Pugalia, S, Sai, LP & Cetindamar Kozanoglu, D 2020, 'Personal networks' influence on student entrepreneurs: A qualitative study', International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, pp. 1-25.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The present study focuses on students who have conceptualised the business idea during their academic studies and created the business venture during or within two years after graduation. The extant literature identifies social networks as a key factor not only for opportunity recognition but also for start-up survival. This study expands the knowledge about the roles of personal networks within the context of student entrepreneurs. By conducting focus group, interviews, and a survey at a top-ranked technological institute of higher learning in India, the current study analysed the role played by the personal networks in facilitating and enabling the creation of a venture by student entrepreneurs. Our study shows (1) student entrepreneurs' expectations from their personal networks are grouped under 10 topics, (2) the hierarchy of these roles indicates the triggering impact of business networking with a final outcome of motivational support, and (3) the degree which these expectations are realised show that business networking, venture financing and the founding team formation are the most important roles in the actual start-up phase. The present empirical study is an earliest attempt to address the gap in the entrepreneurship literature pertaining to analysing student entrepreneurs' perspectives on the role of personal networks during start-up. With theoretical and practical implications, this study tries to enrich the entrepreneurship literature.
Although the number of women-owned firms is growing, there still remains the gap in the technology sector. The purpose of the present study is to explore the barriers faced by women-entrepreneurs due to their immigrant and ethnicity status. The paper presents a literature review in order to shed light on the possible causes of the lower number of women immigrant entrepreneurs particularly in high-tech sectors. Given the human, financial and network disadvantages faced by women vis-a-vis men, the immigrant status escalates the barriers further and create additional layer of "glass ceiling" to pass for women who want to start a technology-based venture. In other words, immigrant women face a set of invisible barriers to advancement in their entrepreneurial career in high-technology sectors. The paper points out the existence of barriers and calls for researchers to find out ways to tear down these glass ceilings in order to empower woman and support their contribution to society as UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development argues.
This paper presents our review of the literature and industry reports in relation to attempts to quantify and measure entrepreneurial ecosystems. Public interest and research on entrepreneurial ecosystems (EEs) has exploded in recent years, with many different conceptualisations of EEs. How they are opera-tionalised and quantified remains a challenge. However, having a reliable metric for the state or health of an EE remains of great interest to policy makers and researchers alike. In this study, we review the emerg-ing literature on EEs with a focus on attempts to quantify what they are and how they work. While there is an emerging concesus or synthesis of what EEs are, the literature and reports on their quantification remain scattered. Many quantitative studies are based on the practicality of using data with very limited availability. Others use macro-level or aggregated individual level data to make inferences about what occurs at the level of the firm, their immediate network, or how these interactions play out across the ecosystem across a very diverse set of actors. While startups are the primary outcome and primary stakeholder in EEs, the broader literature recognises that startups do not operate in isolation, and that their emergence depends on the actions and interaction with other stakeholders, such as larger corpora-tions, universities, government and other incumbents. A single-minded obsession about the number of startups and their fundings deprives policy makers and researchers the ability to study the whole system or context in which they exist and create jobs, wealth and innovations.