Simon works on a range of research and consulting projects across the field of sustainable urban water. He worked extensively in water conservation, integrated resource planning, least cost planning, sustainable urban water modelling, and catchment management whilst completing his PhD in Sustainable Futures. Simon's PhD thesis sought to address the problems raised by comparing distributed strategies that include water conservation, decentralised water supply and wastewater systems to centralised and supply-side options. His particular research interests include: options modelling and assessment for sustainable urban water, regional supply and demand planning, and the role of distributed and decentralised strategies in water and wastewater managementMore recently, Simon has managed several of ISF's larger urban water projects including the 'Evaluation of supply and demand-side options' for the NSW Department of Infrastructure and Planning which formed the basis for the 2004 Sydney Metropolitan Water Plan and the 'Costing for Sustainable Outcomes in Urban Water Systems' a guidebook for the CRC for Water Quality and Treatment and Utility partners. Among other activities, Simon is current managing projects studying 'Opportunities for more efficient toilets in Australia' for the Commonwealth Department of Environment and Water Resources and developing a spatial mapping approach to identifying, modelling and prioritising water reuse and conservation projects for Leichhardt Council.
Watson, R., Fane, S. & Mitchell, C.A. 2016, 'The Critical Role of Impact Distribution for Local Recycled Water Systems', International Journal of Water Governance, vol. 2016, no. 4:12, pp. 5-21.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Small-scale or local recycled water systems are increasingly being installed in urban centers in Australia, and throughout the world. These (often private) systems are in building basements, parks, on industrial sites and within small communities that are already serviced by existing public centralized water and wastewater networks. A consistent and fair assessment of the value of such local recycling systems, particularly in relation to centralized extension, augmentation and replacement, has proved to be problematic. This paper reveals why. It suggests that the traditional characterization of impacts into social, environmental, economic and at times technical groupings misses a key aspect in understanding the relative costs, benefits and risks of these systems: their
distribution across the wide range of stakeholder groups. This paper proposes that accounting for the distribution of impacts is critical for assessments that include options of different scales and different levels of responsibility as there is a significant difference in the impact distribution between conventional urban water services and small-scale, local recycled water systems. This will help practitioners better understand the consequences of varying the impact distribution,
particularly when moving from substantially public responsibility and ownership of assets to a mix of public and private responsibility and ownership.
Giurco, D., Turner, Fane & White, S.B. 2014, 'Desalination for Urban Water: Changing Perceptions and Future Scenarios in Australia', Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol. 42, pp. 13-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In response to prolonged drought, large desalination plants have been built in Australia's major cities over the last decade. This paper identifies those plants and focuses on the context surrounding the decision to build the plant in Sydney. Whilst a portfolio approach allowed lower cost options for secure supply to be identified – including an innovative 'desalination-readiness option' – perceived uncertainty and political decisions led the state government to build the desalination plant before the carefully considered planning triggers dictated and without revisiting the decision when the drought broke. Media analysis is used to construct a timeline of reported headlines relating to the pre- and post-construction periods including events surrounding heavy rain, overflowing dams and dialogue on desalination being unnecessary and expensive. The paper highlights a disconnect between the planning processes, stakeholder and community engagement and political decision-making. Given desalination is now an embedded feature of water supply in most major Australian cities, scenarios are used to assess the potential role of desalination
in the future urban water landscape and broader economy.
Fane, S.A. & Turner, A.J. 2010, 'Integrated water resource planning in the context of climate uncertainty', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 487-494.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In many locations, climate change may significantly reduce urban water supplies and could also affect water demand. With uncertainty around future climate, supply-demand planning needs to adapt. This paper addresses the question: How does climate change alter Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) for urban water? The paper covers the setting of planning objectives in the face of climate change, assessing the impacts of climate change on urban water supply and water demand, and considers the available responses. While climate change represents a major challenge for urban water planning it also reinforces key principles of IRP such as adaptive management, the central role of water conservation and need for public engagement in water planning.
Climate change is already influencing decisions in the urban water sector. However, the risks that climate change pose to the sector and how best to manage these risks remain topics of much discussion.
Willetts, J.R., Fane, S.A. & Mitchell, C.A. 2007, 'Making decentralised systems viable: a guide to managing decentralised assets and risks', Water Science and Technology, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 165-173.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
ecentralised systems have the potential to provide a viable option for long term sustainable management of household wastewater. Yet, at present, such systems hold an uncertain status and are frequently omitted from consideration. Their potential can only be realised with improved approaches to their management, and improved methods to decision-making in planning of wastewater systems. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the value of a novel framework to guide the planning of decentralised systems so that asset management and risk management are explicitly considered. The framework was developed through a detailed synthesis of literature and practice in the area of asset management of centralised water and wastewater systems, and risk management in the context of decentralised systems. Key aspects of the framework are attention to socio-economic risks as well as engineering, public health and ecological risks, the central place of communication with multiple stakeholders and establishing a shared asset information system. A case study is used to demonstrate how the framework can guide a different approach and lead to different, more sustainable outcomes, by explicitly considering the needs and perspectives of homeowners, water authorities, relevant government agencies and society as a whole.
Fane, T.G. & Fane, S.A. 2005, 'The role of membrane technology in sustainable decentralized wastewater systems', Water Science And Technology, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 317-325.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Decentralized wastewater treatment has the potential to provide sanitation that meets criteria for sustainable urban water management in a manner that is less resource intensive and more cost effective than centralized approaches. It can facilitate water
Fane, S.A., Willetts, J.R., Abeysuriya, K., Mitchell, C.A., Etnier, C. & Johnstone, S. 2005, 'Decentralised wastewater systems: an asset management approach', Water Asset Management International, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 5-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fane, S.A., Robinson, J. & White, S. 2003, 'The use of levelised cost in comparing supply and demand side options for water supply and wastewater treatment'', Water Supply, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 185-192.
This paper explores the use of levelised cost in planning for infrastructure networks. Levelised cost provides a useful measure comparing supply or conservation options on varying scales on an equivalent basis. Comparison is made to annualised cost, a metric often used as a means of comparing different supply side options. Urban water supply is used as the primary example, however levelised cost is equally applicable to other infrastructure networks, such as electricity or gas. The levelised cost is calculated as the ratio of the present value of projected capital and operating cost of an option to the present value of the projected annual demand supplied or saved by the option. The paper demonstrates that levelised cost is the constant unit cost of supply, provided by an option at present value. It is also the average incremental cost of the option at the point of implementation. When translated to a unit cost, annualised cost does not account for unutilised capacity in large scale schemes, systematically under-representing actual costs. By using levelised cost this inherent bias is removed. Use of levelised cost would facilitate the inclusion of smaller scale and more incremental supply options into infrastructure networks providing both economic and environmental benefits.
Fane, S.A., Ashbolt, N.J. & White, S. 2002, 'Decentralised urban water reuse; the implications of system scale for cost and pathogen risk', Water Science and Technology, vol. 46, no. 6-7, pp. 281-288.
he non-potable reuse of treated sewage in urban areas provides significant conservation of potable supplies beyond that available through water use efficiency. Effluent reuse is also an inevitable requirement in novel decentralised wastewater systems. At present, urban water reuse, where pursued, usually involves large-scale schemes based on new or existing centralised sewage treatment plants. This is despite the diseconomy of scale inherent in pipe networks that balances economies of scale in sewage treatment and negates any cost advantage for wastewater systems with more than around 1,000 connections. In light of this, the theoretical relationship between effluent reuse system scale and pathogen risks was examined at various effluent qualities. Waterborne disease was seen to be a significant factor when reusing effluent in urban areas and smaller systems were found to pose a lower risk of waterborne infection, all other things being equal. Pathogen risks were then included within an economic analysis of system scale. It was concluded that with the inclusion of pathogen risks as a costed externality, taking a decentralised approach to urban water reuse would be economically advantageous in most cases. This conclusion holds despite an exact evaluation of increased waterborne disease due to effluent reuse remaining problematic
This paper describes recent experience with integrated resource planning (IRP) and the application of least cost planning (LCP) for the evaluation of demand management strategies in urban water. Two Australian case studies, Sydney and Northern New South Wales (NSW) are used in illustration. LCP can determine the most cost effective means of providing water services or alternatively the cheapest forms of water conservation. LCP contrasts to a traditional approach of evaluation which looks only at means of increasing supply. Detailed investigation of water usage, known as end-use analysis, is required for LCP. End-use analysis allows both rigorous demand forecasting, and the development and evaluation of conservation strategies. Strategies include education campaigns, increasing water use efficiency and promoting wastewater reuse or rainwater tanks. The optimal mix of conservation strategies and conventional capacity expansion is identified based on levelised unit cost. IRP uses LCP in the iterative process, evaluating and assessing options, investing in selected options, measuring the results, and then re-evaluating options. Key to this process is the design of cost effective demand management programs. IRP however includes a range of parameters beyond least economic cost in the planning process and program designs, including uncertainty, benefit partitioning and implementation considerations.
White, S., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D. & Turner, A.J. 2008, 'Putting the economics in its place: decision-making in an uncertain environment' in Zografos, C. & Howarth, R. (eds), Deliberative Ecological Economics, Oxford University Press, New Dehli, India, pp. 80-106.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fane, S.A., Turner, A.J. & Mitchell, C.A. 2006, 'The secret life of water systems: least cost planning beyond demand management' in Beck, M.B. & Speers, A. (eds), 2nd IWA Leading-Edge on Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, IWA Publishing, London, UK, pp. 35-41.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The water industry in Australia and international is involved in a period of significant change. The conventional roles of water and wastewater utilities are being redefined with the objectives of resource conservation and sustainable development added to existing responsibilities. Least cost planning (LCP) has emerged as the way forward for water utilities in regions where water conservation has become an objective or where ongoing supply expansion is constrained. It involves techniques for the design and evaluation of demand management programs and aims to compare demand- and supply-side options on an equivalent basis. The approach is based on the key ideas that: demand is for the services water provides rather than the actual volume supplied; and that a drop of water saved is equal to a drop supplied. This paper contends that LCP has much to offer the water sector beyond demand management. It is an approach that has potential for options assessment across the water cycle and can aid planning towards more sustainable outcomes within the sector. The paper concludes that LCP concepts and techniques will have worth in addressing the challenges of sustainable development for both urban water systems and catchment management
Watson, R., Fane, S. & Mitchell, C. 2013, 'Distributed recycled water systems - hard to justify in Sydney, but it's a great place to learn', Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference, Brisbane.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
There are strong drivers for small recycled water systems in the wider Sydney area. However, a particular set of historical and contextual factors unique to Sydney limit the viability of small systems, and need to be overcome if small scale systems are to reach their potential to contribute to improving the value and overall robustness of the Sydney network. This paper identifies those factors and discusses why some of the factors also make Sydney a great place to test and learn from these new systems.
Fane, S.A., Turner, A.J. & Smith, P. 2010, 'Integrated resource planning in a changing environment: new resources for the Australian water industry', Proceedings of OzWater'10: Achieving Water Security, OzWater'10: Achieving Water Security, Australian Water Association (AWA), Brisbane, Australia.
Chong, J., Fyfe, J. & Fane, S.A. 2009, 'Estimating the sustainability benefits of water efficiency labeling and minimum standards', Proceedings of the 5th IWA Specialist Conference 'Efficient 2009', 'Efficient 2009': 5th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water, International Water Association (IWA) and Australia Water Association (AWA), Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-11.
Fane, S.A. & Turner, A.J. 2009, 'Integrated water resource planning in the context of climate uncertainty', Proceedings of the 5th IWA Specialist Conference 'Efficient 2009', 'Efficient 2009': 5th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water, International Water Association (IWA) and Australian Water Association (AWA), Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-17.
McKibbin, J.L., Fane, S.A. & Mitchell, C.A. 2009, 'Next generation IRP: extending water planning processes and tools to analyse distributed water futures', Proceedings of the 5th IWA Specialist Conference 'Efficient 2009', 'Efficient 2009': 5th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water, International Water Association (IWA) and Australian Water Association (AWA), Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-5.
Fane, S.A. & Schlunke, A.D. 2008, 'Opportunities for more efficient toilets in Australia - how low can we go?', 3rd National Water Efficiency Conference (Water Efficiency 2008), 3rd National Water Efficiency Conference (Water Efficiency 2008), AWA, Surfers Paradise, Australia, pp. EFF47 (CD-ROM).
Retamal, M.L., Kazaglis, A., Fane, S.A. & Mitchell, C.A. 2008, 'From sustainable urban water to restorative developments: applying a holistic framework for water management when renewing our cities', World Water Week, Stockholm, Sweden.
Retamal, M.L., Kazaglis, A., Fane, S.A. & Mitchell, C.A. 2008, 'From sustainable urban water to restorative developments: applying a holistic framework for water management when renewing our cities (presentation)', World Water Week, Stockholm, Sweden.
Mitchell, C.A., Retamal, M.L., Fane, S.A., Willetts, J.R. & Davis, C. 2008, 'Decentralised water systems - creating conducive institutional arrangements (paper)', Enviro 08 Australasia's Environmental & Sustainability Conference & Exhibition, Enviro 08 Australasia's Environmental & Sustainability Conference & Exhibition, Auatralian Water Association and Waste Management Association of Australia, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-9.
Decentralised water systems make economic and environmental sense but are only slowly being taken up across Australia. This paper discusses the points in favour of decentralisation and the drivers and enablers which have led to projects being accepted in the Australian context. Further, by comparing and contrasting experiences in Australia and the US, where decentralised systems are prevalent, this paper makes recommendations on steps Australia might take to provide more conducive institutional arrangements for decentralised systems.
Mitchell, C.A., Retamal, M.L., Fane, S.A., Willetts, J.R. & Davis, C. 2008, 'Decentralised water systems - creating conducive institutional arrangements (slides)', Enviro 08 Australasia's Environmental & Sustainability Conference & Exhibition, Melbourne, Australia.
Palmer, C.G., Gothe, J., Mitchell, C.A., Riedy, C., Sweetapple, K., McLaughlin, S.M., Hose, G.C., Lowe, M., Goodall, H., Green, T., Sharma, D., Fane, S.A., Brew, K. & Jones, P.R. 2007, 'Finding integration pathways: developing a transdisciplinary (TD) approach for the Upper Nepean Catchment.', Proceedings of the 5th Australian Stream Management Conference. Australian rivers: making a difference, Australian Stream Management Conference, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW, Australia., pp. 306-311.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Willetts, J.R., Fane, S.A. & Mitchell, C.A. 2007, 'Making decentralised systems viable: a guide to managing decentralised assets and risks', International Water Association (IWA) Advanced Sanitation Conference, International Water Association (IWA) Advanced Sanitation Conference, Aachen, Germany.
White, S., Turner, A.J., Fane, S.A. & Giurco, D. 2007, 'Urban water supply-demand planning: a worked example', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju Island, Korea, pp. 419-420.
Fane, S.A. & Mitchell, C.A. 2006, 'Appropriate cost analysis for decentralised water systems', Enviro 06 Conference and Exhibition: Building Sustainable Cities Proceedings, Enviro 06: Building Sustainable Cities, AWA, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-7.
White, S., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D. & Turner, A.J. 2006, 'Putting the economics in its place: decision making in an uncertain environment', Ninth Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics, New Delhi, India.
Willetts, J.R., Mitchell, C.A. & Fane, S.A. 2005, 'Ideas and tools to shape long-term management and investment in decentralised wastewater infrastructure', Performance Assessment for On-site Systems: Regulation, operation and monitoring - Proceedings of On-site '05 Conference., Onsite 05: Performance Assessment for On-site Systems: Regulation, operation and monitoring, Lanfax Laboratories, University of New England, Armidale.
Fane, S.A. 2003, 'Life cycle microbial risk analysis of sustainable sanitation alternatives', Proceedings of the 2nd International Eco-San Symposium: Ecosan - Closing the Loop, Ecosan - Closing the Loop: 2nd International Symposium on Ecological Sanitation, GTZ, Lubeck, Germany, pp. 389-396.
Moves towards sustainability in urban water and sanitation have seen numerous novel system configurations suggested. More sustainable configurations inevitably involve the reuse of effluents and biosolids. Reuse of such materials carries with it an inherent risk from waterborne pathogens. This paper outlines a methodology, life cycle microbial risk analysis (LCMRA), for assessing the hygiene impact of such novel system configurations. Like other life cycle system analysis methods, LCMRA compares alternatives on a whole sy stem basis. The methodology is illustrated by comparing alternatives for servicing a new reside ntial development. One alternative would utilize composting toilets with urine and greywater separated a source. In the second, conventional toilets and sewering would be employed. Both alternatives would treat wastewater locally with treated effluent recycled back to households as a non-potable supply. Biosolids and urine would be reused in agriculture. Wastewater and biosolid treatment varies between the alternatives, with each having a comparable life cycle cost. Modeling showed the infection risk of recycled water from the separating system was between one and three times that of the `conventional alternative. The factor being dependent on the a ssumed likelihood of partial disinfection failure. The model predicts slightly higher pathogen flows to agricult ural soils from the `conventional alternative.
Fane, S.A., Turner, A.J. & Mitchell, C.A. 2004, 'The secret life of water systems: least cost planning beyond demand management', Proceedings of 2nd IWA Leading-Edge Conference on Sustainability: Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, 2nd Leading-Edge Conference on Sustainability: Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, IWA, Sydney, Australia, p. 7.
Mitchell, C.A., Turner, A.J., Fane, S.A., White, S. & Cordell, D.J. 2004, 'Water conservation is dead: long live water conservation', Proceedings of 2nd IWA Leading-Edge Conference on Sustainability: Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, 2nd International Water Association Leading Edge Conference on Sustainability: Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, IWA, Sydney, Australia, p. 53.
Fane, S.A., Willetts, J.R., Abeysuriya, K., Mitchell, C.A., Etnier, C. & Johnstone, S. 2004, 'Evaluating reliability and life-cycle cost for decentralised wastewater within the context of asset management', Proceedings of 6th Specialist Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems and 1st International Conference on Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Recycling, 6th Specialist Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems and 1st International Conference on Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Recycling, IWA, Fremantle, Australia, pp. 1-8.
Fane, S.A. & White, S. 2003, 'Levelised cost, a general formula for calculations of unit cost in integrated resource planning', Efficient 2003: Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply Conference, Efficient 2003: Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply Conference, Tenerife.
Fane, S.A., Robinson, J. & White, S. 2002, 'The use of levelised cost in comparing supply and demand side options', A unique approach to a unique environment, Enviro 2002 & IWA 3rd World Water Conference, AWA Bookshop, Melbourne, Australia, p. e20605a.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fane, S.A. & White, S. 2001, 'What are the implications of distributed wastewater management in inner Sydney?', International Ecological Engineering Conference, International Ecological Engineering Conference, International Ecological Engineering Society and Engineers for Social Responsibility, Lincoln University, New Zealand, pp. 42-42.
Fane, S.A., Ashbolt, N.J. & White, S. 2001, 'Decentralised water reuse: the implications of scale for cost and pathogen risk', IWA 2nd World Water Congress: Efficient Water Management - Making It Happen Preprints (Abstracts), IWA World Water Congress, International Water Association, Berlin, pp. 20-20.
Jha, M., Mouritz, M., Smith, P. & Fane, S.A. 2001, 'Integrated water management system in an urban redevelopment in Sydney', International Ecological Engineering Conference, International Ecological Engineering Conference, International Ecological Engineering Society and Engineers for Social Responsibility, Lincoln University, New Zealand, pp. 53-53.
White, S. & Fane, S.A. 2001, 'Designing cost effective water demand management programs in Australia', IWA 2nd World Water Congress: Efficient Water Management - Making It Happen Preprints (Abstracts), IWA World Water Congress, International Water Association, Berlin, pp. 16-16.
Fane, S.A. & Ashbolt, N.J. 2000, 'A methodology for assessing comparative pathogen impact from novel wastewater recycling systems', Water Recycling Australia, CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide, Australia.
Malmqvist, P., Ashbolt, N.J., Fane, S.A., Hellstrom, D., Jeppsson, U. & Soderberg, H. 2000, 'Assessing alternative wastewater systems in Hammarby Sjostad Stockholm', Decision Making in Urban and Civil Engineering, Lyon, France.
Fane, S.A., White, S. & Robinson, D.G. 1998, 'Reduce, reuse or recycle? Economic evaluation of measures for improving environmental outcomes from wastewater systems', Environmental Engineering Research Event, Environmental Engineering Research Event, UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science & Technology, Sydney, pp. 363-368.
Fane, S.A., Retamal, M.L., McKibbin, J.L. & May, D. Institute for Sustainable Futures 2011, Case study: Integrated resource planning for urban water - Wagga Wagga, pp. 1-78, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fane, S.A., Turner, A.J., McKibbin, J.L., May, D., Fyfe, J., Chong, J., Blackburn, N., Patterson, J.J. & White, S. Australian National Water Commission 2011, Integrated resource planning for urban water - resource papers, pp. 1-206, Canberra.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fane, S.A., White, S. & Retamal, M.L. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2010, Response to Hunter Water's submission to the Department of Planning regarding its application to build a dam at Tillegra on the Williams River, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D., Chong, J., Kazaglis, A. & White, S. Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) 2010, Guide to Demand Management and Integrated Resource Planning (update on original 2008 Guide), pp. 1-174, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This Guide lays out a way to undertake urban water planning, using a consistent framework, which creates benefits for the whole community. It was originally developed by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology Sydney for the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) and has been updated with the support of the Australian Governments National Water Commission (NWC). The Guide is intended for both WSAA members and the broader Australian water industry
Fane, S.A. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2009, An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the proposed Tillegra Dam, Sydney, Australia.
Leichhardt Municipal Council (LMC) has identified sustainability in the use and reuse of water as presenting not only an opportunity to save money and improve amenity in the local area, but also as a means by which to reduce environmental impacts. In line with this, the Council commissioned the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology, Sydney and HydroScience Consulting to conduct a study of sustainable water use and potential water reuse opportunities. The overall goal of the study is to provide innovative, practical, well-researched water management strategies to reduce potable mains water consumption and reduce the quantity and improve the quality of stormwater runoff within the Leichhardt local government area (LGA). This report represents the principal output of the study and comprises the following two parts: * Part A: .Water Conservation and Reuse Opportunities Study. which identifies and prioritises a number of water conservation and reuse opportunities for particular target sites in the Leichhardt LGA. * Part B: .Water Sensitive Urban Design Opportunities Study. which investigates how LMC can apply Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) principles and associated tools throughout the Leichhardt LGA. Additional outputs from the project include: * An interim report by ISF on water conservation and reuse opportunities; * An interim report by HydroScience Consulting WSUD opportunities; * A series of rainwater tank models for use in sizing tanks for residential and nonresidential applications; and * A series of GIS layers for use in identifying WSUD opportunities.
Fane, S.A. & Patterson, J.J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2009, Incorporating climate change uncertainty into urban water integrated resource planning - scoping paper, Sydney, Australia.
Fane, S.A., Retamal, M.L. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2009, Submission to the Department of Planning regarding Tillegra Dam proposal environmental assessment report, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Patterson, J.J. & Fane, S.A. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney 2009, Impact study: lowering minimum flows for showerheads and taps, pp. 1-29, Sydney, Australia.
Fane, S.A., Patterson, J.J., Kazaglis, A. & Fyfe, J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney 2008, Cost benefit analysis for minimum water efficiency standards and changes to the regulation of plumbing product quality, pp. 1-128, Sydney, Australia.
Retamal, M.L., McKibbin, J.L. & Fane, S.A. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2008, National greywater rainwater initiative: input into design of rebates for households and surf life saving clubs, pp. 1-60, Sydney.
The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) commissioned the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) to undertake research into the likely costs of, and potential water yields that may be achieved by, household rainwater tanks and greywater reuse systems in households across Australia. This research is being carried out to inform the design of a new rebate program that will provide an incentive for households to install these systems. The primary objectives of this research are to: determine the categories and types of household greywater systems currently available; estimate the annual water yields that might be achieved by household rainwater tanks and greywater systems; identify average costs associated with each system; and provide recommendations for the structure of the residential rebate program. In addition to the residential component of this study, ISF has been contracted to examine the potential for water savings initiatives to be implemented at surf life saving clubs (SLSCs) with the aid of federal government grants. The objectives of this research are to: collect data on the water consumption of SLSCs; identify the types of water savings initiatives that could be implemented at SLSCs; estimate the potential potable water savings (from scheme supplies) that would be achieved by these water savings initiatives and the associated costs; and provide recommendations for criteria and conditions of the grant scheme for SLSCs.
Schlunke, A.D., Lewis, J. & Fane, S.A. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2008, Analysis of Australian opportunities for more efficient toilets, Sydney.
Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D., Kazaglis, A. & White, S. Water Services Association of Australia 2008, Guide to Demand Management, pp. 1-176, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Mitchell, C.A., Fane, S.A., Willetts, J.R., Plant, R. & Kazaglis, A. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS/The Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality & Treatment 2007, Costing for sustainable outcomes in urban water systems - a guidebook, pp. 1-86, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Research Report 35
The Natural Resources Advisory Council of NSW (NRAC) has commissioned the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) to prepare a discussion paper to synthesise the key learnings and conclusions of previous work, and identify emerging opportunities for increased urban water conservation and recycling in coastal NSW. The objective of the project is to create a Discussion Paper which explores the issues, opportunities and constraints for increased urban water conservation and recycling in coastal NSW. This will focus discussion on the steps various stakeholders can take to deliver or encourage water conservation outcomes and ensure a more sustainable water future in the urban context; and will be suitable for use in stakeholder dialogue on this significant and increasingly urgent question. The objective is to inform current discussions about urban water provision in the coastal communities of NSW and increase awareness of the options available to Government and communities up and down the coast. In order to capture the range of situations and the variety opportunities that exist, the discussion paper will specifically explore three regional case studies. This Directions Report describes progress on the project to date, and is submitted in week 3 of the project schedule. It contains an overview of the method being used to create the Discussion Paper, a draft analysis of the dimensions of the issue, a draft list of actors and influencers, and an outline of the regional focus to be taken. It also contains information about the communications objectives for the Discussion Paper and how these will be met, as well as a list of resources - key sources of information that will be used in this research. This Report also aims to inform a Workshop with the project team and NRAC staff and members planned for the 20th of July 2006. To this end various points for discussion are highlighted below.
White, S., Campbell, D., Giurco, D., Snelling, C.M., Kazaglis, A. & Fane, S.A. Metropolitan Water 2006, Review of the Metropolitan Water Plan: Final Report, pp. 1-94, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This report was commissioned by the NSW Cabinet Office to review the Metropolitan Water Plan 2004 (DIPNR, 2004a), and was undertaken by the Institute for Sustainable Futures at the University of Technology, Sydney and ACIL Tasman with technical advice from SMEC Australia. In February 2006, our interim review report (ISF, 2006) showed how the supply-demand balance in 2015 could be met with rain-fed supply and a suite of demand management initiatives, and how Sydneys water needs could be secured against the risk of severe drought by having the capacity to deploy groundwater and desalination.
Etnier, C., Willetts, J.R., Fane, S.A., Mitchell, C.A. & Johnstone, S. Stone Environmental, Inc. 2005, Decentralized wastewater system reliability analysis handbook (Project No. WU-HT-03-57), pp. 1-181, Vermont, USA.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fane, S.A., White, S., Edgerton, N., Campbell, S. & Chapman, R.L. Institute for Sustainable Futures and Centre for International Economics 2004, Meeting Sydney's water demand-supply balance: An evaluation of demand and supply side options for the NSW government plan - Securing Water for Our People and Rivers, pp. 1-45, Sydney.
This report provides an evaluation of options and scenarios for meeting Sydney's demand-supply balance.
The town of Esperance is located on the coast of the Southern Ocean, 600 km to the east south-east of Perth. The town had a population of 8,547 in August 1996. The climate is Mediterranean in nature, and the annual rainfall ranges from 404 mm to 1004 mm with an average of approximately 585 mm/a (WA Department of Agriculture, 1988). The population of Esperance is projected to grow in the medium term due to the further development of the mining and processing industries in the Goldfields region to the north and due to the continuing movement of retirees to the seaside town. Esperance faces significant pressures on its water supplies due to the levels of groundwater usage, which are projected to increase due to population increase, and due to deteriorating water quality. The town is currently dependent on groundwater for virtually all of its water requirements. Scheme water is supplied to the community from the Water Corporation of W.A. (WCWA) borefield, situated to the west of the township. A number of large industries also draw on significant volumes of groundwater through private bores to sustain their operations. Major water using industries in the town include the CSBP fertiliser works, the wharf, and the concrete works. The majority of scheme water supplied by the WCWA is, however, used by the domestic sector. Both the WCWA bore field and the private bores in the township draw solely from groundwater sources which are shallow, unconfined or superficial aquifers. There is a strong likelihood that the current level of groundwater extractions in Esperance exceed the recharge rate for the aquifers supplying the town. An unsustainable level of groundwater use is indicated by a lowering of the water tables, both in the town and the surrounding region. This includes the area covered by the Water Corporation bore field. This trend of decreasing hydraulic heads in monitored bores has been observed over a number of years.