Razavy, S, Gadau, M, Zhang, SP, Wang, FC, Bangrazi, S, Berle, C, Li, T, Li, WH & Zaslawski, C 2018, 'Anxiety related to De Qi psychophysical responses as measured by MASS: A sub-study embedded in a multisite randomised clinical trial.', Complementary therapies in medicine, vol. 39, pp. 24-35.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Acupuncture has been broadly applied in the management of many diseases and conditions; however, its mechanism of action has been partially elucidated. Additionally, assessment of psychophysical responses in the acupuncture therapy is not common regarding anxiety disorder studies. Taken together, the therapeutic effect of acupuncture appears when De Qi psychophysical response is experienced following stimulation of the afferent sensory nerves. The present study investigates the level of anxiety perceived at different occasions in acupuncture and mock laser group. Furthermore, it examines the relationship between perceived De Qi psychophysical response and the level of anxiety experienced during administration of each intervention. The study was embedded in a two-arm parallel design multi-center, randomized clinical trial, the Tennis Elbow Acupuncture-International Study-China, Hong Kong, Australia, Italy. Participants' level of anxiety was measured using a validated instrument, the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Mood Scale. Ninety-six participants with Lateral Elbow Pain were randomly allocated into two groups; the acupuncture treatment group (n = 47) and the inactive mock laser control group (n = 49). Data were collected immediately following the interventions at the first and the ninth session within the clinical trial. Acupuncture with De Qi did not induce higher level of anxiety compared to prior administration of acupuncture. In fact, participants were more relaxed after receiving acupuncture than those who received mock laser. There was also a weak association between participants' perception of anxiety during acupuncture and the MASS De Qi Index in session nine only (p < 0.01). Further investigation of the result revealed weak positive correlation between anxiety perceived during administration of acupuncture and the following De Qi characteristics; 'soreness' (p < 0.01), 'Deep pressure' (p < 0.05), 'Heaviness' (p < 0.05), and 'Fullne...
Razavy, S, Gadau, M, Zhang, SP, Wang, FC, Bangrazi, S, Berle, C, Harahap, M, Li, T, Li, WH & Zaslawski, C 2017, 'Psychophysical responses in patients receiving a mock laser within context of an acupuncture clinical trial: an interoceptive perspective', BMC COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE, vol. 17.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Razavy, S, Gadau, M, Zhang, SP, Wang, FC, Bangrazi, S, Berle, C, Harahap, M, Li, T, Li, WH & Zaslawski, C 2017, 'Investigation of the Phenomenon of Propagated Sensation along the Channels in the Upper Limb Following Administration of Acupuncture and Mock Laser.', Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 307-316.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Similar to De Qi psychophysical responses, propagated sensation along the channels (PSC) is considered an important phenomenon in traditional Chinese acupuncture. In acupuncture clinical trials, different acupuncture manipulation techniques are used to enhance the propagation of sensation along the channels to facilitate an optimum therapeutic result.To examine and compare the PSC reported by participants in a clinical trial following the administration of acupuncture and inactive mock laser.The study was embedded in a two-arm parallel design multicenter, randomized clinical trial, the Tennis Elbow Acupuncture-International Study-China, Hong Kong, Australia, Italy (TEA IS CHAI). Needle sensations were measured using a validated instrument, the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Spreading Scale. Ninety-six participants with lateral elbow pain were randomly allocated into two groups in a 1:1 ratio; the acupuncture treatment group (n = 47) and the mock laser control group (n = 49). Participants in both groups received the intervention at two acupoints, LI10 and LI11, consisting of 2 minutes of either standardized needle manipulation or mock laser at each acupoint with a rest period between each intervention period. Data were collected immediately following the interventions at the first and the ninth session within the clinical trial.Although participants in both groups perceived PSC radiating to similar sites along the upper limb, the frequency of the reported radiation sites among the two intervention groups for both radiation up the limb (p < 0.05) and radiation down the limb (p < 0.001) were statistically significantly different. Among the radiating sensation sites recorded within the two study groups, the sensations were reported as radiating a greater distance down the forearm to the wrist compared to up the arm. Evaluation of PSC across the four study sites revealed a statistically significant difference in frequency of the reported radiatio...
Razavy, S 2015, 'Psychophysical Placebo Responses in Patients Receiving a Mock Laser (ML) Intervention: An Interoceptive Perspective', New Horizon 2015: Building Bridges, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, Sydney Australia.
Razavy, S, Berle, C, Zaslawski, C & Li, W 2014, 'The measurement of deqi within an acupuncture clinical trial using three different instruments', Journal of Integrative Medicine (JIM), Science Press, pp. 210-210.
De-qi is purported to be an indicator of the treatment efficacy or dose of acupuncture treatment. Several instruments have been developed to measure the level of De-qi. These include the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) and Southampton Needle Sensation Questionnaire (SANSQ). In addition, some studies have used a simple Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Despite their widespread use, scant research has been undertaken to evaluate whether there is a relationship among the three instruments. A study was therefore embedded within a clinical trial to determine whether statistically similar level of De-qi reported by participants on the three measurement occasions (session 1, session 5 and session 9) used the three different instruments. Methods: Three established instruments (MASS, SANSQ and VAS) that measure De-qi were administered in a clinical trial that was to assess the efficacy of acupuncture for lateral elbow pain (commonly known as tennis elbow). The needle manipulation was standardized and consisted of two periods of needle manipulation. Each period consisted of 2 min of deep needling using the technique of" wagging the dragons tail" at the sites of LI10 and LI11 at a frequency of 2 Hz. Following the administration of the acupuncture at the first, the fifth and the ninth sessions completed the three instruments. The evaluator administering the instruments was blind to the allocation of the participants. Results: The preliminary results concerning the consistency levels of De-qi among the three measurement periods will be presented and some of the issues of De-qi measurement …