Roslyn Appleby is a senior lecturer in the School of Education. She has qualifications in architectural science, visual arts, and second language education. She has been involved in applied linguistics and language education for many years, in both the private and public education sectors. At UTS she works across adult education, applied linguistics and TESOL. Her research interests include the politics of language, gender, and sexuality; political discourse analysis; posthumanism and postcolonial feminist geographies.
Roslyn’s research has been published in a wide range of fields including gender and sexuality; teacher identity; critical applied linguistics; post-colonialism; and place-based education. Her book, ELT, Gender and International Development: Myths of Progress in a Neocolonial World (opens an external site), draws on the narratives of white women as English language teachers in the neocolonial world of international development. It explores the paradoxes of language as aid, and questions the mythical power of English to deliver on the promises of a brighter future for the developing world. Her book on Men and Masculinities in Global English Language was published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2014. Her latest book, Sexing the Animal in a Posthumanist World: A Critical Feminist Approach was published by Routledge in 2019.
Can supervise: YES
- Posthumanism and human-animal relationships
- Gender and Sexuality
- English as a Global Language
- Critical Applied Linguistics
- Language Teaching in International Development
- Multiliteracy and Multimodality
- Research Literacies
- Teaching Academic English
Appleby, R 2019, Sexing the Animal in a Post-Humanist World A Critical Feminist Approach.
This pioneering collection of essays unpacks the complex discursive and embodied relationships between humans and animals, contributing to a more informed understanding of both human-animal relations and the role of language in social ...
For believers in the power of English, language as aid can deliver the promise of a brighter future; but in a neocolonial world of international development, a gulf exists between belief and reality. Rich with echoes of an earlier colonial era, this book draws on the candid narratives of white women teachers, and situates classroom practices within a broad reading of the West and the Rest. What happens when white Western men and women come in to rebuild former colonies in Asia? How do English language lessons translate, or disintegrate, in a radically different world? How is English teaching linked to ideas of progress? This book presents the paradoxes of language aid in the twenty-first century in a way that will challenge your views of English and its power to improve the lives of people in the developing world.
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd This paper addresses the ways in which the teaching of English for academic purposes by ‘Western’ teachers in Japanese higher education institutions is shaped by gender and sexuality. The paper draws on findings from a 5 year ethnographic study of white Western teachers of English in Japan. Drawing on interview data with 18 male participants, the paper points to the way elite status is attached to the teaching of English for academic purposes (TEAP) in contrast with teaching general English; the way TEAP is reproduced as a male-dominated activity among English-native-speaker teachers; and the way white Western men teaching in these contexts display an enhanced professional masculinity. Discourses articulated by the men also serve to position gendered Others as illegitimate or unworthy participants in TEAP. Although the men's accounts tend to frame TEAP as a rational, disembodied, asexual occupation, the paper argues that gender and sexuality are deployed as identity gatekeeping tools that serve to police the borders of academic English as an elite, male-dominated professional category. In closing, I make proposals for transformation of gendered hierarchies in this context, but these would require shifts in deep-seated cultural, institutional, and interpersonal gender ideologies.
Appleby, R & Pennycook, AD 2017, 'Swimming with Sharks, Ecological Feminism and Posthuman Language Politics', Critical Inquiry in Language Studies: an international journal, vol. 14, no. Issue 2-3: Re-examining and Re-envisioning Criticality in Language Studies, pp. 239-261.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The critical project the authors propose overturns the assumptions of human centrality that have underpinned much educational thought and practice, questions the ways in which the human and nonhuman are defined, and opens up new forms of engagement with the material, corporeal, and affective world. The authors ask how critical language studies can be rethought to incorporate a better understanding of the place of humans in the more-than-human world. They discuss the growing body of work that connects concern with the environment with other forms of political activism, particularly through an ecological feminist lens. Bringing this discussion back to focus on the place of language and pedagogy in human exceptionalism, the authors explore ways in which alternative understandings of human relations to the more-than-human material world can reorient the logocentricity of critical language studies toward different forms of critical engagement and entangled pedagogies.
Appleby, RJ 2016, 'Researching privilege in language teacher identity', TESOL Quarterly: a journal for teachers of English to speakers of other languages and of standard English as a second dialect, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 755-768.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In a seminal book on researching language and identity, Cameron,
Frazer, Harvey, and Rampton (1992) observed that “an enormous
proportion of all social research is conducted on populations of relatively
powerless people” (p. 2). In research on teacher identity, this
focus on socially and professionally disadvantaged, marginalised, or
vulnerable groups has changed little over succeeding decades. Within
our profession, for example, a major focus in TESOL teacher identity
research over recent years has been the marginalisation experienced
by nonnative-English-speaker (NNES) teachers and teachers of colour.
In contrast, relatively little explicit attention has been paid to researching
privilege—and its means of reproduction—as a factor in teacher
identity. As a consequence, there are few explicit guidelines that help researchers when investigating and writing about teachers who may
enjoy certain privileges inherent in the TESOL profession, including
the privileges attached to whiteness, native-English-speaker (NES) status,
and Inner Circle (Kachru, 1997) origin. This brief article considers
particular challenges that face a researcher when “looking up with
our academic gaze” (Aguiar, 2012, p. 9) to focus on teacher participants
(sometimes referred to as ‘informants’ or ‘subjects’) whose positioning
as TESOL teachers is marked, at least in part, by privilege
Nelson, CD & Appleby, RJ 2015, 'Conflict, militarization and their after-effects: Key challenges for TESOL', TESOL Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 309-332.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Skyrocketing military spending, ongoing military conflicts, and human displacement worldwide have significant consequences for the teaching and learning of English. TESOL increasingly requires a robust research base that can provide informed, critical guidance in preparing English language teachers for work in and near conflict zones, for teaching refugees and asylum seekers, and, more broadly, for teaching English in highly militarized times. This investigation, which takes the form of a transdisciplinary, translocal literature review, consolidates and extends TESOL's peace-conflict studies through a close examination of two areas that are connected but rarely considered in tandem: TESOL's multiple involvements and entanglements in armed and militarized conflicts and their aftermath, and the challenges of teaching English in a conflict zone or for students who have escaped or been exiled from one. Implications for pedagogy and further research are suggested. The argument is, in short, that the dialectical relationship between TESOL and conflict is in urgent need of collegial scrutiny, that teachers need to be equipped to facilitate critical and creative engagement with English not apart from broader sociopolitical realities but in relation to these, and that the implications of conflict for language learning are relevant across the wider TESOL community, given world developments.
Appleby, R 2014, 'White Western male teachers constructing academic identities in Japanese higher education', Gender and Education, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 776-793.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In research on gender and teaching in higher education, the experiences of male teachers as men, and of whiteness in a non-majority-white context have received little attention. As one step towards addressing this gap in the literature, this paper analyses interview accounts of white Western men working as English language teachers in Japanese higher education. The paper demonstrates, first, ways in which disembodied academic identities are constructed by erasing the men's racialised gender and sexuality. Second, it shows how favourable images of white Western male teachers are produced through a series of negative contrasts based on gender and race. Third, it suggests that men's homosocial networks may serve to facilitate male predominance in the Japanese university system. The analysis contributes to current understandings about the construction of white Western masculinities in academic institutions, in international education, and in English language teaching as a globalised industry.
This article reports on a study of Western male English language teachers and considers the ways in which their identities were shaped in relation to discourses of masculinity and heterosexuality. The article first argues that masculinity and heterosexuality have remained unmarked categories in research on TESOL teacher identities. It then draws on interview data with 11 White Australian men and considers the discourses of gender and sexuality in their accounts of English language teaching in Japanese commercial eikaiwa gakkô (English language conversation schools). The analysis suggests that although some enjoy the privileges that attach to being a White, Western male, they also struggle to negotiate the eikaiwa gakkô as a contact zone where the professional and personal, the educational and commercial, the pedagogical and the sexual coexist. In this ambiguous space, discourses of White male embodiment, and of sexualised desire between teacher and student, are perceived to be in conflict with discourses of an acceptable masculine professional identity, and may limit the professional and pedagogical aspirations of the male teachers. The article concludes that it is timely for conversations about gender and sexuality as aspects of professional identity to include accounts of masculinity and heterosexuality as integral to professional practice in TESOL.
Appleby, RJ 2013, 'Singleness, Marriage, and the Construction of Heterosexual Masculinities: Australian Men Teaching English in Japan', Portal Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-21.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This article reports on a study of Australian men and their accounts of living and working in Japan as English language teachers. In this site, recent research has explored Japanese discourses of desire for the West, Western men, and English language learning. These patterns of desire have afforded white Western men a privileged personal and professional status in Japan, and enabled access to employment opportunities as teachers of English language. At the same time, white Western men working as English language teachers face the challenge of negotiating competing discourses that threaten their social status. In particular, their employment in a lowly-regarded profession and a reputation for sexual promiscuity potentially position Western male language teachers as the âwhite trashâ of Asia. My analysis of interview data focuses on the ways in which the men negotiate these discourses, and construct ârespectableâ Western heterosexual masculinities by mobilising a binary distinction between singleness and marriage. Marriage to a Japanese spouse is presented as a bulwark against alignment with problematic discourses that threaten the status of white masculinity: it is associated with fidelity and maturity, and with integration into Japanese social, linguistic and professional communities. However, the articulation of marital status also reinforces a marginalised position for teachers who do not conform to heteronormative expectations.
Appleby, RJ 2010, '`A Bit of a Grope': Gender, Sex and Racial Boundaries in Transitional East Timor', Portal Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The promotion of gender equality has, in recent decades, been a central concern in international development projects, and is enshrined in international agreements and commitments including the Millennium Development Goals. Yet the enactment of these goals in the intercultural contact zone of development has been problematic, as development workers struggle to balance sometimes-contradictory discourses of gender equality and tolerance for cultural difference. For white women working in development, this struggle can be particularly difficult. On the one hand, women may be marginalised within the patriarchal culture of international development and, at the same time, find themselves the target of local mens hostility and aggression.
This paper explores some of the challenges faced by EAP teachers as they address gender issues that arise when teaching in a non-Western cultural context. It draws on interviews with four Australian teachers regarding their experiences in delivering EAP programs in East Timor as part of an international aid effort, and focuses on critical incidents in which gender was perceived as an issue in classroom practice. Through these incidents, we see the ways in which teachers navigated the competing claims of gender equity and cultural sensitivity in the pedagogic domain of the classroom. A spatial analysis is proposed as a means of exploring the teachers' accounts and as a means of countering the temporal narratives of progress that shape conventional discourses of development, EAP and gender equality. The paper concludes that the teachers' racial and economic position, and their status as cultural outsiders, affects the ways in which they can speak and act on issues of gender.
Appleby, RJ 2009, 'Unruly Others: Language Teachers and the Policing of Gender in International Development', The Journal and Proceedings of the Gender Awareness in Language Education special interest group of JALT, vol. 2, no. Gender Awa, pp. 4-14.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper considers the policing of gender as a dimension of English language teachers` experiences in international development work. I argue that international development zones have tended to reproduce the patriarchal regimes of an earlier colonial era and provide a challenging context for a (mostly) feminised language teaching profession. Just as colonial space, away from the safety of home, was primarily constructed as a domain of masculine endeavour, so too contemporary development missions, particularly in areas designated as politically unstable, produce a masculine domain that marginalises =unruly others` defined by gender and race.
Appleby, RJ 2008, 'Negotiating Gender Globally: GALE SIG Interview with Roslyn Appleby', The Language Teacher, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 9-12.
Appleby, RJ 2006, 'Mobilising and disabling the desire for empowerment: English and the transition to independence in East Timor', Southeast Asia: A Multidisplinary Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 3-12.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Appleby, RJ, Copley, K, Sithirajvongsa, S & Pennycook, AD 2002, 'Language in Development Constrained: Three Contexts', TESOL Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 323-346.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Appleby, RJ 2001, 'English languge and East Timor: globalisation and local identity', Australian Language Matters, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 6-10.
Appleby, R 2017, 'Addressing Sexual Moralities in ELT Materials: When Diverse Cultures Meet' in Widodo, HP, Perfecto, MR, Van Canh, L & Buripakdi, A (eds), Situating Moral and Cultural Values in ELT Materials The Southeast Asian Context, Springer, Germany, pp. 15-28.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This chapter is concerned with the way sexual moralities and values are addressed in the design of English language teaching (ELT) materials. It discusses the shortcomings of commercial ELT materials available to address sensitive topics, and illustrates the challenges and possibilities of engaging with gender and sexuality through a case study of ELT for development aid in Timor Leste. In this example, teachers and students with vastly different cultural and moral outlooks pool their resources and expertise to design their own materials and investigate a sensitive issue of local concern. The chapter concludes that where language classrooms bring together participants with diverse backgrounds, such issues need to be recognised and negotiated with care, and teachers need to be mindful of their own cultural values and biases when using or designing teaching materials.
Appleby, R 2017, 'Environmental fragility and ELT' in Erling, EJ (ed), English across the fracture lines: the contribution and relevance ofEnglish to security, stability and peace, British Council, UK, pp. 49-56.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
John Kerry’s statement was made at a conference on
global leadership in the Arctic and focused, in part,
on the dire effects of climate change in that region.
In this part of his address, Kerry refers to the
challenges posed by recent refugee movements
from the Middle East into Europe, ostensibly as a
consequence of ‘extremism’, and suggests that
climate change and environmental degradation will
lead to even greater instability, violent conflict and
movements of people across the globe in the near
future. In this chapter, I explore some of these
complex links between environmental degradation
and migration, and consider the implications for
English language education to promote
environmental awareness and intercultural
understanding, and to work towards stability and
sustainability in a fragile world.
Appleby, R 2017, 'Occidental romanticism and English language education' in Rivers, DJ & Zotzman, K (eds), Isms in Language Education Oppression, Intersectionality and Emancipation, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, Berlin, pp. 249-266.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This chapter examines the effects of occidental romanticism in English language education, with a special focus on the context of Japan. The chapter begins by defining key concepts, and then reviews a body of research literarùre pertaining to the topic. In the third section I draw on my own study of western men working as English language educators in Japan, before concluding with a discussion of the broader effects of occidental romanticism in English language education
Appleby, RJ 2017, 'Dealing with controversial findings' in McKinley, J & Rose, H (eds), Doing Research in Applied Linguistics Realities, dilemmas, and solutions, Routledge, UK, pp. 203-213.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Qualitative studies in applied linguistics often rely on interviews as key research tools designed to generate data that illuminate participants’ views, opinions, and experiences. As such, interviews are frequently a central feature of ethnographies, case studies, action research and narrative inquiries (Talmy & Richards 2011). However, some opinions and behaviours reported by participants in interviews, or recorded in observational field notes may be quite confronting or unpalatable in that they transgress the views of the researcher or may potentially offend a wider audience who may eventually read the research findings. This is especially true of much sociolinguistic research, which traverses topics such as nationality, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, identity, language beliefs, attitudes and learner behaviours. For example, participants’ views or behaviours may be perceived by the researcher as racist or sexist, they may reveal interviewees’ involvement in questionable or illegal activities, or they may pertain to issues and experiences that are deeply personal, intimate, emotionally charged, or taboo. Research of this sort is often referred to as ‘sensitive’ and requires careful negotiation by the researcher (Cohen, Manion & Morrison 2013). In this chapter, I discuss my own experiences of dealing with controversial findings in an extended research project that led to multiple publications and I draw out some general points that are intended to guide other researchers when negotiating similarly sensitive topics
Appleby, RJ 2015, 'Julia Gillard: A Murderous Rage' in Wilson, J & Boxer, D (eds), Discourse, Politics and Women as Global Leaders, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Netherlands, pp. 149-167.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter charts the political career of Julia Gillard, Australia’s first female Prime Minister (2010-2013), and argues that three intertwined discourses of gender have shaped how she was perceived and represented in the political domain and in the media. First, Gillard was faced with the challenge such as the double bind, by which female leaders are expected to demonstrate qualities stereotypically associated with masculinity, and at the same time, to display qualities stereotypically associated with femininity, such as warmth, nurturance and empathy. Second, Gillard faced sexist abuse in politics and media which labeled her as an unintelligible being. Third, in acts of strategic essentialism, Gillard condemned the misogyny she endured, repositioning herself as a coherent political force and marking the re-emergence of feminism in Australian politics.
Appleby, RJ 2015, 'Seeing 'language and development' play out in classroom interaction' in Markee, N (ed), The handbook of classroom discourse and interaction, John Wiley & Sons, UK, pp. 475-489.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This chapter explores classroom interaction in the context of international development programs. The first part of the chapter presents a critical perspective on international development as a context for classroom interaction. From a critical perspective, development contexts—characterised by poverty, conflict, and international intervention—can be understood as domains for the workings of power and knowledge. Development contexts are seen to establish hierarchies at macro and micro levels: between donor and host nations, between provider and recipient organisations, and between teachers and students in the development classroom. Each of these parties may have different visions of development, and these visions may entail different expectations about whose interests and priorities will prevail in the language classroom. The second part of the chapter examines the ways in which these characteristics of development are played out in classroom interactions by examining a series of ethnographic accounts from a language and development program in postcolonial Timor Leste. These accounts of classroom interaction demonstrate how that different understandings of development are brought into the classroom, and point to the unfolding workings of power in classroom relationships. The chapter closes with a critical review of recent research in the arena of classroom practices in language and international development programs
Appleby, RJ 2015, 'Textual representations and transformations in teacher masculinity' in Mills, S & Mustapha, AS (eds), Gender representation in learning materials: international perspectives, Routledge, New York, pp. 105-123.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter focuses on the ways in which classroom texts and background texts mediate language teachers’ construction and performance of a gendered self and, in particular, the performance of a heterosexual, masculine self. The chapter draws on data generated in interviews with Western men in which they discuss their experiences of living and working as English language teachers in Japan’s conversation school industry. In this context, interaction between teachers and students is mediated by two different types of texts: on the one hand, prescriptive classroom texts that provide functional language lessons; and on the other hand, locally circulating texts that discursively represent Western men—including Western male language teachers—as desirable romantic partners for Japanese female language learners. Analysis of the men’s accounts demonstrates the various ways in which these two texts are perceived and deployed, and the ways in which they shape the men’s sense of inhabiting and performing a masculine self.
Appleby, RJ 2009, 'Do we make a difference? Gender and English language teaching in international development' in Chen, H & Cruickshank, K (eds), Making a Difference: Challenges in Applied Linguistics, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle Upon Tyne, pp. 83-96.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In recent years, gender has become an 'overarching principle' of Australia's overseas development aid program (AusAID 2007a, 4) and yet there has been little critical exploration of how this principle is realised in the practices of English language teachers working in international development. Focusing on the intersection of these three fields, language, gender and development, this chapter considers some of the ways in which teachers address issues of gender in a context that is not widely discussed in applied linguistics literature, but exemplifies key issues of concern for language and feminist pedagogies in the postcolonial `contact zone' (Pratt 1992). The chapter represents part of a larger research study (Appleby 2005) that sought to extend understandings of how English language teaching (ELT) fits into the world of international development, and how English language teaching in development is experienced through gender and race.
Appleby, RJ 2009, 'Jane goes to Timor: How time, space and place shape English language teaching in international development' in Somerville, M, Power, K & de Carteret, P (eds), Landscapes and Learning: Place Studies in a Global World, Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 139-152.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This is a travel story - it is specif-ic, particular, and yet situated also in the flows of people, media, languages, disciplines and ideas in a globalised world. It concerns the travel of English language teachers from Australia to work in international aid programs in East Timor; it tells of a teacher's mission, and how that mission was translated into a spatial practice through experiences of embodied engagement in the contact zone (Pratt, J 992). I start the story by outlining the way English language teaching practices arc shaped within dominant narratives that privilege time over space, and then take a closer look at how one teacher slipped the temporal bonds to engage with an embodied sense of place.
Appleby, RJ 2004, 'The political context of English language teaching in East Timor' in Disrupting Preconceptions: Postcolonialism and Education, Post Pressed, Queensland, Australia, pp. 235-249.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Appleby, RJ 2002, 'English and East Timor' in Lo Bianco, J (ed), Voices from Phnom Penh: Language and Development - Global Influences and Local Effects, Language Australia, Melbourne, pp. 23-36.
Appleby, RJ 2014, 'Comfy-shoe-wearing gaijin chicks: Constructions of Western women teaching English in Japan', International Applied Linguistics Association World Congress, Brisbane, Australia.
Appleby, RJ 2013, 'Dating Madame Butterfly: Narrative performances of Western masculinity in Japan', 13th International Pragmatics Association Conference, International-Pragmatics-Association Conference, New Delhi, India.
This paper explores the pragmatic performance and representation of Western masculinity in Japan through an analysis of three multimodal narrative texts from different historical moments. It takes as its starting point the comic strip narrative of Charisma Man (www.charismaman.com), a satire on Western men in contemporary Japan, and compares this comic representation with two archetypal narrative texts: Puccini’s opera, Madama Butterfly, and Hwang’s M. Butterfly. The analysis presented in the paper traces the ways in which Orientalist stereotypes of Western masculinity and Eastern femininity have been performed and reworked over time.
The Charisma Man comic strip series, was published in an English language magazine in Japan between 1998 and 2002, and then again in 2010. The comic narratives represent the pragmatic achievement of Western masculinity in the context of English language teaching in contemporary Japan. In the original comic strip narrative, Charisma Man is presented as a slightly built, rather doleful “average guy,” employed in Canada as a burger cook, and spurned by Western women as an unworthy “geek.” When transported to “planet Japan”, he is miraculously transformed into a tall, blonde, muscular Adonis, and finds himself surrounded by an adoring mob of Japanese women. However, Charisma Man must forever defend himself against his “archenemy, Western woman,” who lurks in the background threatening to unmask this would-be hero. The Charisma Man narrative demonstrates the way performances of masculinity depend on context and the gaze of interlocutors. In the comic strips, Charisma Man is employed as an English language teacher in Japan’s conversation school industry, and this occupational domain offers Charisma Man a variety of situations in which he interacts with Japanese female students, Western female colleagues, and Japanese male employers.
The performative representation of masculinity in the comic narratives can be understood through a comp...
Appleby, RJ 2012, 'The role of English language teaching in international development', The role of English language teaching in international development, The British Council, London.
Appleby, RJ 2012, 'White guys in Asia: Masculinity, heterosexuality and English in japan', Reconsidering Gender in Asian Studies: A Pacific Perspective, Dunedin, New Zealand.
This paper is concerned with gender and ethnicity as aspects of language teacher identity in Asian contexts. Set within a broad historical and theoretical framework of Orientalism and Occidentalism, the paper draws on interview data with white male English language teachers who have lived and worked in Japan, and considers their professional and personal experiences with Japanese women. The interviews take as their starting point a notorious comic strip series appearing in an English language magazine in Japan which featured the licentious figure of ‘Charisma Man’: a stereotypical white Western man, an ‘average guy’ in his native land who becomes something of a superhero when transported to Japan. English language teaching provides a livelihood for Charisma Man, as it does for many white men in Japan, and becomes the site for his relationships not only with Japanese women, but also with his ‘arch-enemy, Western woman’. The paper explores the men’s identification with the Charisma Man stereotype, and discusses their attempts to construct acceptable discourses of masculine heterosexuality in an intercultural language teaching environment. It demonstrates something of the opportunities and challenges experienced by Western men as English language teachers in Japan, and situates these within a broader historical and geopolitical context.
Appleby, RJ 2011, 'Singleness, marriage, and white people in Japan', International Conference on Language, Education and Diversity, Auckland, New Zealand.
This paper reports on a study of 12 white Australian male English language teachers in Japan and focuses, in particular, on the discourses of singleness and marriage the men draw on to position themselves within a normalised trajectory of life-course stages that privileges coupledom as the natural condition of successful adulthood. Analysis of interview data suggests that, as single men, they face the challenge of negotiating acceptable positions in relation to two widely recognised discursive regimes: first, unpalatable discourses of indiscriminate white male promiscuity in Japan; and second, potentially demeaning discourses in which they become undifferentiated, yet highly visible, objects of Occidental desire. In the men’s accounts Japanese women and Western women are also frequently positioned unfavourably as singles who are either aggressively determined, or have miserably failed, to complete their supposed life-course destiny of heterosexual coupledom. Marriage, for the men, is presented as a bulwark against alignment with these problematic discourses of singleness: it confers the appearance of normalcy, and provides an entrée to social, cultural and career security. However, marriage to a Japanese partner brings its own dilemmas as the men actively resist positioning within discourses of Orientalist and Occidentalist desire. As both singles and spouses, the men’s accounts demonstrate an on-going struggle to exercise agency, and to produce discourses of acceptable white masculinity in this intercultural domain.
Appleby, RJ 2010, 'An acceptable masculinity: white men talk about heterosexual relationships in Japan', International Gender and Language Association Conference (IGALA6), Tokyo.
This paper considers the confluence of gender, sexuality, race, and English language in the accounts of white men living and working as English language teachers in Japan. Set against a broad historical trope of white man in Asia, and within theoretical constructs of gender in Orientalism and Occidentalism, the paper draws on interview data in which men reflect on the stereotypical attraction between white men and Japanese women, and the ways in which this attraction plays out in their professional and personal lives.
The interviews take as their starting point the ‘Charisma Man’ comic strip series, published in Japan from the mid-1990s to mid-2000s, which satirises the exploits of an ‘average guy’ from Canada who is transformed into a superhero – at least in the eyes of Japanese women – when transported to Japan. English language teaching provides a livelihood for Charisma Man, as it does for many white men in Japan, and becomes the site for his relationships not only with Japanese women, but also with his ‘arch-enemy, Western woman’. The paper explores the men’s identification with the Charisma Man stereotype, and discusses the discursive construction and negotiation of masculinity and sexuality in intercultural domains.
Appleby, RJ 2009, ''Charisma Man': The discourses of desire and Western men in Japan', Discourses and Cultural Practices, University of Sydney.
Appleby, RJ 2009, 'Looking like predators: gender dimensions of Interfet', Gender and occupations and interventions in the Asia Pacific, 1945 to 2009, University of Wollongong.
Appleby, RJ 2009, 'Reflections on Charisma Man', The Teaching-Learning Dialogue: An Active Mirror. 35th Annual International Conference of Japan Association of Language Teachers, Shizuoka, Japan.
Appleby, RJ 2008, 'Gender politics and language teaching in East Timor', 34th Annual International Conference of the Japanese Association of Language Teaching (JALT), Tokyo.
Individual presentation for the Gender Awareness and Language Education Special Interest Group of JALT
Appleby, RJ 2006, 'Growing a research culture in language, literacy and communications', Intercultural Communications Across University Settings: Myths and Realities, Communication Skills in University Education, Pearson Education, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 263-275.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Within Australian universities, language, literacy and communications (LLC) lecturers have often led a marginal existence: working in a traditionally female dominated field, supporting marginalised students, focusing on pragmatic 'skilIs' rather·than academic 'content', prioritising teaching at the expense a/developing research. In light ofthese conditions, how do LLC lecturers define or describe a research agenda?
Appleby, RJ 2008, 'Unruly others: gender trouble for language teaching in international development', Japanese Association of Language Teaching Annual International Conference, Tokyo.
Invited panel presentation for the JALT Special Interest Group on Gender Awareness and Language Education
Appleby, RJ 2007, 'Do we make a difference? Gender and English language teaching in international development', Applied Linguistics Association of Australia Congress, University of Wollongong.
Appleby, RJ 2007, 'Gender militarisation and language teaching', Discourses and Cultural Practices, University of Technology, Sydney.
Appleby, RJ 2007, 'Gender politics and language teaching in East Timor', King Mongkut's University of Technology, Thonburi, Thailand.
Appleby, RJ 2007, 'Jane goes to Timor: how time, space and place shape English language teaching in international development', Landscapes and Learning: A place pedagogies symposium, Monash University.
Appleby, RJ 2007, 'Not my place: Gender politics and language teaching in East Timor', Trends and Directions. Proceedings of the 12th English in South-East Asia Conference, ESEA 2008, School of Liberal Arts, King Mongkut's University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangkok, King Mongkut's University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangkok, pp. 1-9.
In recent decades the promotion of gender equality has bccome an important aspect of international development programs; however, for English language teachers working in development contexts, incorporaling a gender focus into their English language programs presents significant challenges, This paper draws on interview data with Australian teachers who worked in English language programs in East Timor during periods of United Nations peacekeeping interventions, and discusses their perceptions of gender issues arising both inside and outside the classroom, The teachers' accounts indicate that, beyond a simple quantitative approach, there is considerable uncertainty as to how teachers and students might negotiate gender in a cross-cultural classroom, Bearing in mind the potential problems of cultural imposition, the teachers were reluctant to interpose a set of idealised, externally generated gender norms, and resisted -the role of teacher as a model of supposedly 'superior', Western, gender values
Appleby, RJ & Griffiths, N 2006, 'Getting together in new ways: hybrid academic and professional texts in Humanities and Engineering', Proceedings of the 2006 Tertiary Writing Network Colloquium., Tertiary Writing Network Colloquium, Tertiary Writing Network Colloquium, Napier, New Zealand, pp. 17-29.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Appleby, RJ 2006, 'English educational programming in university and teacher education institutions', Education in Post-Conflict Environments: Challenges and Opportunities, University of New England, Armidale, Australia.
Appleby, RJ 2006, 'English language in East Timor 2000-2002', Asia-Pacific Week, Australian National University, Canberra.
Appleby, RJ 2006, 'Getting together: in bed with the academy', 08/12/2006, Napier, New Zealand.
Appleby, RJ 2006, 'Growing a research culture in language, literacy and communications', 01/12/2006, Auckland, New Zealand.
Appleby, RJ 2006, 'Language teaching in development as a spatial practice', 20/06/2006, Montreal, Canada.
Appleby, RJ 2006, 'Progress, order, action: interdisciplinary understandings of time and English language teaching', 22/9/2006, Macquarie University.
Appleby, RJ 2005, 'English and the transition to independence in East Timor', 10th International English in South East Asia Conference, Brunei.
Appleby, RJ 2005, 'Pushing the boundaries: gender trouble amongst the development community in transitional East Timor', 8th International Women in Asia Conference, University of Technology, Sydney.
Appleby, RJ 2004, 'Productive notions of ambivalence in teaching off-shore', Communicaiton Skills in University Education: The International Dimension, Tonga.
Appleby, RJ 2003, 'Who is Gandhi? Internationalisation and the humanities curriculum', Language and Academic Skills Conference, Flinders University, Adelaide.
Appleby, RJ 2002, 'English and the language matrix in East Timor: global language, local contexts', 13th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Singapore.
Appleby, RJ 2001, 'Disrupting preconceptions of English language teching in postcolonial contexts', International Conference on Postcolonialism and Education, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
Appleby, RJ 2001, 'Globalisation, English and East Timor', 5th International Conference of Language and Development, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
Appleby, RJ 2001, 'Is McEnglish Enough', Proceedings of the 14th English Australia Educational Conference: Innovations in ELICOS for the 21st Century, 14th English Australia Educational Conference: Innovations in ELICOS for the 21st Century, English Australia, Manly, NSW, Australia, pp. 13-16.
Appleby, RJ 2001, 'Is McEnglish Enough? In search of substance in English language teaching in ELICOS', 14th Annual English Australia Educational Conference, Sydney, Australia.
Appleby, RJ 2001, 'The buyers and sellers of knowledge: changing identities of academic learning centres in the age of globalisation', Language and Academic Skills Conference, University of Wollongong, Australia.
Appleby, RJ 2014, 'Romancing the English lesson', International Applied Linguistics Association World Congress, Brisbane, Australia.
This paper discusses the ways in which foreign English language teachers in Japan perceive and respond to Japanese students’ social and romantic desires. A body of existing literature has focused Japanese women’s romantic desires for the West, English language, and Western men, but to date little attention has been given to teachers’ responses to these desires. As part of a larger project that has investigated the construction of masculinity and heterosexuality in global English language teaching, this paper draws on ethnographic and interview data generated in one private English language college in a major Japanese city. It investigates the discourses that circulate about Western male and female teachers’ gendered and sexual allure and performativity, and then discusses the strategies that teachers use to manage, deflect, and negotiate students’ romantic and sexual desires in the course of the language lesson. It also examines teachers accounts of the ways in which the private language colleges harness, exploit, market and control the possibilities for romantic and sexualised relationships between teachers and students. The paper argues that the marketing strategies employed by the language colleges implicitly open up a field of possibilities for social and romantic interactions between teachers and students. Such relationships extend beyond the more conventional, pedagogical understandings of English language teaching as primarily focused on the adoption of methods to promote second language acquisition, and require skilled interpersonal and intercultural strategies that teachers must learn on the job.
Appleby, RJ 2012, 'Dog Days', Animal Companions, Animal Doctors, Animal People, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada, pp. 110-111.