Professor Sara Wilkinson is a chartered building surveyor and Australia’s first female Professor of Property. Her transdisciplinary research program sits at the intersection of sustainability, urban development and transformation, with a focus on green cities and preparing our urban environments for the challenges of climate change. She has a growing interest in the use of new technologies to deliver sustainable building outcomes.
Sara works with academic and industry partners in engineering, science, health and business to deliver building adaptation, sustainability and resilience, and green infrastructure projects. Her research has been funded by OEH NSW, RICS, ARENA, HIA, Kamprad Family Foundation, City of Melbourne and City of Sydney. Recent work includes a project with Swedish developer Skanksa and funded by the Kamprad Family Foundation that uses virtual reality to assess customers’ willingness to pay for green infrastructure in a residential housing development. Another project funded by the City of Sydney resulted in the development of a prototype wallbot to inspect and monitor green walls on high-rise buildings. An updated version of the bot, which was developed in partnership with the UTS Centre for Autonomous Systems, will have maintenance functions such as pruning, weeding and replacing plants, paving the way for increased opportunities for smart green wall installations in urban areas.
In a career spanning over 30 years, Sara has produced over 385 research outputs, including 9 books, 29 book chapters, 59 refereed journal and 105 refereed conference papers, and 8 keynote presentations. Her 2016 Best Practice Guidance Note on Green Roofs and Walls was launched by the NSW Minister for Planning, and she has presented her research in collaboration with the Deep Green Biotech Hub to the NSW Deputy Premier. She is the Director of ZEMCH (Zero Energy Mass Custom Housing), Australia and the Australian Hub Leader for the Carbon Leadership Forum. Sara has been a RICS External Examiner for built environment degrees in Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Hong Kong and India.
Fellow of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (FRICS)
Associate Member of the Australian Property Institute (AAPI)
Can supervise: YES
I am currently active in the following areas;
- Smart Green Walls / Roofs - the Green Wallbot
- Using Virtual Reality (VR) to assess willingness to pay for Green Infrastructure
- Building adaptation and sustainability (also known as retrofit, rehabilitation, refurbishment, adaptive re-use and conversion).
- Conceptual understanding of sustainability (social, economic, environmental, political and philosophical underpinning of sustainability).
- Green roof retrofit from building to city scale (retrofit for storm-water attenuation, thermal performance, food production, social engagement).
- Measuring and quantifying sustainability in the built environment
- Building user / occupant satisfaction in buildings / refurbished buildings.
Currently I teach at post graduate level in Sustainable Urban Development on building related aspects and Advanced Property Development. I am teaching Sustainable Construction and Development Management from 2016. I have co-ordinated and taught the Honours Program in the School of Built Environment from 2012 to 2015.
Vertical Greening Systems (VGS)
Selecting your Green Wall Site
Checklist for Appraising the Suitability of an
Existing Wall Structure for Green Wall Retrofit
Weight loading and External forces
Drainage and Irrigation
Professional Consultants and Advice
Achievable DIY Designs
Disclaimers and Acknowledgment
Wilkinson, SJ & Remøy, H 2018, Building Urban Resilience through Change of Use, Wiley Blackwell.
Describes all aspects of sustainable conversion adaptation of existing buildings and provides solutions for making urban settlements resilient to climate change This comprehensive book explores the potential to change the character of ...
Wilkinson, SJ, Dixon, T, Miller, N & Sayce, S 2018, Routledge Handbook of Sustainable Real Estate, 1st, Routledge, UK.
Wilkinson, SJ & Dixon, T 2016, Green Roof Retrofit Building Urban Resilience, John Wiley & Sons.
An appreciation of the implications of green roof retrofit is required in order to make the decisions and take the actions needed to mitigate climate change; this is a relatively new solution for building retrofit so both students and ...
Sayce, SJ 2015, Developing Property Sustainably, First, Routledge, London and New York.
Throughout the book, international case studies are used to demonstrate how sustainable property development is applied in practice around the world.
Wilkinson, SJ, Remøy, H & Langston, C 2014, Sustainable Building Adaptation: Innovations in Decision-making, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom.
The book offers guidance towards a balanced approach that incorporates sustainable and optimal approaches for effective management of sustainable adaptation of existing commercial buildings.
Knight, A & Ruddock, L 2008, Advanced Research Methods in the Built Environment, Wiley-Blackwell.
This book provides a bridge between the introductory research methods books and the discipline-specific, higher level texts.
Reed, R & Wilkinson, SJ 2008, A Greener House The Sustainable Property Investor's Guide to Buying, Building and Renovating, Wrightbooks.
If you own property and would like to increase its value, you can't afford to ignore sustainability. This book will show you how to reduce your environmental footprint while making the most of your greatest financial asset.
Wilkinson, SJ & Reed, R 2008, Property Development 5 Ed., 5, Taylor and Francis, London.
Kelly, J, Morledge, R & Wilkinson, SJ 2002, Best Value in Construction, 1st, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
This book from the RICS Foundation analyses how to provide best value by the effective application of leading edge techniques and processes throughout the entire life cycle of buildings, from the business case which underpins their ...
Castiglia Feitosa, R & Wilkinson, SJ 2020, 'Small-scale experiments of seasonal heat stress attenuation through a combination of green roof and green walls', Journal of Cleaner Production.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd New and retrofitted green roofs and green walls (GRGW) represent an opportunity to attenuate excessive heat produced in increasingly densely developed urban environments. This paper reports on the results of an original experiment in Sydney Australia in 2016 to evaluate seasonally the heat stress attenuation through green roofs and green walls. Data was collected from mid-summer 2016 (January) to early summer (November 2016) the following season. Two scaled-down structures representing a considerable percentage of housing stock were used to compare heat attenuation in a traditional design compared to a structure covered with a lightweight GRGW on two elevations. Importantly, the results inform our knowledge and understanding of the fluctuations in GRGW performance over an extended period. The combination of relative humidity and temperature plays an important role in establishing heat stress levels in terms of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). The higher levels of WBGT occurred in summer, whereas the lower levels occurred in winter. The WBGT of both prototypes was similar during winter, showing no significant relevance of GRGW for heating an indoor environment. However, during the summer the vegetation had a major role in reducing WBGT. Heat stress is seasonally evaluated according to the percentage of the time, which the thresholds for different metabolic activities are reached. During warm conditions, GRGW attenuated heat stress and the associated health-related risks substantially.
Wilkinson, S & Sayce, S 2020, 'Decarbonising Real Estate: The Evolving Relationship Between Energy Efficiency and Housing in Europe', Journal of European Real Estate Research, no. Special Issue Decarbonization and Real Estate Investment.
Decarbonisation is a global issue affecting all classes of real estate. 27% of total UK carbon emissions is attributed to housing; however great potential to decarbonise this sector rests with the adoption of energy efficiency
technologies (Nejat et al, 2015) as the energy savings realised will lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Three main approaches exist to achieve this. The first is to take a mandatory approach in which minimum high level
energy efficiency standards are set, enforced and applied to both new and existing buildings by enforcing compliance through retrofits of substandard stock (Wilkinson et al, 2015; Patrick et al, 2014). Option two is a voluntary approach, using mechanisms such as Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) or other rating tools that classify performance to stimulate awareness and action. Third, financial measures, both incentives and taxes,
can be applied to 'nudge' behaviours. With most westernised countries wedded to neo-liberal governance paradigms, the voluntary fiscal approaches have prevailed over the last 30 or so years. The argument is the
market will value more energy efficient properties through increased prices (RICS, 2011. Warren-Myers, 2016). It follows that a premium for energy efficient properties should be apparent (Fuerst et al, 2015. Ferlan et al,
2017). As the time available to take effective climate action diminishes, evaluation of the effectiveness of this approach is imperative.
Given the implementation of measures, both voluntary and mandatory over the last three decades, this paper reviews academic literature and case studies of a selection of large-scale consortia projects conducted in Europe.
Most of the research reviewed is based on hedonic pricing analyses which have sought a relationship between
Energy Performance Certificates and either capital, or rental residential values across Europe. The research
sought to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between energy efficiency and the value o...
Yazdani Mehr, S & Wilkinson, S 2020, 'The importance of place and authenticity in adaptive reuse of heritage buildings', International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: In adaptive reuse, the importance of place referred to as "genius loci," whereas authenticity refers to the design, materials, setting and workmanship of a building or place. Genius loci and authenticity are crucial evolving interconnected concepts; however, the concepts are usually studied separately, and consequently, overlooked in adaptive reuse practice. This paper provides precise definitions and a holistic understanding of these terms and discusses complications related to the understanding of the concepts in the adaptive reuse of heritage buildings. Design/methodology/approach: Content analysis is an acknowledged way of analysing information related to a subject area and allows researchers to provide new insights and knowledge in a particular area. This paper applies a critical content analysis of published works related to genius loci and authenticity over time. Findings: The findings show the inter-relationship of genius loci and authenticity, and how these concepts can be considered in the adaptive reuse of heritage buildings, in theory and in practice. Consequently, a checklist is proposed to enable all interested parties engaged with the adaptive reuse of heritage buildings to identify and preserve genius loci and authenticity. Originality/value: Identity and values of heritage buildings are argued to be the strongest reasons for adaptation. Amongst a wide range of values associated with the adaptive reuse of heritage buildings, place and authenticity are perceived to be the most confusing terms and concepts. Whilst place and authenticity are defined by many authors, their meaning and usage are subjective, which is a challenge in recognising and preserving the values they embody. This study contributes to the greater understanding of these concepts, their meanings and application in adaptive reuse.
Zalejska-Jonsson, A, Wilkinson, SJ & Wahlund, R 2020, 'Willingness to Pay for Green Infrastructure in Residential Development-A Consumer Perspective', ATMOSPHERE, vol. 11, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wilkinson, S, Biloria, N & Ralph, P 2020, 'The technical issues associated with algae building technology', International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: As the impacts of climate change become more evident, the need to adopt new ways of constructing buildings becomes more urgent. The Earth has experienced hotter climates globally for the last 70 years (NASA, 2019), and this has resulted in unprecedented levels of bushfire in Australia, flooding in the UK and drought in Africa in early 2020 (World Resources Institute, 2019). The predictions are for increased temperatures globally and increasing carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption. There is a critical need to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels as a building energy source (WCED, 1987). Existing renewables focus on solar, wind and wave power, where technological improvements have increased efficiencies (Hinnells, 2008). Uptake of the technologies is variable depending on location and willingness to adopt renewables. As well as further uptake of existing renewable energy sources, we need to look wider and across traditional discipline groups, at new technologies such as biotechnologies. One potential energy source is biofuels. Biofuels are produced from biomass, which is algae. In 2016, the BIQ, a four-storey apartment building, was constructed in Hamburg, Germany. The BIQ features glazed façade panels filled with algae to produce biomass and solar thermal energy. Could algae building technology (ABT), in the form of façade panels, offer a new renewable energy source? Design/methodology/approach: What are the technical issues associated with Algae building technology? This qualitative research sought to identify what technical issues likely to arise in terms of algae building construction, operation and maintenance. Semi-structured interviews with 24 experienced built environment professionals in Australia were undertaken in 2016 to assess the most likely issues that could arise with this new innovative technology. Findings: As a result, a greater understanding of the range of technical issues related to design, ...
As the impacts of climate change become more evident, the need to adopt new ways of constructing buildings becomes more urgent. The earth has experienced hotter climates globally for the last 70 years (NASA 2019) and this has resulted in unprecedented levels of bushfire in Australia, flooding in the UK and drought in Africa in early 2020 (World Resources Institute, 2019). The predictions are for increased temperatures (Climate Chip, 2020) globally and increasing carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption. There is a critical need to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels as a building energy source (WCED 1987). Existing renewables focus on solar, wind and wave power, where technological improvements have increased efficiencies (Hinnells, 2008). Uptake of the technologies is variable depending on location and willingness to adopt renewables. As well as further uptake of existing renewable energy sources, we need to look wider and across traditional discipline groups, at new technologies such as bio-technologies. One potential energy source is biofuels. Biofuels are produced from biomass, which is algae. In 2016 the BIQ, a four storey apartment building, was constructed in Hamburg, Germany. The BIQ features glazed façade panels filled with algae to produce biomass and solar thermal energy. Could algae building technology (ABT), in the form of façade panels offer a new renewable energy source?
What are the technical issues associated with Algae building technology? This qualitative research sought to identify what technical issues likely to arise in terms of algae building construction, operation and maintenance. Semi structured interviews with 24 experienced built environ-ment professionals in Australia were undertaken in 2016 to assess the most likely issues that could arise with this new innovative technology.
As a result, a greater understanding of the range of technical issues related to design, construction, maintenance and operation were identified, as well ...
Lamond, JE, Bhattacharya-Mis, N, Chan, FKS, Kreibich, H, Montz, B, Proverbs, DG & Wilkinson, S 2019, 'Flood risk insurance, mitigation and commercial property valuation', Property Management, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 512-528.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how built environment professionals approach the valuation of flood risk in commercial property markets and whether insurance promotes mitigation in different insurance and risk management regimes, draw common conclusions and highlight opportunities to transfer learning. Design/methodology/approach: An illustrative case study approach involving literature search and 72 interviews with built environment professionals, across five countries in four continents. Findings: Common difficulties arise in availability, reliability and interpretation of risk information, and in evaluating the impact of mitigation. These factors, coupled with the heterogeneous nature of commercial property, lack of transactional data and remote investors, make valuation of risk particularly challenging in the sector. Insurance incentives for risk mitigation are somewhat effective where employed and could be further developed, however, the influence of insurance is hampered by lack of insurance penetration and underinsurance. Research limitations/implications: Further investigation of the means to improve uptake of insurance and to develop insurance incentives for mitigation is recommended. Practical implications: Flood risk is inconsistently reflected in commercial property values leading to lack of mitigation and vulnerability of investments to future flooding. Improvements are needed in: access to adequate risk information; professional skills in valuing risk; guidance on valuation of flood risk; and regulation to ensure adequate consideration of risk and mitigation options. Originality/value: The research addresses a global issue that threatens local, and regional economies through loss of utility, business profitability and commercial property value. It is unique in consulting professionals across international markets.
Antoniades, H, Wilkinson, S & halvitigala, D 2018, 'Educators, professional bodies and the future of the valuation profession', Property Management, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 389-399.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: Valuers face significant challenges as valuation becomes automated and the role evolves from economic analysis to data handling and processing. The purpose of this paper is to identify new knowledge and skills Valuers will need in the future and the role of professional bodies and educators in meeting future challenges in Australia, although the issues are considered global. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative research sought a deeper understanding of the issues, threats, challenges, opportunities, new areas of practice and knowledge that Valuers were experiencing with a view to identifying the role of professional bodies, industry and educators to meet the challenges. A focus group approach was adopted to collect data from practitioners in Sydney and Melbourne. Findings: The roles of the professional body the Australian Property Institute, industry/employers and educators to meet these future challenges were identified. Changes are required to degree programme content in respect of digital technologies and statistical knowledge and skills. Continuing professional development programmes are required to address knowledge and skills gaps in existing practitioners. Research limitations/implications: In this study, key limitations were that focus group participants were from Melbourne and Sydney only, and the focus is NSW and Victoria centric, although many participants have international work experience. Overall there was under representation of rural Valuers, of small valuation firms, of young, recently joined or qualified Valuers and females. Originality/value: This is original research and highlights some real threats, issues and challenges facing the Australian Valuers. It complements work undertaken by legal and accounting professional bodies who perceive change and uncertainty affecting membership and services. To address and where, appropriate, embrace the changes that are coming and those already here, a...
Feitosa, RC & Wilkinson, S 2018, 'Green roofs and green walls and their impact on health promotion.', Cadernos de saude publica, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. e00003618-e00003618.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wilkinson, S, Antoniades, H & Halvitigala, D 2018, 'The future of the Australian valuation profession: New knowledge, emerging trends and practices', Property Management, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 333-344.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: Valuers face significant challenges as processes become automated and the role evolves to data handling and processing. To survive and thrive, valuers must respond to a changing market. The purpose of this paper is to examine the issues, threats and challenges facing the Australian profession, though the issues are global. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative research sought a deeper understanding of the threats, challenges and new areas of practice that Australian valuers were experiencing. A focus group approach was designed to collect data from practitioners in Sydney and Melbourne. The research aimed to identify new knowledge and skills for the future and emerging trends and practices. Findings: The key issues, threats and challenges faced included increasing use of automated valuation models for low-risk residential valuations, valuers being unable to protect themselves against the banks, loss of control of the data and valuations. In total, 12 knowledge domains and skills required in the future were established and ten emerging trends and practices were identified. Research limitations/implications: The key limitations were that participants were from Melbourne and Sydney in Australia only and the focus is NSW and Victoria centric, although many participants have international work experience. There was an under representation of rural valuers, of small valuation firms, of young, recently joined or qualified valuers and females. Practical implications: The findings inform a manifesto for the future which sets out the practical implications for valuers and the professional body. This action plan sets the new knowledge domains, practices and trends that can be adopted by the profession and its members. Originality/value: This is the original research and highlights some real threats, issues and challenges facing the Australian valuers. It complements work undertaken by legal and accounting professional bod...
Wilkinson, SJ 2018, 'Virtuous circle', RICS Property Journal, no. March/April, pp. 32-33.
Wilkinson, SJ & Castiglia Feitosa, R 2018, 'Attenuating heat stress through green roof and green wall Retrofit.', Building and Environment, vol. 140, no. 140, pp. 11-22.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The process of rapid urbanisation is becoming problematic due to the reduction in, and lack of compensation of, previously vegetated areas. With a combination of green roofs and green walls, adopted on a large scale, it is possible to attenuate the urban heat island effect and internal temperatures in buildings. Tall buildings are becoming a common housing type in many cities, and considering the role of external walls in heat gain, it is expected that the combination of green roofs and green walls have great potential to improve thermal performance. As only 1-2% is added to the total stock of buildings annually, the focus should be on the retrofit of existing buildings to deliver maximum thermal benefits. In the present work lightweight, modular vegetated systems were adopted for roofs and walls. Instead of considering only the temperature influence in heat stress, this research adopted the use of heat index that encompasses the combined effect of temperature and relative humidity. For this purpose, the thermal benefits of green roof and green wall retrofit is evaluated in two small scale experiments, where identical prototypes (vegetated and non-vegetated) are compared using block work and timber framed drywall structures for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Sydney, Australia, respectively. The results show a different understanding in heat stress evaluation regarding heat index rather than temperature itself, especially under high levels of relative humidity. This evidence demonstrates green roof and green wall retrofit offer a proven role in heat stress attenuation in residential buildings
Wilkinson, SJ, lamond, J, proverbs, D, Bhattacharya Mis, N, Kreibach, H, Montz, B & Chan, F 2018, 'Flood Risk To Commercial Properties: Training And Education Needs Of Built Environment Professionals', International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 9, no. 4.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Yardzani-Mehr, S & Wilkinson, SJ 2018, 'Technical issues and energy efficient adaptive reuse of heritage listed city halls in Queensland Australia', International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 529-542.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Adaptive reuse of heritage stock several advantages: retention of culturally and socially significant buildings, as well as the opportunity to consider embodied energy, energy efficiency retrofit measures, and other environmental upgrades. This paper identifies the technical issues faced in the adaptive reuse of Australian heritage listed city halls and discusses sustainable strategies to enable further adaptations to be more energy efficient.
Adaptive reuse of a heritage building provides an opportunity to retain embodied energy, improve energy efficiency and enhance durability, which are important aspects of the technical lifecycle of a building. Using a case study methodology and a qualitative approach, this paper evaluates adaptations and the technical issues faced in three heritage city halls in Queensland, Australia.
The analysis shows that enhancing energy efficiency enables heritage buildings to reduce their climate change impacts. However, the installation of equipment for energy efficiency can pose technical issues for heritage buildings. The ownership of heritage building and interest of the local community affects the solutions that are viable. Solutions and further sustainable strategies are proposed through analysis of case studies.
City halls globally adopt different and varied architectural designs, features, and scales. They are often heritage listed and locally significant landmarks that have undergone various adaptations; however, they have been overlooked in much adaptive reuse research, particularly in Australia. City halls differ from other heritage buildings in their collective sense of ownership which is important in regard to proposed changes, as citizens have an interest and hold opinions which may affect measures adopted. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge related to energy efficient technical adaptive reuse of city halls.
The built environment contributes 40% of total global greenhouse gas emissions and 87% of the buildings we will have in 2050 are already built. If predicted climate changes are correct, we need to adapt existing stock sustainably. Outside Australia there is a history of office to residential conversions. These conversions number few in Sydney although evidence suggests a trend is emerging in conversion adaptations. In 2014, 102 000 m2 of office space was earmarked for residential conversion in Sydney as demand for central residential property grows and low interest rates create good conditions. The Central Business District (CBD) population is projected to increase by 4% to 2031 requiring 45 000 new homes and this coincides with a stock of ageing offices. Furthermore, the Sydney office market is set to be flooded with the Barangaroo development supply in 2017; thus conditions for conversion are better than ever. However, what is the level of sustainability in these projects? And, are stakeholders cognisant of sustainability in these projects? Moreover, is a voluntary a mandatory approach going to deliver more sustainability in this market? Through a series of interviews with key stakeholders, this paper investigates the nature and extent of the phenomena in Sydney, as well as the political, economic, social, environmental and technological drivers and barriers to conversion. No major study exists on conversion adaptation in Sydney and the most residential development is new build. There is substantial potential to change the nature of the CBD and enhance sustainability with the residential conversion of office space. The findings show that opportunities are being overlooked to appreciate and acknowledge the sustainability of this type of adaptation and that there is a need for a rating tool to encourage greater levels of sustainability and to acknowledge existing levels of sustainability achieved in these projects.
Wilkinson, SJ, Castiglia Feitosa, R, Tsuyoshi Kaga, I & Hachmann de Franceschi, I 2017, 'Evaluating the Thermal Performance of Retrofitted Lightweight Green Roofs and Walls in Sydney and Rio de Janeiro.', Procedia Engineering, vol. 180, pp. 231-240.View/Download from: Publisher's site
With increasing densification in urban settlements, environmental issues are a challenge in the sustainable development of all
cities globally. Considering that the built environment releases almost half of the total greenhouse gas emissions, an effective
solution to mitigating the impacts of increasing temperatures can be the improved performance of existing buildings. Furthermore
87% of the buildings we will have in 2050 are already built. Retrofitting roofs and walls with a living vegetated system such as
green roofs and walls could be an upgrade option, increasing sustainable construction. The benefits are improved thermal
performance but also improved air quality, stormwater attenuation, increased bio-diversity and lower heating and / or cooling
energy consumption. No empirical data exists for Sydney and Rio de Janeiro and the question is; what is the extent of thermal
improvement with retrofitted green walls and roof in timber framed and blockwork structures? This study analyses both effects
and benefits of the green roofs and walls through an experiment in two countries: one in Sydney, Australia; a timber framed
construction, and another one in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; with blockwork construction. This difference in the material choice was
made according to the most common type of construction for housing in each country. In each site, the walls and the roof of one
of the prototypes were covered with plants and compared to the performance of an unplanted but otherwise identical prototype.
The thermal performance was analysed by observing the temperature variation simultaneously in a non-vegetated and vegetated
structure. The initial findings show that the combination of green roof and green walls have a relevant role in temperature
attenuation. These results indicate, that this lightweight retrofit green technology could not only represent an important advance
on sustainable development, but can that it also lead to more comfortable internal conditions for ...
Wilkinson, SJ, Stoller, P, Ralph, P, Hamdorf, B, Navarro Catana, L & Santana Kuzava, G 2017, 'Exploring the feasibility of algae building technology in NSW', Procedia Engineering, vol. 180, pp. 1121-1130.View/Download from: Publisher's site
For some time, Biochemists have been exploring the potential to produce biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuel energy. Biofuels can be derived from crops such as corn, soybean and sugarcane however these crops can contribute to water scarcity and deforestation. Furthermore, large areas of land are used that could otherwise be used for food production. Another possibility is to use microalgae, which does not have the disadvantages associated with crop-based biofuels. Depending on conditions, microalgae can produce bio compounds that are converted into biofuels.
The built environment is responsible for around 40 to 50% of total greenhouse gas emissions through fossil fuel consumption. Not only is it necessary to design and to retrofit our built environment to be more energy efficient, but it is also necessary to consider alternative fuel sources. To date, this has mostly focused on solar, wind and geothermal sources, however one residential building in Hamburg Germany has adopted algae building technology in the form of façade panels which act as a source of energy for heating the apartments and for hot water. The climate in northern Germany is very different to Australia, and the question arises; what is the feasibility to adopt algae building technology in New South Wales? There are issues around the physical and technical aspects of the technology, the social and environmental aspects, the regulatory and planning aspects, as well as the economic considerations. This paper reports on a study with key stakeholders in New South Wales to explore barriers and drivers associated with the adoption of algae building technology.
Castiglia Feitosa, R & Wilkinson, S 2016, 'Modelling green roof stormwater response for different soil depths', Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 153, pp. 170-179.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Green roofs have been proposed as a way to mitigate stormwater run-off in urban areas due to the possibility of retrofit to existing buildings. The amount of run-off is influenced by the, humidity, evapotranspiration, as well as soil type and depth. A modelling approach was undertaken to evaluate the response of different soil depths to cumulative rainfall and the efficiency in stormwater flow rate attenuation. The soil hydraulics were modelled using HYDRUS-1D software developed for modelling water flow in variably saturated porous media. Model runs were carried out for three quarterly scenarios to determine run-off peak flow rates and the overall retention, based on evapotranspiration rates of succulent plants and rainfall registers from Auckland, New Zealand. The soil depths modelled ranged from 5 to 160 cm. The efficiencies in peak flow attenuation by the shallowest soil considered were reduced under extreme and longer rainfall events by 3%. Therefore shallow soil or extensive green roofs may, on a wide scale, overcome the performance of deep soils due to their lighter weight which adds limited loads to existing roof structures thereby making them suited to retrofit greater numbers of buildings.
Janda, KB, Bright, S, Patrick, J, Wilkinson, S & Dixon, TJ 2016, 'The evolution of green leases: towards inter-organizational environmental governance', Building Research and Information, vol. 44, no. 5-6, pp. 660-674.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Improving the environmental performance of non-domestic buildings is a complex and 'wicked' problem due to conflicting interests and incentives. This is particularly challenging in tenanted spaces, where landlord and tenant interactions are regulated through leases that traditionally ignore environmental considerations. 'Green leasing' is conceptualized as a form of 'middle-out' inter-organizational environmental governance that operates between organizations, alongside other drivers. This paper investigates how leases are evolving to become 'greener' in the UK and Australia, providing evidence from five varied sources on: (1) UK office and retail leases, (2) UK retail sector energy management, (3) a major UK retailer case study; (4) office leasing in Sydney, and (5) expert interviews on Australian retail leases. With some exceptions, the evidence reveals an increasing trend towards green leases in prime offices in both countries, but not in retail or sub-prime offices. Generally introduced by landlords, adopted green leases contain a variety of ambitions and levels of enforcement. As an evolving form of private–private environmental governance, green leases form a valuable framework for further tenant–landlord cooperation within properties and across portfolios. This increased cohesion could create new opportunities for polycentric governance, particularly at the interface of cities and the property industry.
As the built environment produces a third of total greenhouse gas emissions, there is potential for the sector to lead in mitigating global warming. Many terms describe sustainable buildings (e.g., green, ecological, environmentally friendly) but are they the same? Could it mean our understanding of sustainability is fragmented or confused? Moreover, what is property professionals understanding of sustainability? A gap in understanding could mean that property professionals will be unlikely to deliver "sustainability," with onerous consequences. In this study, I explore how individuals understand sustainability, and how that understanding influences behavior and action
Forsythe, P & Wilkinson, S 2015, 'Measuring office fit-out changes to determine recurring embodied energy in building life cycle assessment', Facilities, vol. 33, no. 3/4, pp. 262-274.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to quantify and profile the indicative amount of retrofits in
office buildings as a necessary step in quantifying the recurring embodied energy in office buildings.
Buildings are a major source of energy usage and emissions, and office buildings are a significant
contributor to this situation. Life cycle assessments in this area have tended to neglect the potentially
large impact arising from recurring embodied energy associated with office fit-out – which is often akin
to a short-term consumable rather than a long-term durable in many multi-storey buildings.
Design/methodology/approach – This study used building permit data from the Melbourne
Central Business District (n 986) over the period 2006-2010 (inclusive) to quantify the number of
retrofits and related trends. Building on this, a small number of targeted case study buildings were used
to probe specific issues in profiling trends associated with high-frequency trends arising from the main
Findings – The data show that the number of retrofits varies according to location, grade, size and the
age of buildings. Using the case study data, there is initial evidence to suggest that between 46 and 70
per cent of the floors in a high-rise office building will undergo retrofit in a five-year period. Further
research should apply these data to recurring energy modelling for office buildings.
Research limitations/implications – One limitation which applies to this study is that the research
is limited to a defined geographical area in one Australian city, Melbourne. Secondly the study covers
a specific period, and the number of retrofits may be affected negatively or positively depending on the
prevailing market conditions.
Practical implications – This paper raises important questions in respect of life cycle carbon
emissions in the context of prevailing trends to shorter lease terms and practices around fit-out.
Originality/value – The retrofit of office buildings t...
Wilkinson, S 2015, 'Building approval data and the quantification of sustainability over time: A case study of Australia and England', Structural Survey, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 92-108.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose – The fifth IPCC report on climate change concluded current progress to mitigate anthropocentric climate change is not making any impact. As the built environment emits 50 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions, mitigating climate change through sustainable construction and adaptation is a priority. Although many new buildings have sustainability ratings, they comprise a minute amount of the total stock. Meanwhile policy makers are adopting strategies to become carbon neutral with targets that require measurement. The purpose of this paper is to propose a means of quantifying the uptake of sustainability across all stock over time using existing policy frameworks. Design/methodology/approach – Given that this is a scoping study to explore the potential to adapt existing frameworks to facilitate the quantification of the uptake of sustainability measures over time, the research adopted a focus group technique with experienced stakeholders in Australia and England. Qualitative research is inductive and hypothesis generating. That is; as the research assimilates knowledge and information contained in the literature ideas and questions are formed, which are put to research participants and from this process conclusions are drawn. Findings – It is technologically feasible to collect data on sustainability measures within the building approvals systems in Victoria and NSW Australia and England and Wales and a conceptual model is proposed. Economically, costs need to be covered, and it is unclear which group should pay. Socially, the benefits would be to determine how society is progressing towards goals. The benefits of achieving reduced carbon emissions would be mitigation of the predicted changes to climate and informing society of progress. Politically, it is unlikely there is a will to make provisions for this proposal in existing regulatory systems. Research limitations/implications – The key limitations of the resear...
Wilkinson, S & Feitosa, R 2015, 'Retrofitting Housing with Lightweight Green Roof Technology in Sydney, Australia, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil', Sustainability, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1081-1098.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The built environment contributes around half of total greenhouse gas emissions and with 87% of residential buildings that we will have by 2050 already built, it is vital to adopt sustainable retrofitting practices. The question is: what are the viable solutions? One answer may be green roof retrofitting. The environmental benefits include reduced operational carbon emissions, reduced urban heat island effect, increased bio-diversity, housing temperature attenuation and reduced stormwater run-off. The economic benefits are the reduced maintenance costs and lower running costs. The social gain is the creation of spaces where people have access to green areas. However, the barriers to retrofitting include the perceptions of structural adequacy, the risk of water damage, high installation and maintenance costs, as well as access and security issues. Many Australian and Brazilian residential buildings have metal sheet roofs, a lightweight material with poor thermal performance. During the summer, temperatures in Sydney and Rio de Janeiro reach 45 degrees Celsius, and in both cities, rainfall patterns are changing, with more intense downpours. Furthermore, many residential buildings are leased, and currently, tenants are restricted by the modifications that they can perform to reduce running costs and carbon emissions. This research reports on an experiment on two small-scale metal roofs in Sydney and Rio de Janeiro to assess the thermal performance of portable small-scale modules. The findings are that considerable variation in temperature was found in both countries, indicating that green roof retrofitting could lower the cooling energy demand considerably.
Wilkinson, SJ, Lamond, J, Proverbs, D, Sharman, L, Heller, A & Manion, J 2015, 'Technical considerations in green roof retrofit for stormwater attenuation in the central business district', Structural Survey, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 36-51.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose – The key aspects that built environment professionals need to consider when evaluating roofs for the purpose of green roof retrofit and also when assessing green roofs for technical due diligence purposes are outlined. Although green or sod roofs have been built over many centuries, contemporary roofs adopt new approaches and technologies. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed methods design based on a systematic review of relevant literature from parallel disciplines was used to identify and quantify the social, economic and environmental benefits of retrofitted green roofs in commercial districts. The technical issues of concern were drawn from a desk-top survey of literature and from stakeholder focus groups undertaken in Sydney in 2012. Findings – There are perceptions amongst built environmental practitioners that may act as artificial barriers to uptake. There is little direct experience within built environment professionals and practitioners, along with a fear of the unknown and a risk averse attitude towards perceived innovation which predicates against green roof retrofit. Furthermore projects with green roofs at inception and early design stage are often "value engineered" out of the design as time progresses. There is a need for best practice guidance notes for practitioners to follow when appraising roofs for retrofit and also for technical due diligence purposes. Research limitations/implications – The focus groups are limited to Sydney-based practitioners. Although many of these practitioners have international experience, few had experience of green roofs. A limited number of roof typologies were considered in this research and some regions and countries may adopt different construction practices. Practical implications – In central business districts the installation of green roof technology is seen as one of the main contributors to water sensitive urban design ...
Eves, C & Wilkinson, SJ 2014, 'Assessing the immediate and short term impact of flooding on residential property participant behaviour', Natural Hazards, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 1519-1536.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The past decade has seen an increase in the number of significant natural disasters that have caused considerable loss of life as well as damage to all property markets in the affected areas. In many cases, these natural disasters have not only caused significant property damage, but in numerous cases, have resulted in the total destruction of the property in the location. With these disasters attracting considerable media attention, the public are more aware of where these affected property markets are, as well as the overall damage to properties that have been damaged or destroyed. This heightened level of awareness has to have an impact on the participants in the property market, whether a developer, vendor seller or investor. To assess this issue, a residential property market that has been affected by a significant natural disaster over the past 2 years has been analysed to determine the overall impact of the disaster on buyer, renter and vendor behaviour, as well as prices in these residential markets. This paper is based on data from the Brisbane flood in January 2011. This natural disaster resulted in loss of life and partial and total devastation of considerable residential property sectors. Data for the research have been based on the residential sales and rental listings for each week of the study period to determine the level of activity in the specific property sectors, and these are also compared to the median house prices for the various suburbs for the same period based on suburbs being either flood affected or flood free. As there are 48 suburbs included in the study, it has been possible to group these suburbs on a socio-economic basis to determine possible differences due to location and value. Data were accessed from realestate.com.au, a free real estate site that provides details of current rental and sales listings on a suburb basis, RP Data a commercial property sales database and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The paper found that sa...
Purpose Informed adaptation of existing stock is imperative because the challenge of attaining sustainable development in the 21st century will be won or lost in urban areas. Local Authorities promote adaptation to reduce building related energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The City of Melbourne aims to retrofit 1,200 CBD properties before 2020 as part of their carbon neutral city strategy. Australian cities date from the early 1800s to the present day and the concepts of adaptation and evolution of buildings and suburbs is not as well developed or entrenched as in other continents. As such there is a pressing need for greater knowledge and awareness of what happens to buildings over time. Design /methodology /approach This research examines all building adaptation over a period from 1998 to 2008 within the Melbourne CBD. This paper concentrates on the question; what is the pattern of adaptation within low grade office buildings over time? Using the Melbourne CBD as a case study, the research analysed all commercial building adaptations. Here a range of office building types are selected and profiled to discover what happened to them during the period and to ascertain what may be learned as a result to inform future adaptation strategies and policies. Findings Adaptation of existing buildings is vital to deliver the emissions reductions required to transition to carbon neutral urban settlements. In the short term, it is opportune to capitalise on existing behaviour patterns in respect of adaptation and to `learn how buildings learn, rather than seek to instigate major changes in behaviour. Limitations The researcher acknowledges that the depth of analysis for each individual case does not attain levels achieved through a purely qualitative approach to data collection and that this is a limitation of this method of data collection. Practical implications Examination of adaptation patterns showed that the events were similar regardless of age o...
Wilkinson, SJ 2014, 'Office building adaptations and the growing significance of environmental attributes.', Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 252-265.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purpose – The purpose of this study was to investigated the importance of environmental attributes for office building adaptation and whether the importance of environmental attributes for adaptation has changed over time from 1998-2008 to 2009-2011. With 1-2 per cent added to the total stock of buildings each year and the need to take action to mitigate the impacts of predicted climate change (IPCC, 2013), it is necessary to focus efforts on adaptation of existing buildings.
Design/methodology/approach – This research adopted a quantitative approach, using a database of office building attributes and applying principal component analysis to ascertain the respective importance of various building attributes in adaptation. Using two databases; the first dating from 1998 to 2008 and comprising 5,290 adaptation events and the second covering the period 2009 to 2011 and comprising 1,272 adaptation events, a comparison of results was undertaken.
Findings – The findings indicate the importance of some environmental attributes in building adaptation has changed and that legislation and changes market perceptions towards to promote built environment sustainability may be having a positive impact. The research demonstrates that different property attributes vary in importance over time and used existing buildings in an international city to confirm application to urban settlements elsewhere where existing buildings can be adapted to reduce the effect of climate change.
Research limitations/implications – The databases are limited to Melbourne, Australia and to these specific points in time. It is possible that other cities are seeing changes in adaptation practices to accommodate increased awareness and the growing importance attributed to environmental issues; however, additional studies would be required to ascertain whether the level of importance was stronger or weaker than that found in Melbourne.
Practical implications – The impacts of the mandatory Th...
Wilkinson, SJ 2014, 'The preliminary assessment of adaptation potential in existing office buildings', International Journal of Strategic Property Management, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 77-87.View/Download from: Publisher's site
It is said that the battle for sustainability will be won or lost in the world's cities and a major tactic in this challenge will be the sustainable adaptation of existing buildings. Evidence based decision-making tools are required for the management of built assets. This research examined every building adaptation event between 1998 and 2008 with the relative importance of property attributes derived using a principal component analysis (PCA), from which a weighted index of optimal decision-making attributes in a predictive model was proposed; the Preliminary Assessment Adaptation Model (PAAM). The model is discussed and applied in an illustrative case study. Given further development and testing the PAAM might be useable by non-experts and property managers to appraise the suitability of a building for potential adaptation.
Retrofit of the existing building stock is essential undertaking to mitigate the effects of climate change and global warming. Pointedly most stock was constructed without consideration of sustainability. Sustainability was legislated in the Building Code of Australia in 2006, with minimum standards for energy efficiency applied to new build and some retrofit projects. Melbourne launched the 1200 Buildings Program in 2008 to deliver carbon neutrality by 2020 after Arup (2008) concluded that retrofitting two thirds of the stock would deliver a 38% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This research used case study to examine what has been undertaken in the 1200 Buildings Program retrofits. This study had two aims which were; to gain a deeper understanding of the improvements made to existing office buildings in the 1200 Buildings Program and, to undertake a comparison of current practices within the programme. The sustainability measures undertaken were largely focussed on building services and energy efficiency. There was less work undertaken to address water economy measures, to the building fabric and little work which addressed social sustainability aspects. The cases reflect was what undertaken at given points in time and future practices may change as the economic and social environments vary. The study illustrates Melbourne practices which may or not be replicated in part or full elsewhere. The research shows changes in practices are occurring and that energy savings are accruing to owners and tenants. Local practitioners are up-skilling themselves in the technical and environmental knowledge and skills necessary to retrofit the built environment to a carbon constrained future.
Purpose - The built environment is responsible for around half of total greenhouse gas emissions and the majority of emissions are produced during building lifecycles. As such the property sector has considerable potential to reduce lifecycle emissions and can contribute in mitigating global warming. However our existing conceptual understanding of sustainability is variable to the point of being disjointed and ambiguous and this could imply our efforts to realise reductions may not reach their potential. This paper seeks to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach Adopting a qualitative paradigm, this study used published information on property company websites regarding sustainability in a content analysis to address the questions: What is the conceptual understanding of sustainability within the ten leading Australian property firms? and What is the implication of this level of conceptual understanding with regards to delivering sustainability?
Wilkinson, SJ 2013, 'Dissertation research and writing for construction students.', Journal of International Real Estate and Construction Studies, vol. 2, no. 1.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=131… Dissertation Research and Writing for Construction Students. Dr Shamil. G. Naoum. Routledge, London, 2013, pp. 174. ISBN 13: 978-0-415-53844-2 Paperback. Reviewed by Sara J Wilkinson*. The dissertation or thesis can often seem like an overwhelming and insurmountable obstacle to students unless you have a comprehensive book that guides through the process sequentially. In this third edition of the text, Shamil Naoum once again takes the reader and novice researcher diligently through the research journey. The contents of the book come out of the authors experience of supervising undergraduate and postgraduate dissertations which showed a need for a text to guide students on basic research techniques and to illustrate how a thesis could be structured and written. The first edition was published in 1998, the second in 2007, and the publication of this third edition is testimony that the text has stood the test of time.
Wilkinson, SJ 2013, 'Up on the roof. Living Architecture and Sustainability', Australia and New Zealand Property Journal, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 334-341.
With the drive to increase sustainability of the new and existing building stock, one option building owners can consider is whether to install a green roof. As new buildings comprise a 1-2% per annum addition to the total stock, we need to increase the adaptation of the existing commercial property stock to reduce building related greenhouse gas emissions (CSIRO, 2002). As much as 29% of our urban settlements comprise roof space, and yet we typically do little with it. By 2005 Germany had over 13 million square metres of green roofs (10% of total roof space), which had increased from 10 million square metres in 1996. The question is; are we missing an opportunity? This paper reviews issues around green roof retrofit and UTS research on urban rooftop food production.
Wilkinson, SJ, Van der Kallen, PA & Kuan, LP 2013, 'The Relationship between the Occupation of Residential Green Buildings and Pro-environmental Behavior and Beliefs', The Journal of Sustainable Real Estate, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-22.
The United Nations strives to promote a healthier society and to develop sustainability, with initiatives such as the New Green Economy, which is part of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This paper uses a survey of owners and occupiers, using two conceptual frameworks known as the Four Myths of Nature and place theory to investigate whether living in 'green' buildings induces behavioral changes leading to a greener society. The results show that it is not possible to conclude that green buildings are inhabited by green occupants, and that physical design and green development alone can harness the attitudes and behaviors associated with green citizenship. Thus, policymakers and developers should not exclusively rely on agreen built environment to promote green behavior.
March, A, Rijal, Y, Wilkinson, SJ & Özgür, EF 2012, 'Measuring Building Adaptability and Street Vitality', Planning Practice and Research, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 531-552.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A long-standing urban design principle is that successful places exhibit vitality, being vibrant and diverse. This vitality depends on levels of economic and social success that sustain over time urban diversity including cafes, restaurants, delicatessens, bakeries, cinemas and galleries, grocery stores, pubs and clubs of varying sizes and types to suit individuals of varying taste, preference and socio-economic status. Accordingly, a successful public realm includes a complex 'transaction base' of activities. Since vitality occurs in physical, primarily human-made built forms and spaces, the qualities of physically permanent urban places influence vitality. However, the built form may eventually become inappropriate for its original purpose, the use redundant, or changes to demand may occur. Many buildings and spaces, specifically, are therefore refurbished or reused, but time, cost, inability, or environmental constraints associated with changes may impede physical change and therefore the ongoing maintenance and enhancement of places' vitality. Importantly, some physical structures facilitate adaptability better than others overcoming a decline of activity or the need for expensive adaptation or outright demolition and redevelopment. This research examines the suggestion that greater levels of place adaptability facilitates higher levels of ongoing vitality, due to the ability for structures to be used for a range of purposes over time, without the need for changes to physical form, particularly in the move to higher densities. The paper outlines a method for measuring vitality and building adaptability in parallel and reports the results of empirical research of key locations in Melbourne's Central Business District (CBD). It is argued using empirical data that adaptability, when translated to actual adaption, facilitates sustained vitality.
Purpose: The City of Melbourne seeks to retrofit 1,200 CBD properties by 2020 as part of the strategy to become carbon neutral, whilst Amsterdam aims to cut CO2 emissions 40 per cent by 2025. Oversupply in the Amsterdam office market makes conversion to residential use viable. In examining converted buildings in Amsterdam and the Melbourne CBD typical attributes of converted stock can be identified to target retrofit measures. This paper seeks to focus on these initiatives. Design/methodology/approach: In Amsterdam five case studies were undertaken to reveal and define building attributes that explain the viability of these conversions. On the other hand, the Melbourne study was based on a database assembled containing all Melbourne CBD office building adaptations carried out between 1998 and 2008. The research analysed the conversion of office buildings and the scope for sustainable retrofit evaluating a limited number of attributes known to be important in adaptation. Findings: The outcomes of this research showed similarities and differences in scope, which are relevant to all urban areas where adaptation of office buildings can mitigate the impacts of climate change and enhance a city for another generation of citizens and users. Practical implications: The outcomes highlight the property attributes that explain conversion viability and that are most strongly associated with conversions. In addition the research identifies some sustainability measures that are possible with this type of stock. Originality/value: The paper compares and contrasts qualitative data from a small sample of buildings in Amsterdam with quantitative data from a census of all change of use adaptations in Melbourne from 1998 to 2008. The contrasting approaches make it possible both to explain the driving forces of adaptations and to deliver statistical evidence of what is described in the case studies. Despite the differing approaches it is possible to compare and contrast the attr...
Wilkinson, SJ 2012, 'Adaptation patterns in premium office buildings over time in the Melbourne CBD', Journal of Corporate Real Estate Vol 2 No. 4, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 157-170.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purpose: Achieving sustainable development in the twenty-first century will be won or lost in the world's urban settlements, informed adaptation of existing stock is vital. Local Authorities are encouraging adaptation to reduce building related carbon emissions. The City of Melbourne aims to retrofit 1,200 central business district (CBD) properties by 2020 to become carbon neutral. As Australian cities date from the early 1800s and the adaptation of buildings is not as entrenched as in Europe, there is a pressing need for greater knowledge of what happens to buildings over time. The purpose of this study is to examine building adaptation from 1998 to 2008. This paper concentrates on the question; what is the pattern of adaptation within premium grade office buildings over time? Design/methodology/approach: Using the Melbourne CBD as a case study, the research analysed all commercial building adaptations. After a uni-variate statistical analysis of all premium office adaptations, two case studies were selected and profiled to discover what happened to them during the period and to ascertain what may be learned as a result to inform future adaptation strategies and policies. Findings: This research has established that there is a high rate of adaptations to existing commercial buildings which leads to the disposal of functional and serviceable fixtures and fittings to landfill sites. This practice results in the unnecessary loss of embodied carbon which compromises efforts to deliver carbon neutrality in its widest sense. In the short term we need to learn to take advantage of existing behaviour patterns in respect of adaptation and to learn how buildings adapt and to incentivise the needed behavioural changes. Research limitations/implications: The selection of case studies allowed an examination of the data at a deeper level, though it is acknowledged that the depth does not equal that achieved in a purely qualitative approach whereby stakeholders are intervie...
Purpose: The built environment has high potential to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions and with around 1-2 per cent of new buildings added to the total stock annually, the scope for reductions lies with adaptation of existing stock. Existing buildings comprise a variety of attributes and present challenges and opportunities with regards to adaptation and sustainability, and integrating retrofit measures that lessen energy, water and resource consumption. Design/methodology/approach: Through a quantitative analysis of a Building Adaptation database, this paper addresses the questions; what is the nature of adaptations in relation to Premium quality office building stock in the Central Business District (CBD) and, what is the extent and scope for sustainable retrofits to Premium grade office buildings. Findings: The nature and extent of adaptations to Premium office buildings are identified and quantified in respect of attributes such as adaptation level, building age, location, construction form, envelope, shape and height and operating costs. Practical implications: The findings provide an insight for policy makers and others in respect of the nature and type of adaptations typically undertaken in Premium office buildings. The research identifies the typical attributes found in buildings undergoing adaptation and specifies the type of sustainable retrofit measures particularly suited to buildings with those attributes. Originality/value: The research is based on an analysis of 'all' office building adaptations from 1998 to 2008, which facilitates a unique study of what has occurred with regards to adaptation practices. From this starting point it is possible to determine where opportunities lie to capitalise on work being undertaken.
Wilkinson, SJ 2012, 'Back to the future: heritage Buildings, sustainability and adaptation in the Melbourne Central Business District', Historic Environment, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 7-13.
Humans have adapted buildings for almost as long as they have constructed shelters. With an acceptance of links between energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change, many perceive the built environment as a sector with high potential to reduce overall emissions. The built environment is responsible for around half of all greenhouse gas emissions and could play an important role in mitigating global warming. Many global cities aim to become carbon neutral, Melbourne leads the way with a target of neutrality by 2020 with others following such as San Francisco with a 2030 target. With only around two per cent of new buildings added to the existing stock each year, clearly the scope for emissions reductions lies largely within the adaptation of existing buildings. Buildings have to meet the needs of users and the wider community. As such, successful adaptation requires stakeholders to address social, technological, environmental, economic, and legislative criteria. Heritage buildings often account well in terms of embodied energy, though they may not be energy efficient. Whilst unlisted buildings present their own challenges and opportunities, heritage stock adds another layer of complexity to adaptation and sustainability practices, given the varied heritage-related restrictions on the nature and extent of retrofit measures that may reduce energy, water, and resource consumption. Concentrating on Melbourne, Australia, this paper addresses the question: what is the nature of adaptations in relation to heritage and non-heritage office building stock in the Central Business District (CBD)? The study analyses 1,548 commercial building adaptation events of heritage buildings, surveys the extent and nature of adaptations between 1998 and 2008, and identifies future considerations for integrating sustainability into heritage retrofits.
Wilkinson, SJ & Reed, R 2011, 'Examining and quantifying the drivers behind alterations and extensions to commercial buildings in a central business district', Construction Management and Economics, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 725-735.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The drive to undertake building adaptation has increased in momentum, the primary reason being adaptation can be less expensive than new build and conventionally result in faster project delivery times. The issue of sustainable development is another clear driver for adaptation and collectively buildings contribute around half of all greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time governments seek effective and efficient ways of reducing the contribution of cities to climate change and building adaptation appears to offer a practical means of reducing building-related emissions. One example is the â1200 building programâ which aims to increase adaptation rates with a target of 1200 city centre office adaptations by 2020 as part of the strategy to achieve carbon neutrality. Through a longitudinal examination of building adaptations it is possible to identify the nature and extent of typical levels of adaptation, as well as determining the inter-relationship between different types of adaptation and building attributes. Melbourne city centre was used for a case study which analysed 5290 building adaptation events between 1998 and 2008. The findings promote the adaptive reuse of buildings in specific circumstances and are directly applicable for increasing sustainability in the built environment. The case study focused on existing buildings in a global city to ensure relevance to urban centres where existing commercial buildings can become part of the solution to mitigate climate change.
Cornish, S, Reed, R & Wilkinson, S 2009, 'Incorporating new technology into the delivery of property education', Pacific Rim Property Research Journal, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 303-320.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Property education has changed substantially in Australia in recent years. Whilst there has been an increase in the number of courses being offered in property education, the profile of a typical student has also changed. Property students are under increasing pressure to balance study and work due to the higher cost of living and the associated cost of education. This in turn has placed pressure on the education system to deliver property in a manner which meets the needs of the industry and the students. At the same time, there has been a marked increase in the use of technology in the business and corporate world which has resulted in increased efficiencies. This paper critiques the potential for a property education course to embrace new technology rather than 100% face-to-face teaching and only paper-based assignments. The focus is placed on the delivery of material and the interaction between the students, the lecturing staff and the wider community. Using the new Deakin property course as a case study approach, the emphasis is placed on pushing the boundaries of the conventional property education process, including the delivery of property lectures, assignment submission and assessment, as well as the overall communication process. The findings conclude that by embracing technology in a property course, there can be a 'win-win' scenario for the students, the staff and the industry stakeholders. Whilst different property courses embrace varying levels of technology, it seems inevitable that we must continue to evolve the delivery of property education in order to become efficient and effective over the long-term. © 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.
Reed, R, Bilos, A, Wilkinson, SJ & Schulte, K 2009, 'International Comparison of Sustainable Rating Tools', The Journal of Sustainable Real Estate, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-29.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper undertakes an international comparison of global sustainability tools and examines their characteristics and differences. Most importantly, it focuses on which tools from different countries can be directly compared with each other (i.e., is a five-star building with one rating system directly comparable with a four-star rating of another rating system?). The results are designed to provide some clarification of the assessment tools for sustainable buildings, which in turn will assist investors, developers, tenants, and government bodies in making informed decisions about green buildings. In addition, it is envisaged that removing some of the uncertainty associated with sustainable buildings will increase transparency for stakeholders and facilitate their acceptance.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential for green roof retrofit to commercial buildings in a city centre to property managers and other property professionals. Design/methodology/approach: This paper addresses the research question: what is the potential of existing buildings in the CBD to accommodate a retrofitted green roof? Furthermore, it questions how many buildings are suitable for green roofs? The researchers compile a unique building database incorporating information about 536 commercial buidings and evaluate the potential suitability of each building to undergo a green roof retrofit. Assisted by other commercially available databases and software, the researchers are able to assess each roof based on criteria derived from an extensive literature review. Findings: A relatively small proportion of roofs are found to be suitable, partly a result of local climate conditions and rainfall patterns, and the physical property stock. On a purely physical assessment, only a very small proportion of CBD stock is found to be suited. These buildings are most likely to be in low secondary locations, ungraded or B grade buildings, privately owned, concrete framed and not overshadowed by adjoining properties. Practical implications: Property managers and other property professionals can now determine the potential of their portfolio stock for green roof retrofit based on the review of building attributes required for success adaptation in this paper. It possible that greater potential for green roof retrofit exists in the suburbs or regional towns where lower rise buildings may reduce the amount of overshadowing found in city centres. Follow-up research could focus on a comparison of regional and suburban developments. Originality/value: This is the first study of its kind and has assessed such a large number of buildings for their suitability for green roof retrofit; the findings provide a reliable guide for policymakers regarding the...
Purpose: This paper seeks to establish the rationale for existing office building adaptation within Melbourne, Australia, as the city strives to become carbon neutral by 2020. The problems faced by policy makers to determine which buildings have the optimum adaptation potential are to be identified and discussed. Design/methodology/approach: This research adopts the approach of creating a database of all the buildings in the Melbourne CBD including details of physical, social, economic and technological attributes. This approach will determine whether relationships exist between attributes and the frequency of building adaptation or whether triggers to adaptation can be determined. Findings: This research provided evidence that a much faster rate of office building adaptation is necessary to meet the targets already set for carbon neutrality. The findings demonstrate that a retrospective comprehensive examination of previous adaptation in the CBD is a unique and original approach to determining the building characteristics associated with adaptation and whether triggers can be identified based on previous practices. The implication is that a decision-making tool should be developed to allow policy makers to target sectors of the office building stock to deliver carbon neutrality within the 2020 timeframe. Practical implications: Drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are required to mitigate global warming and climate change and all stakeholders should be looking at ways of reducing emissions from existing stock. Originality/value: This paper adds to the existing body of knowledge by raising awareness of the way in which the adaptation of large amounts of existing stock can be fast tracked to mitigate the impact of climate change and warming associated with the built environment, and in addition it establishes a framework for a decision-making tool for policy makers.
Ang, SL & Wilkinson, SJ 2008, 'Is the social agenda driving sustainable property development in Melbourne, Australia?', Property Management, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 331-343.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sustainable property development has increased in market share over the past two to three years globally and locally. This research aims to analyze the drivers and barriers to sustainable property development in Melbourne using the triple bottom line (TBL) theoretical framework. The TBL posits that sustainability has social, economic and environmental aspects to fulfil. A questionnaire was sent out to 190 developers in Melbourne who promoted sustainable property development to ascertain their views about the drivers and barriers. This research indicates that in the 2007 Melbourne market the drivers were social rather than economic. The data reveal that social reasons are considered more than economic arguments for incorporating sustainability into developments. The business case, or the economic drivers for sustainability alone do not convince developers. The questionnaire survey informed us about developers' views but not why they have these views. The sample was limited to Melbourne. More developments are required for developers to become convinced of the benefits. The relatively low price of energy undermines the business case for sustainability in property here and needs to be fully costed. This paper illustrates that whilst the theoretical framework cites three key areas for sustainability, the reality is that developers are currently driven by social and environmental factors primarily and the business case is not accepted by the majority of developers.
Dixon, T, Colantonio, A, Shiers, D, Reed, R, Wilkinson, SJ & Gallimore, P 2008, 'A green profession? A global survey of RICS members and their engagement with the sustainability agenda', Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 460-481.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purpose; This study seeks to provide a review of the background and context to the engagement of RICS members with the sustainability agenda, and to examine the extent to which the surveying profession uses relevant information, tools and techniques to achieve the key objectives of sustainable development (or sustainability). Design/methodology/approach: The paper analyses results from a major international online survey of 4,600 RICS respondent members, supported by 31 structured telephone interviews. Findings: The results suggest that, although sustainability is highly relevant to RICS members' work, a lack of knowledge and expertise is making it more difficult for sustainability tools and other information to be used effectively. Research limitations/implications: The survey is based on a substantial number of responses which are broadly representative of the global RICS population. A key implication is that laggard faculties include the disciplines of commercial property and valuation. Practical implications: The research suggests that key stakeholders must work together to provide better information, guidance and education and training to hardwire the sustainability agenda across RICS faculties. Originality/value: This is the first truly global survey of its kind and focuses particularly on those faculties that play a major role in property investment and finance (i.e. valuation and commercial property), comparing their position with that of other faculties in an international context.
Wilkinson, SJ 2008, 'Work-life balance in the Australian and New Zealand surveying profession', Structural Survey, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 120-130.
Purpose: This paper aims to establish and illustrate the levels of awareness of work-life balance policies within the surveying profession in Australia and New Zealand. The culture and characteristics of the Australian and New Zealand work force are to be identified. The key aspects included in work-life balance policies are to be illustrated and the perceived benefits for the surveying profession are to be noted. The paper seeks to posit that it is vital to comprehend the levels of awareness of work-life balance issues within the surveying profession first, so that benchmarking may occur over time within the profession and second, that comparisons may be drawn with other professions. Design/methodology/approach: There is a growing body of research into work-life balance and the built environment professions. Using a questionnaire survey of the whole RICS qualified surveying profession in Australia and New Zealand, this paper identifies the awareness of work-life balance benefits within the surveying profession. Findings: This research provides evidence that awareness of the issues and options is unevenly spread amongst professional surveyors in the region. With shortages of professionals and an active economy the pressures on existing employees looks set to rise and therefore this is an area which needs to be benchmarked and revisited with a view to adopting best practice throughout the sector. The implications are that employers ignore work-life balance issues at their peril. Practical implications: There is much to be learned from an increased understanding of work-life balance issues for professionals in the surveying discipline. The consequences of an imbalance between work and personal or family life is emotional exhaustion, cynicism and burnout. The consequences for employers or surveying firms are reduced effectiveness and profitability and increased employee turnover or churn. Originality/value: Leading on from Ellison's UK surveying profession stud...
Wilkinson, SJ & Morton, P 2007, 'The emerging importance of feminist research paradigms in the built environment', Structural Survey, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 408-417.
Purpose: This paper seeks to establish and demonstrate the relevance of feminist research methods within built environment research. While no one definition of feminist research exists, many feminist researchers identify characteristics which distinguish it from traditional social science research; it is research that studies women, or that focuses on gender. Design/methodology/approach: There is a growing body of research into women and the built environment adopting feminist paradigms. This paper explains the dynamic, evolving philosophical basis of feminist research methods drawing comparisons to traditional positivist methodologies and demonstrates that feminist research has characteristics that can be imported into other research paradigms. Findings: The paper shows that there is much to be learned from an understanding of feminist research for all researchers in the built environment and that by adopting different approaches to research, researchers may find new and original ways of examining complex issues. Research limitations/implications: The implications are that all researchers in the built environment should consider the benefits of adopting a feminist approach in their research especially where the researcher is seeking to gain a deeper understanding of peoples' experiences. Originality/value: This paper seeks to raise awareness of the benefits of adopting feminist research methods in a discipline dominated by traditional approaches to research.
Hoxley, M & Wilkinson, SJ 2006, 'The employers' perspective of the impact of RICS education reform on building surveying', Structural Survey, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 405-411.
Purpose: This paper seeks to present the second part of research funded by the RICS Education Trust to investigate the impact of the 2001 education reforms on Building Surveying. The first part of the research involved the collection of data from university course leaders. Design/methodology/approach: This research involved the collection of data from large national, mainly London-based, employers of building surveyors at a focus group meeting. Findings: The paper finds that issues of concern to these employers include the extent of construction technology knowledge of graduates, the delivery of contract administration, theplacement year, post graduate conversion courses and the high referral rate for the Assessment of Professional Competence (APC). Recommendations include advice to universities on the design of building surveying undergraduate and conversion courses, a call for further research on the high APC referral rate, and greater liaison between industry and universities. Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of the research is that the employers from whom data were collected were mainly large, national firms. Further research would be required to elicit the views of smaller regional organisations. Practical implications: Both parts of this RICS Education Trust funded research provides a foundation for the Building Surveying Faculty of the RICS to complete their review of the education and training of building surveyors. Originality/value: The research provides useful data on the impact of RICS education reform on building surveying, but mainly large, national firms.
Rhodes, L & Wilkinson, SJ 2006, 'New build or conversion?: Stakeholder preferences in inner city residential development', Structural Survey, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 311-318.
Purpose: This research aims to analyse the preferences within key groups for the conversion of existing buildings or the construction of new buildings for private residential purposes in Sheffield city centre. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review analysed the factors which have increased in importance and influenced the choice between city centre private residential conversion and new build. Interviews with professionals including developers, planners and property agents, the key stakeholders and in this case, practitioners within Sheffield, examined the sustainability, technical and financial issues in the residential property development. Findings: The results revealed that developers preferred new build for city centre private residential development. Though the urban planners of Sheffield had no preferences, they encouraged the reuse of buildings, but due to a scarcity of suitable redundant buildings for conversion it is inevitable that the city will see new build on the cityscape in future. Practical implications: As the housing market loses the impetus of recent years the predictions made in this paper will provide useful advice to property developers in avoiding costly investment mistakes. Originality/value: This study provides a case study upon which to base similar studies of residential urban regeneration projects in other locations.
Wilkinson, SJ & Reed, R 2006, 'Office building characteristics and the links with carbon emissions', Structural Survey, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 240-251.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research which analysed energy consumption in the Melbourne central business district (CBD) office stock and examined all buildings to identify CO2 emissions in 2005. The rationale was that, by profiling a large group of buildings, it would be possible to identify characteristics of the stock. For example, do older buildings typically emit more CO2 per square metre than newer buildings? Design/methodology/approach: This research conducted a detailed analysis of all Melbourne CBD office stock to identify which patterns and trends emerged regarding building characteristics and carbon emissions. The study examined variables such as building size, number of employees, occupancy levels, physical characteristics and building age. Findings: By examining all office stock and aggregating data, the results confirm that it is possible to identify general physical building characteristics and carbon emissions. This research confirmed that clear relationships existed within the Melbourne CBD office stock in terms of building size, age and the density of occupation in relation to CO2 emissions. Originality/value: Practitioners can apply this knowledge to the professional advice they give to clients to assist in achieving increased energy efficiency in the office stock, for example in refurbishment being conscious that smaller buildings will be generally less energy-efficient than larger ones.
Reed, R & Wilkinson, SJ 2005, 'The increasing importance of sustainability for building ownership', Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 339-350.
Purpose - This study seeks to investigate the degree to which energy efficiency is incorporated into office building refurbishment and capital expenditure with the emphasis placed on a cost-benefit analysis from the owners perspective. Design/methodology/approach - In order to develop a research framework, a thorough literature review was conducted of three disciplines being construction technology, building refurbishment and property management. The study identifies differences between varying levels of capital expenditure to ensure an existing building is more energy efficient, with the emphasis placed on the cost of implementation and the potential for tenants to acknowledge the increased energy efficiency via higher rents. Findings - Office buildings have been identified as a contributor to global warming during the construction phase, however during the building lifecycle there is a greater contribution to CO2 omissions. Whilst various building designs and construction techniques have evolved to improve energy efficiency, the focus has largely been placed on new buildings where it is easier to incorporate change and innovative approaches. However, the proportion of new buildings constructed each year is relatively small in comparison to existing building stock, which requires regular capital expenditure to maintain and attract new tenants within a competitive marketplace. Practical implications - The increasing importance of energy efficiency affects the office market in a variety of different ways. Originality/value - This paper identifies important links between the environment and the built environment, and the implications for office building owners.
Purpose - It is of major concern to the surveying profession that the seven years between 1994 and 2001 witnessed a decline in the numbers of UK student surveyors of nearly 50 per cent. This was significant, especially when considered in the context of rising student numbers overall. The RICS decided to implement an education policy with the aim of increasing graduate quality. Changes were introduced in UK universities from September 2001. A number of universities saw their professionally accredited courses withdrawn as the RICS imposed academic entry standards and research output based on the UK Government's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) criteria on which to base their "partnership" relationships. Figures released by the RICS in 2003 indicated that surveying student numbers increased by 17 per cent in all areas except building surveying, where they fell by just under 25 per cent to 445 in 2001. The paper seeks to answer a number of questions. Why were building surveying courses failing to recruit students whereas other surveying courses have increased their numbers? If the figures continue to decline or remain at these low levels, what is the future for the BS? In short, could building surveying become an endangered profession? Design/methodology/approach - All UK university BS course leaders were approached by questionnaire and approximately half responded. The study was partly funded by the RICS Education Trust. Findings - The small amount of quantitative data collected suggests that recruitment is static at a time when other built environment courses are recruiting well. Course leaders expressed strong views about the impact of the education reforms. Research limitations/implications - Failure by some BS course leaders to provide some statistical data prevented completion of the quantitative part of the study. Originality/value - Key recommendations have been made to the BS Faculty Board of the RICS about the future of BS education. © Emerald Group Publi...
Wilkinson, SJ & Hoxley, M 2005, 'The impact of RICS education reform on building surveying', Structural Survey, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 359-370.
Purpose: It is of major concern to the surveying profession that the seven years between 1994 and 2001 witnessed a decline in the numbers of UK student surveyors of nearly 50 per cent. This was significant, especially when considered in the context of rising student numbers overall. The RICS decided to implement an education policy with the aim of increasing graduate quality. Changes were introduced in UK universities from September 2001. A number of universities saw their professionally accredited courses withdrawn as the RICS imposed academic entry standards and research output based on the UK Government's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) criteria on which to base their 'partnership' relationships. Figures released by the RICS in 2003 indicated that surveying student numbers increased by 17 per cent in all areas except building surveying, where they fell by just under 25 per cent to 445 in 2001. The paper seeks to answer a number of questions. Why were building surveying courses failing to recruit students whereas other surveying courses have increased their numbers? If the figures continue to decline or remain at these low levels, what is the future for the BS? In short, could building surveying become an endangered profession? Design/methodology/approach: All UK university BS course leaders were approached by questionnaire and approximately half responded. The study was partly funded by the RICS Education Trust. Findings: The small amount of quantitative data collected suggests that recruitment is static at a time when other built environment courses are recruiting well. Course leaders expressed strong views about the impact of the education reforms. Research limitations/implications: Failure by some BS course leaders to provide some statistical data prevented completion of the quantitative part of the study. Originality/value: Key recommendations have been made to the BS Faculty Board of the RICS about the future of BS education.
Wilkinson, SJ & Russell, G 2005, 'Closing the gap? Building surveyors in Oceania', Structural Survey, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 193-202.
Purpose: The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) has implemented a policy to expand its influence around the world. Quantity or construction surveyors had an established presence and history of working overseas, offering their services particularly in the Middle- and Far-East. Property surveyors found the transition to working in European Union (EU) countries relatively straightforward and numerous UK property consultancies have European, Asian, North American and Oceanic offices. Furthermore UK-based firms establishing partnerships with overseas real estate firms expanded significantly over the past decade. Building surveying (BS) is a different case. Small numbers work in commonwealth countries but it is limited and in many countries professional and academic qualifications are not recognised. This paper aims to consider the extent of the barriers and opportunities facing RICS chartered building surveyors (CBS) in Oceania (taken as Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Fiji) and whether the gap is closing. Design/methodology/approach: A desktop study reviewed the political, economic and sociological issues that affect the employment opportunities and professional services CBS offer throughout the world. Six opportunities and ten barriers were put to the RICS Oceania Building Surveying Faculty to ascertain their perceptions of these barriers and opportunities. No previous study had identified barriers and opportunities in Oceania for the BS and this research adopted a census survey of RICS practitioners currently employed in the region and the results form the most comprehensive picture of the current position. Findings: Many respondents felt that stronger links and/or mergers with the different Oceania professional property and surveying bodies would open a large field of opportunities to the CBS. Some provided comments on future business opportunities, for example "leaky buildings", "dilapidations / 'make good' work", and seemed to be in...
Wilkinson, SJ 2004, 'A method for evaluating workplace utility', Property Management, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 218-229.
Acquiring offie buildings that provide the required level of utility and maintaining the buildings in that state, should be a priority for any organisation. Failure to do so may give rise to increased churn, reduced productivity, higher employee turnover, increased staff absenteeism and rising health care costs associated to heightened stress. There is, however, no single measure of utility of public sector office buildings. Data collection involved the use of focus groups and an online survey of 1800 building occupants. The findings suggest that the utility of public sector office buildings can be measured using a 22 item scale comprising four dimensions. The potential applications of the scale and its use in current research are examined.
The English House Condition Survey for 1991 demonstrated that levels of energy efficiency in private rented property are significantly below other sectors, even though energy improvements have tangible benefits for landlords. The low level of energy efficiency provision in the private rented sector indicates that landlords are unaware or unconvinced of these benefits and market barriers may have restricted uptake. Information regarding energy efficiency advice to the private rented HMO sector has focussed on offering good practice design guidance, and information about the level of fitness and overall characteristics of the sector. This research project evaluated the PRESS scheme, which encouraged landlords to introduce energy efficiency measures. A total of 78 private sector rented properties in Sheffield were analysed with retrofit measures to improve levels of energy efficiency. The results demonstrate that whilst market barriers exist, the PRESS scheme went some way to overcoming some barriers to energy efficiency. © 2002, MCB UP Limited
Sheldon, S & Wilkinson, S 1998, 'Female genital mutilation and cosmetic surgery: Regulating non-therapeutic body modification', BIOETHICS, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 263-285.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wilkinson, SJ, Ralph, PJ & Biloria, N 2020, 'Algae Building: Is This the New Smart Sustainable Technology?' in Data-driven Multivalence in the Built Environment, Springer International Publishing, pp. 245-266.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wilkinson, S, Ralph, P & Biloria, NM 2020, 'Algae Building: Is This the New Smart Sustainable Technology' in Biloria, N (ed), Data-Driven Multivalence in the Built Environment, Springer Nature, Switzerland, pp. 245-268.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Building energy use contributes around 40% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (UNEP 2009) and reducing building-related GHG emissions could mitigate global warming significantly. With a three degree increase in global temperature by 2100 predicted by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change we need to explore ways to mitigate these impacts. An option for the built environment is to build and retrofit using innovative technologies to adopt onsite energy generation and reduce energy use (UNEP 2015). Increasing energy efficiency and using renewable energy are ways to reduce GHG emissions.
Technological innovations change over time, and innovations that start as expensive and inefficient can become economic and highly productive, solar energy is an example. In the mid 1800s the photovoltaic (PV) effect was discovered but it took a century to invent a suitable storage device, after which rapid innovation in efficiency and costs followed. Could the same happen for bio-energy? Global biomass energy production reached 88 GW in 2014 (Rosillo et al, 2016); and bio-energy is no longer a transition energy source. In 2013, a residential building in Hamburg Germany adopted algae, as a renewable energy source. Several questions arise; how does algae produce energy for buildings? And how much energy is produced? How does it compare to other renewable energy sources? Furthermore, which building types are suited to adoption of algae as an energy source? This chapter explores the feasibility of algae building technology explaining the technology and how it works; the strengths and weaknesses. Then the chapter sets out the drivers and barriers to adopting Algae Building Technology, and; to assesses opportunities across a range of building types.
There are increasing challenges for urban settlements in both developed and developing countries. This chapter explores the relationship between urban development, pollution, and green roofs as a valuable, contributory means of mitigating the effects of urban pollution using examples from two major Australian cities, Melbourne and Sydney. Pollution in urban environments can affect soil, water, and air, with the latter having the greatest effect on human health, well‐being, and longevity. All cities are characterised by intense energy using activities and heat‐retaining materials such as concrete and bitumen. These factors combine to create the 'urban heat island effect'. Green roofs are versatile and can be used on flat and pitched roof designs. Green roofs have multiple benefits collectively or individually. Three different types of rooftop garden beds were used to provide three illustrative case studies.
Hurst, N & Wilkinson, SJ 2018, 'Sustainability and housing value in Victoria, Australia' in Wilkinson, S, Dixon, T, Miller, N & Sayce, S (eds), Routledge Handbook of Sustainable Real Estate, Routledge, UK, pp. 201-227.
Janda, K, Bright, S, Patrick, J, Wilkinson, SJ & Dixon, T 2018, 'The evolution of green leases: towards inter-organisational environmental governance' in Lorch, R, Laubscher, J, Chan, EHW & Visscher, H (eds), Building Governance and Climate Change: Regulation and Related Policies, Routledge, UK, pp. 144-158.
Remoy, H & Wilkinson, SJ 2018, 'Sustainable transformation in real estate developments through conversions' in Squires, G, Heurkens, E & Peiser, R (eds), Routledge Companion to Real Estate Development, Routledge, UK, pp. 235-246.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Of the buildings we will have in 2050, 87 percent are already built. If predicted climate changes are correct we need to adapt existing stock sustainably. Reuse is an inherently sustainable option, which reduces the amount of waste going to landfill and limits the use of raw materials. Inevitably, settlements and areas undergo change, whereby land uses become obsolete and buildings vacant. At this stage, the options are either to demolish or to convert to another use. Although office to residential conversions are still few in number in various CBDs, cities such as Sydney show an emerging trend in conversion. Some 100,000 m2 of office space is earmarked for residential conversion as demand for central residential property grows and low interest rates create good conditions. With the Sydney market about to be flooded with the Barangaroo office supply in 2017, the conditions for residential conversion are better than ever. However, what is the level of sustainability in these projects? This chapter investigates the nature and extent of conversion in Sydney, as well as the political, economic, social, environmental, and technological drivers and barriers to successful conversion. Through international comparisons between cases in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Australia, this chapter identifies some key lessons that are applicable to other market and urban contexts worldwide. There is substantial potential to change the nature of the CBD with residential conversion of office space and this chapter explores this potential.
Wilkinson, S & Stoller, P 2018, 'Algae Building Technology Energy Efficient Retrofit Potential in Sydney Housing.' in Kaparaju, P, Littlewood, J, Howlett, R, Vlacic, L & Ekanyake, C (eds), Sustainability in Energy and Buildings 2018 Proceedings of the 10th International Conference in Sustainability on Energy and Buildings (SEB'18), Springer.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This book contains selected papers from SEB-18, the Tenth International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings, which was organised by KES International and Griffith University and held in Gold Coast, Australia in June 2018.
Wilkinson, SJ 2018, 'Conclusions on Building Resilience through Change of Use Adaptation: A Manifesto for the Future' in Wilkinson, S & Remoy, H (eds), Building Urban Resilience Through Change of Use, John Wiley & Sons, UK, pp. 175-192.
Describes all aspects of sustainable conversion adaptation of existing buildings and provides solutions for making urban settlements resilient to climate change This comprehensive book explores the potential to change the character of ...
Wilkinson, SJ 2018, 'Rating Tools, Resilience And Sustainable Change Of Use Adaptations' in Wilkinson, S & Remoy, H (eds), Building Urban Resilience Through Change of Use, John Wiley & Sons, UK, pp. 153-174.
Describes all aspects of sustainable conversion adaptation of existing buildings and provides solutions for making urban settlements resilient to climate change This comprehensive book explores the potential to change the character of ...
Wilkinson, SJ 2018, 'The Context For Building Resilience Through Sustainable Change Of Use Adaptation' in Remoy, H (ed), Building Urban Resilience Through Change of Use, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, UK, pp. 1-20.
Wilkinson, SJ, Dixon, T, Sayce, S & Miller, N 2018, 'Sustainable Real Estate: A Snapshot of Where We Are' in Wilkinson, S, Dixon, T, Sayce, S & Miller, N (eds), Routledge Handbook of Sustainable Real Estate, Routledge, UK, pp. 3-18.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The scope of the Handbook is set out in this chapter, which commences with a discussion about the differences between awareness of the issues amongst real estate stakeholders globally and levels of action taken. The overarching aim of the book, to help move us forward and to help educate and convert those with open minds to enable a more sustainable real estate sector now and in the future. Property (or real estate) is a major global fixed asset, with an estimated total value of US $217 trillion in 2015. The themes covered in the book are governance and policy issues, valuation, investment and finances issues, management and redevelopment and adaptation. The handbook aims to provide a lens on how a shared understanding built on better knowledge can be influential in addressing some of the challenges set out in this chapter. It does not present complete solutions: far from it; but we hope it represents perspectives to educate, inform and provide a platform for future debate.
Wilkinson, SJ, Dixon, T, Sayce, S & Miller, N 2018, 'Sustainable real estate: Where to next?' in Wilkinson, SJ, Dixon, T, Miller, N & Sayce, S (eds), Routledge Handbook of Sustainable Real Estate, Routledge, UK, pp. 395-423.
Wilkinson, SJ, Van der Kallen, P, Teale, A & Antoniades, H 2018, 'Transforming the commercial property market in Australian Cities: Contemporary practices and the future potential of green roof retrofit' in Eames, M, Dixon, T, Hunt, M & Lannon, S (eds), Retrofitting Cities for Tomorrow's World, Wiley-Blackwell, UK, pp. 69-90.
Clearly the time has come for a more coordinated, planned, and strategic approach that will allow cities to transition to a sustainable future. This book summarizes many of the best new ideas currently in play on how to achieve those goals.
Abdullahi, S & Pradhan, B 2017, 'Sustainable Urban Development' in Spatial Modeling and Assessment of Urban Form, Springer International Publishing, Germany, pp. 17-34.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The idea of sustainable development emerged in the late nineteenth century in the observation of the various critical environmental problems caused by the continuous growth of urban areas, especially in rural and natural environments.
Wilkinson, SJ, Proverbs, DG & Lamond, JE 2017, 'Green Roof and Permeable Paving Retrofit to Mitigate Pluvial Flooding' in Sustainable Surface Water Management A Handbook for SUDS, John Wiley & Sons, USA, pp. 248-258.View/Download from: Publisher's site
With increasing urbanisation, predicted climate change and population growth, the potential for intense rainfall events to cause flood damage and disruption within urban settlements including central business districts (CBDs) grows. This chapter uses a recent study within the city of Melbourne as an example to explore the potential of retrofitted green roofs and permeable paving to attenuate stormwater damage in the context of CBDs. Retrofit of permeable paving is an important Sustainable Urban Drainage systems (SuDS) approach within CBDs. The potential to retrofit existing structures, as well as the type of green roof considered suitable, depends on factors such as roof type, size and slope and the load-bearing capacity of the structural form. Large Australian commercial buildings tend to have roofs of concrete construction, whereas smaller commercial buildings may have timber roof structures covered with profiled m.
Lamond, J, Wilkinson, SJ & Proverbs, D 2016, 'Stormwater Attenuation And Green Roof Retrofit' in Wilkinson, SJ & Dixon, TJ (eds), Green Roof Retrofit Building Urban Resilience, John Wiley & Sons, uk, pp. 85-105.
This chapter describes research demonstrating how to make an assessment of whether to retrofit with green roofs as a mean of attenuating stormwater run-off as a means of contributing to urban flood risk management. The problem of pluvial flooding in terms of financial costs and the impact on our urban settlements is the starting point for a discussion on the potential of retrofitted green roofs as a mitigation measure. A range of technical specifications for stormwater roofs and critical issues to consider in retrofitting existing buildings is evaluated.
Theoretical frameworks of the distributed benefits of green roofs are presented; and a methodology to estimate potential for stormwater attenuation of green roof retrofit at the city scale level is described in detail. The chapter reports on recent empirical research undertaken in two cities with very different climatic conditions; Melbourne Australia and Newcastle UK, at city scale level. Having examined the city scale level, a second illustrative case study at an individual building scale, outlines stormwater performance and the assessment process in Portland USA. The chapter concludes by describing how the stormwater effectiveness of green roof may be limited in certain conditions by the availability of suitable buildings and the source of floodwater. A summary of the potential benefits of green roof retrofit for stormwater attenuation is made.
© 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. The continuous increase in the number and size of urban regions across the world pose great challenges for sustainable development. Given the connection between energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change and the reality that the built environment emits around half of total emissions, the construction industry has considerable potential to reduce emissions and a key role in mitigating global warming. Other local challenges include for example loss of species and habitats, social degradation of neighborhoods, and an overall erosion of sustainability. Urbanisation patterns and the lifestyles of urban dwellers also affect the planet on wider scales and contribute to shaping bio-physical processes on planetary scales and affect how humans mentally connect with the Biosphere. However there is evidence our current understanding of the concept of sustainability, and thus sustainable development, is fragmented and unclear. There are a plethora of terms used to cover sustainable buildings, such as ecological, green, Gaian, zero energy, eco-friendly and environmental; all of which come in, and out, of fashion over time; do they mean the same thing or are they different? Furthermore, do the stakeholders within the built environment demonstrate a clear understanding of the concept of sustainability or; are they muddled and confused? The consequence of unclear thinking and a lack of understanding is that ultimately the built environment stakeholders are unlikely to deliver 'sustainability' efficiently or even at all, with the broader and more onerous consequences for society as a whole. In addition what are the implications for education and should academics be broadening the debate? This lecture examines the environmental, economic, social, political and philosophical thinking underpinning the concept of sustainable development and shows how different perspectives reflect very different ways of thinking about...
Wilkinson, SJ & Dixon, TD 2016, 'Building resilience in urban settlements through Green Roof retrofit.' in Wilkinson, SJ & Dixon, TD (eds), Green Roof Retrofit Building Urban Resilience, John Wiley & Sons, UK, pp. 1-12.
The opening chapter will set out the background and principal focus for the proposed book. The book covers all commercial land uses and includes exemplars from all three continents and several global regions. For example defining key terms such as decision-making for green roof retrofit; 'how we identify, model, evaluate and prioritise potential retrofit/reuse, including risk assessment, sustainability and latent conditions'. The chapter will also cover what is meant by 'green retrofit' and set this in the context of related terminology such as refurbishment and renovation. The costs and benefits of green roof retrofitting are examined alongside a discussion of the property valuation impacts.
Within this chapter a model is presented to show the multiple benefits that can derive from green roof retrofit to multiple stakeholders on multiple levels (from city scale to building scale).
The chapter also evaluates the different stakeholder groups and their impact on the process of retrofitting a green roof.
The book is structured in three parts so that green roof retrofits with a primary focus on environmental, social and finally economic factors are covered. Within these parts the chapters are presented so that city scale solutions and research is covered firstly followed by individual building scale solutions.
This book has discussed a wide range of reasons individual stakeholders might have to retrofit a green roof. These benefits include thermal performance, stormwater attenuation, species conversation, promotion of bio-diversity, urban food production and provision of spaces for social engagement and interaction. Often the primary reason for green roof retrofit is the only one considered, and the other co-benefits are not recognised. In this chapter we articulate the primary reason along with co- or secondary benefits that stakeholders might, more readily, understand the full range of benefits that exist in green roofs. However it starts with a review of the latest initiatives in best practice at the city scale, before moving onto to examine the complex, and often thorny, issue of whether mandatory or voluntary approaches are the best way to deliver greater uptake of green roof retrofit.
Wilkinson, SJ & Feitosa, RC 2016, 'Technical and engineering issues in green roof retrofit' in Wilkinson, SJ & Dixon, TJ (eds), Green Roof Retrofit Building Urban Resilience, John Wiley & Sons, uk, pp. 14-36.
Retrofitting the existing stock of buildings is imperative, as only 1-2% is added annually to the total stock of buildings, and around 87% of the buildings that we will have by 2050 are already built (Kelly, 2009). With regards to green roofs, the overriding issue is one of structural capacity to accommodate the additional loads that a retrofit brings. This chapter considers the technical and engineering considerations that stakeholders need to consider when evaluating Green Roof retrofit potential. For example, existing structure, load bearing capacity, access, power and water supply, orientation and exposure to sunlight and overshadowing, and occupational health and safety. In short how to determine what type of Green Roof is suited to the structure. Using some typical building types – illustrative case studies show how to determine whether an existing roof has sufficient load bearing capacity to support a retrofit Green Roof. Initially it is worth considering whether the roof is intended to have people using it regularly and spending extended periods of time there. Furthermore does the owner have a preference for a thermal or a bio-diversity or a stormwater roof? If so, this will affect the roof design and the depth of substrate and hence, the additional dead loads the original roof will need to support.
Green areas has diminished in big cities. Increasing temperatures and deterioration of air quality is a common result. Consequently, there is a rise in air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, costs with air conditioning, and mortality and heat-related illness. Due to lack of space in urban areas, green roof retrofit a feasible alternative to face this problem. Green roofs improve the insulating qualities of the building attenuating the heat exchanges through inadequately insulated and poorly sealed roof structures. This research reports on an experiment on two small-scale metal roofs in Sydney (Australia) and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) to assess the thermal performance of portable green roof modules. In each site, two identical roofs, one covered with modular lightweight trays planted with succulents and the other not, had their internal temperature recorded simultaneously and compared. Green roofs showed to attenuate housing temperatures, indicating that green roof retrofitting could lower the cooling energy demand considerably.
Human populations are becoming increasingly urbanised and thus distanced, both physically and psychologically, from the sources of their food. Decentralizing food production from remote rural regions to within urban centres will address both the growing sense of disconnect, and the growing costs associated with food transport. This chapter describes the social, environmental and economic aspects of local scale urban food production as well as setting out typical specifications and considerations in respect of bed systems, with a focus on the health and safety, technical, environmental and economic aspects of larger scale food rooftop production. Our empirical observations demonstrate that there is great potential in most cities for the expansion of urban rooftop farming, and that many of the traditional barriers to growing food in cities, such as fears over food safety, can be overcome in virtually all situations.
Christensen, PH & Sayce, S 2015, 'Planning and Regulatory Issues Impacting Sustainable Property Development' in Wilkinson, S, Sayce, S & Christensen, PH (eds), Developing Property Sustainably, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 125-146.
Throughout the book, international case studies are used to demonstrate how sustainable property development is applied in practice around the world.
Christensen, PH & Sayce, S 2015, 'Sustainable Property Reporting and Rating Tools' in Wilkinson, S, Sayce, S & Christensen, PH (eds), Developing Property Sustainably, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 203-233.
This chapter presents a comparison of the key sustainability reporting and assessment rating tools around the globe which are most applicable to property development. It then assesses critically their contribution to the development of buildings in a sustainable manner. As rating tools, at least potentially, can have an influence on market pricing the discussion is not restricted to those tools which are implemented purely at the design and development stage. Taking an objective approach, this chapter asks the question: are we, as a society, collectively and as a development industry, in danger of hitting the targets but missing the point with regards to developing more sustainable buildings with these tools?
Eves, C, Wilkinson, SJ & Sayce, SL 2015, 'Financing the project: Economic incentives promoting sustainable property development' in Wilkinson, SJ, Sayce, SL & Christensen, PH (eds), Developing Property Sustainably, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 100-124.
Throughout the book, international case studies are used to demonstrate how sustainable property development is applied in practice around the world.
Wilkinson, SJ & Sayce, SL 2015, 'Introduction to sustainable property development' in Wilkinson, SJ, Sayce, SL & Christensen, PH (eds), Developing Property Sustainably, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 1-19.
Wilkinson, SJ & Sayce, SL 2015, 'Procuring the project in a sustainable way' in Wilkinson, SJ, Sayce, SL & Christensen, PH (eds), Developing Property Sustainably, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 177-202.
Wilkinson, SJ & Sayce, SL 2015, 'Site feasibility: evaluating the site, commitment and sustainability' in Wilkinson, SJ, Sayce, SL & Christensen, PH (eds), Developing Property Sustainably, Routledge, pp. 41-64.
Wilkinson, SJ & Sayce, SL 2015, 'Stakeholders through the development process' in Wilkinson, SJ, Sayce, SL & Christensen, PH (eds), Developing Property Sustainably, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 20-40.
Wilkinson, SJ 2014, 'Assessing adaptation using PAAM' in Wilkinson, SJ, Remoy, HT & Langston, C (eds), Sustainable Building Adaptation: Innovations in Decision-making, Wiley-Blackwell, oxford UK, pp. 42-58.
The chapter presents a conceptual model to frame the multiple attributes and the different levels of adaptation that can occur. The importance of 'green' or sustainable features in previous adaptations is used to develop a decision making tool for non-experts to undertake a preliminary assessment of adaptation potential. This method for undertaking a preliminary assessment of the potential for adaptations is based on the attributes shown to be most important through analysis of previous adaptations. Finally a case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the model in practice.
This section of the book establishes the definition of adaptation in the context of this publication. It reviews and synthesises the relevant literature, while progressively developing the research questions, hypotheses and the conceptual model towards a knowledge-based approach to sustainable office adaptation. It describes and substantiates latest research demonstrating how to make a preliminary assessment of adaptation potential using Melbourne as an illustrative case study. Further examples demonstrating how the process can be applied to US, Canadian and UK buildings is provided here. The relevance of Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) to adaptation is explained and contextualised in this section.
Wilkinson, SJ 2014, 'Drivers and Barriers for Adaptation' in Wilkinson, SJ, Remoy, H & Langston, C (eds), Sustainable Building Adaptation: Innovations in Decision-making, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. 18-41.
This chapter explains lifecycle theory and how it links with adaptation before describing building performance and adaptation theory. From this point drivers and barriers affecting adaptation are detailed. The overarching social, environmental and economic factors are explained as a precursor to a discussion on the specific building attributes associated with adaptations. In this way a comprehensive overview of the theoretical framework in which adaptation decisions are made is provided.
Wilkinson, SJ 2014, 'Sustainable Adaptation A case study of the Melbourne CBD' in Wilkinson, SJ, Langston, C & Remoy, HT (eds), Sustainable Building Adaptation, Wiley-Blackwell, oxford UK, pp. 1-277.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The chapter presents a conceptual model to frame the multiple attributes and the different levels of adaptation that can occur. The importance of 'green' or sustainable features in previous adaptations is used to develop a decision making tool for non-experts to undertake a preliminary assessment of adaptation potential. This method for undertaking a preliminary assessment of the potential for adaptations is based on the attributes shown to be most important through analysis of previous adaptations. Finally a case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the model in practice.
Wilkinson, S & Porto Valente, C 2019, 'Applying A Circular Economy Approach To Sustainable Housing Adaptation In Sydney.', PRRES, University of Melbourne Victoria.
Wilkinson, SJ & Stoller, P 2018, 'Algae building technology energy efficient retrofit potential in Sydney housing', Sustainability in Energy and Buildings 2018 Proceedings of the 10th International Conference in Sustainability on Energy and Buildings (SEB'18) (Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies), International Conference on Sustainability and Energy in Buildings 2018, Springer, Australia, pp. 311-321.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019. As we explore ways to mitigate the impact of the United Nations Panel on Climate Change conclusion of a three degree increase in global temperature by 2100, one option for the housing sector could be retrofit with innovative technologies to reduce energy use and provide onsite energy generation. We have become familiar with concepts of Passive Haus design and high thermal mass as design technologies to reduce energy demand for heating and cooling. There have been increases in standards in energy efficiency within building codes globally since the 1980s. We are familiar with on-site energy generation technologies such as wind turbines and solar panels. However overall energy consumption increases and reliance on new build innovation and improvement will not deliver sufficient reductions to make an impact. Retrofit is needed, as 87% of the stock we will have by 2050 is already here. To date, there is an innovative evolving technology that has not been considered, trialled or adopted; that may present another contribution to reducing residential energy use and environmental footprint over the building lifecycle. This technology is Algae Building Technology, which comprises biomass production on site in glazed façade panels which also provide solar thermal energy for hot water and heating. Biomass can be converted to biofuel to supply HVAC equipment. In addition to the high value uses of algae as a food source, and a feed stock for pharmaceutical, neutriceutical, agricultural and industry, it can also generate low-grade heat as an useful byproduct. To date, one residential building of 15 apartments in Hamburg has adopted the technology. This paper explores whether the technology could be suited to Sydney Australia and the feasibility for retrofit in low, medium and high density residential stock.
Bhattacharya Mis, N, Chan, F, Kreibich, H, Montz, B, Lamond, J, Proverbs, D & Wilkinson, SJ 2018, 'Advising on flood risk - opportunities and challenges across international commercial property markets', https://www.rics.org/fr/news-insight/research/conference-papers/advisin…, The Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, RICS, University College London, London, pp. 0-12.
There is an increasing body of research which identifies the need for flood risk mitigation advice and the potential for building professionals such as surveyors to be involved. This research explored the potential for surveyors to play a greater role in advising on at-risk commercial properties to better manage risk within the commercial property sector. Through a series of 72 expert interviews of professionals in the field of flood risk management in five international markets (UK, US, Australia, China and Germany), the research developed a picture of the current and potential role surveyors can play in providing professional advice on flood risk affected commercial properties. The interviews revealed that a wide set of opportunity lies in expert surveyors' technical and local knowledge and understanding of risk mitigation and damage reduction processes, building typology, commercial land use, property valuation, and insurance schemes. However, their ability to offer flood specific advice is constrained by lack of: flood related expertise and training, market demand, client awareness of flood risk and, an willingness to invest in advice and mitigation measures on behalf of clients. The research highlights the need for collaborative practice to enable well informed all round advice on flood risk resilience. The findings also highlight the need for additional flood risk education and training for surveyors to assist them to provide improved risk mitigation advice.
Ray, M, Ghosh, S & Wilkinson, S 2018, 'Evaluating factors influencing the uncontrolled growth of urban-rural belt – a case study of Delhi, India', https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/6e13f1_682d42481a4d4e08b9a046cfade9616a…, Smart and Sustainable Built Environments, SASBE, Sydney, pp. 126-134.
The unprecedented growth of cities in the last few decades gave rise to a new kind of peri-urban area, which is neither urban nor rural in a real sense. The complexity of these spaces has given them various names in different parts of the world such as peri-urban, urban-rural zone, exurbia, transition zone, urban-rural belt etc. These hybrid spaces have a unique socio-spatial dynamic of their own which defy the principles of sustainable development and fail to enjoy the benefits of urban and the subsidised welfares of rural. The transition from agriculture to a new mixed and diversified economic base is one of the significant characteristics of the urban-rural belt.
Delhi, the capital territory of India, is not immune to the uncontrolled growth of urban-rural belt. Often referred to as the "policy void zones", these spaces display an extraordinary "order in chaos". However, uncontrolled growth of urban rural belt is pertinent in many cities of India but Delhi is the only megacity where this transformation has been enormous in the last few decades and provides a model for the study in Indian context. The massive in-migration and rampant development are threatening the growth of the city on one side and unique characteristics of rural on the other. The people in the urban-rural belt face enormous challenges concerning essential infrastructure services, safety and security, which affect the standard of living. Often regarded as the provider for urban areas, the belt has failed to sustain its own growth, repeatedly, in spite of numerous interventions.
This paper investigates the factors influencing the uncontrolled growth of urban-rural belt through a settlement's perspective in Delhi, India. The methodology is based on the exploratory literature review to understand the growth of urban rural belt. The study briefly outlines the concept of urban rural belt and presents the impact of urbanisation in its proliferation. The temporal change in Delhi's land use is present...
Wilkinson, SJ 2018, 'Resilience, Residential Buildings and Rating Tools In Australia', Zero Energy Mass Custom Homes International Conference (ZEMCH), University of Melbourne, Melbourne Australia.
Resilience is emerging as an important component of building and urban design. The Rockefeller Foundation has established the 100RC (Resilient Cities) to demonstrate the scope of issues and the ways in which different cities globally are addressing their issues and challenges. Sixty-eight resilience issues have been identified; some are social, economic, governance or environmental in nature. Our ability to be resilient to chronic and acute resilience issues such as overpopulation and flooding, and to cope with resilience challenges such as heatwaves or lack of affordable housing, increasingly concern city authorities.
Rating tools provide benchmark and objective indications of sustainability within buildings or precincts. Since 1990 many have been launched, for example BREEAM, BASIX, and NatHERS. They are developed by government and/or private bodies and can focus on a limited issues such as energy and water, or a wide range of metrics including social and environmental criteria. Some are mandatory, imposed by government, such as the European Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) others are voluntary. Some measure design and construction sustainability, whereas others focus on operational or in use sustainability. A number of questions arise with respect to rating tools used to evaluate building sustainability. For example, what choices are available to people in respect of new build and adaptive reuse for housing? And, given the focus here; do any of the tools, explicitly or implicitly, adopt resilience issues? This paper reviews two Australian sustainable building tools in the residential sector and evaluates their potential contribution to increasing resilience in the two 100RC cities; Melbourne and Sydney.
Wilkinson, SJ & Carey, B 2018, 'Procurement, Sustainability & Adaptive Reuse Projects in Sydney', https://msd.unimelb.edu.au/ebooks/ZEMCH-2018-Conference-Proceedings/, Zero Energy Mass Custom Housing, University of Melbourne, Melbourne.
With large scale projects like Baragaroo about to flood the market with a large supply of office space, the city of Sydney is poised to undergo a change whereby existing office stock will be made available for adaptive reuse projects. Some 102,000m2 of office space is earmarked for residential conversion in Sydney due to the growing demand for centrally located residential properties and to help house a population that is expected to increase by 4% by 2031. Adaptive reuse projects have an inherent bent towards sustainability in that they make use of existing structures, which reduces economic, environmental, and societal impacts associated with demolishing existing structures to make way for new ones. This paper investigates how project owners can best select designers and builders for their adaptive reuse projects. Using case studies from completed adaptive reuse projects and literature review, this paper makes recommendations as to the best practices for the procurement of design and construction services for adaptive reuse projects in the Sydney market.
Feitosa, RC & Wilkinson, S 2017, 'Retrofitted green roofs and walls and improvements in thermal comfort', AIP Conference Proceedings, Workshop on Off-Grid Technology Systems, American Institute of Physics, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Author(s). Increased urbanization has led to a worsening in the quality of life for many people living in large cities in respect of the urban heat island effect and increases of indoor temperatures in housing and other buildings. A solution may be to retrofit existing environments to their former conditions, with a combination of green infrastructures applied to existing walls and rooftops. Retrofitted green roofs may attenuate housing temperature. However, with tall buildings, facade areas are much larger compared to rooftop areas, the role of green walls in mitigating extreme temperatures is more pronounced. Thus, the combination of green roofs and green walls is expected to promote a better thermal performance in the building envelope. For this purpose, a modular vegetated system is adopted for covering both walls and rooftops. Rather than temperature itself, the heat index, which comprises the combined effect of temperature and relative humidity is used in the evaluation of thermal comfort in small scale experiments performed in Sydney - Australia, where identical timber framed structures prototypes (vegetated and non-vegetated) are compared. The results have shown a different understanding of thermal comfort improvement regarding heat index rather than temperature itself. The combination of green roof and walls has a valid role to play in heat index attenuation.
Halvitigala, D, Wilkinson, SJ & Antoniades, H 2017, 'Meeting Changing Industry Expectations From Australian Property Valuation Graduates', AUBEA 2017: Australasian Universities Building Education Association Conference 2017, Australasian Universities Building Education Association, AUBEA, RMIT Melbourne Victoria, pp. 129-138.
The valuation profession faces significant challenges as more valuation processes become automated, and the role of the valuer becomes more one of data handling than an economic analyst. To respond to industry needs, the role of the valuer must change. It follows that there is a need for universities to re-evaluate their existing property curricula, modifying content where necessary, to prepare their graduates better for a changing workforce. Employing a series of focus group discussions with valuation practitioners, this study examined specific industry expectations and provides recommendations to strategically align Australian property curricula with industry expectations in order to maintain the relevance of property education.
The study identified personal, technical and business-related skills that are essential for graduates to possess. The roles of the professional bodies, industry/employers and educators to meet the changing demand on the profession are identified. Changes are required to degree programme content in respect of digital technologies and statistical skills. Whilst the universities offer a curriculum that adheres to the accreditation requirements of the professional bodies, there is also a need to incorporate specialised knowledge with set pathways. The need for students to have practical experience is apparent and undertaking placements with assessment that could be credited as part of the degree is recommended. The study highlights the need for a careful analysis of student learning experience to ensure that graduate skills meet the industry expectations, and that graduates themselves are able to adapt to future changes.
Wilkinson, SJ, Halvitigala, D & Antoniades, H 2017, 'The Future Of The Valuation Profession: Shaping The Strategic Direction Of The Profession For 2030', Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference Proceedings, Annual Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference, Pacific Rim Real Estate Society, Sydney, Australia.
Problem/purpose – The valuation profession faces significant challenges as more valuation processes become automated, and the role of the valuer becomes more one of data handling and information processing than a property analyst. With this, the role of the valuer must change in order to respond to the industry's needs. Moreover with the ageing membership, it is vital to attract new talented individuals into the profession. The aim of this study is to explore the future of the property profession and the role of the valuer in particular, and how the profession could maintain and increase its relevance and currency.
Design/methodology/approach – To outline the changing skills profile of valuation profession and business needs in the future, it required a thorough understanding of the issues and challenges currently faced by the valuation profession. The authors have analysed the published literature and identified key main issues and challenges namely changing role of the valuer, market competition, changing technology and technical knowledge and skills, changing membership demographics, and the fragmentation of the profession.
Findings – The findings identify and map the changing skills profile of the valuation profession as well as the skills and qualities that will be needed, as well as emerging future and existing knowledge fields and specialisms. The research identifies practices in decline and those on the rise within property valuers and suggests the ways the profession can link with employers and educators to better understand variables affecting supply and demand for new entrants and the new skills firms are seeking. The research suggests future direction as to how to market the valuation profession to recruit and retain future generations of valuers and how to adapt to the evolving marketplace for valuation services globally.
Originality/value – This study investigates and maps the changing roles, skills, knowledge fields, specialisms, challeng...
Yazdani Mehr, S, Wilkinson, SJ, Hassanpour, H, Skates, H & Holden, G 2017, 'Adaptive Reuse Of Civic Buildings', REHAB 2017 - Procedings of the 3rd International Conference on Preservation, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Historical Buildings and Structures, REHAB 2017 – 3rd International Conference on Preservation, Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Historical Buildings and Structures, Green Lines Institute, Braga Portugal.
Adaptive reuse of buildings is a growing field of activity and discussion within the Adaptive Architecture and the sustainability debate. Much of this activity and debate relates to private commercial buildings where economic performance is a strong driver for adaptation. The literature provides little information about adaptive reuse of civic buildings, especially city and town halls.
City halls are important landmarks which are significant culturally, helping to define the city visually, socially and symbolically, whilst also providing functional services.
This paper discusses different types of adaptive reuse of buildings to position thinking about suitable types which apply to city halls. Case studies add further understanding about approaches taken in the adaption of city halls for contemporary purposes. Consideration is given to prioritising between cultural considerations or functional change for new purposes and technical upgrade of buildings.
Orr, F & Wilkinson, S 2017, 'A little sanctuary': An evaluation of the impact for participants of a rooftop horticultural therapy program in inner Sydney', The Mental Health Services Conference, Sydney.
Wilkinson, S & Orr, FR 2017, 'The Impact Of Horticulture Therapy On Mental Health Care Consumers On A Retrofitted Roof', Proceedings from the PRRES Conference - 2017, ANNUAL PACIFIC RIM REAL ESTATE SOCIETY CONFERENCE, PACIFIC RIM REAL ESTATE SOCIETY CONFERENCE, Sydney, pp. 1-13.
With increasing urbanisation and population growth, the potential for social isolation within urban
settlements including central business districts (CBDs) grows. Mental health and related illnesses are
determined by multiple, interacting social, psychological, and biological factors. Mental health may be
impacted by individual or societal factors, including economic disadvantage, poor housing, lack of social
support and the level of access to, and use of, health services. Living arrangements give some indication of
the level of social support that a person is able to access. Interaction with people is vital to human
development and social relationships and networks can act as protective factors against the onset or
recurrence of mental illness and enhance recovery from mental disorders (WHO, 2005). It is possible that
retrofitted rooftop gardens and green roofs could provide an environment whereby people can engage though
a structured program of horticulture therapy. This research analyses a horticulture therapy program in
Sydney in 2016 and this paper concentrates on the question; what is the impact of a rooftop horticulture
therapy on mental health consumers? An illustrative case study approach was the framework around data
collected via a semi structured focus group interview for this qualitative research. The findings reveal
positive outcomes, including improved health and well-being, social interaction and skill development.
Ghosh, S & Wilkinson, S 2016, 'Food urbanism, place making and sustainability performance in two institutional rooftop gardens in Sydney, Australia', Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Toronto, Canada in association with George Brown College, pp. 3-13.
Urban food production on rooftop gardens within denser built environments could contribute to better sustainability performance; regeneration of vacant roof spaces into active and interactive places and create opportunities for building healthy, socially networked and liveable communities. Two rooftop case studies: UTS rooftop garden and St. Canice Kitchen Garden in Sydney, Australia are explored. Situated within two different settings and supported by City of Sydney's funding grants, these case studies offer a unique insight. This paper explores integrated sustainability contributions of institutional rooftop gardens and aims to model future potential of growing food locally and associated carbon benefits. Outcomes suggest that as a part of useful green infrastructure, a rooftop garden has significant potential to improve sustainability performance. From a social perspective, the gardens act as shared community meeting places. Through effective collaborative efforts and partnerships, it is possible to initiate socially inclusive and resilient community building within the institutions as well as beyond their boundaries.
Lamond, J, Proverbs, D, Kreibach, H, Chan, F, Montz, B, Bhattacharya-Mis, N & Wilkinson, SJ 2016, 'An international understanding of Building Surveyors in the context of commercial properties at risk of flooding', Proceedings of RICS COBRA 2016, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), RICS, Toronto, Canada.
Limited research has been done to understand the perspectives of building surveyors in the international commercial property sector in the context of flood risk to assets, valuation of risk and availability of insurance. There is a need to develop an understanding of the current and future role of chartered surveyors internationally in providing professional flood risk advice on commercial property. The objectives of this study are to explore the role chartered surveyors may play in providing advice on flood risk in the context of commercial properties internationally using evidence from UK, Germany, China, US, and Australia. A systematic review of the evidence was undertaken through academic literature together with an in-country search of grey literature. The review found a wide variety of insurance regimes and risk disclosure practices in these international contexts. Attitudes to risk mitigation and the role of chartered surveyors were summarised across countries to draw on the range of practices that can form the basis to move towards knowledge transfer and common understanding of approaches to property at risk. Surveyors have an important role to play in advising clients and investors on appropriate risk mitigation and there is the potential for this to expand in the future.
Morris, A, Wilkinson, SJ, Algeo, C & Candusso, D 2016, 'Measuring project management maturity in NSW local government', www.rics.org/cobra, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Toronto, Canada, pp. n.p.-n.p..
Local government (councils) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, are responsible for the management and delivery of numerous projects that can be in various fields such as information technology, engineering, planning in addition to many others. Council budgets for capital works can vary from less than $2 million in smaller councils to over $100 million in city councils. Noting the importance of project delivery in the public sector, specifically local government, and the differences in operation of each individual council, it is no surprise that each council adopts its own project management methodology, if at all. By identifying, analysing and investigating the nature of project management in local government in Australia and internationally, a framework can be developed for use by local government authorities in NSW. Prior to developing the framework, the existing project management maturity of local government organisations must be determined. This is done using a project management maturity model. By comparing existing models, a suitable project management model can be chosen specifically for NSW local government. Once the existing project management maturity level is known, local government organisations can improve their maturity level, which has been shown to improve project success.
Morris, A, Wilkinson, SJ, Algeo, C & Candusso, D 2016, 'Measuring project success in local government.', ANZAM, QUT Brisbane, pp. 1-14.
Local government (councils) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, are responsible for the management and delivery of projects in various fields such as: information technology; engineering; and planning. Council budgets for capital works can vary from less than 2 million ($AUD) in smaller councils to over one hundred million ($AUD) in large city councils. Although projects are publicised and promoted as examples of effective local government, operations often comprise the bulk of the statutory reporting requirements. One reason for the preference of operational reporting over project reporting is the difficulty associated in measuring the success of projects. This paper will discuss the issues local government project managers must consider to determine if their project is a success.
Wilkinson, SJ 2016, 'Analysing Trends in Sustainable Building Adaptations in the Melbourne CBD', Proceedings of the 2016 RICS Conference, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), RICS, Toronto, Canada.
In 2008 the City of Melbourne initiated an office retrofit program, known as the 1200 Buildings Program, to reduce total building related greenhouse gas emissions. On the basis that 87% of buildings we will have in 2050 are already built, retrofit or adaptation is vital to mitigate the impacts of climate change and global warming. It is imperative that city authorities take a lead on promoting and incentivising increased rates of sustainable building adaptation. Following the 2013 and 2011 City of Melbourne 1200 Buildings Melbourne Retrofit Survey, a further analysis of the survey data to ascertain the patterns of retrofit as the city transitions to low carbon was undertaken. Based on earlier studies of 7393 Melbourne office buildings retrofits from 1998 to 2008 (Wilkinson 2011) and 1453 retrofits from 2009 to 2011, this study investigated up to 17 building attributes previously found to be important and to provide further insight into retrofit trends in the Melbourne office market. The overall aim was to analyse office-building retrofits at the city scale reported in the 2013 1200 Buildings Retrofit Survey. Using City of Melbourne 1200 Building Retrofit Survey 2013 data, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was undertaken to explore the building attributes important to office building retrofit. It was possible to include many of the attributes found important in earlier Principal Component Analyses and five key findings emerge from the study. The PCA showed that five typologies accounted for 68% of the retrofits contained in the 2013 Retrofit Survey data. Patterns to the uptake of retrofit are apparent.
Firley, E, Hogrebe, N & Wilkinson, SJ 2015, 'Building communities and their legal implications - A German case study', RICS COBRA AUBEA 2015, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Sydney, Australia, pp. np-np.
In the form of an innovative adaptation of older concepts, the German real estate market has witnessed over the last 15 years a substantial growth in the number of developments that are led by groups of private individuals. The reasons for this trend towards so-called building communities (German terminology - "Baugemeinschaften") are manifold, including the financial motivation to save the developer's margin, the quest for alternative architectural products not provided by the professional market, as much as the creation of long-lasting social connections through the participation in a communal planning, design and construction effort.
This paper, jointly authored by an urban designer and a lawyer, focuses on the identification of the German case-studies' major legal issues and their implications on architectural and urban questions. The reason for a multi-disciplinary approach is based on the desire to uncover and highlight the interplay of social and economic forces that otherwise might remain hidden behind the specialists' separations. Ultimately, the practical aim is to help identify the critical moments in the building communities' development process, in which a modification of the legal system might be productive, or the interference of the public sector helpful.
Ghosh, S & Wilkinson, SJ 2015, 'Roles of a roof top garden in enhancing social participation and urban regeneration in Sydney CBD.', RICS COBRA AUBEA 2015, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Sydney, Australia, pp. np-np.
Urban food production on the rooftops in denser urban areas could recreate lost productive green spaces and could provide meaningful places for social interaction and sustainable practices. With a funding support from City of Sydney's Environmental Grant Programme, a rooftop garden was established for University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) staff members and students on a UTS Student Housing building located in the Sydney CBD. This paper aims to explore aspirations, motivations and expectations of UTS staff and student members in an institutional setting and at an early setting up stage of this garden. Semi-structured interviews had been conducted with the UTS staff and student members to understand their views. Outcomes suggest in this workplace rooftop garden, participants expect to grow food; create important social networks to initiate community building and engagement; share new knowledge and gardening practices and have important access to nature in a workplace or in an institution. Converting vacant and suitable roof spaces of institutional buildings into rooftop gardens have significant potential to contribute to a positive urban regeneration process in denser environments. Institutional supports and appropriate policies would be essential for the uptake.
Ghosh, S, Wilkinson, S & Adler, D 2015, 'Social aspects of urban food production: a case study of Coogee Community Garden in Sydney', Conference Proceedings, Making Cities Liveable Conference, Association for Sustainability in Business Inc., Melbourne, pp. 71-86.
Hurst, N & Wilkinson, SJ 2015, 'Housing and energy efficiency: What do real estate agent advertisements tell us?', RICS COBRA AUBEA 2015, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors, Sydney Australia, pp. np-np.
This research examines the appearance of energy efficient words and phrases in real estate agent advertisements in Melbourne Australia and, whether there is a correlation between the use of such lexis and the demographic profiles of various geographic locations.
Energy efficient housing has been the subject of research over the last 20 years and is being largely driven by climate change. Newly constructed homes in Australia are required to meet minimum energy efficiency performance standards however; there remains no requirement to uplift the energy performance of existing buildings. Given that 87% of the stock we will have in 2050 is already built (Kelly 2008) there is a clear need to upgrade and adapt existing buildings in terms of energy efficiency (Wilkinson 2014).
The current Australian government appears to be embracing a neo-liberal philosophy with the absence of any direct market centred policies allowing market forces to drive change (IEA 2014) However public reaction to this market driven strategy appears to be lagging and many people, when choosing an established home to purchase, seem not to be cognisant or interested in energy efficiency as a criteria when making purchase decisions (Eves and Bryant, 2012). Although limited in volume contemporary research suggests that purchasers of housing are more likely to consider energy efficient and sustainable characteristics in a house if they are more affluent and educated (Eves and Kipps 2010; Zhang 2010).
This research examines the appearance of energy efficient words and phrases in real estate agent advertisements in Melbourne Australia and, whether there is a correlation between the use of such lexis and the demographic profiles of various geographic locations. The researchers examined sales data from 91,331 real estate agent advertisements of residential transactions dating from 2008 to 2013. It was found that a limited number of advertisements mentioned energy efficiency and sustainability measures and ...
Jupp, JR & Wilkinson, S 2015, 'Through-life Information Management For Commercial Property Practice: Benefits & Challenges of BIM', RICS 2015 Conference Proceeding, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), COBRA, Sydney, Australia.
For any property process it is important to have reliable and accurate information about the building, its surrounding environment, and market. This paper describes the difficulties facing property professionals when sourcing, organizing and reusing built environment data through-life and the potential benefits of a Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach to help improve information management in the property domain. Based on a review of the literatures and findings from a stakeholder workshop the paper discusses the benefits and challenges to improving through-life information management. The review of the literature reveals the importance of identifying what information needs to be captured through-life, key attributes of BIM, and the role of structured data. Workshop findings reveal a number of important technical and socio-technical challenges facing property professionals, including the need for information standards, data quality and fidelity issues, security and privacy concerns, and the need for new digital skill sets and knowledge competencies.
Osmond, P, Corkery, L, Wilkinson, S, Thompson, S & Hawken, S 2015, 'The arable city: Quantifying the potential for urban agriculture in the 21st century metropolis', SSS 2015 - 10th International Space Syntax Symposium, International Space Syntax Symposium, London, UK.
Australia is one of the most urbanised countries in the world, with some 90% of the population living in cities. Only 6.1% of Australia's land mass is considered of arable quality, compared to 17% in the USA. Moreover, the amount of peri-urban land available for food cultivation is diminishing as urban sprawl expands to accommodate a growing population. The advent of 'industrial' agriculture in the 19th and 20th centuries marginalised urban agriculture but the past 20 years have seen a resurgence in public and policy interest and activity in numerous cities and countries. The research and data which should underpin such renewed and increased interest and activity, however, remain ad hoc and largely anecdotal. A more informed approach is now both urgent and essential. The growth of cities generates benefits - notably by creating centres of economic development and innovation - but also detriments, by way of sedentary lifestyles and obesity, stress and mental ill-health, crime and loss of community cohesion. There is international evidence that urban agriculture may help reverse these trends through its positive effects on diet, health and wellbeing and the social fabric. In addition, urban agriculture responds to the challenges of climate change, both through mitigation (reducing 'food miles' and carbon footprint) and adaptation (substituting for those rural areas where agriculture may no longer be viable). This paper reports on the first stage of a broader project which aims to develop an evidence base for policy, planning and design to facilitate urban agriculture in Australian cities. This stage relates to the identification of available space to support quantification of food production potential. While Sydney is the focus, care is taken to ensure that the final methodology used will be transferable. One way to increase the quantity of agricultural land in built-up areas is to cultivate informal green spaces such as vacant lots, street and railway verges, and ...
Wilkinson, S & Jupp, JR 2015, 'BIM and the Value Dimension: A Commercial Property Development and Management Perspective', RICS 2015 Conference Proceeding, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), COBRA, Sydney, Australia.
BIM is integral to real-time information coordination between various disciplines within the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), informing decision-making and improving analysis and simulation. Whilst proponents of BIM claim a variety of client benefits, the potential of BIM from the diverse perspectives of the property domain has largely been overlooked, as has the broader scope of the property lifecycle. This trans-disciplinary scoping study explores the role of the 'value dimension' of BIM; that is, the processes that extend beyond the project lifecycle and the data that is used to assess risk, growth and depreciation through the life of the property. The findings of an Australian industry workshop identify the specific information requirements of property professionals before then mapping these with existing project-based BIM deliverables. The paper closes with a discussion of a model of BIM and the value dimension and a roadmap for future research.
Wilkinson, SJ & Remoy, HR 2015, 'Building resilience in urban settlements through conversion adaptation', RICS COBRA AUBEA 2015, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Sydney Australia, pp. np-np.
The built environment contributes 40% to total global greenhouse gas emissions and 87% of the buildings we will have in 2050 are already built. If predicted climate changes are correct we need to adapt existing stock sustainably. Reuse is an inherently sustainable option, which reduces the amount of waste going to landfill. Inevitably settlements and areas undergo change, whereby land uses become obsolete and buildings vacant. At this stage, the options are either to demolish or to convert to another use. In central business districts (CBDs) outside of Australia there is a long history of office to residential conversion. Although these types of conversions are few in number in the Sydney and Melbourne CBD, a trend is emerging in conversion. Some 102,000m2 of office space is earmarked for residential conversion in Sydney as demand for central residential property grows and low interest rates create good conditions. Coupled with this, is a stock of ageing offices and a population projected to increase by 4% to 2031 requiring 45000 new homes. With the Sydney market about to be flooded with the Barangaroo office supply in 2017, the conditions for residential conversion are better than ever.
However; what is the level of sustainability in these projects? This paper investigates the nature and extent of the phenomena in Sydney, as well as the political, economic, social, environmental and technological drivers and barriers to successful conversion. Through international comparisons with cases in the Netherlands, the paper identifies the key lessons. To date no major study has been conducted into the Sydney market nor into conversion adaptation. Furthermore most residential development has comprised new construction. There is substantial potential to change the nature of the CBD with residential conversion of office space and this paper explores this potential.
Wilkinson, SJ, van den Heijden, JJ & Sayce, SL 2015, 'Hybrid governance instruments for built environment sustainability and resilience: A comparative perspective', RICS COBRA AUBEA 2015, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Sydney, Australia, pp. np-np.
Mandatory and voluntary governance instruments (such as statutory code compliance; regulation, voluntary certification; bench marking schemes) have been slow in achieving targeted improvements in environmental and resource sustainability of the built environment, facing well documented regulatory and market barriers (Wilkinson, 2013; Van Der Heijden, 2014). If such schemes have not delivered to expectation, are other instruments needed, and what should they look like? Should they be compliance or market driven? Recent research (Van Der Heijden, 2014; Green Construction Board, forthcoming) has identified that hybrid instruments which build on the strengths of mandatory and voluntary instruments hold the potential to overcome the weaknesses of both. This paper seeks to better understand whether such hybrids have the potential, in ways that previous schemes have not, to effect behaviour change. Different types of hybridity are identified and categorised to enable further scrutiny, particularly to better understand their potential value in stimulating changed behaviours by individuals and corporations to achieve improved environmental and resource sustainability of the built environment in Europe and beyond. Through this paper a deeper understanding is sought regarding (i) why these hybrids have emerged; (ii) what they look like, what actors are involved, and how responsibilities are organised; and (iii) why they have the potential to affect behavioural change. A desktop study is used to identify, map and to the extent possible evaluate these
Lamond, J, Wilkinson, SJ & Rose, C 2014, 'Conceptualising the benefits of green roof technology for commercial real estate owners and occupiers', Conference Proceedings, Pacific Rim Real Estate Conference, Pacific Rim Real Estate Society, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp. 1-10.
The benefits of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) are increasingly being recognised in terms of reduced flood risk, reduced cost of drainage, improved water quality, lower energy use and other, less tangible aspects, such as aesthetics and amenity. Multiple tools and evaluation techniques exist to estimate the costs and benefits of installations on a total level. These evaluations vary in accuracy and precision and many benefits are difficult to monetise. There are also distributional aspects of costs and benefits that will need to be considered in the ongoing dialogue to encourage appropriate installation of WSUD that have, thus far, rarely been explored in research. In particular, the perspective of the commercial real estate owner, investor or occupier has been neglected in favour of governmental and societal views. This can be understood within the wider context of urban design such as retention or infiltration installations in public spaces; in Central Business Districts (CBDs), however, the installation of green roof technology is seen as one of the main contributors to WSUD and is largely in the hands of private companies. A conceptual model of the distribution of benefits from installing a green roof on a commercial building is presented that can inform the understanding of incentives and behaviours in the corporate real estate market. The results show that benefits accrue directly and indirectly to both owners and occupiers of commercial buildings with green roofs. However, many of the direct benefits are enjoyed by a much wider stakeholder group and these benefits will only be partly recognised as due to the investment in green roofs. Owners and occupiers of commercial buildings may also want to evaluate the indirect benefit accruing via their image of corporate social responsibility and, in addition the possibility of value uplift due to neighbourhood improvement.
Wilkinson, SJ 2014, 'Transforming the commercial property market using green roof retrofit and sub-leases for urban food production.', Re-engineering the City: Transitions to Urban Sustainability 2020-2050 Conference, Re-engineering the City: Transitions to Urban Sustainability 2020-2050 Conference, Cardiff, Wales UK.
There are numerous acknowledged benefits associated with the retrofit of impervious roof coverings with edible plants and vegetables. The benefits include reduction of carbon food miles, the provision of healthy fresh food in city centres, increased bio-diversity, reduction of pollution, as well as some improved thermal performance at building level leading to lower greenhouse gas emissions. The time for food to be transported from the `paddock to plate is also reduced with food retaining more nutrients and being healthier as a result. In many countries the practices of urban food production are continued, however it has been lost in many cities and it is worth exploring the benefits and opportunities in re-introducing such practices, both New York and London are adopting city farming albeit on a modest scale. To date no commercial rooftop farm exists within the City of Sydney. One barrier is that owners of city centre commercial properties are risk averse to the concept of having a working farm operating on their roofs. Partly it is `the shock of the new'; it is not a practice with which they are familiar and there is a reticence to embrace the notion. Another barrier is the notion of letting the space to a third party, and all the issues that need to be considered. Finally how is the `value of this roof space determined? This research proposes a `green roof urban farm sub-lease to address key concerns and barriers expressed by owners and sets out standard covenants which could apply. The study also proposes a methodology for valuing roof space for urban food production. It is posited that these changes are a pre-requisite to transforming the commercial property market to render urban food production on rooftop more acceptable and, significantly; to put in place the assurances property owners require.
Wilkinson, SJ & Feitosa, RC 2014, 'Retrofitting housing with lightweight green roof technology in Sydney - Australia and Rio de Janeiro - Brazil', Mass customisation and sustainability in housing Proceedings, ZEMCH International Conference, ZEMCH Network, Londrina, PR, Brazil, pp. 114-127.
The built environment contributes around half of all greenhouse gas emissions and 87% of residential buildings the UK will have in 2050 are already built (Kelly, 2009), there is a need to adopt sustainable retrofit for existing residential buildings. Furthermore these statistics are broadly similar across many countries. The question is; what are viable solutions? One answer may be to retrofit with green roofs as there are environmental, economic and social benefits. Environmental benefits include potential reductions in operational carbon emissions, reductions in the urban heat island, increases in bio-diversity, housing temperature attenuation and reductions in stormwater run-off. Economically, benefits are reduced roof maintenance costs and lower running costs. The social gain is the creation of spaces where people have greater access to nature. However there are barriers to the adoption of retrofitted green roofs; which include perceptions of structural adequacy, risk of water damage, high installation and maintenance cost, as well as access and security issues.
In some locations the intent will be to reduce cooling loads, whereas others will desire thermal insulation, or will seek reduction in stormwater run-off. The ability to meet the demands will depend on budget and physical characteristics. Many Australian and Brazilian residential buildings have profiled metal sheet roofing which is a lightweight material with poor thermal performance During summer periods Sydney as well as Rio de Janeiro temperatures can reach 45 degrees Celsius and rainfall patterns are variable and changing. This research reports on an experiment on two small scale profiled metal sheet roofs in both cities which aimed to assess thermal performance. One roof was planted to compare performance to an unplanted roof. The findings are that considerable variation in temperature were found in both countries indicating that green roof retrofit could lower cooling energy demand considera...
Wilkinson, SJ & Page, L 2014, 'Exploring the potential for urban food production on Sydney's rooftops', Mass customisation and sustainability in housing proceedings, ZEMCH International Conference, ZEMCH Network, Londrina, PR, Brazil, pp. 87-98.
There are environmental, economic and social benefits of retrofitting rooftops on city buildings for food production. Environmental benefits include lower carbon food miles, potential reductions in building related operational carbon emissions, reductions in the urban heat island, increases in bio-diversity and reductions in storm-water run-off. Economically, the benefits are reduced roof maintenance costs, lower running costs and access to fresh food. Thirdly the social or community gains are the creation of spaces where people can engage in growing food. Psychological and therapeutic gains accrue when people engage with natural environments However there are barriers which include perceptions of greater risk of building leaks, high costs of installation and maintenance, and access and security issues.
Although the technology to design and install food production on rooftops exists, the uptake and the demand have not been high to date. Overall, the gains are not deemed sufficient and in Sydney Australia, the existing numbers of food producing rooftops are testimony to this observation. This research reports on three rooftops set up in 2013 in Sydney which are producing food. The social, economic and environmental aspects and physical aspects of the installation are described in this paper.
Wilkinson, SJ, Osmond, P, Heller, A, Manion, J, Sumich, M & Sharman, L 2014, 'Community awareness of green roofs in Sydney', Community awareness of green roofs in Sydney Conference Proceedings, ZEMCH International Conference, ZEMCH Network, Londrina, PR, Brazil, pp. 99-113.
There are environmental, economic and social benefits of installing green roofs and walls on city buildings. The environmental benefits are lower building related operational carbon emissions, reductions in the urban heat island, increases in bio-diversity and reductions in storm-water run-off. Economically, the benefits are reduced roof maintenance costs, lower running costs, higher capital and rental values for commercial buildings. Finally the social or community gains are the creation of aesthetically pleasing spaces, landmarksand cultural capital as well as provision of recreational spaces. Furthermore social, psychological and therapeutic gains accrue when the roof or wall is visible to people andis used for social interaction and leisure activities. The perceived drawbacks are perceived greater risk of building leaks, high costs of installation and maintenance, and access and security issues.
Whilst the technology to design and install green roofs and walls has existed for hundreds of years the uptake and the demand for green roofs and walls has not been high. Overall, the environmental social and economic gains are not perceived sufficient to create significant demand to set up green roofs and walls. In Sydney Australia, the existing number of green roofs and walls are testimony to this observation. With the aim of addressing the barriers to the uptake of green roofs and walls; it is essential to understand the way in which the key stakeholders; here the community, perceive the technology. With this knowledge it is then feasible to develop an agenda to mitigate any erroneous perceptions that exists. This research reports on a survey with the Sydney community to determine their perceptions of green roofs and walls.
Wilkinson, SJ, Rose, C, Glenis, V & Lamond, J 2014, 'Modelling green roof retrofit in the Melbourne Central Business District', Flood Recovery, Innovation and Response IV, International Conference on Flood Recovery Innovation and Response (FRIAR), WIT Press, Poznan, Poland, pp. 125-138.View/Download from: Publisher's site
With the increasing densification in urban settlements the economic and social disruption caused by pluvial flooding events globally is significant and growing. Furthermore these problems are compounded where many cities are located in areas where climate change predictions are for increased rainfall frequency and or intensity. One possible solution is the wide scale retrofit with green roof technology as a means of mitigating stormwater runoff in urban settlements. However it is not known currently where the most effective location for and siting of the retrofitted green roofs in a city or town would be. Moreover the number of and type of green roof required to reduce pluvial flooding is unknown. This paper describes a proof of concept framework for an assessment of the potential to reduce pluvial flood hazard through retrofit of green roofs combining an evaluation of the retrofit potential of office buildings in the Central Business District (CBD) with state of the art urban rainfall inundation modelling. Using retrofit scenarios for Melbourne CBD commercial buildings built between 1998 and 2011 and the rainfall profile of the February 2011 event the modelled depth of flooding were compared. The results show that the potential to mitigate extreme events via retrofit would be enhanced by consideration of buildings within the wider catchment.
Wilkinson, S, Ghosh, S & Page, L 2013, 'Options for green roof retrofit and urban food production in the Sydney CBD', RICS COBRA 2013, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), RICS, London, United Kingdom.
The benefits of retrofitting existing buildings with vegetated roofs are environmental, economic and social. Economic benefits include lower construction costs, lower running costs, and reduced costs of borrowing whilst the social gains include retention of familiar landmarks and cultural capital. Environmental gains include retention of embodied carbon, and the re-use of existing materials. The environmental benefits are improved thermal performance and reduced heat loss and heat gain in buildings. This can lead to reduced operational energy costs for owners and tenants, providing economic benefits. However, the environmental social and economic gains are not perceived sufficient to persuade many owners to retrofit green roofs. Social, psychological and therapeutic gains occur when the roof is visible to users and is used for social interaction and relaxation. As an alternative food production system, green roofs could promote a shorter food supply chain, contribute to healthier communities and create local jobs and notably; reduce the carbon footprints of food production. A
little explored environmental gain in Sydney is the retrofit of roofs for urban food production. No empirical research has been conducted into the plant species best suited to urban food production, including native food plants, and the optimum substrate composition and depth, required to suit the NSW climate. The barriers and opportunities for urban food production in a high-density urban environment also require investigation.
Wilkinson, SJ 2013, 'Exploring measurement of the uptake of sustainability in the built environment through building permit data', RICS COBRA 2013, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), RICS, New Delhi, India, pp. 1-8.
The built environment emits 40% of total greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change through sustainable adaptation is a priority. Typically 1 to 2% is added to the total building stock annually and around 87% of the stock most developed countries will have in 2050, is already built. It follows that precise data in respect of the sustainability measures incorporated into new and existing buildings is recorded and quantified. The benefits are that built environment related GHG reductions may be measured and quantified over time and that policy and regulations may be made more efficient and their effectiveness may be enhanced due the basis of empirical evidence. Cities such as Melbourne, Australia have adopted carbon neutral strategies to deliver emissions reductions which are largely directed to building adaptation. Melbourne aims to be carbon neutral by 2020 and has a target of 1,200 sustainable retrofits to deliver 38% GHG reductions. Whilst some owners use tools to demonstrate sustainability, most do not. Furthermore these sustainable adaptations and new builds number so few they will not deliver sufficient reductions. Predictions of significant increases in gas and electricity consumption in buildings present challenges to policy makers, professional practitioners and the community at large and a method of calculating all building related carbon emissions is required. The framework for quantifying emissions reductions in the total building stock over time is fragmented and largely undeveloped. Existing efforts largely focus on individual buildings. This paper reports the findings of two focus groups held in Canberra and Melbourne in 2012 with key stakeholders to explore the viability of such a proposal within the Australia regulatory system.
Wilkinson, SJ 2013, 'Sustainable retrofit in the CBD: contemporary practices in Melbourne.', ERES 20th Annual Conference, ERES, European Real Estate Society, Vienna Austria.
Purpose: Retrofit of the existing building stock is essential undertaking to mitigate the effects of climate change and global warming. Pointedly most stock was constructed without consideration of sustainability. Sustainability was legislated in the Building Code of Australia in 2006, with minimum standards for energy efficiency applied to new build and some retrofit projects. Melbourne launched the 1200 Buildings Program in 2008 to deliver carbon neutrality by 2020 after Arup (2008) concluded that retrofitting two thirds of the stock would deliver a 38% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Design / methodology / approach This research used case study to examine what has been undertaken in the 1200 Buildings Program retrofits. This study had two aims which were; to gain a deeper understanding of the improvements made to existing office buildings in the 1200 Buildings Program and, to undertake a comparison of current practices within the programme. Findings The sustainability measures undertaken were largely focussed on building services and energy efficiency. There was less work undertaken to address water economy measures, to the building fabric and little work which addressed social sustainability aspects. Research limitations The cases reflect was what undertaken at given points in time and future practices may change as the economic and social environments vary. The study illustrates Melbourne practices which may or not be replicated in part or full elsewhere. Practical implications The research shows changes in practices are occurring and that energy savings are accruing to owners and tenants. Local practitioners are up-skilling themselves in the technical and environmental knowledge and skills necessary to retrofit the built environment to a carbon constrained future. Social implications Whilst the environmental and energy efficiency aspects of retrofit are covered in the 1200 Buildings Program social considerations are of lesser importance a...
Wilkinson, SJ 2012, 'Conceptual understanding of sustainability in Australian Construction firms', Conference Proceedings Vol 1 & 2 for the Joint CIB International Symposium of W055, W065, W089, W118, TG76, TG78, TG81 AND TG84, CIB Joint International Conference on Management of Construction: Research to Practice, CIB, Montreal, Canada, pp. 318-330.
Given the connection between energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change and the reality that the built environment emits around half of total emissions, the construction industry has considerable potential to reduce emissions and a key role in mitigating global warming. However there is evidence that our current understanding of the concept of sustainability is fragmented and unclear. There are a plethora of terms used to cover sustainable buildings, such as ecological, green, Gaian which come in and out of fashion over time; do they mean the same thing or are they different? Furthermore do construction firms demonstrate a clear understanding of the concept of sustainability or are they muddled and confused? The consequence of unclear thinking and a lack of understanding is that ultimately the construction industry is unlikely to deliver 'sustainability' efficiently or even at all, with the broader and more onerous consequences for society as a whole. In addition what are the implications for education and should academics be broadening the debate? Using a content analysis of published information regarding sustainability on construction company websites, this paper addresses the questions; (a)what is the conceptual understanding of sustainability within ten leading Australian construction firms and, (b) what is the implication of this level of conceptual understanding with regards to delivering sustainability?
Wilkinson, SJ 2012, 'The increasing importance of environmental attributes in commercial building retrofits', Proceedings of the Construction, Building and Real Estate Conference, Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference (COBRA), RICS and Arizona State University, Las Vegas USA, pp. 309-316.
Compelling reasons to undertake building retrofit are largely economic and environmental but also social. Retrofit can be less expensive than new build and typically delivers faster projects. Sustainable development is a force for retrofit as the built environment contributes approximately half of total greenhouse gas emissions. Governments search for effective and efficient methods of mitigating the contribution of cities to climate change and building retrofit presents a realistic means of lessening building associated emissions. In Melbourne, the 1200 Building Program is a strategy which aims to escalate commercial retrofits; targeting 1200 Central Business District (CBD) office retrofits by 2020. This research examined all CBD retrofits from 2009 to 2011 to distinguish the nature and extent of retrofits and to ascertain the inter-relationship between retrofits and property attributes. 1422 retrofits were analysed between January 2009 and July 2011. Following an earlier study of retrofits from 1998 to 2008, this research determines whether environmental attributes have become more important over time. The findings support building retrofit in identifiable circumstances and are clearly relevant for increasing built environment sustainability. The research used existing buildings in an international city to ensure relevance to urban settlements where existing buildings can lessen the impact of climate change. NOTE: this paper received the Best Paper Award at the conference
Wilkinson, SJ 2011, 'Sustainable retrofit potential in lower quality office stock in the Central Business District', CIB Management and Innovation in the Sustainable Built Environment., Management and Innovation for a Sustainable Built Environment, CIB Management and Innovation in the Sustainable Built Environment., Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. n.p.-n.p..
Given the relationship between energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, the built environment has significant potential to lessen overall emissions. With around half of all greenhouse gas emissions attributed to the built environment; it has a significant role to play in mitigating global warming. With large percentages of office stock structurally vacant in some city centres and only 1 or 2% of new buildings added to the total stock each year; the scope for reductions lay with adaptation of existing buildings. The stock with the highest levels of vacancy and obsolescence offers the highest potential of all. Many cities are now aiming to become carbon neutral. Successful adaptation demands that social, technological, environmental, economic and legislative criteria are addressed. Buildings have to meet user and community needs. City centres comprise a range of different type of office stock with regards to age, size, location, height, tenure and quality. All buildings present challenges and opportunities with regards to adaptation and sustainability and integrating retrofit measures that reduce energy, water and resource consumption. Using a selection of low grade office buildings to develop retrofit profiles, this paper addresses the questions; (a) what is the nature of adaptations in relation to low quality office building stock in the Central Business District (CBD) and, (b) what is the extent and scope for sustainable retrofits to low quality office buildings. Using Melbourne CBD adaptation events of low quality office buildings were analysed between 1998 and 2008 to identify the potential for integrating sustainability into retrofits projects.
Wilkinson, SJ & Remoy, HT 2011, 'Sustainability and within use office building adaptions: A comparison of dutch and Australian practices', PRRes conference Proceedings, Pacific Rim Real Estate Conference, Pacific Rim Real Estate Society (PRRES), Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 1-11.
Local Authorities worldwide are encouraging adaptation as a means of reducing building related urban energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The City of Melbourne is promoting the retrofit of 1,200 CBD properties before 2020 with sustainability measures as part of their policy to become a carbon neutral city. Australian cities date from 1837 to the present day whereas some European cities have been inhabited for over two millennia. The concepts of adaptation and evolution of buildings and suburbs is well developed in Europe, though the scale of some of the post war developments has created different forms of building perhaps less adaptable or suited to change. The need to adapt buildings and to reduce environmental footprints becomes more pressing over time as global concentrations of carbon dioxide increase. Is it possible for Europeans to learn from Australian practices and vice averse? Through examination of office building adaptation in Melbourne and Amsterdam, it is possible to learn where similarities and differences exist and where new practices can be shared. This paper addressed the questions; What are the key attributes influencing adaptations in Melbourne and Amsterdam office buildings, and what are the similarities and differences? Using the Melbourne CBD and Amsterdam as a case study, the research analysed 7393 commercial building adaptations in Melbourne and 98 office buildings in Amsterdam where adaptations were completed. The outcomes of this research show where similarities and differences exist and are relevant to all urban areas where adaptation of existing office buildings can mitigate the impacts of climate change and enhance the city for another generation of citizens and users.
Wilkinson, SJ & Shelbourn, M 2011, 'An Australian/UK comparison of contemporary teaching and learning technologies', Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference for Australasian University Building Educators Association, Australian Universities Building Education Association Annual Conference, AUBEA, Bond University, Gold Coast, pp. 403-417.
The last decade has delivered substantial changes in construction and property education in Australia and the UK. There has been an increase in the number of courses offered in built environment education and the profile of a typical student has changed. In both countries students are under pressure to balance study and work due to the higher costs of living and education. This has placed demands on providers to deliver teaching and learning which meets student, industry and professional needs. Simultaneously there has been an increase in the application of technology in the business and corporate world which has resulted in increased efficiencies and new challenges. This paper evaluates changes in construction and property education courses to embrace new technology. The focus is on the delivery of innovative teaching and learning materials and the interaction between students, staff and the community. Results from questionnaires from new and existing students at Deakin University and Nottingham Trent University were used alongside examples of teaching and learning as illustrative case studies, the emphasis is placed on pushing the boundaries of the conventional built environment education process. The findings show that by embracing technology there can be a win-win' scenario for students, staff and industry stakeholders. Whilst courses adopt varying levels of technology, it seems inevitable that educators must evolve the delivery of education to become efficient and effective as the century progresses.
Wilkinson, SJ, Reed, R & Jailani, J 2011, 'User Satisfaction in Sustainable Office Buildings: A Preliminary Study', PRRES conference Proceedings, Pacific Rim Real Estate Conference, Pacific Rim Real Estate Society (PRRES), Gold Coast, Australia, pp. n.p.-n.p..
Energy efficiency was first mandated for commercial buildings in 2006 in Part J of The Building Code of Australia (BCA) and regulators are already implementing increased measures in 2010 (ABCB 2010). Further increases will follow as part of the co-ordinated effort to reduce building related greenhouse gas emissions. The introduction of the Energy Efficiency Disclosure Bill 2010 will establish a national scheme to promote the disclosure of information about the energy efficiency of office buildings as well as further highlighting the need for efficiency. Increased energy efficiency in the form of insulation, energy efficient light fittings, sophisticated Building Management Systems (BMS), micro-generation such as solar and wind turbines all result in measurable quantifiable reductions in operating costs for owners and tenants. However convincing all building owners about the sound business case for adopting sustainability measures has not been fully realised. To-date the adoption of cutting edge sustainable buildings in Australia is restricted to a few industry leaders, such as Investa and ISPT in Victoria for example. Sustainable building owners and tenants often benefit from reduced operating costs during the building lifecycle although the 'intangible' effect on businesses (e.g. employee productivity) is uncertain. This aspect has not been accurately quantified and has not been included as part of the measurement of sustainability in buildings. This study will allow property stakeholders, including government policy-makers and investors/developers, to better understand the optimal type and level of sustainability to be incorporated into the built environment. In addition this knowledge will enable policymakers to make more informed decisions with regards to the likely impact of the legislative measures they propose in respect of sustainability and buildings in The Building Code of Australia (BCA) and other relevant legislation.
Wilkinson, SJ 2010, 'Alterations and extensions to commercial buildings in the Melbourne CBD'.
Hoxley, M & Wilkinson, S 2006, 'RICS education reform and building surveying: The employers' view', COBRA 2006 - Proceedings of the Annual Research Conference of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors.
This paper presents the second part of research funded by the RICS Education Trust to investigate the impact of the 2001 education reforms on building surveying. The research involved the collection of data from large national, mainly London-based, employers of building surveyors. Issues of concern to these employers include the extent of construction technology knowledge of graduates, the delivery of contract administration, the placement year, post-graduate conversion courses and the high referral rate for the Assessment of Professional Competence (APC). Recommendations include advice to universities on the design of building surveying undergraduate and conversion courses, a call for further research on the high APC referral rate and greater liaison between industry and universities. © 2006 RICS, The Bartlett School, UCL and the contributors First published.
Wilkinson, SJ, Reed, RG & Hoxley, M 2006, 'The role of the surveying profession in reducing carbon emissions of existing office stock in the Melbourne CBD', COBRA 2006 - Proceedings of the Annual Research Conference of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors.
As professionals, surveyors and property professionals are in the front line and have a moral and ethical duty to take a lead when advising clients appropriately on measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from their buildings. As such, surveying professionals and the profession must increase their knowledge base and enhance their skills in respect of built environment sustainability. This research conducted a detailed analysis of energy efficiency in the Melbourne CBD office stock and examined all office buildings to identify what was likely to happen between 2005 and 2020 in respect of carbon emissions. The research profiled a business-as-usual or no change approach, a minor change approach, an intermediate approach, and a major change approach. The study examined variables such as building size, number of employees, occupancy levels, visual appearance and age. After modelling all CBD office buildings, it was recommended that an intermediate change scenario should be adopted. This course of action incorporates a transition period and includes increasing 'green power', increasing the number of employees per buildings, as well as reducing electricity and gas consumption. It was concluded that the surveying profession should adopt a proactive stance towards office buildings and climate change, which is currently being stifled by barriers such as a lack of education and perception concerning the long-term benefits of energy efficient office buildings. To date there has been much debate and promotion of policies to encourage the uptake of sustainability practices within the property sector; however, this research concludes that action is needed if targets are to be met. © 2006 RICS, The Bartlett School, UCL and the contributors First published.
Berry, M, Turrell, P & Wilkinson, SJ 2005, 'The business skills of graduate surveyors', Queensland University of Technology Research Week International Conference, QUT Research Week 2005 - Conference Proceedings.
The research examines the role of lifelong learning and the increasing emphasis on the development of transferable key skills, which formed part of the background to the educational debate emanating from the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors "Agenda for Change" vision to elevate the status of the RICS qualification. Extensive research and consultation by the RICS culminated in a series of initiatives to "reinforce the integrity and expertise of the RICS qualification" (RICS, 2003) including a proposal to introduce a mandatory postgraduate business qualification for newly qualified surveyors. The detailed proposal met with opposition from a range of stakeholders. However there appeared to be significant support for the concept of improving the management skills of graduate surveyors. The controversial aspects appeared to be the delivery methods and the definition of the appropriate content in a 'one size fits all' package. The paper is drawn from the findings of a dissertation that examined by means of questionnaires to the differing stakeholder perspectives of employers, educators and students in one UK location, across a range of surveying professional disciplines. The paper provides an opportunity to explore and debate the difficulties in meeting the needs of a complex and wide ranging profession, whilst illustrating the importance of the vision of the RICS.
Wilkinson, SJ & Russell, G 2005, 'The emergence of the global workplace: Opportunities and barriers for Building Surveyors in Oceania', Queensland University of Technology Research Week International Conference, QUT Research Week 2005 - Conference Proceedings.
Bucknall Austin Plc, Carver Street, Sheffield, UK The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) the professional body representing surveyors in the UK, has implemented a policy to globalise in order to meet the challenges and opportunities the global marketplace was creating for its members as well as protecting and serving its interests (RICS, 1999). Quantity surveyors had a presence and history of employment outside the UK, particularly in the Middle and Far East. Real estate surveyors found the transition to working in European Union (EU) countries relatively straightforward and numerous UK real estate organisations have European, Asian, North American and Oceanic offices. Additionally UK based firms establishing partnerships with overseas real estate firms expanded significantly over the previous decade. Building Surveying is different. Small numbers worked in commonwealth countries but in most countries their professional and academic qualifications were not recognised. With the changes implemented by the RICS, this paper examines the barriers and opportunities facing RICS Chartered Building Surveyors (CBS) in Oceania (taken as Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Fiji). A desk top study reviewed the political, economic and sociological variables affecting employment opportunities and professional services which were put to the RICS Oceania Building Surveying Faculty. No previous study had been undertaken to identify the specific barriers and opportunities in Oceania for the BS and this research adopted a census survey of RICS practitioners currently employed in the region and the results form the most comprehensive picture of the current position. The findings are that some of the opportunities and barriers will change in significance over time. The main barriers to growth were perceived as lack of support from a Euro focussed RICS and the difficulties associated with being perceived as outsiders. Opportunities were perceived as emerging in ne...
ZHOU, WJ, BRUNNER, W & WILKINSON, S 1991, 'FULL INTEGRATION OF REMOTE-SENSING FUNCTIONALITIES INTO A VECTOR BASED GIS', GIS/LIS 91 PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1 AND 2, 1991 GIS/LIS CONF ( GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS/LAND INFORMATION SYSTEMS ), AMER CONGRESS SURVEYING & MAPPING, ATLANTA, GA, pp. 795-804.
Wilkinson, SJ, 'Edible Walls', Sydney Design 2013, Powerhouse Museum Harris Street.
The exhibition comprised two vertical wall installations from UTS with supporting text. I worked with Judith Freidlander ISF, Berto Pandolfo and Lindsay Page DAB.
Thomas, L, Wyndham, J, Huete, A, Woods, A, Tran, N, Runck, M, Nguyen, H, Wilkinson, S, Biloria, N & Dwyer, S University of Technology Sydney 2020, Fairwater Living Laboratory Milestone 2 Report, pp. 1-89, Sydney Australia.
The overarching aim of the Fairwater Living Laboratory project is to ascertain whether Fairwater, a new housing development by Frasers Property in Blacktown, Sydney NSW delivers predicted sustainability, resilience, wellbeing and commerciality benefits. When completed Fairwater will include up to 850 homes. This report to funding body sets out research outcomes for Year 1 of the three year study for House Performance, Network Demand and Impact Study and Urban Heat Island.
Wilkinson, S & Sayce, S Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors 2019, Energy efficiency and residential values: a changing European landscape, pp. 1-35, London UK.
The aim of this insight paper is to provide valuers and other interested stakeholders with an overview of the impact of energy efficiency on the value of residential property in Europe, whether that housing stock is owner-occupied, rented within the private sector or social housing. It considers the role of the valuer and how, through their data collection and reporting processes, they can play a part in promoting a more energy efficient housing stock.
To achieve these aims, it reviews the context within which energy efficiency is rising up the European regulatory agenda and the impact that this is having on value drivers. Through a review of academic literature and consideration of the wider context, it provides a set of recommendations for valuers of residential properties to assist them with considering how energy efficiency is beginning to influence property values. This understanding can then enhance their advice to clients
Irga, P, Wilkinson, S, Allan, P, Torpy, F, Douglas, A & Pettit, T Hort Innovation 2019, DIY laneway greening – simplifying vertical greening at a community level. Milestone Report 1., no. GC17002, Sydney, Australia.
The objective of this report is to establish an enabling environment to facilitate the uptake of vertical greening systems, more commonly known as 'Green Walls', within urban environments at a community level. To achieve this, a coherent framework will be provided, that will provide guidance on planning, designing and managing a green wall within community space. This project is a collaborative enterprise that unites academia, government and community know-how to produce a complete, practical and inclusive means of enabling the expansion of urban greening.
Final report on Green Cities 15001 project examining whether mandatory or voluntary apporaches will deliver more green roofs in Australia.
Corkery, L, Davies, P, Nipperess, D, Barnett, G, Bishop, M, Hochuli, D, Hose, G, Joei, LC, Lin, B, Keane, A, Osmond, P, Pelleri, N, Staas, L, Threlfall, C & Van den Berg, F 2017, Blueprint for Living Cities: Policy to Practice, pp. 1-72, NSW.
Lamond, J, Bhattacharya Mis, N, Chan, F, Kreibach, H, Burrell, M, Proverbs, D & Wilkinson, SJ The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors 2017, Flood risk mitigation and commercial property advice: an international comparison, pp. 1-48, London UK.
The appropriate and effective management of commercial property at risk of flooding demands well-targeted and informed advice from building
professionals. RICS professionals can, in particular, provide advice in order to reduce the severity of loss, damage and disruption caused by flooding. However, the range of advice needed and the skills and knowledge required to deliver this guidance remains an elusive matter on which there has been a dearth of research until now. Previous research,
albeit limited, indicates that the role of built environment professionals in providing this advice has been restricted due to a variety of real and
Wilkinson, SJ, Brown, P & Ghosh, S Horticulture Innovation Australia 2017, Expanding The Living Architecture In Australia, Expanding The Living Architecture In Australia, no. 3, pp. 1-54, Sydney Australia.
This final report sets out the findings of the business case analysis of whether a voluntary or mandatory approach to green roofs and walls would work best in Australia It uses Sydney and Melbourne as examples to model data.
Wilkinson, SJ, Ghosh, S & Pelleri, N Horticulture Innovation Australia 2017, Green walls and roofs: A mandatory or voluntary approach for Australia? Literature, Green walls and roofs: A mandatory or voluntary approach for Australia? Literature Review, no. 1, pp. 1-54, Sydney Australia.
A review of literature on mandatory and voluntary approaches to the delivery of green roofs and walls (GRGW) globally. The key findings and patterns emerging around;
Drivers for living architecture (LA) GRGW.
As cities grow, increases in GHG emissions, air pollution, impervious surfaces urban temperatures, loss of tree canopy cover and land for food production. LA can mitigate the negative aspects. GRGW have social, economic, health and environmental benefits.
Barriers are social, economic, technological and environmental. Costs are a significant barrier and lack of construction industry experience. Industry and BE professional capacity is in developing phase and not fully ready to implement on a larger scale. Training and skill development needed.
There is significant potential to retrofit existing buildings, feasibility determined partly by structural capacity to sustain additional loads and; this needs to be more fully understood by stakeholders. Lack of policy and regulations to integrate LA practices in new build and retrofit.
No consistent policy approach found in Australia. No states have GRGW policy (COS & COM councils have policies for LGAs. NSW, Vic, SA & WA have guidelines and policies referring to GRGW. Overall a lack of policy to promote LA.
US Cost Benefit Analysis found a viable case for large-scale retrofit of GR. Increases in residential property value with green infrastructure between 6 to 15%, (AECOM, 2017).
Wide-scale adoption of GR in Toronto could attenuate the UHI by 0.5 to 5o C - as heatwave is a resilience issue for Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide, wide-scale adoption could be beneficial.
Wilkinson, SJ, Ghosh, S, Pelleri, N, Brown, P & Soco, S Horticulture Innovation Australia 2017, Green walls and roofs: A mandatory or voluntary approach for Australia? Case Studies., Green walls and roofs: A mandatory or voluntary approach for Australia? Case Studies., no. 2, pp. 1-50, Sydney Australia.
This report comprises cases studies of 5 international cities to ascertain the issues around delivery of green walls and green roofs. It analyses whether mandatory or voluntary approaches have been adopted and the amounts of GRGW delivered as a result.
Wilkinson, SJ, Knott, J, Goddard, JG, Craft, L, willers, M & paul, M Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors 2016, RICS Best Practice Guidance Note on Green Roofs and Green Walls, RICS Best Practice Guidance Note on Green Roofs and Green Walls, no. 1, pp. 1-36, UK.
This is a best practice guidance note for professional surveyors globally. RICS has 140,000 members globally who have access to the guidance note. The guide tkaes practitioners through the key questions and issues they need to address when advising clients with respect to green roofs and green walls.
Wilkinson, SJ Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors 2014, Building Permits and Sustainability: A method for measuring the uptake of sustainability in the built environment over time., pp. 1-38, www.rics.org.
The built environment emits 40% of total greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change through sustainable adaptation is a priority. Typically 1 to 2% is added to the total building stock annually and around 87% of the stock most developed countries will have in 2050, is already built. It follows that precise data in respect of the sustainability measures incorporated into new and existing buildings is recorded and quantified. The benefits are that built environment related GHG reductions may be measured and quantified over time and that policy and regulations may be made more efficient and their effectiveness may be enhanced due the basis of empirical evidence. Cities such as Melbourne, Australia have adopted carbon neutral strategies to deliver emissions reductions which are largely directed to building adaptation. Melbourne aims to be carbon neutral by 2020 and has a target of 1,200 sustainable retrofits to deliver 38% GHG reductions. Whilst some owners use tools to demonstrate sustainability, most do not. Furthermore these sustainable adaptations and new builds number so few they will not deliver sufficient reductions. Predictions of significant increases in gas and electricity consumption in buildings present challenges to policy makers, professional practitioners and the community at large and a method of calculating all building related carbon emissions is required. The framework for quantifying emissions reductions in the total building stock over time is fragmented and largely undeveloped. Existing efforts largely focus on individual buildings. This research examines the viability of measuring and quantifying the uptake of sustainability in the built environment over time. The research comprised a series of focus groups staged in the England and Australia during 2012 and 2013 with policy makers, practitioners and regulators.
Wilkinson, SJ, Proverbs, D, Lamond, J & Rose, C Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors 2014, Retrofit of Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUDS) in CBD for improved flood mitigation, pp. 1-56, London UK.
Flood damage was estimated to cost A$20bn in Australia in 2011 and in 2007 in England flooding cost businesses £0.75bn. Surface water flash flooding has been driven by higher incidence of intense pluvial events; the lack of permeability in high-density areas; and the inadequacy of Central Business District drainage systems constructed to cope with different weather patterns and buildings. In the light of future uncertainties, continued reliance on piped drainage systems is creating unsustainable demands for ever-greater capacity, or the creation of underground storage facilities. As an alternative to expanding the existing grey infrastructure Water Sensitive Urban Drainage (SUDS) in are being advocated and legislated for.
This research examined the potential for mitigation of pluvial flooding in CBDs through retrofitting of WSUDS. Two case study areas explored the challenges and opportunities for retrofit of WSUDS in cities with varying climate zones, urban design and governmental regimes. The contribution is to provide empirical data and knowledge in the emerging area of retrofit of WSUDS and provide material to build capacity to contribute to improved drainage and flood mitigation for commercial property. Software was developed to model the Bureau of Meteorology data of actual flood events.
The significance of this research is that it shows that retrofit is sometimes needed outside flooded areas. It was shown that stormwater flooding can be slowed significantly by wide-scale retrofit and that policy makers could save money and disruption to city inhabitants through adoption. It provides a framework for others to follow to examine retrofit potential in their cities.
Wilkinson, SJ RICS 2013, Sustainable Urban Retrofit Evaluation, pp. 1-66, London.
This research updates the 2011 study by Assoc. Professor Sara Wilkinson on the importance of environmental retrofitting of commercial buildings in the Melbourne, Australia. This second study seeks to gain a deeper understanding of improvements made to the building stock through the City of Melbourne's 1200 Buildings Program. Adaptation of the existing building stock is an essential component in attempts to mitigate the effects of global warming, given that 87% of the stock that will be here in 2050 is already built and secondly that 40% of all greenhouse gas emissions are derived from the built environment. In Australia the majority of Australian stock has been designed with little or no consideration of energy efficiency and sustainable retrofit become more of an imperative going forward. In 2008 the City of Melbourne launched the 1200 Buildings Program as a key strategy to deliver carbon neutrality by 2020. In retrofit multiple attributes are important and they can be labelled as economic, location and land use, physical legal, and social. The question is; which attributes are of most importance in office building retrofits? This research provides answers to this question in the context of the Melbourne stock. Significantly this study examined all CBD retrofits from 2009 to 2011 to establish which attributes were of most importance. The findings show that legislation aimed at integrating sustainability into the built environment through the Building Code of Australia and Mandatory Disclosure is having an impact on retrofits.
Wilkinson, SJ 2018, 'Tough Questions', RICS, London UK, pp. 24-25.
Resilience is acomplex concept, with multiple attributes and levels of
interpretation. However, we can get a better understanding of it by asking
the following five questions.
Who determines what is desirable for an urban system or building? Whose
resilience is prioritised, and who is included or excluded?
What should the system or building be resilient against? What networks or sectors are included in the urban system, and is the focus on generic resilience or resilience to a specific threat?
When is the focus on rapid or on slow-onset disturbances; on short-term or long-term resilience; and on the resilience of existing generations or
Where are the boundaries of the urban system? Is the resilience of some
areas prioritised over that of others, and does building resilience in some areas affect others?
Why is there a need for resilience? Is the focus on the intended outcome, or on the policies and strategies used to achieve this?
This article outlines the important questions surveyors need to ask themselves and their clients to ensure buildings are protected
Wilkinson, SJ & Osmond, PO 2018, 'Building Resilience in Urban Settlements', Emerald, pp. 334-336.
Guest editorial for special issue
The 2018 global population of 7.65bn is predicted to reach 9.7bn in 2050. Urban growth is accelerated as more people survive to reproductive age, fertility rates change and migration rates intensify. Climate change is varying existing weather patterns, some of which are life threatening and socially, environmentally and economically devastating. These trends have far-reaching implications for future generations.
We need effective planning and governance to deliver transition across all levels, scales and types of development from building to city scale, ensuring infrastructure can support growing populations, changing land uses and new technologies. With adaptation of existing areas to accommodate more people, and as land uses undergo change, we need to consider optimum levels of sustainable development that includes, at the building level, different types and degrees of new development, adaptation and adaptive reuse. Taking action now is embodied in the concept of building resilience to future events. Resilience implies capacity to respond to both chronic stresses or acute shocks, which can be social, economic and environmental, or combinations thereof.
Wilkinson, SJ, Chan, F & Lamond, J 2018, 'Head above water.', RICS Property Journal, pp. 22-23.
Article for professional surveyors globally reporting research outcomes of funded RICS project on risks to property from flooding.
She is an RICS Research Trustee and a trustee for the Australian Property Institute’s research and education committees, a member of the RICS Oceania Education Standards Board, and a member and secretary of the PRRES Board. She was a national reviewer for Part J (Energy Efficiency) of the Building Code of Australia in 2019. Sara is the Regional Editor for International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, a member of the editorial board for Building Research & Information, and an editorial board member for the Journal of Sustainable Real Estate, among others. She is on the TEQSA Experts database for property education and is a former member of the technical advisory groups for the Climateworks Deep Decarbonisation Futures: Innovation Scenarios for Net Zero Emissions and the Climateworks and Australian Sustainable Built Environment Council’s Building Code Energy Performance Trajectory Project.