Scott completed his undergraduate degree BSc Applied Chemistry Forensic Science (Hons) in 2009 and completed his PhD at UTS in 2013. His research focused on fingermark detection techniques in the near-infrared region, which involved developing new reagents for developing fingermarks on difficult surfaces, where conventional techniques are unsuccessful. Scott continues to be active in the area of fingermark research where his focus is on optimising conventional methods for operational use and developing better research practices in fingermark detection. Scott is also interested in the development of innovate practices in learning and teaching and how to better train and educate future forensic scientists.
During his studies, Scott also worked as a casual academic at UTS where he assisted in the practical classes for subjects such as Chemical Criminalistics, Crime Scene Investigation and Physical Evidence. Currently, Scott is employed as a lecturer at UTS teaching Principles of Scientific Practice and Chemisty 1. He is also the Program Director for the Bachelor of Forensic Science.
Committee Member NSW Branch Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society (ANZFSS)
Can supervise: YES
Development of novel fingermark development reagents
Application of nanotechnology for fingermark detection techniques
Development of new visualisation techniques for enhancing latent fingermarks
Synthesis of near-infrared luminescent compounds
65111 Chemistry 1
60001 Principles of Scientific Practice
65315 Forensic Research Project
Maitre, M, Chadwick, S, Kirkbride, KP, Gassner, A-L, Weyermann, C, Beavis, A & Roux, C 2019, 'An investigation on the secondary transfer of organic gunshot residues.', Science & justice : journal of the Forensic Science Society, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 248-255.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Gunshot residues (GSR) are an important forensic trace in firearm-related events. Currently, routine GSR analyses focus on the detection and characterisation of the inorganic components (IGSR). The increasing prevalence of heavy metal-free ammunition challenges these current protocols and there is an increasing interest in how the organic components of GSR (OGSR) can provide complementary information. Similar to the situation with IGSR, OGSR compounds originally deposited on the shooter during the firing process may further be transferred onto another individual or surface. Hence, the aim of this study was to provide additional information regarding the risk of a secondary transfer of OGSR. Two scenarios were investigated, the first one related to the arrest process and the possibilities of a secondary transfer arising between a shooter onto a non-shooter (e.g. between a police officer and a person of interest (POI)). The second scenario concerned the transfer of OGSR onto the non-shooter after handling a firearm for few minutes without discharging it. One calibre was chosen, the .40 S&W calibre, used by several Australian State police forces. A secondary transfer was observed in all cases for the two scenarios investigated, for three compounds of interest: ethylcentralite (EC), diphenylamine (DPA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (N-nDPA). The firearm handling scenario resulted in a larger secondary transfer to that of the arrest scenario. Overall, the amounts of OGSR detected on the non-shooter were generally lower than that detected on the shooter and controls after the arrest scenario. The results of this study provide complementary knowledge about OGSR, which can be further used to improve the current practice and the interpretation of OGSR evidence. In particular, it highlights that the secondary transfer proposition must be considered during the interpretation of forensic findings, especially when small amounts of OGSR target compounds are detected.
Agius, A, Morelato, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Jones, K, Epple, R, Brown, J & Roux, C 2018, 'Dataset of coded handwriting features for use in statistical modelling.', Data in brief, vol. 16, pp. 1010-1024.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The data presented here is related to the article titled, "Using handwriting to infer a writer's country of origin for forensic intelligence purposes" (Agius et al., 2017) . This article reports original writer, spatial and construction characteristic data for thirty-seven English Australian writers and thirty-seven Vietnamese writers. All of these characteristics were coded and recorded in Microsoft Excel 2013 (version 15.31). The construction characteristics coded were only extracted from seven characters, which were: 'g', 'h', 'th', 'M', '0', '7' and '9'. The coded format of the writer, spatial and construction characteristics is made available in this Data in Brief in order to allow others to perform statistical analyses and modelling to investigate whether there is a relationship between the handwriting features and the nationality of the writer, and whether the two nationalities can be differentiated. Furthermore, to employ mathematical techniques that are capable of characterising the extracted features from each participant.
Agius, A, Morelato, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Jones, K, Epple, R, Brown, J & Roux, C 2018, 'Using handwriting to infer a writer's country of origin for forensic intelligence purposes.', Forensic Science International, vol. 282, pp. 144-156.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Forensic science has traditionally focused the majority of its resources and objectives towards addressing Court-related questions. However, this view restricts the contribution of forensic science to one process and results in a loss of information as the investigative and intelligence roles are largely neglected. A forensic science discipline suffering from this imbalance is handwriting examination, which may be characterised as a time consuming and subjective process that is mostly carried out towards the end of the investigation for the purpose of judicial proceedings. Individual and habitual characteristics are the major handwriting features exploited, however alternate information concerning the author's native language could potentially be used as a key element in an intelligence framework. This research focussed on the detection of characteristics that differentiate Vietnamese and English Australian writers based on their English handwriting. The study began with the extraction of handwriting characteristics from the writing of people from the two populations. The data was analysed using a logistic regression model and a classification and regression tree (CRT). Each recognised four class characteristics that were capable of distinguishing between the two nationalities. The logistic regression and CRT models were both capable of correctly predicting 93% of cases. Their predictive capabilities were then tested and supported using blind exemplars in order to mirror casework settings. It appeared that when using their respective class characteristics, the two models were capable of differentiating English Australians from Vietnamese in the data set. This proof of concept research demonstrated the plausibility of exploiting this additional information from a handwriting trace and taking advantage of it in an intelligence-led framework.
Braun, M, Kirkup, L & Chadwick, S 2018, 'The impact of inquiry orientation and other elements of cultural framework on student engagement in first year laboratory programs', International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 30-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
© 2018 Institute for Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education. Inquiry-oriented approaches to learning have gradually entered science laboratory programs, aiming to deliver an authentic experience of doing science, enhance student engagement with the material, and bring greater emphasis on generic skills underpinning graduate attributes. Although such approaches have demonstrated pedagogical advantages and improved student engagement, it is not clear how the advantages should be weighted against other elements of what may be regarded as the laboratory program's cultural framework. We analysed two large-enrolment introductory tertiary programs: physics and chemistry at the University of Technology Sydney. The programs differed in the level of inquiry orientation but also in approaches to design, logistics and relevancy. We found that, based on student survey responses, the putative advantages of a deeper inquiry orientation in the physics laboratory were insufficient to compensate for the apparent advantages arising from the other elements of the cultural framework in the chemistry laboratory.
Chadwick, S, de la Hunty, MA & Baker, A 2018, 'Developing Awareness of Professional Behaviors and Skills in the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory', Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 95, no. 6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Students in first-year chemistry classes come from a variety of backgrounds, with many students unaware of the qualities and behaviors of a professional scientist. Throughout their degree, students will gradually develop their cognitive skills, but they may not be adequately taught or assessed on their professional behavioral skills as a scientist until late in the undergraduate course. By assessing the professional skills of students in first-year chemistry practical classes, this innovation commenced the development of students’ professional identity from the beginning of their university experience. The skills that were assessed included preparedness, cooperation in the group activities, working safely in the laboratory, and time management. By engaging students with professional behaviors and what it means to be a scientist during their first semester, students can potentially carry this through their whole undergraduate degree. This task was received positively by students and staff with over 50% of students believing it increased their confidence in the laboratory. Staff also saw a significant improvement in student behavior and engagement because of this task.
Chadwick, S, Moret, S, Jayashanka, N, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2018, 'Investigation of some of the factors influencing fingermark detection.', Forensic Science International, vol. 289, pp. 381-389.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The primary aims of fingermark detection research are to improve the quality and increase the rate of detection of identifiable impressions. This is usually performed through the development of new methods and technologies to provide alternatives to or improve current procedures. While research of this nature is important to pursue, it fails to address the underlying question related to the factors that affect the detection of a latent fingermark. There has been significant research that has examined the differences between techniques, donors and fingermark age, as well as the composition of latent fingermarks. However, they tend not to focus on determining how these factors influence the quality of the developed mark. This study involved the development and evaluation of over 14,000 natural fingermarks deposited on a variety of surfaces to examine the effect of substrate, age, donor variability (both inter- and intra-), depletions and type of finger on fingermark development. Fingermarks were deposited on four substrates (two non-porous and two porous) and developed with either indanedione-zinc (IND-Zn) or cyanoacrylate followed by rhodamine 6G staining (CA+R6G). Three independent assessors graded each mark on the quality of development using an absolute scale proposed by the UK Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST). The data generated from these assessments were then analysed for trends or other useful insights. The results from this work reaffirm that individual substrate characteristics (and the choice of development technique) play a significant role in determining the number and quality of marks developed. It was found that fingermarks were more likely to be detected on porous substrates and to also be of a higher quality than on non-porous. The effect of fingermark donor variability was also explored, with significant differences observed between donors and within donors. This research shows that current detection techniques do not detect all av...
De La Hunty, MA, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2018, 'An effective Physical Developer (PD) method for use in Australian laboratories', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 50, no. 6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Khuu, A, Chadwick, S, Moret, S, Spindler, X, Gunn, P & Roux, C 2018, 'Impact of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate treatment on subsequent DNA analysis.', Forensic science international, vol. 286, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Fingermarks can be exploited for both their ridge detail and touch DNA. One-step luminescent cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming techniques used for fingermark enhancement, such as PolyCyano UV (Foster+Freeman Ltd) and Lumicyano™ (Crime Science Technology), claim to be compatible with DNA analysis as they reduce the need for post-staining to increase contrast of the developed fingermark. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that these one-step luminescent cyanoacrylates have on DNA analysis and how they compare to conventional CA techniques. Four donors each deposited five sets of natural fingermarks, to which a known amount of washed saliva cells was dispensed onto half of each set of fingermarks. Each set was treated with either a conventional CA technique or a one-step luminescent CA technique prior to collection and processing of DNA, with one set left as a non-fumed control. It was found that DNA was still recoverable and detectable following each of the treatments. Lumicyano™ had a similar impact on DNA profiles as conventional CA fuming and with post-stain, however, the degradation effect of PolyCyano UV on DNA was greater than the conventional treatments. For quantities of DNA such as that from touch DNA, the use of PolyCyano UV to enhance fingermarks may impact subsequent DNA analysis by causing allele drop out at larger fragment sizes.
Agius, A, Jones, K, Epple, R, Morelato, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S & Roux, C 2017, 'The use of handwriting examinations beyond the traditional court purpose', Science and Justice, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 394-400.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Traditionally, forensic science has predominantly focused its resources and objectives on addressing court related questions. However, this view restricts the contribution of forensic science to one function and results in lost opportunities as investigative and intelligence roles are often overlooked.
A change of perspective and expansion of the contributions of forensic science is required to take advantage of the benefits of abductive and inductive thought processes throughout the investigative and intelligence functions. One forensic discipline that has the potential to broaden its traditional focus is handwriting examination. Typically used in investigations that are focused on both criminal and civil cases, the examination procedure and outcome are time consuming and subjective, requiring a detailed study of the features of the handwriting in question. Traditionally, the major handwriting features exploited are characteristics that are often considered individual (or at least highly polymorphic) and habitual. However, handwriting can be considered as an information vector in an intelligence framework. One such example is the recognition of key elements related to the author's native language. This paper discusses the traditional method generally used around the world and proposes a theoretical approach to expand the application of handwriting examination towards gaining additional information for intelligence purposes. This concept will be designed and tested in a future research project.
Chadwick, S, Neskoski, M, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2017, 'Effect of hand sanitizer on the performance of fingermark detection techniques.', Forensic Science International, vol. 273, pp. 153-160.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hand sanitizers have seen a rapid increase in popularity amongst the general population and this increased use has led to the belief that hand sanitizers may have an effect on subsequent fingermark detection. Based on this hypothesis, three alcoholic and two non-alcoholic hand sanitizers were evaluated to determine the effect they had on the detection of fingermarks deposited after their use. The following fingermark detection methods were applied: 1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, physical developer (porous substrate); and cyanoacrylate, rhodamine 6G, magnetic powder (non-porous substrate). Comparison between hand sanitized fingermarks and non-hand sanitized fingermarks showed that the alcohol-based hand sanitizers did not result in any visible differences in fingermark quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, however, improved the quality of fingermarks developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc and ninhydrin, and marginally improved those developed with magnetic powder. Different parameters, including time since hand sanitizer application prior to fingermark deposition and age of deposited mark, were tested to determine the longevity of increased development quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitized marks showed no decrease in quality when aged for up to two weeks. The time since sanitizer application was determined to be an important factor that affected the quality of non-alcoholic hand sanitized fingermarks. It was hypothesized that the active ingredient in non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, benzalkonium chloride, is responsible for the increase in fingermark development quality observed with amino acid reagents, while the increased moisture content present on the ridges resulted in better powdered fingermarks.
Morelato, M, Barash, M, Blanes, L, Chadwick, S, Dilag, J, Kuzhiumparambil, U, Nizio, KD, Spindler, X & Moret, S 2017, 'Forensic Science: Current State and Perspective by a Group of Early Career Researchers', Foundations of Science, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 799-825.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Forensic science and its influence on policing and the criminal justice system have increased since the beginning of the twentieth century. While the philosophies of the forensic science pioneers remain the pillar of modern practice, rapid advances in technology and the underpinning sciences have seen an explosion in the number of disciplines and tools. Consequently, the way in which we exploit and interpret the remnant of criminal activity are adapting to this changing environment. In order to best exploit the trace, an interdisciplinary approach to both research and investigation is required. In this paper, nine postdoctoral research fellows from a multidisciplinary team discuss their vision for the future of forensic science at the crime scene, in the laboratory and beyond. This paper does not pretend to be exhaustive of all fields of forensic science, but describes a portion of the postdoctoral fellows’ interests and skills.
Khuu, A, Chadwick, S, Spindler, X, Lam, R, Moret, S & Roux, C 2016, 'Authors' response to comments on "Evaluation of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming''', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 268, pp. E25-E26.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Khuu, A, Chadwick, S, Spindler, X, Lam, R, Moret, S & Roux, C 2016, 'Evaluation of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 263, pp. 126-131.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
de la Hunty, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2015, 'Understanding physical developer (PD): Part I - Is PD targeting lipids?', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 257, pp. 481-487.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
de la Hunty, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2015, 'Understanding Physical Developer (PD): Part II - Is PD Targeting Eccrine Constituents?', Forensic Science International, vol. 257, pp. 488-495.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Chadwick, SR, Xiao, LH, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2014, 'PolyCyano UV: an investigation into a one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming process', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1-14.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
PolyCyano UV (Foster?+?Freeman Ltd) is a new one-step process for developing luminescent fingermarks using cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming without the need for further chemical treatment. In this study, conditions including the amount of PolyCyano UV powder, the humidity level of the fuming chamber, and the time and temperature of the fuming process were optimised. A variety of different surfaces were tested and aged fingermark samples were also examined. The PolyCyano-UV-developed fingermarks were compared with conventional CA-developed fingermarks and subsequently stained with rhodamine 6G. PolyCyano UV was able to develop high-quality fingermarks on the surfaces tested. However, when examined under UV light, the luminescence of PolyCyano-UV-developed fingermarks was found to be weaker than conventional CA-developed fingermarks that were stained with rhodamine 6G. When used in sequence with rhodamine 6G, PolyCyano UV was found to give significantly improved contrast compared with conventional CA-developed fingermarks stained with rhodamine 6G.
de la Hunty, M, Spindler, X, Chadwick, S, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2014, 'Synthesis and application of an aqueous nile red microemulsion for the development of fingermarks on porous surfaces', Forensic Science International, vol. 244, pp. e48-e55.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Chadwick, SR, Maynard, PJ, Kirkbride, KP, Lennard, CJ, McDonagh, AM, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2012, 'Styryl dye coated metal oxide powders for the detection of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces', Forensic Science International, vol. 219, no. 1-3, pp. 208-214.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Conventional fingermark powders rely on contrast induced by absorption/reflection (e.g. black powder) or luminescence in the visible region (e.g. Blitz GreenÂ®). In most cases, these powders provide sufficient contrast; however, in some circumstances surface characteristics can interfere with the visualisation of powdered fingermarks. Visualisation in the near infra-red (NIR) region, however, has been shown to eliminate interferences commonly encountered in the visible region. In this study, a mixture of rhodamine 6G and the NIR laser dye styryl 11 (STaR 11) was coated onto an aluminium oxide nanopowder and then mixed with silver magnetic powder to develop and visualise fingermarks in the NIR. When compared to Blitz GreenÂ®, it was determined that the STaR 11 magnetic powder was better suited for marks deposited on textured surfaces and for older marks, whereas Blitz GreenÂ® performed better on smooth glossy surfaces. The ability of the STaR 11 mixed dye formulation to be visualised in both the visible and NIR regions also provides a significant advantage over conventional luminescent fingermark powders.
Chadwick, SR, Maynard, PJ, Kirkbride, KP, Lennard, CJ, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2011, 'Use of Styryl 11 and STaR 11 for the luminescence enhancement of cyanoacrylate-developed fingermarks in the visible and near-infrared regions', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1505-1513.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In current casework, most post-cyanoacrylate stains rely on luminescence emission in the visible region (400-700 nm). While traditional stains such as rhodamine 6G work well under most circumstances, some surfaces may generate background luminescence under the same conditions. Detection in the near-infrared region (NIR > 700 nm) has shown to be effective in minimizing the interferences from such surfaces. The laser dye styryl 11 generated strongly luminescent fingermarks when applied after cyanoacrylate fuming on all surfaces tested. When compared to rhodamine 6G, the dye was superior only when viewed in the NIR. Styryl 11 was subsequently combined with rhodamine 6G, and the mixed stain formulation (named StaR 11 by the authors) induced stronger luminescence compared with styryl 11 alone with an ability to visualize in both the visible and NIR regions. Reliable and consistent results were obtained when using either styryl 11 alone or the STaR 11 mixture. The enhancement achieved did not otherwise vary depending on the source of the fingermark secretions. With visualization possible in both the visible and NIR regions, the styryl 11/rhodamine 6G mixture showed significant potential as a post-cyanoacrylate stain.
Alexander, J, Ashmore, J, Baker, A & Chadwick, SR 2016, 'NMR Spectroscopy in First-Year Chemistry at the University of Technology Sydney' in Soulsby, D, Anna, L & Wallner, AS (eds), NMR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Curriculum: First Year and Organic Chemistry Courses Volume 2, American Chemical Society, pp. 13-29.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
First-year general chemistry classes at large universities typically enroll students with diverse backgrounds. The vast majority of these students are not chemistry majors. NMR instrumentation was introduced to this class to engage these students in their learning and to represent modern chemistry to students for whom this course might be their only chemistry experience. We have incorporated NMR spectroscopy into the general chemistry laboratory experiments at the University of Technology Sydney in Sydney, Australia. Benchtop NMR spectrometers now mean that students can have close and frequent access to instrumentation. This chapter describes the use of the picoSpin-45 NMR spectrometer in the introductory laboratory, the types of experiments performed, quiz and survey results, and implementation challenges and successes.
Agius, A, Morelato, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Jones, K, Epple, R & Roux, C 2017, 'USING HANDWRITING TO INFER A WRITER'S COUNTRY OF ORIGIN FOR FORENSIC INTELLIGENCE PURPOSES', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 160-160.
Chadwick, S, Moret, S, Jayashanka, N, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2017, 'INSIDE KNOWLEDGE OF THE FACTORS INFLUENCING FINGERMARK DETECTION', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 59-60.
Michelot, H, Morelato, M, Chadwick, S, Roux, C & Tahtouh, M 2017, 'CHEMOMETRICS APPLIED TO CHEMICAL PROFILES OF COCAINE SEIZURES: A FORENSIC INTELLIGENCE APPROACH', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 229-230.
Chadwick, SR 2010, 'Near Infrared Laser Dyes for Use as Cyanoacrylate Stains', The 20th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Sydney, Australia.
In current casework most post cyanoacrylate stains rely on luminescence induced by illuminating and detecting fingermarks in the visible region. While traditional stains such as rhodamine 6G work well in most cases some substrates bearing the fingermark may also generate luminescence under the same conditions. Detection in the near infrared region (NIR) has shown to be effective in minimising the interferences from such surfaces. In this project two laser dyes (styryl 9M, styryl 11) were tested as post cyanoacrylate stains for detection of fingermarks in the NIR region. These dyes were tested in a range of different solvents and a variety of different surfaces. Styryl 9M was prone to precipitating out of solution after a short period of time. However styryl 9M could be used on surfaces in which rhodamine 6G treatment was not suitable. Whereas on common surfaces styryl 9M was inferior to rhodamine 6G. Styryl 9M was also combined with rhodamine 6G and gave much stronger luminescence in the NIR region and remained in solution. This occurred due to a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) interaction between the two dyes. Styryl 11 was soluble in all solvents tested, gave strong results on all surfaces tested. When compared to rhodamine 6G the dye was superior only when viewed in the NIR region. Styryl 11 was combined with rhodamine 6G and gave stronger luminescence when compared to styryl 11 or styryl 9M. Stronger luminescence at all wavelengths was observed on all surfaces tested. Repeat experiments on indicated that reliable and consistent results could be obtained with using either styryl 11 or styryl 11-rhodamine 6G mixture.