Can supervise: YES
Gao, L, Shan, X, Xu, X, Liu, Y, Liu, B, Li, S, Wen, S, Ma, C, Jin, D & Wang, F 2020, 'Correction: Video-rate upconversion display from optimized lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles.', Nanoscale.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Correction for 'Video-rate upconversion display from optimized lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles' by Laixu Gao et al., Nanoscale, 2020, DOI: 10.1039/d0nr03076g.
Gao, L, Shan, X, Xu, X, Liu, Y, Liu, B, Li, S, Wen, S, Ma, C, Jin, D & Wang, F 2020, 'Video-rate upconversion display from optimized lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles', Nanoscale.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Volumetric displays that create bright image points within a transparent bulk are one of the most attractive technologies in everyday life. Lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising luminescent nanomaterials for background free, full-colour volumetric displays of transparent bulk materials. However, video-rate display using UCNPs has been limited by their low emission intensity. Herein, we developed a video-rate upconversion display system with much enhanced brightness. The integral emission intensity of the single UCNPs was fully employed for video-rate display. It was maximized by optimizing the emitter concentration and, more importantly, by temporally synchronizing the scanning time of the excitation light to the the raised emission time of the single UCNPs. The excitation power dependent emission response and emission time decay curves were systematically characterized for the single UCNPs with various emitter concentrations from 0.5% to 6%. 1%Tm3+ doped UCNPs presented the highest integral emission intensity. By embedding this UCNPs into a polyvinyl acetate (PVA) film, we achieved a two-dimensional (2D) upconversion display with a frame rate of 29 Hz for 35 by 50 pixels. This work demonstrates that the temporal response as well as the integral emission intensity enable video-rate upconversion display.
Liu, B, Chen, C, Di, X, Liao, J, Wen, S, Su, QP, Shan, X, Xu, Z-Q, Ju, LA, Mi, C, Wang, F & Jin, D 2020, 'Upconversion Nonlinear Structured Illumination Microscopy', NANO LETTERS, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 4775-4781.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, Y, Wang, F, Lu, H, Fang, G, Wen, S, Chen, C, Shan, X, Xu, X, Zhang, L, Stenzel, M & Jin, D 2020, 'Super-Resolution Mapping of Single Nanoparticles inside Tumor Spheroids', SMALL, vol. 16, no. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wen, S, Zhou, J, Schuck, PJ, Suh, YD, Schmidt, TW & Jin, D 2019, 'Future and challenges for hybrid upconversion nanosystems', Nature Photonics, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 828-838.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, Springer Nature Limited. To improve the efficiency of photon upconversion, a hybrid approach of combining organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles is proving successful, especially in the form of dye-sensitized lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles, nanoparticle-sensitized molecular triplet–triplet annihilation systems and metal–organic-framework nanoparticles. In this Review, we survey the latest advances and examine the key factors affecting upconversion performance, such as spectral overlap, core–shell design and the management of triplet excitons and quenchers at the interface between materials. Although issues such as stability, triplet-state quenching, concentration quenching and reabsorption must still be overcome, smart designs of hybrid nanosystems offer exciting opportunities for applications such as solar photovoltaic devices, deep-tissue biomedical imaging, optogenetics and nanomedicine among others.
Xu, X, Zhou, Z, Liu, Y, Wen, S, Guo, Z, Gao, L & Wang, F 2019, 'Optimising passivation shell thickness of single upconversion nanoparticles using a time-resolved spectrometer', APL Photonics, vol. 4, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Author(s). Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are the most efficient multi-photon probe that can be used for deep tissue bio-imaging, fluorescence microscopy, and single molecule sensing applications. Passivating UCNPs with inert shell has been demonstrated to be an effective method to significantly enhance their brightness. However, this method also increases the overall size of the nanoparticles, which limited their cellular applications. Current reports to optimise the thickness of the shell are based on the spectrum measurement of ensembles of UCNPs, which are less quantitative. The characterisation of single UCNPs would be desirable, but is limited by the sensitivity of conventional spectrometers. We developed an optical filter-based spectrometer coupled to a laser scanning microscopy system and achieved a high degree of sensitivity - seven times more than the traditional amount. Through highly controlled syntheses of a range Yb 3+ and Tm 3+ doped UCNPs with different shell thickness, quantitative characterization of the emission intensity and lifetime on single UCNPs were comprehensively studied using a home-made optical system. We found that the optimal shell thickness was 6.3 nm. We further demonstrated that the system was sensitive enough to measure the time-resolved spectrum from a single UCNP, which is significantly useful for a comprehensive study of the energy transfer process of UCNPs.
Ma, K, Liu, G-J, Yan, L, Wen, S, Xu, B, Tian, W, Goldys, EM & Liu, G 2019, 'AIEgen based poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) magnetic nanoparticles to localize cytokine VEGF for early cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy', NANOMEDICINE, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1191-1201.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chen, Y, Duong, HTT, Wen, S, Mi, C, Zhou, Y, Shimoni, O, Valenzuela, SM & Jin, D 2018, 'Exonuclease III-Assisted Upconversion Resonance Energy Transfer in a Wash-Free Suspension DNA Assay.', Analytical Chemistry, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 663-668.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sensitivity is the key in optical detection of low-abundant analytes, such as circulating RNA or DNA. The enzyme Exonuclease III (Exo III) is a useful tool in this regard; its ability to recycle target DNA molecules results in markedly improved detection sensitivity. Lower limits of detection may be further achieved if the detection background of autofluorescence can be removed. Here we report an ultrasensitive and specific method to quantify trace amounts of DNA analytes in a wash-free suspension assay. In the presence of target DNA, the Exo III recycles the target DNA by selectively digesting the dye-tagged sequence-matched probe DNA strand only, so that the amount of free dye removed from the probe DNA is proportional to the number of target DNAs. Remaining intact probe DNAs are then bound onto upconversion nanoparticles (energy donor), which allows for upconversion luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) that can be used to quantify the difference between the free dye and tagged dye (energy acceptor). This scheme simply avoids both autofluorescence under infrared excitation and many tedious washing steps, as the free dye molecules are physically located away from the nanoparticle surface, and as such they remain "dark" in suspension. Compared to alternative approaches requiring enzyme-assisted amplification on the nanoparticle surface, introduction of probe DNAs onto nanoparticles only after DNA hybridization and signal amplification steps effectively avoids steric hindrance. Via this approach, we have achieved a detection limit of 15 pM in LRET assays of human immunodeficiency viral DNA.
Duong, HTT, Chen, Y, Tawfik, SA, Wen, S, Parviz, M, Shimoni, O & Ab, DJ 2018, 'Systematic investigation of functional ligands for colloidal stable upconversion nanoparticles†', RSC Advances, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 4842-4849.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2018. Despite intense efforts on surface functionalization to generate hydrophilic upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), long-term colloidal stability in physiological buffers remains a major concern. Here we quantitatively investigate the competitive adsorption of phosphate, carboxylic acid and sulphonic acid onto the surface of UCNPs and study their binding strength to identify the best conjugation strategy. To achieve this, we designed and synthesized three di-block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate and a polymer block bearing phosphate, carboxylic or sulphonic acid anchoring groups prepared by an advanced polymerization technique, Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT). Analytical tools provide the evidence that phosphate ligands completely replaced all the oleic acid capping molecules on the surface of the UCNPs compared with incomplete ligand exchange by carboxylic and sulphonic acid groups. Meanwhile, simulated quantitative adsorption energy measurements confirmed that among the three functional groups, the calculated adsorption strength for phosphate anchoring ligands is higher which is in good agreement with experimental results regarding the best colloidal stability, especially in phosphate buffer solution. This finding suggests that polymers with multiple anchoring negatively charged phosphate moieties provide excellent colloidal stability for lanthanide ion-doped luminescent nanoparticles for various potential applications.
Wang, F, Wen, S, He, H, Wang, B, Zhou, Z, Shimoni, O & Jin, D 2018, 'Microscopic inspection and tracking of single upconversion nanoparticles in living cells', Light: Science and Applications, vol. 7, no. 4.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 The Author(s). Nanoparticles have become new tools for cell biology imaging, sub-cellular sensing, super-resolution imaging, and drug delivery. Long-term 3D tracking of nanoparticles and their intracellular motions have advanced the understanding of endocytosis and exocytosis as well as of active transport processes. The sophisticated operation of correlative optical-electron microscopy and scientific-grade cameras is often used to study intercellular processes. Nonetheless, most of these studies are still limited by the insufficient sensitivity for separating a single nanoparticle from a cluster of nanoparticles or their aggregates8. Here we report that our eyes can track a single fluorescent nanoparticle that emits over 4000 photons per 100 milliseconds under a simple microscope setup. By tracking a single nanoparticle with high temporal, spectral and spatial resolution, we show the measurement of the local viscosity of the intracellular environment. Moreover, beyond the colour domain and 3D position, we introduce excitation power density as the fifth dimension for our eyes to simultaneously discriminate multiple sets of single nanoparticles.
Chen, C, Wang, F, Wen, S, Su, QP, Wu, MCL, Liu, Y, Wang, B, Li, D, Shan, X, Kianinia, M, Aharonovich, I, Toth, M, Jackson, SP, Xi, P & Jin, D 2018, 'Multi-photon near-infrared emission saturation nanoscopy using upconversion nanoparticles.', Nature communications, vol. 9, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy (MPM), using near infrared excitation light, provides increased penetration depth, decreased detection background, and reduced phototoxicity. Using stimulated emission depletion (STED) approach, MPM can bypass the diffraction limitation, but it requires both spatial alignment and temporal synchronization of high power (femtosecond) lasers, which is limited by the inefficiency of the probes. Here, we report that upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can unlock a new mode of near-infrared emission saturation (NIRES) nanoscopy for deep tissue super-resolution imaging with excitation intensity several orders of magnitude lower than that required by conventional MPM dyes. Using a doughnut beam excitation from a 980 nm diode laser and detecting at 800 nm, we achieve a resolution of sub 50 nm, 1/20th of the excitation wavelength, in imaging of single UCNP through 93 μm thick liver tissue. This method offers a simple solution for deep tissue super resolution imaging and single molecule tracking.
He, H, Howard, CB, Chen, Y, Wen, S, Lin, G, Zhou, J, Thurecht, KJ & Jin, D 2018, 'Bispecific Antibody-Functionalized Upconversion Nanoprobe.', Analytical chemistry, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 3024-3029.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are new optical probes for biological applications. For specific biomolecular recognition to be realized for diagnosis and imaging, the key lies in developing a stable and easy-to-use bioconjugation method for antibody modification. Current methods are not yet satisfactory regarding conjugation time, stability, and binding efficiency. Here, we report a facile and high-yield approach based on a bispecific antibody (BsAb) free of chemical reaction steps. One end of the BsAb is designed to recognize methoxy polyethylene glycol-coated UCNPs, and the other end of the BsAb is designed to recognize the cancer antigen biomarker. Through simple vortexing, BsAb-UCNP nanoprobes form within 30 min and show higher (up to 54%) association to the target than that of the traditional UCNP nanoprobes in the ELISA-like assay. We further demonstrate its successful binding to the cancer cells with high efficiency and specificity for background-free fluorescence imaging under near-infrared excitation. This method suggests a general approach broadly suitable for functionalizing a range of nanoparticles to specifically target biomolecules.
He, H, Liu, B, Wen, S, Liao, J, Lin, G, Zhou, J & Jin, D 2018, 'Quantitative Lateral Flow Strip Sensor Using Highly Doped Upconversion Nanoparticles.', Analytical chemistry, vol. 90, no. 21, pp. 12356-12360.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Paper-based lateral flow assays, though being low-cost and widely used for rapid in vitro diagnostics, are indicative and do not provide sufficient sensitivity for the detection and quantification of low abundant biomarkers for early stage cancer diagnosis. Here, we design a compact device to create a focused illumination spot with high irradiance, which activates a range of highly doped 50 nm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) to produce orders of magnitude brighter emissions. The device employs a very low-cost laser diode, simplified excitation, and collection optics and permits a mobile phone camera to record the results. Using highly erbium ion (Er3+)-doped and thulium ion (Tm3+)-doped UCNPs as two independent reporters on two-color lateral flow strips, new records of limit of detection (LOD), 89 and 400 pg/mL, have been achieved for the ultrasensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) biomarkers, respectively, without crosstalk. The technique and device presented in this work suggests a broad scope of low-cost, rapid, and quantitative lateral flow assays in early detection of bioanalytes.
Li, D, Wen, S, Sun, W, Zhang, J, Jin, D, Peng, C, Shen, M & Shi, X 2018, 'One-step loading of gold and Gd2O3 nanoparticles within PE gylated polyethylenimine for dual mode computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of tumors', ACS Applied Bio Materials, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 221-225.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 American Chemical Society. We report here a facile method for one-step loading of gold (Au) and gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) within polyethylenimine (PEI) premodified with polyethtylene glycol (PEG) for dual mode computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of tumors. PEGylated PEI was used as a template to complex Au(III) and Gd(III) salts, followed by sodium borohydride reduction and acetylation of remaining PEI surface amines to generate the hybrid PEI@Au/Gd2O3 NPs. The hybrid NPs exhibit a remarkable colloidal stability and cytocompatibility and possess a high X-ray attenuation efficacy and r1 relaxivity, enabling their uses for dual mode CT/MR imaging of tumors.
Ren, W, Wen, S, Tawfik, SA, Su, QP, Lin, G, Ju, LA, Ford, MJ, Ghodke, H, van Oijen, AM & Jin, D 2018, 'Anisotropic functionalization of upconversion nanoparticles.', Chemical science, vol. 9, no. 18, pp. 4352-4358.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Despite significant advances toward accurate tuning of the size and shape of colloidal nanoparticles, the precise control of the surface chemistry thereof remains a grand challenge. It is desirable to conjugate functional bio-molecules onto the selected facets of nanoparticles owing to the versatile capabilities rendered by the molecules. We report here facet-selective conjugation of DNA molecules onto upconversion nanoparticles via ligand competition reaction. Different binding strengths of phosphodiester bonds and phosphate groups on DNA and the surfactant molecules allow one to create heterogeneous bio-chemistry surface for upconversion nanoparticles. The tailored surface properties lead to the formation of distinct self-assembly structures. Our findings provide insight into the interactions between biomolecules and nanoparticles, unveiling the potential of using nanoparticles as fundamental building blocks for creating self-assembled nano-architectures.
Ren, W, Zhou, Y, Lin, G, Wen, S, He, H, Liu, D & Jin, D 2018, 'DNA-mediated Anisotropic Silica Coating of Upconversion Nanoparticles', Chemical Communications, vol. 54, no. 52.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wen, S, Zhou, J, Zheng, K, Bednarkiewicz, A, Liu, X & Jin, D 2018, 'Advances in highly doped upconversion nanoparticles.', Nature communications, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 2415-2415.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are capable of converting near-infra-red excitation into visible and ultraviolet emission. Their unique optical properties have advanced a broad range of applications, such as fluorescent microscopy, deep-tissue bioimaging, nanomedicine, optogenetics, security labelling and volumetric display. However, the constraint of concentration quenching on upconversion luminescence has hampered the nanoscience community to develop bright UCNPs with a large number of dopants. This review surveys recent advances in developing highly doped UCNPs, highlights the strategies that bypass the concentration quenching effect, and discusses new optical properties as well as emerging applications enabled by these nanoparticles.
Zhou, J, Wen, S, Liao, J, Clarke, C, Tawfik, SA, Ren, W, Mi, C, Wang, F & Jin, D 2018, 'Activation of the surface dark-layer to enhance upconversion in a thermal field', Nature Photonics, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 154-158.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 The Author(s). Thermal quenching, in which light emission experiences a loss with increasing temperature, broadly limits luminescent efficiency at higher temperature in optical materials, such as lighting phosphors1-3and fluorescent probes4-6. Thermal quenching is commonly caused by the increased activity of phonons that leverages the non-radiative relaxation pathways. Here, we report a kind of heat-favourable phonons existing at the surface of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanomaterials to combat thermal quenching. It favours energy transfer from sensitizers to activators to pump up the intermediate excited-state upconversion process. We identify that the oxygen moiety chelating Yb3+ions, [Yb···O], is the key underpinning this enhancement. We demonstrate an approximately 2,000-fold enhancement in blue emission for 9.7 nm Yb3+-Tm3+co-doped nanoparticles at 453 K. This strategy not only provides a powerful solution to illuminate the dark layer of ultra-small upconversion nanoparticles, but also suggests a new pathway to build high-efficiency upconversion systems.
Zhao, L, Wen, S, Zhu, M, Li, D, Xing, Y, Shen, M, Shi, X & Zhao, J 2018, '99mTc-labelled multifunctional polyethylenimine-entrapped gold nanoparticles for dual mode SPECT and CT imaging.', Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology, vol. 46, no. sup1, pp. 488-498.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this study, we report the synthesis, characterization and utilization of 99mTc-labelled polyethylenimine-entrapped gold nanoparticles (99mTc-Au-PENPs) for dual mode single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging applications. Polyethylenimine (PEI) was selected as a platform to conjugate with diethylene triamine pentacetate acid (DTPA) and polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether to synthesize Au PENPs, followed by acetylation or hydroxylation modification of the remaining PEI surface amine groups and radiolabelling of 99mTc. The generated multifunctional 99mTc-Au-PENPs with different surface groups (acetyl or hydroxyl) were characterized via different methods. The Au PENPs before 99mTc labelling are colloidally stable, haemocompatibility and noncytotoxic at an Au concentration up to 100 μM. The 99mTc-labelled Au PENPs exhibit high radiochemical purity, good stability and SPECT/CT imaging performance of different organs and lymph node. The designed strategy to use the radionuclide labelling technique and PEI-facilitated versatile nanoplatform may be extended to develop various novel nanoprobes for precision imaging applications.
Liu, Y, Lu, Y, Yang, X, Zheng, X, Wen, S, Wang, F, Vidal, X, Zhao, J, Liu, D, Zhou, Z, Ma, C, Zhou, J, Piper, JA, Xi, P & Jin, D 2017, 'Amplified stimulated emission in upconversion nanoparticles for super-resolution nanoscopy', Nature, vol. 543, no. 7644, pp. 229-233.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lanthanide-doped glasses and crystals are attractive for laser applications because the metastable energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide ions facilitate the establishment of population inversion and amplified stimulated emission at relatively low pump power1,2,3. At the nanometre scale, lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can now be made with precisely controlled phase, dimension and doping level4,5. When excited in the near-infrared, these UCNPs emit stable, bright visible luminescence at a variety of selectable wavelengths6,7,8,9, with single-nanoparticle sensitivity10,11,12,13, which makes them suitable for advanced luminescence microscopy applications. Here we show that UCNPs doped with high concentrations of thulium ions (Tm3+), excited at a wavelength of 980 nanometres, can readily establish a population inversion on their intermediate metastable 3H4 level: the reduced inter-emitter distance at high Tm3+ doping concentration leads to intense cross-relaxation, inducing a photon-avalanche-like effect that rapidly populates the metastable 3H4 level, resulting in population inversion relative to the 3H6 ground level within a single nanoparticle. As a result, illumination by a laser at 808 nanometres, matching the upconversion band of the 3H4 → 3H6 transition, can trigger amplified stimulated emission to discharge the 3H4 intermediate level, so that the upconversion pathway to generate blue luminescence can be optically inhibited. We harness these properties to realize low-power super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy and achieve nanometre-scale optical resolution (nanoscopy), imaging single UCNPs; the resolution is 28 nanometres, that is, 1/36th of the wavelength. These engineered nanocrystals offer saturation intensity two orders of magnitude lower than those of fluorescent probes currently employed in stimulated emission depletion microscopy, suggesting a new way of alleviating the square-root law that typically li...
Wang, L, Ren, L, Mitchell, D, Casillas-Garcia, G, Ren, W, Ma, C, Xu, XX, Wen, S, Wang, F, Zhou, J, Xu, X, Hao, W, Dou, SX & Du, Y 2017, 'Enhanced energy transfer in heterogeneous nanocrystals for near infrared upconversion photocurrent generation.', Nanoscale, vol. 9, no. 47, pp. 18661-18667.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The key to produce inorganic heterogeneous nanostructures, and to integrate multiple functionalities, is to enhance or at least retain the functionalities of different components of materials. However, this ideal scenario is often deteriorated at the interface of the heterogeneous nanostructures due to lattice mismatches, resulting in downgraded performance in most hybrid nanomaterials. Here, we report that there is a narrow window in controlling temperature in a Lewis acid-base reaction process to facilitate epitaxial alignment during the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials. We demonstrate a perfectly fused NaYF4:Yb,Tm@ZnO heterogeneous nanostructure, in which the semiconductor ZnO shell can be epitaxially grown onto lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles. By achieving a matched crystal lattice, the interface defects and crystalline grain boundaries are minimized to enable more efficient energy transfer from the upconversion nanoparticles to the semiconductor, resulting in both enhanced upconversion luminescence intensity and superior photoelectrochemical properties. This strategy provides an outstanding approach to endow lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles with versatile properties.
Li, D, Yang, J, Wen, S, Shen, M, Zheng, L, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2017, 'Targeted CT/MR dual mode imaging of human hepatocellular carcinoma using lactobionic acid-modified polyethyleneimine-entrapped gold nanoparticles', Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 5, no. 13, pp. 2395-2401.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© The Royal Society of Chemistry. We report the synthesis and characterization of lactobionic acid-modified multifunctional polyethyleneimine-entrapped gold nanoparticles for targeted dual mode computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. The nanodevice displays good X-ray attenuation properties, good r1relaxivity, and hepatocellular carcinoma targeting specificity, and can be used for targeted CT/MR imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Wen, S, Zhao, L, Zhao, Q, Li, D, Liu, C, Yu, Z, Shen, M, Majoral, JP, Mignani, S, Zhao, J & Shi, X 2017, 'A promising dual mode SPECT/CT imaging platform based on99mTc-labeled multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles', Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 5, no. 21, pp. 3810-3815.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Multifunctional99mTc-labeled dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (99mTc-Au DENPs) were designed and synthesized. Our results show that the type of surface groups (acetyl or hydroxyl) significantly impact the biodistribution profile of the99mTc-Au DENPs, thereby allowing for preferential SPECT/CT imaging of different organs.
Cong, Y, Shi, B, Lu, Y, Wen, S, Chung, R & Jin, D 2016, 'One-step Conjugation of Glycyrrhetinic Acid to Cationic Polymers for High-performance Gene Delivery to Cultured Liver Cell.', Scientific Reports, vol. 6, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Gene therapies represent a promising therapeutic route for liver cancers, but major challenges remain in the design of safe and efficient gene-targeting delivery systems. For example, cationic polymers show good transfection efficiency as gene carriers, but are hindered by cytotoxicity and non-specific targeting. Here we report a versatile method of one-step conjugation of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) to reduce cytotoxicity and improve the cultured liver cell -targeting capability of cationic polymers. We have explored a series of cationic polymer derivatives by coupling different ratios of GA to polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimer. These new gene carriers (GA-PPI dendrimer) were systematically characterized by UV-vis,(1)H NMR titration, electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light-scattering, gel electrophoresis, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. We demonstrate that GA-PPI dendrimers can efficiently load and protect pDNA, via formation of nanostructured GA-PPI/pDNA polyplexes. With optimal GA substitution degree (6.31%), GA-PPI dendrimers deliver higher liver cell transfection efficiency (43.5% vs 22.3%) and lower cytotoxicity (94.3% vs 62.5%, cell viability) than the commercial bench-mark DNA carrier bPEI (25 kDa) with cultured liver model cells (HepG2). There results suggest that our new GA-PPI dendrimer are a promising candidate gene carrier for targeted liver cancer therapy.
Liu, D, Xu, X, Du, Y, Qin, X, Zhang, Y, Ma, C, Wen, S, Ren, W, Goldys, EM, Piper, JA, Dou, S, Liu, X & Jin, D 2016, 'Three-dimensional controlled growth of monodisperse sub-50 nm heterogeneous nanocrystals', Nature Communications, vol. 7, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The ultimate frontier in nanomaterials engineering is to realize their composition control with atomic scale precision to enable fabrication of nanoparticles with desirable size, shape and surface properties. Such control becomes even more useful when growing hybrid nanocrystals designed to integrate multiple functionalities. Here we report achieving such degree of control in a family of rare-earth-doped nanomaterials. We experimentally verify the co-existence and different roles of oleate anions (OA−) and molecules (OAH) in the crystal formation. We identify that the control over the ratio of OA− to OAH can be used to directionally inhibit, promote or etch the crystallographic facets of the nanoparticles. This control enables selective grafting of shells with complex morphologies grown over nanocrystal cores, thus allowing the fabrication of a diverse library of monodisperse sub-50 nm nanoparticles. With such programmable additive and subtractive engineering a variety of three-dimensional shapes can be implemented using a bottom–up scalable approach.
Ma, C, Xu, X, Wang, F, Zhou, Z, Wen, S, Liu, D, Fang, J, Lang, CI & Jin, D 2016, 'Probing the Interior Crystal Quality in the Development of More Efficient and Smaller Upconversion Nanoparticles', Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 7, pp. 3252-3258.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Optical biomedical imaging using luminescent nanoparticles as contrast agents prefers small size, as they can be used at high dosages and efficiently cleared from body. Reducing nanoparticle size is critical for the stability and specificity for the fluorescence nanoparticles probes for in vitro diagnostics and subcellular imaging. The development of smaller and brighter upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is accordingly a goal for complex imaging in bioenvironments. At present, however, small UCNPs are reported to exhibit less emission intensity due to increased surface deactivation and decreased number of dopants. Here we show that smaller and more efficient UCNPs can be made by improving the interior crystal quality via controlling heating rate during synthesis. We further developed a unique quantitative method for optical characterizations on the single UCNPs with varied sizes and the corresponding shell passivated UCNPs, confirming that the internal crystal quality dominates the relative emission efficiency of the UCNPs.
Li, D, Zhang, Y, Wen, S, Song, Y, Tang, Y, Zhu, X, Shen, M, Mignani, S, Majoral, J-P, Zhao, Q & Shi, X 2016, 'Construction of polydopamine-coated gold nanostars for CT imaging and enhanced photothermal therapy of tumors: an innovative theranostic strategy', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY B, vol. 4, no. 23, pp. 4216-4226.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhang, Y, Wen, S, Zhao, L, Li, D, Liu, C, Jiang, W, Gao, X, Gu, W, Ma, N, Zhao, J, Shi, X & Zhao, Q 2016, 'Ultrastable polyethyleneimine-stabilized gold nanoparticles modified with polyethylene glycol for blood pool, lymph node and tumor CT imaging', NANOSCALE, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 5567-5577.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cai, H, An, X, Wen, S, Li, J, Zhang, G, Shi, X & Shen, M 2015, 'Facile Synthesis of Gd(OH)(3)-Doped Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Dual-Mode T-1- and T-2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications', PARTICLE & PARTICLE SYSTEMS CHARACTERIZATION, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 934-943.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cai, H, Li, K, Li, J, Wen, S, Chen, Q, Shen, M, Zheng, L, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2015, 'Dendrimer-Assisted Formation of Fe3O4/Au Nanocomposite Particles for Targeted Dual Mode CT/MR Imaging of Tumors', SMALL, vol. 11, no. 35, pp. 4584-4593.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cao, X, Tao, L, Wen, S, Hou, W & Shi, X 2015, 'Hyaluronic acid-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes for targeted delivery of doxorubicin into cancer cells', CARBOHYDRATE RESEARCH, vol. 405, pp. 70-77.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chen, Q, Wang, H, Liu, H, Wen, S, Peng, C, Shen, M, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2015, 'Multifunctional Dendrimer-Entrapped Gold Nanoparticles Modified with RGD Peptide for Targeted Computed Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Dug-Modal Imaging of Tumors', ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 3949-3956.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fu, F, Wen, S, Zhu, J & Shi, X 2015, 'Encapsulation of doxorubicin within lactobionic acid-modified multifunctional poly(amidoamine) dendrimers for targeted therapy of liver cancer cells', JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE, vol. 213, pp. E31-E32.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hou, W, Wen, S, Guo, R, Wang, S & Shi, X 2015, 'Partially Acetylated Dendrimer-Entrapped Gold Nanoparticles with Reduced Cytotoxicity for Gene Delivery Applications', JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 4094-4105.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Li, D, Wen, S & Shi, X 2015, 'Dendrimer-entrapped metal colloids as imaging agents', WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS-NANOMEDICINE AND NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 678-690.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fu, F, Wu, Y, Zhu, J, Wen, S, Shen, M & Shi, X 2014, 'Multifunctional Lactobionic Acid-Modified Dendrimers for Targeted Drug Delivery to Liver Cancer Cells: Investigating the Role Played by PEG Spacer', ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 6, no. 18, pp. 16416-16425.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Huang, Y, Hu, D, Wen, S, Shen, M, Zhu, M & Shi, X 2014, 'Selective removal of mercury ions using thymine-grafted electrospun polymer nanofibers', NEW JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1533-1539.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Li, K, Wang, S, Wen, S, Tang, Y, Li, J, Shi, X & Zhao, Q 2014, 'Enhanced In Vivo Antitumor Efficacy of Doxorubicin Encapsulated within Laponite Nanodisks', ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 6, no. 15, pp. 12328-12334.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, H, Wang, H, Xu, Y, Guo, R, Wen, S, Huang, Y, Liu, W, Shen, M, Zhao, J, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2014, 'Lactobionic Acid-Modified Dendrimer-Entrapped Gold Nanoparticles for Targeted Computed Tomography Imaging of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma', ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 6944-6953.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, W, Wen, S, Jiang, L, An, X, Zhang, M, Wang, H, Zhang, Z, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2014, 'PLGA Hollow Microbubbles Loaded with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Doxorubicin for Dual-mode US/MR Imaging and Drug Delivery', CURRENT NANOSCIENCE, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 543-552.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, W, Wen, S, Shen, M & Shi, X 2014, 'Doxorubicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) hollow microcapsules for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells', NEW JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 3917-3924.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wen, S, Zhao, Q, An, X, Zhu, J, Hou, W, Li, K, Huang, Y, Shen, M, Zhu, W & Shi, X 2014, 'Multifunctional PEGylated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Enhanced Blood Pool and Tumor MR Imaging', ADVANCED HEALTHCARE MATERIALS, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1568-1577.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wu, Y, Guo, R, Wen, S, Shen, M, Zhu, M, Wang, J & Shi, X 2014, 'Folic acid-modified laponite nanodisks for targeted anticancer drug delivery', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY B, vol. 2, no. 42, pp. 7410-7418.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhou, B, Zheng, L, Peng, C, Lo, D, Li, J, Wen, S, Shen, M, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2014, 'Synthesis and Characterization of PEGylated Polyethylenimine-Entrapped Gold Nanoparticles for Blood Pool and Tumor CT Imaging', ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 6, no. 19, pp. 17190-17199.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhu, J, Zheng, L, Wen, S, Tang, Y, Shen, M, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2014, 'Targeted cancer theranostics using alpha-tocopheryl succinate-conjugated multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles', BIOMATERIALS, vol. 35, no. 26, pp. 7635-7646.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cai, H, An, X, Cui, J, Li, J, Wen, S, Li, K, Shen, M, Zheng, L, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2013, 'Facile Hydrothermal Synthesis and Surface Functionalization of Polyethyleneimine-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications', ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1722-1731.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chen, Q, Li, K, Wen, S, Liu, H, Peng, C, Cai, H, Shen, M, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2013, 'Targeted CT/MR dual mode imaging of tumors using multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles', BIOMATERIALS, vol. 34, no. 21, pp. 5200-5209.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Li, K, Wen, S, Larson, AC, Shen, M, Zhang, Z, Chen, Q, Shi, X & Zhang, G 2013, 'Multifunctional dendrimer-based nanoparticles for in vivo MR/CT dual-modal molecular imaging of breast cancer', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE, vol. 8, pp. 2589-2600.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, H, Xu, Y, Wen, S, Chen, Q, Zheng, L, Shen, M, Zhao, J, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2013, 'Targeted Tumor Computed Tomography Imaging Using Low-Generation Dendrimer-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles', CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, vol. 19, no. 20, pp. 6409-6416.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, H, Xu, Y, Wen, S, Zhu, J, Zheng, L, Shen, M, Zhao, J, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2013, 'Facile hydrothermal synthesis of low generation dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles for in vivo computed tomography imaging applications', POLYMER CHEMISTRY, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1788-1795.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wang, S, Wu, Y, Guo, R, Huang, Y, Wen, S, Shen, M, Wang, J & Shi, X 2013, 'Laponite Nanodisks as an Efficient Platform for Doxorubicin Delivery to Cancer Cells', LANGMUIR, vol. 29, no. 16, pp. 5030-5036.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wen, S, Li, K, Cai, H, Chen, Q, Shen, M, Huang, Y, Peng, C, Hou, W, Zhu, M, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2013, 'Multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles for dual mode CT/MR imaging applications', BIOMATERIALS, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1570-1580.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wen, S, Liu, H, Cai, H, Shen, M & Shi, X 2013, 'Targeted and pH-Responsive Delivery of Doxorubicin to Cancer Cells Using Multifunctional Dendrimer-Modified Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes', ADVANCED HEALTHCARE MATERIALS, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 1267-1276.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wen, S, Zheng, F, Shen, M & Shi, X 2013, 'Surface modification and PEGylation of branched polyethyleneimine for improved biocompatibility', JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 3807-3813.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wen, S, Zheng, F, Shen, M & Shi, X 2013, 'Synthesis of polyethyleneimine-stabilized gold nanoparticles for colorimetric sensing of heparin', COLLOIDS AND SURFACES A-PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING ASPECTS, vol. 419, pp. 80-86.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Xiao, T, Hou, W, Cao, X, Wen, S, Shen, M & Shi, X 2013, 'Dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles modified with folic acid for targeted gene delivery applications', BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE, vol. 1, no. 11, pp. 1172-1180.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Xiao, T, Wen, S, Wang, H, Liu, H, Shen, M, Zhao, J, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2013, 'Facile synthesis of acetylated dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles with enhanced gold loading for CT imaging applications', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY B, vol. 1, no. 21, pp. 2773-2780.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Yuan, X, Wen, S, Shen, M & Shi, X 2013, 'Dendrimer-stabilized silver nanoparticles enable efficient colorimetric sensing of mercury ions in aqueous solution', ANALYTICAL METHODS, vol. 5, no. 20, pp. 5486-5492.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zheng, F, Wang, S, Wen, S, Shen, M, Zhu, M & Shi, X 2013, 'Characterization and antibacterial activity of amoxicillin-loaded electrospun nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite nanofibers', BIOMATERIALS, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1402-1412.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cai, H, Li, K, Shen, M, Wen, S, Luo, Y, Peng, C, Zhang, G & Shi, X 2012, 'Facile assembly of Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite particles for dual mode magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging applications', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, vol. 22, no. 30, pp. 15110-15120.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tong, W, Cao, X, Wen, S, Guo, R, Shen, M, Wang, J & Shi, X 2012, 'Enhancing the specificity and efficiency of polymerase chain reaction using polyethyleneimine-based derivatives and hybrid nanocomposites', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE, vol. 7, pp. 1069-1078.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cao, X, Chen, J, Wen, S, Peng, C, Shen, M & Shi, X 2011, 'Effect of surface charge of polyethyleneimine-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the improvement of polymerase chain reaction', NANOSCALE, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1741-1747.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wang, S, Wen, S, Shen, M, Guo, R, Cao, X, Wang, J & Shi, X 2011, 'Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-mediated surface functionalization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity assay', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE, vol. 6, pp. 3449-3459.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Precise design and fabrication of heterogeneous nanostructures will enable nanoscale devices to integrate multiple desirable functionalities. But due to the diffraction limit (~200 nm), the optical uniformity and diversity within the heterogeneous functional nanostructures are hardly controlled and characterized. Here we report a set of nanobarcodes, each optically active section has its unique nonlinear responses to donut illumination patterns, so that one can discern each unit with super resolution. To achieve this, we first realized an approach of highly controlled epitaxial growth and produced a range of one-dimensional heterogeneous structures. Each section along the nanorod structure display tunable upconversion emissions, in four optically orthogonal dimensions, including colour, lifetime, excitation wavelength, and power dependency. Moreover, we demonstrated a 210 nm single nanorod as the smallest polychromatic light source for the on-demand generation of RGB photonic emissions. Remarkably, within a space of 50 nm, only 1/20th of the excitation wavelength, multiple codes can be successfully coded and decoded in 4 optical dimensions. This precision control enables the fabrication of super capacity geometrical barcodes with theoretical coding capacity up to (24-1)4. This work benchmarks our new ability towards the full control of sub-diffraction-limit optical diversities of single heterogeneous nanoparticles.
Chen, C, Wang, F, Wen, S, Liu, Y, Shan, X & Jin, D 2019, 'Upconversion nanoparticles assisted multi-photon fluorescence saturation microscopy', NANOSCALE IMAGING, SENSING, AND ACTUATION FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS XVI, Conference on Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVI, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, San Francisco, CA.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wen, S, Li, D, Liu, D, Xu, X, Du, Y, Mitchell, DRG, Shi, B, Shi, X & Jin, D 2016, 'Seed mediated one-pot growth of versatile heterogeneous upconversion nanocrystals for multimodal bioimaging', Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE Digital Library, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 SPIE.The rapid development of a variety of molecular contrast agents makes the multimodality bioimaging highly attractive towards higher resolution, more sensitive, informative diagnosis. The key lies in the development of facile material synthesis that allows the integration of multiple contrast agents, ideally in a way that each of the components should be logically assembled to maximize their performances. Here, we report the one-pot programmable growth of multifunctional heterogeneous nanocrystal with tunable size, shape, composition, and properties. We demonstrated a facile one-pot hot-injection method to enable the highly selectively controlled growth of different sodium lanthanide fluoride nanomaterials in either longitudinal or transversal directions with atomic scale precision. This technique allows the upconversion luminescence signal, MRI signal and x-ray signal logically integrated and optimized within one single versatile nanoplatform for multimode bioimaging. These findings suggest that the facile strategy developed here have the promising to get the desired heterogeneous nanocrystals as an all-in-one contrast agent for integrated and self-correlative multimodal bioimaging.
Zhao, L, Wen, S, Shi, X & Zhao, J 2016, '99mTc labeled multifunctional polyethylenimine-entrapped gold nanoparticles for dual mode SPECT and CT imaging', JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE, SOC NUCLEAR MEDICINE INC.
Cao, X, Tao, L, Wen, S, Hou, W & Shi, X 2014, 'Hyaluronic acid-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes as drug delivery carrier for targeted cancer therapy', ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 247th National Spring Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS), AMER CHEMICAL SOC, Dallas, TX.
Wen, S, Liu, H, Cai, H, Shen, M & Shi, X 2013, 'Targeted and pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin to cancer cells using mutifunctional dendrimer-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes', ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 245th National Spring Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS), AMER CHEMICAL SOC, New Orleans, LA.
Zheng, F, Wang, S, Wen, S, Shen, M & Shi, X 2013, 'Amoxicillin-loaded electrospun nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite nanofibers: Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity', JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, pp. E30-E31.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chen, Q, Peng, C, Wen, S-H & Shi, X-Y 2012, 'Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Dendrimer-based Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanoparticles for Dual Mode CT/MR Imaging Applications', 2012 INTERNATIONAL FORUM ON BIOMEDICAL TEXTILE MATERIALS, PROCEEDINGS, International Forum on Biomedical Textile Materials (IFBMTM), DONGHUA UNIV PRESS, Donghua Univ, Shanghai, PEOPLES R CHINA, pp. 7-11.
Wen, S-H, Zheng, F-Y & Shi, X-Y 2011, 'Improved Biocompatibility of Polyethyleneimine Modified with Acetamide, Hydroxyl, Carboxyl Groups and PEG Chains', 2011 INTERNATIONAL FORUM ON BIOMEDICAL TEXTILE MATERIALS, PROCEEDINGS, International Forum on Biomedical Textile Materials, DONGHUA UNIV PRESS, Donghua Univ, Shanghai, PEOPLES R CHINA, pp. 189-193.