; and audiences that attend such public programs. The overall conceptualisation of social impact in this project has been guided by the Conceptual Model of Social Impact as Active Citizenship framework(Darcy, Maxwell, Edwards, Onyx, & Sherker, 2014; Edwards, Onyx, Maxwell, & Darcy, 2012; Edwards et al., 2015; Onyx, 2014a, 2014b), which was used by the research team in a previous study. The research design adopted an abductive, mixed method, collective case study methodology, in order to allow for detailed analysis of the ADPP within their particular contexts and across various settings. The collective case study methodology provided the opportunity to engage in detail through a mixture of methodologies and data sources. These methodologies included: in-depth interviews with project managers, facilitators, participants, artists, audience members and participating organisations' employees; focus groups with stakeholders; project observations, and content analyses of related audio-visual materials, media reports, Facebook pages, websites, internal organisational and project documents, and project acquittals. Developing the social impact instrument was an iterative process, that is, it was continuously modified as more data was gathered, and the instrument was (re)tested and refined. As a consequence, 10 resultant factors and 33 indicators were identified, and each was modified to reflect bot...
Grabowski, S & Wearing, SL 2014, 'Acculturation experiences of young volunteer tourists: Transition and self-understanding', Proceedings of CAUTHE 2014: Tourism and Hospitality in the Contemporary World: Trends, Changes and Complexity, Annual Conference of the Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, CAUTHE, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 235-246.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Tourism is a major contributor to the global annual movement of people. With this movement come cross-cultural interactions which are a key part of the tourist experience. This study explores one type of cross-cultural interaction, volunteer tourism, and in particular investigates the impact of acculturation on the volunteer. The findings indicate that volunteers experience acculturation through an understanding of self. The study particularly focuses on 18 - 30 year old volunteers who, it is often assumed, are at a period of transition in their lives which adds to the complexity of the experience. Therefore, it is useful to understand the stage they are at in their period of early adulthood in order to provide a more in-depth understanding of the acculturation experience.
Faulkner, S. & Wearing, S.L. 2011, 'Coming home: The effects of the volunteer tourism experience on the volunteer', 20th Annual Conference Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE), Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, CAUTHE, Hobart, Australia, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wearing, S.L. & Faulkner, S. 2009, 'Volunteer tourism and intercultural exchange: Exploring the âotheredâ in this', Proceedings of BEST EN Think Tank IX: The Importance of Values in Sustainable Tourism & First International Symposium on Volunteering & Tourism, BEST EN Think Tank IX: The Importance of Values in Sustainable Tourism & First International Symposium on Volunteering & Tourism, University of Technology, Sydney, Singapore, pp. 120-120.
Tourism in less developed countries is frequently criticised as creating development that results in power inequalities between host and guest. Volunteer tourism as a form of international development has been posed as an alternative mechanism that has the potential to achieve different socio-cultural outcomes. In this guise it aims to establish direct personal/cultural intercommunication and understanding between host and guest. This study explores the volunteer tourist and their interaction with the host community. The cultural exchange with those who are âotheredâ by the mainstream tourism experience is the basis for a discussion that highlights the complexity of the relationship between hosts and guests. Within the limited literature on volunteer tourism, it is suggested that these tourists have very different motivations for travel compared with the more traditional tourists or mass tourists. Preliminary analysis of a volunteer tourism NGOâs volunteers (Youth Challenge Australia), suggests that most volunteer tourists expect to have high to very high exposure to cultural interaction. Additionally, they have a great deal of concern for several aspects of the culture and community that they will be visiting. They are prepared for an experience with vastly different outcomes to a traditional tourism experience. It is argued that the relationship between the volunteer tourist and the community gives shape to a richer understanding of the volunteer tourism experience, where more equal power relationships are evolving and where the experience is more inclusive of the âotheredâ. It is suggested that a reason for this might include the limited skill development of youth volunteers which requires them to learn from more skilled community members. Finally a discussion is offered with reference to the alternative mechanisms that are developed to engage youth in volunteering for development.
Faulkner, S. & Wearing, S.L. 2008, 'Coming Home: Re-entry Shock in Volunteer Tourism', CAUTHE, Proceedings of the 18th Annual CAUTHE Conference, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, Griffith University, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, pp. 1-5.
This study examines the motives that drive young people to participate in some form of volunteer or humanitarian activities while on a leisure trip and the benefits and impacts that the volunteer tourists derive from the experience on their return. More importantly it will take a longitudinal format and survey volunteers pre-departure and post-arrival to verify levels of reentry shock and their determinants.
McDonnell, I.G., Faulkner, S. & March, M. 2007, 'Tourism: Past Achievements, Future Challenges', CAUTHE, Proceedings of the 17th Annual CAUTHE Conference, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, University of Technology, Sydney, Manly.
Wearing, S.L., Schweinsberg, S.C., Faulkner, S. & Tumes, K. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd. 2009, Understanding Track/Trail Experiences in National Parks: A Review, pp. 1-46, Gold Coast, Queensland.
Wearing, S.L., Schweinsberg, S.C., Faulkner, S. & Tumes, K. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd 2009, Understanding 'Track/Trail' Experiences in National Parks: A Review,, pp. 1-46, Australia (Gold Coast, Queensland).View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This desktop report aimed to draw attention to the various factors associated with track usage and visitor experience in national parks. A research classification spreadsheet was constructed in order to draw attention to the current state of academic research in this area. The main factors found to influence the track experience were congestion, interaction between trail user groups and environmental degradation. In addition to the classification of academic research this report also examined current management planning and visitor research conducted in three New South Wales national parks in order to provide examples of best practice that would be relevant to New South Wales stakeholders.
Wearing, S.L., Schweinsberg, S.C., Faulkner, S. & Tumes, K. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd 2008, Understanding track/trail experiences in National Parks: A Review, pp. 1-47, Gold Coast Queensland.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This desktop project aimed to draw attention to the various factors associated with track usage and visitor experience in national parks. The results will help to inform park managers how best to develop a strategic position on tracks and trails based on visitor experiences. This advice will be of assistance to managers for ongoing work regarding visitation planning and policy. The Blue Mountains National Park (BMNP), Kosciuszko National Park (KNP), and the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves (CERRA) are employed as case studies to examine best practice research into track/trail experiences. The technical report series present data and its analysis, meta-studies and conceptual studies, and are considered to be of value to industry, government and researchers. Unlike the Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centres Monograph series, these reports have not been subjected to an external peer review process. As such, the scientific accuracy and merit of the research reported here is the responsibility of the authors, who should be contacted for clarification of any content. Author contact details are at the back of this report.
Collins, J, Darcy, SA, Jordan, K, Skilbeck, R, Faulkner, S, Peel, V, Dunstan, D, Lacey, G & Firth, T Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre 2008, Cultural landscapes of tourism in New South Wales and Victoria, pp. 1-91, Gold Coast, Queensland.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The field of cultural landscapes tourism is under-developed in Australia at the level of theory, research and policy development. Yet international research suggests that cultural landscapes tourism has significant potential in attracting new tourists. This research project is a scoping study designed to set out the parameters involved in cultural landscapes tourism research in Australia. It aims to identify how cultural heritage and contemporary cultural diversity impact on visitor experience and on local communities. The objective is to assist the Australian tourism industry particularly those located in regional and rural areas in understanding the growing importance of cultural tourism, by developing a number of case studies of cultural landscapes tourism in two Australia states. These case studies provide examples of existing tourism in a range of different cultural landscape sites, enabling the development of a process by which to identify change in cultural heritage tourism regions, including examining how multicultural precincts can operate as sustainable tourism destinations. Fieldwork with tourists and stakeholders will enable the development of industry strategies to increase tourism in the future. In addition, this fieldwork will facilitate the development of an innovative, multi-disciplinary theory of cultural landscapes tourism. This will set the stage for future research and policy development.
Godfrey, J, Wearing, S, Schulenkorf, N & Faulkner, S 2014, '(Not so) risky business: Commercially packaged volunteer tourism as a 'safer' travel option'.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bennett (2004, p. 112-113) suggested people in the developed world 'lead urban lives, dedicated to the avoidance of risk' and therefore travel in order to challenge themselves. He referred to travelling as 'a sort of bungee-jump. It has the tang of adventure… but is safer than crossing the road'. In this paper we expanded this metaphor of the bungee-jumper and applied it to volunteer tourists (VTs). Commercial volunteer tourism is personally challenging and requires a leap of faith into the unknown. However, like bungee-jumping, there is also a safety net. For the VTs in this case study, it was the structure and security provided by volunteer organisation.