Ronald Shimmon received his PhD from the University of Technology Sydney in 2005 for work investigating the Bipyridyl Endiyne and transition complexes as antitumor and antimalarial agent.He joined UTS in 2003 as professional staff in nuclear magnetic resonance. Then in 2005 he joined forensic science in synthesis of novel fingerprint reagent. Currently are the research manager of chemistry and forensic science at Faculty of Science University of technology Sydney.He has expertise in the design and synthesis of functional molecules together with experience of the characterisation of the impurities in illicit drug. His projects involve the design and synthesis of new fingerprint reagent and identification of impurities in new design illicit drug. He has more than 15 publishing paper and one patent in fingermark detection.He was awarded in 2012 a UTS Vice-chancellor’s in a Career & Professional development for high performing in research.
He has expertise in the design and synthesis of functional molecules together with experience of the characterisation of the impurities in illicit drug.
Heather, E, Shimmon, R & McDonagh, A 2020, 'Organic impurity profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) synthesised from catechol and eugenol via 4-allylcatechol', Forensic Science International, vol. 309.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020 Elsevier B.V. This work examines organic impurity profiles of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that has been synthesised from the "pre-precursors" catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) and eugenol, via a safrole intermediate. MDMA was synthesised from the catechol- and eugenol-derived safrole intermediate via two routes, which resulted in the synthesis of MDMA from catechol via two routes (Route 1A and 1B) and from eugenol via two routes (Route 2A and 2B). Twelve organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Routes 1A and 1B, and eleven organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Routes 2A and 2B. Route specific organic impurities were identified in MDMA that indicated the "pre-precursors" catechol and eugenol were used in the respective synthetic routes. Route specific organic impurities were also identified in MDMA that indicated the route used to synthesise safrole from the "pre-precursor" and the route used to synthesise MDMA from safrole. Thus, the use of the "pre-precursors" catechol and eugenol and the synthetic route utilised could be ascertained by the organic impurity profiling of MDMA under the conditions used here.
Klingberg, J, Cawley, A, Shimmon, R, Fouracre, C, Pasin, D & Fu, S 2020, 'Finding the proverbial needle: Non-targeted screening of synthetic opioids in equine plasma', DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lefrancois, E, Belackova, V, Silins, E, Latimer, J, Jauncey, M, Shimmon, R, Bordin, DM, Augsburger, M, Esseiva, P, Roux, C & Morelato, M 2020, 'Substances injected at the Sydney supervised injecting facility: A chemical analysis of used injecting equipment and comparison with self-reported drug type', DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE, vol. 209.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chen, H, Li, G, Allam, VSRR, Wang, B, Chan, YL, Scarfo, C, Ueland, M, Shimmon, R, Fu, S, Foster, P & Oliver, BG 2020, 'Evidence from a mouse model on the dangers of thirdhand electronic cigarette exposure during early life.', ERJ open research, vol. 6, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Thirdhand exposure to e-cigarette residue is likely to have harmful effects in children http://bit.ly/38a2umw.
Clancy, L, Philp, M, Shimmon, R & Fu, S 2020, 'Development and validation of a color spot test method for the presumptive detection of 25-NBOMe compounds', DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Klingberg, J, Cawley, A, Shimmon, R & Fu, S 2019, 'Collision-Induced Dissociation Studies of Synthetic Opioids for Non-targeted Analysis.', Frontiers in chemistry, vol. 7.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The continual introduction of a large number of new psychoactive substances, along with the large turnover of these substances, necessitates the development of non-targeted detection strategies to keep pace with the ever-changing drug market. The production of certified reference materials often lags behind the introduction of new substances to the market, therefore these detection strategies need to be able to function without relying on reference materials or library spectra. Synthetic opioids have recently emerged as a drug class of particular concern due to the health issues caused by their incredibly high potency. A common method which has been used for non-targeted analysis in the past involves the identification of common product ions formed as a result of the fragmentation of the parent molecule. These common fragments can then potentially be used as markers to indicate the presence of a particular class of compounds within a sample. In this study, standards of a number of different synthetic opioids, including 14 fentanyl derivatives, 7 AH series opioids, 4 U series opioids, 4 W series opioids and MT-45, were subjected to collision-induced dissociation studies to determine how the compounds fragment. The spectra obtained from these studies included a number of diagnostic fragments common to the different opioid classes that, when used in combination, show potential for use as class predictors. By using simple data processing techniques, such as extracted ion chromatograms, these diagnostic product ions identified can be applied to a non-targeted screening workflow.
Daly, CD, Ghosh, P, Badal, T, Shimmon, R, Jenkin, G, Oehme, D, Cooper-White, J, Sher, I, Chandra, RV & Goldschlager, T 2018, 'A Comparison of Two Ovine Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Injury Models for the Evaluation and Development of Novel Regenerative Therapies', Global Spine Journal, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 847-859.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© The Author(s) 2018. Study Design: Large animal research. Objective: Lumbar discectomy is the most commonly performed spinal surgical procedure. We investigated 2 large animal models of lumbar discectomy in order to study the regenerative capacity of mesenchymal stem cells following disc injury. Methods: Twelve adult ewes underwent baseline 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) followed by lumbar intervertebral disc injury by either drill bit (n = 6) or annulotomy and partial nucleotomy (APN) (n = 6). Necropsies were performed 6 months later. Lumbar spines underwent 3-T and 9.4-T MRI prior to histological, morphological and biochemical analysis. Results: Drill bit-injured (DBI) and APN-injured discs demonstrated increased Pfirrmann grades relative to uninjured controls (P <.005), with no difference between the 2 models. Disc height index loss was greater in the APN group compared with the DBI group (P <.005). Gross morphology injury scores were higher in APN than DBI discs (P <.05) and both were higher than controls (P <.005). Proteoglycan was reduced in the discs of both injury models relative to controls (P <.005), but lower in the APN group (P <.05). Total collagen of the APN group disc regions was higher than DBI and control discs (P <.05). Histology revealed more matrix degeneration, vascular infiltration, and granulation in the APN model. Conclusion: Although both models produced disc degeneration, the APN model better replicated the pathobiology of human discs postdiscectomy. We therefore concluded that the APN model was a more appropriate model for the investigation of the regenerative capacity of mesenchymal stem cells administered postdiscectomy.
Daly, CD, Ghosh, P, Zannettino, ACW, Badal, T, Shimmon, R, Jenkin, G, Oehme, D, Jain, K, Sher, I, Vais, A, Cohen, C, Chandra, RV & Goldschlager, T 2018, 'Mesenchymal progenitor cells primed with pentosan polysulfate promote lumbar intervertebral disc regeneration in an ovine model of microdiscectomy', Spine Journal, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 491-506.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Inc. Background Context: Neural compression associated with lumbar disc herniation is usually managed surgically by microdiscectomy. However, 10%–20% of patients re-present with debilitating back pain, and approximately 15% require further surgery. Purpose: Using an ovine model of microdiscectomy, the present study investigated the relative potential of pentosan polysulfate-primed mesenchymal progenitor cells (pMPCs) or MPC alone implanted into the lesion site to facilitate disc recovery. Study Design: An ovine model of lumbar microdiscectomy was used to compare the relative outcomes of administering MPCs or pMPCs to the injury site postsurgery. Methods: At baseline 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 18 adult ewes was undertaken followed by annular microdiscectomy at two lumbar disc levels. Sheep were randomized into three groups (n=6). The injured controls received no further treatment. Defects of the treated groups were implanted with a collagen sponge and MPC (5×10 5 cells) or pMPC (5×10 5 cells). After 6 months, 3T MRI and standard radiography were performed. Spinal columns were dissected, individual lumbar discs were sectioned horizontally, and nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) regions were assessed morphologically and histologically. The NP and AF tissues were dissected into six regions and analyzed biochemically for their proteoglycans (PGs), collagen, and DNA content. Results: Both the MPC- and pMPC-injected groups exhibited less reduction in disc height (p < .05) and lower Pfirrmann grades (p≤.001) compared with the untreated injury controls, but morphologic scores for the pMPC-injected discs were lower (p < .05). The PG content of the AF injury site region (AF1) of pMPC discs was higher than MPC and injury control AF1 (p < .05). At the AF1 and contralateral AF2 regions, the DNA content of pMPC discs was significantly lower than injured control discs and MPC-injected discs. Histologic and birefringent microscopy revealed...
Klingberg, J, Shimmon, R, Philp, M, Tahtouh, M, Nic Daeid, N & Fu, S 2018, 'Evaluating the use of Differential Scanning Calorimetry for the analysis of illicit substances and their adulterants', Journal of Forensic Investigation, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 8-8.
Philp, M, Shimmon, R, Tahtouh, M & Fu, S 2018, 'Color Spot Test As a Presumptive Tool for the Rapid Detection of Synthetic Cathinones.', Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, vol. 2018, no. 132.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Synthetic cathinones are a large class of new psychoactive substances (NPS) that are increasingly prevalent in drug seizures made by law enforcement and other border protection agencies globally. Color testing is a presumptive identification technique indicating the presence or absence of a particular drug class using rapid and uncomplicated chemical methods. Owing to their relatively recent emergence, a color test for the specific identification of synthetic cathinones is not currently available. In this study, we introduce a protocol for the presumptive identification of synthetic cathinones, employing three aqueous reagent solutions: copper(II) nitrate, 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine) and sodium acetate. Small pin-head sized amounts (approximately 0.1-0.2 mg) of the suspected drugs are added to the wells of a porcelain spot plate, and each reagent is then added dropwise sequentially before heating on a hotplate. A color change from very light blue to yellow-orange after 10 min indicates the likely presence of synthetic cathinones. The highly stable and specific test reagent has the potential for use in the presumptive screening of unknown samples for synthetic cathinones in a forensic laboratory. However, the nuisance of an added heating step for the color change result limits the test to laboratory application and decreases the likelihood of an easy translation to field testing.
Toole, K, Philp, M, Krayem, N, Fu, S, Shimmon, R & Taflaga, S 2018, 'Color Tests for the Preliminary Identification of New Psychoactive Substances.', Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), vol. 1810, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Color tests are a key tool for the rapid and simple identification of seized illicit drugs. This chapter outlines a series of color tests that can be used for the preliminary identification of new psychoactive substances such as cathinones, piperazines, tryptamines, and amphetamine-type stimulants.
El Safadi, M, Bhadbhade, M, Shimmon, R, Baker, AT & McDonagh, AM 2017, 'Cyclen-based chelators for the inhibition of A beta aggregation: Synthesis, anti-oxidant and aggregation evaluation', INORGANICA CHIMICA ACTA, vol. 467, pp. 343-350.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Heather, E, Bortz, A, Shimmon, R & McDonagh, AM 2017, 'Organic impurity profiling of methylone and intermediate compounds synthesized from catechol.', Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 436-445.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This work examined the synthesis and organic impurity profile of methylone prepared from catechol. The primary aim of this work was to determine whether the synthetic pathway used to prepare 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone could be ascertained through analysis of the synthesized methylone. The secondary aim was the structural elucidation and origin determination of the organic impurities detected in methylone and the intermediate compounds. The organic impurities present in the reaction products were identified using GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Six organic impurities were detected in 1,3-benzodioxole and identified as the 1,3-benzodioxole dimer, 1,3-benzodioxole trimer, [1,3] dioxolo[4,5-b]oxanthrene, 4,4'-, 4,5'-, and 5,5'-methylenebis-1,3-benzodioxole. Six organic impurities were detected in 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone and identified as (2-hydroxyphenyl) propanoate, [2-(chloromethoxy) phenyl] propanoate, (2-propanoyloxyphenyl)propanoate, 5-[1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)prop-1-enyl]-1,3-benzodioxole, (5E)- and (5Z)-7-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-5-ethylidene-6-methyl-cyclopenta[f][1,3]benzodioxole). Exploratory synthetic experiments were also conducted to unambiguously identify the organic impurities detected in 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone. Two organic impurities were detected in 5-bromo-3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone and identified as [2-(chloromethoxy)phenyl] propanoate and 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone. Five organic impurities were detected in methylone and identified as 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone, 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-methyl-propan-1-imine, 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-methylimino-propan-1-one, 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N1,N2-dimethyl-propane-1,2-diimine and butylated hydroxytoluene. The origin of these organic impurities was also ascertained, providing valuable insight into the chemical profiles of methylone and the intermediate compounds. However, neither the catechol precursor nor the 1,3-benzodioxole intermediate could be identified based on the ...
Tam, R, Heather, E, Shimmon, R, Lam, B & McDonagh, AM 2017, 'Synthesis and organic impurity profiling of 4-methoxymethamphetamine hydrochloride and its precursors.', Forensic Science International, vol. 272, pp. 184-189.View/Download from: Publisher's site
4-Methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) was synthesised from star anise and from 4-methoxytoluene and the organic impurity profiles examined. These two starting materials are unrestricted chemicals in many jurisdictions and contain the requisite functional groups and are thus well suited for clandestine manufacturers. trans-Anethole was extracted from star anise and oxidised to 4-methoxyphenyl-2-propanone (PMP2P). 4-Methoxytoluene was oxidised to anisaldehyde, converted to 4-methoxyphenyl-2-nitropropene, and then reduced to PMP2P. The PMP2P obtained by both methods was then converted to PMMA via the Leuckart reaction. 4-Methoxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (PMMA·HCl) was synthesised from PMMA using hydrogen chloride gas. Both of the examined synthetic methods were found to be feasible routes into PMMA·HCl. The products of each step were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). Impurities were examined in an attempt to identify route specific compounds, which may provide valuable information about the synthetic pathway and precursors.
Michelot, H, Fu, S, Stuart, B, Shimmon, R, Raymond, T, Crandell, T & Roux, C 2017, 'Effect of drug precursors and chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigation on plastic bags used for collection and storage.', Forensic Science International, vol. 273, pp. 106-112.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by the NSW Police Force and investigated for their suitability for evidence collection: two different types of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and one type of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Three different experiments were carried out: (1) storing relevant chemicals in the bags for up to three months; (2) exposing the bags including their content to accelerated conditions using a weatherometer, and (3) simulating an expected real case scenario. This study indicates that drugs and related chemicals stored in plastic bags may lead to a change in the composition of the chemical and an alteration or degradation of the plastic bag. All experiments led to the same conclusion: the polyvinyl chloride bags appeared to be the most affected. LDPE bags seem to be more appropriate for routine use, although it has been established they are not suitable for the collection of liquids (unless pre-packaged in, for instance, a glass container).
Michelot, H, Stuart, B, Fu, S, Shimmon, R, Raymond, T, Crandell, T & Roux, C 2017, 'The mechanical properties of plastic evidence bags used for collection and storage of drug chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigations', Forensic Sciences Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 198-202.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The effectiveness of three types of plastic bags used by the New South Wales Police Force for the storage of clandestine drug evidence has been investigated through a comparison of mechanical properties. The tensile and tear properties of "as received" low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) bags do not show major differences such that one type would be favoured over the other. However, the mechanical properties of the bags once exposed to a range of chemicals routinely collected as drug evidence have been shown to be influenced as a result of different chemical interactions. Although an interaction of reagents/solvents with an additive within the LDPE bags is proposed to influence the mechanical properties of the bags, the change in properties has been shown to be less severe than that observed for the PVC bag, where softening and damage of the bags results due to absorption of reagents.
Macha, IJ, Cazalbou, S, Shimmon, R, Ben-Nissan, B & Milthorpe, B 2017, 'Development and dissolution studies of bisphosphonate (clodronate)-containing hydroxyapatite-polylactic acid biocomposites for slow drug delivery.', Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1723-1731.View/Download from: Publisher's site
An increase in clinical demand on the controlled release of bisphosphonates (BPs) due to complications associated with systemic administration, has been the current driving force on the development of BP drug-release systems. Bisphosphonates have the ability to bind to divalent metal ions, such as Ca(2+) , in bone mineral and prevent bone resorption by influencing the apoptosis of osteoclasts. Localized delivery using biodegradable materials, such as polylactic acid (PLA) and hydroxyapatite (HAp), which are ideal in this approach, have been used in this study to investigate the dissolution of clodronate (non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate) in a new release system. The effects of coral structure-derived HAp and the release kinetics of the composites were evaluated. The release kinetics of clodronate from PLA-BP and PLA-HAp-BP systems seemed to follow the power law model described by Korsmeyer-Peppas. Drug release was quantified by (31) P-NMR with detection and quantification limits of 9.2 and 30.7 mM, respectively. The results suggest that these biocomposite systems could be tuned to release clodronate for both relatively short and prolonged period of time. In addition to drug delivery, the degradation of HAp supplies both Ca(2+) and phosphate ions that can help in bone mineralization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Radhakrishnan, SK, Shimmon, RG, Conn, C & Baker, AT 2016, 'Evaluation of Novel Chalcone Oximes as Inhibitors of Tyrosinase and Melanin Formation in B16 Cells.', Archiv der Pharmazie, vol. 349, no. 1, pp. 20-29.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A series of hydroxy-substituted chalcone oxime derivatives were synthesized. These compounds were then evaluated for their inhibitory activities on tyrosinase and melanogenesis in murine B16F10 melanoma cells. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, FTIR, and HRMS. Two of the compounds exhibited much higher tyrosinase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 4.77 and 7.89 μM, respectively) than the positive control, kojic acid (IC50 : 22.25 μM). Kinetic studies revealed them to act as competitive tyrosinase inhibitors with their Ki values of 5.25 and 8.33 μM, respectively. Both the compounds inhibited melanin production and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Docking results confirmed that the active inhibitors strongly interacted with the mushroom tyrosinase residues.
Radhakrishnan, SK, Shimmon, RG, Conn, C & Baker, AT 2016, 'Inhibitory Kinetics of Azachalcones and their Oximes on Mushroom Tyrosinase: A Facile Solid-state Synthesis', CHEMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 531-538.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Gardner, SG, Nielsen, DA, Laczka, O, Shimmon, R, Beltran, VH, Ralph, PJ & Petrou, K 2016, 'Dimethylsulfoniopropionate, superoxide dismutase and glutathione as stress response indicators in three corals under short-term hyposalinity stress', PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, vol. 283, no. 1824.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Philp, M, Shimmon, R, Tahtouh, M & Fu, S 2016, 'Development and validation of a presumptive color spot test method for the detection of synthetic cathinones in seized illicit materials', FORENSIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 1, pp. 39-50.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Radhakrishnan, S, Shimmon, R, Conn, C & Baker, A 2015, 'Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of hydroxy substituted amino chalcone compounds for antityrosinase activity in B16 cells', BIOORGANIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 62, pp. 117-123.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Radhakrishnan, S, Shimmon, R, Conn, C & Baker, A 2015, 'Development of hydroxylated naphthylchalcones as polyphenol oxidase inhibitors: Synthesis, biochemistry and molecular docking studies', BIOORGANIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 63, pp. 116-122.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Radhakrishnan, S, Shimmon, R, Conn, C & Baker, A 2015, 'Inhibitory kinetics of novel 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one chalcone-like derivatives on mushroom tyrosinase', BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 5495-5499.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Radhakrishnan, S, Shimmon, R, Conn, C & Baker, A 2015, 'Integrated kinetic studies and computational analysis on naphthyl chalcones as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors', BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, vol. 25, no. 19, pp. 4085-4091.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Radhakrishnan, SK, Shimmon, RG, Conn, C & Baker, AT 2015, 'Azachalcones: A new class of potent polyphenol oxidase inhibitors', BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1753-1756.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Stojanovska, N, De Grazia, A, Tahtouh, M, Shimmon, R & Reedy, B 2015, 'Refining Fingermark Development using Diacetylene Copolymers on Difficult Surfaces', JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 619-626.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Heather, E, Shimmon, R & McDonagh, AM 2015, 'Organic impurity profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) synthesised from catechol.', Forensic Science International, vol. 248, pp. 140-147.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This work examines the organic impurity profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that has been synthesised from catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), a common chemical reagent available in industrial quantities. The synthesis of MDMA from catechol proceeded via the common MDMA precursor safrole. Methylenation of catechol yielded 1,3-benzodioxole, which was brominated and then reacted with magnesium allyl bromide to form safrole. Eight organic impurities were identified in the synthetic safrole. Safrole was then converted to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using two synthetic methods: Wacker oxidation (Route 1) and an isomerisation/peracid oxidation/acid dehydration method (Route 2). MDMA was then synthesised by reductive amination of MDP2P. Thirteen organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 1 and eleven organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 2. Overall, organic impurities in MDMA prepared from catechol indicated that synthetic safrole was used in the synthesis. The impurities also indicated which of the two synthetic routes was utilised.
Spindler, X, Shimmon, R, Roux, C & Lennard, C 2015, 'Visualising substrate-fingermark interactions: Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of amino acid reagent development on cellulose substrates', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 250, pp. 8-16.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lewis, JH, Shimmon, R & Fu, S 2013, 'Pethidinic acid: Corroboration of a doctor's denial of pethidine re-use', Journal of Analytical Toxicology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 179-181.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pethidine (meperidine), a synthetic opiate, formally used as an analgesic in surgery and obstetrics, has been an abused drug of choice for some doctors. A case is presented in which a doctor, who previously admitted to using pethidine, was suspected of re-using, following a second positive urine test. A laboratory had reported the presence of pethidine in the doctor's urine; however, the doctor denied re-use. The norpethidine (normeperidine) metabolite, normally found in urine, had not been detected, raising concern over the laboratory's conclusion and necessitating an independent investigation. Because the major metabolite of pethidine is pethidinic acid (meperidinic acid), accounting for approximately 40% of the excreted dose, its presence or absence were deemed to be important criteria in interpreting the laboratory result. Pethidinic acid was synthesized by alkaline hydrolysis of pethidine and used as a control. Urine samples from a patient receiving pethidine for pain, from the previous pethidine use of the doctor, and the urine under question plus the control were analyzed for the presence of pethidinic acid using electrospray mass spectrometry. Pethidinic acid was found in all samples except the one under dispute. The absence of pethidinic acid appeared to corroborate the doctor's denial of re-use.
Moezzi, A, Cortie, MB, Shimmon, R & McDonagh, AM 2013, 'On the Reactivity of Zinc Hydroxide Acetate Dihydrate in Ethanol', European Journal Of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 2013, no. 29, pp. 5133-5137.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zinc hydroxide acetate dihydrate, Zn-5(OH)(8)(CH3CO2)(2)2H(2)O, reacts in ethanol at room temperature to yield a mixture of zinc oxide and anhydrous zinc acetate. The process is driven by dehydration of the starting salt. Dehydration of Zn-5(OH)(8)(CH3CO
Rapa, RA, Shimmon, R, Djordjevic, SP, Stokes, HW & Labbate, M 2013, 'Deletion of Integron-Associated Gene Cassettes Impact on the Surface Properties of Vibrio rotiferianus DAT722', PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Philp, M, Shimmon, R, Stojanovska, N, Tahtouh, M & Fu, S 2013, 'Development and validation of a presumptive colour spot test method for the detection of piperazine analogues in seized illicit materials', Analytical Methods, vol. 5, no. 20, pp. 5402-5410.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The increasingly large quantities of potentially illicit samples received for confirmatory analysis highlights the importance and demand for preliminary testing procedures that are simple, rapid, selective, inexpensive and able to be used in the field. C
De Grazia, A, Mikhael, M, Stojanovska, N, Reedy, BJ, Shimmon, R & Tahtouh, M 2012, 'Diacetylene copolymers for fingermark development', Forensic Science International, vol. 216, no. 1-3, pp. 189-197.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In 1979, Miller and Patel showed that a solution containing two diacetylene monomers, 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-bis(phenylurethane) (HDDPU) and 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-bis(p-chlorophenylurethane) (HDDCPU) could be used to develop latent fingermarks on a non-porous surface. In the current work, the same mixture (HDDPU:HDDCPU = 10:1, in acetone solution) was used to develop fingermarks on a wide variety of surfaces, both non-porous and porous, including paper. An airbrush system was optimized for the application of the reagent solution. Once the solution evaporates on a surface, the monomers co-crystallize in different ways, depending upon a number of factors, including the surface residue. Active co-crystallization leads (with heat or radiation) to the formation of purple polymer, while inactive crystallization results in a non-polymerizable white deposit. Fingermark contrast was achieved as a result of active co-crystallization (giving purple polymer) in either the ridges or the furrows, depending upon the surface and other factors. A general observation (supported by spot tests with linseed oil, salt and amino acid solutions) was that on paper, oily materials are more likely to lead to the formation of the purple polymer, while the presence of water inhibits polymerization.
Gallagher, R, Shimmon, R & McDonagh, AM 2012, 'Synthesis And Impurity Profiling Of MDMA Prepared From Commonly Available Starting Materials', Forensic Science International, vol. 223, no. 1-3, pp. 306-313.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This work examines the synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) from common starting materials that may be utilised by clandestine laboratory operators. Piperonal was prepared from two common starting materials, piperine (from pepper) a
Toole, KE, Fu, S, Shimmon, R & Taflaga, S 2012, 'The use of a portable attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for the preliminary identification of methcathinone and analogues of methcathinone', Journal of the Clandestine Laboratory Investigating Chemists Association, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 7-18.
Luong, S, Shimmon, R, Hook, JM & Fu, S 2012, '2-Nitro-6-Monoacetylmorphine: Potential Marker For Monitoring The Presence Of 6-Monoacetylmorphine In Urine Adulterated With Potassium Nitrite', Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 403, no. 7, pp. 2057-2063.View/Download from: Publisher's site
6-Monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), being a unique metabolite of heroin, is routinely tested in urine samples to monitor heroin use. However, detection of 6-MAM-related opiates such as morphine is known to be affected by in vitro urine adulteration using oxidi
Toole, KE, Fu, S, Shimmon, R, Kraymen, N & Casamento, SG 2012, 'Color tests for the preliminary identification of methcathinone and analogues of methcathinone', Microgram Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 27-32.
The abuse of methcathinone (MCAT) and analogues of methcathinone has increased markedly in jurisdictions worldwide in recent years. For example, in Australia the rate of recent use of 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC) by regular methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) users rose from less than 1% in 2009 to 16% in 2010 [1,2]. These ß-keto analogues of amphetamines , are stimulants with empathogenic effects . The structures of analogues of methcathinone included in this study are summarised in Table 1. Color tests still remain an important tool for the preliminary identification of illicit drugs in spite of developments in instrumental technology and the increased portability of this technology which enables its use in the field. As recently as 2000, 86% of laboratories surveyed still frequently used color tests when testing for illicit drugs . The popularity of color tests arises from the fact that they are generally simple, quick, inexpensive, and quite sensitive . They are readily available and require minimal materials. These factors enable color tests to be used in the field and can be employed by those without extensive chemical backgrounds.
Fukumoto, T, Thomas, PS, Stuart, BH, Simon, P, Adam, G, Shimmon, R & Guerbois, J-P 2012, 'Estimation of the storage life of dimethylol urea using non-isothermal accelerated testing', Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 439-443.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ma, R, Shimmon, R, McDonagh, A, Maynard, P, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2012, 'Fingermark detection on non-porous and semi-porous surfaces using YVO4:Er,Yb luminescent upconverting particles', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 217, no. 1-3, pp. E23-E26.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Song, D, Sommerville, DT, Brown, A, Shimmon, R, Reedy, BJ & Tahtouh, M 2011, 'Thermal development of latent fingermarks on porous surfaces - Further observations and refinements', Forensic Science International, vol. 204, no. 1-3, pp. 97-110.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In a further study of the thermal development of fingermarks on paper and similar surfaces, it is demonstrated that direct contact heating of the substrate using coated or ceramic surfaces at temperatures in excess of 230 8C produces results superior to those obtained using hot air. Fingermarks can also be developed in this way on other cellulose-based substrates such as wood and cotton fabric, though ridge detail is difficult to obtain in the latter case. Fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that the phenomena observed during the thermal development of fingermarks can be reproduced simply by heating untreated white copy paper or filter paper, or these papers treated with solutions of sodium chloride or alanine. There is no evidence to suggest that the observed fluorescence of fingermarks heated on paper is due to a reaction of fingermark constituents on or with the paper. Instead, we maintain that the ridge contrast observed first as fluorescence, and later as brown charring, is simply an acceleration of the thermal degradation of the paper. Thermal degradation of cellulose, amajor constituent of paper and wood, is known to give rise to a fluorescent product if sufficient oxygen is available . However, the absence of atmospheric oxygen has only a slight effect on the thermal development of fingermarks, indicating that there is sufficient oxygen already present in paper to allow the formation of the fluorescent and charred products. In a depletion study comparing thermal development of fingermarks on paper with development using ninhydrin, the thermal technique was found to be as sensitive as ninhydrin for six out of seven donors.
Spindler, X, Shimmon, R, Roux, CP & Lennard, CJ 2011, 'The effect of zinc chloride, humidity and the substrate on the reaction of 1,2-indanedione-zinc with amino acids in latent fingermark secretions', Forensic Science International, vol. 212, no. 1-3, pp. 150-157.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Anecdotal evidence from forensic practitioners and studies conducted under controlled conditions have indicated that the reaction between 1,2-indanedione and the amino acids present in latent fingermark deposits is highly susceptible to ambient humidity. The addition of catalytic amounts of zinc chloride to the 1,2-indanedione working solution usually in the order of 1:25 to 1:4 molar ratio (indanedione:zinc) significantly improves the colour and luminescence of fingermarks treated under dry conditions but appears to have a negligible effect on fingermarks treated in humid environments. The results presented in this paper confirmed that zinc(II) ions added to the 1,2-indanedione working solution act as a Lewis acid catalyst, stabilising a key intermediate during a rate-limiting hydrolysis step. Furthermore, studying the reaction using a chromatography-grade cellulose substrate method previously reported confirmed that cellulose substrates play a major role in facilitating the indanedione-amino acid reaction by acting as a surface catalyst in the early stages of the reaction and by directing the formation of the desired luminescent product (Joullie´ s Pink).
Fung, TC, Grimwood, KM, Shimmon, R, Spindler, X, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2011, 'Investigation of hydrogen cyanide generation from the cyanoacrylate fuming process used for latent fingermark detection', Forensic Science International, vol. 212, no. 1-3, pp. 143-149.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cyanoacrylate fuming is one of the most common techniques employed for the detection of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces such as plastic and glass. The technique is generally applied by exposing items of interest to the vapours generated by heating a suitable quantity of commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive. In this study, the potential for highly toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to be generated from the overheating of cyanoacrylate was investigated. Two commercial cyanoacrylate adhesives and two quantitative methods for the determination of HCN were employed: (i) the sodium picrate method; and (ii) the picrateresorcinol method. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was used to confirm the presence of cyanide. In addition, the thermal decomposition of cyanoacrylate was studied using simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGADTA). It was determined that detectable and quantifiable amounts of HCN were generated from the thermal decomposition of cyanoacrylate monomer and polymer at temperatures as low as 200 8C. Using an optimised picrateresorcinol method, it was shown that around 10 mg of HCN could be generated from the heating of 1 g of cyanoacrylate monomer at 200 8C. For one of the adhesives tested, this increased to above 100 mg of HCN when 1 g of cyanoacrylate monomer was heated at 280 8C. Recommendations are provided that, if followed, should ensure that the cyanoacrylate fuming process can be safely applied with minimal risk to the operator.
Ma, R, Bullock, EA, Maynard, PJ, Reedy, BJ, Shimmon, R, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP & McDonagh, AM 2011, 'Fingermark Detection On Non-Porous And Semi-Porous Surfaces Using Nayf(4):Er,Yb Up-Converter Particles', Forensic Science International, vol. 207, no. 1-Mar, pp. 145-149.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article describes the first use of an anti-Stokes material, or up-converter, for the development of latent fingermarks on a range of non-porous surfaces. Anti-Stokes materials can absorb long-wavelength light and emit light at a shorter wavelength. This property is unusual in both natural and artificial materials and so fingermark detection techniques based on anti-Stokes luminescence are potentially sensitive and selective. Latent fingermarks on luminescent and non-luminescent substrates, including Australian polymer banknotes (a well-known `difficult surface), were developed with sodium yttrium tetrafluoride doped with erbium and ytterbium (NaYF4:Er,Yb) by dry powder, wet powder, and cyanoacrylate staining techniques. This study illustrates the potential of up-converter phosphors for the detection of latent fingermarks.
Chan, J, Spindler, X, Brust, A, Shimmon, R, Maynard, P, Lennard, C, Stoilovic, M & Roux, C 2010, 'Evaluation of DFO and 1,2-indanedione formulations under two different Australian conditions', Science & Justice, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 38-38.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chan, JH, Shimmon, R, Spindler, X, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP & Stuart, BH 2010, 'An investigation of isatin as a potential reagent for latent fingermark detection on porous surfaces', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 320-336.
This study investigated isatin as a potential fingermark enhancement reagent for use on porous surfaces. A number of parameters were investigated, including concentration, solvent system, pH of the solution, and optimization of the development conditions. It was determined that isatin at a concentration of 0.05% (w/v) provided the optimum balance between the luminescence of the fingermark ridges and background. A carrier solvent of dioxane mixed with acetone [12.5% (v/v)] produced the most intense luminescence. It was determined that the optimum pH for the development of fingermarks was 5.0 and that this could be reached by the addition of 4% (vlv) sodium carbonate buffer. The use of a dry heat press at 180°C for 10 s provided optimal development conditions.
Ma, R, Shimmon, R, Maynard, P, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2010, 'Further research into novel fingermark detection techniques using anti-Stokes luminescence', Science & Justice, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 43-43.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brown, A, Sommerville, DT, Reedy, BJ, Shimmon, R & Tahtouh, M 2009, 'Revisiting the thermal development of latent fingerprints on porous surfaces: new aspects and refinements', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 114-121.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chou, J, Shimmon, R & Ben-Nissan, B 2009, 'Bisphosphonate determination using H-1-NMR spectroscopy for biomedical applications', Journal Of Tissue Engineering And Regenerative Medicine, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 92-96.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bisphosphonate is known to be a very active drug in the treatment of osteoporosis and bone regeneration. A new method has been developed, utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify and measure the amount of bisphosphonate in solution. A standard reference with similar functional group to that of the bisphosphonate was chosen and applied in the experimentation. The results showed that the use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1-NMR) in determining the solvent residues of various pharmaceutical drugs has proved to be effective. Unlike chromatography, it is possible to use a universal reference standard as an internal standard assayed by quantitative NMR. Using the same theory, this method is capable of both identifying and quantifying the bisphosphonate in various solutions. This paper is the first publication showing this unique measurement method, which can be used in a range of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.
Cheluvappa, R, Shimmon, R, Dawson, M, Hilmer, SN & Le Couteur, DG 2008, 'Reactions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin with reduced glutathione', Acta Biochimica Polonica, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 571-580.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common cause of chronic and recurrent lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) whose sputa contain copious quantities of P. aeruginosa toxin, pyocyanin. Pyocyanin triggers tissue damage mainly by its redox
Tahtouh, M, Despland, P, Shimmon, R, Kalman, JR & Reedy, BJ 2007, 'The Application Of Infrared Chemical Imaging To The Detection And Enhancement Of Latent Fingerprints: Method Optimization And Further Findings', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1089-1096.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) chemical imaging allows the collection of fingerprint images from backgrounds that have traditionally posed problems for conventional fingerprint detection methods. In this work, the suitability of this technique for the
Lategan, MJ, Booth, B, Shimmon, R & Gibson, LF 2006, 'An inhibitory substance produced by Aeromonas media A199, an aquatic probiotic', Aquaculture, vol. 254, no. 1-4, pp. 115-124.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Whether or not the probiotic activity of the Aeromonas media strain A199 derived from the production of an extracellular inhibitory substance was investigated. Ethyl acetate extraction of broth cultures of A199 and preparative thin layer chromatography m
Conn, C & Shimmon, R 2004, 'Synthesis of 3,3'-disubstituted-2,2'-bipyridines from 1, 10-phenanthroline-5,6-quinone', Chemistry Letters, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 78-79.
Conn, C, Shimmon, R, Cordaro, F, Hargraves, T & Ibrahim, P 2001, 'Combinatorial Synthesis of SSAO Inhibitors Using Sonogashira Coupling: SAR of Aryl Propargylics Amines', Bioorganic & Medicinal Letters, vol. 11, pp. 2565-2568.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The structureactivity relationships for semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) inhibitors based on arylpropynylamines was investigated using solution-phase combinatorial Sonogashira coupling. The results suggest that binding to the active site occurs by coordination of the amine to the proximal copper(II) and formation of a p-complex between topaquinone and the electron-rich aryl group of the inhibitor.
Chan, JH, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP, Shimmon, R & Stuart, BH 2012, 'Synthesis of novel anthraquinones and their application as fingermark detection reagents for porous surfaces', 21st International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences Abstracts, 21st International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences.
Chan, JH, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP, Shimmon, R & Stuart, BH 2012, 'Synthesis of novel anthraquinones and their application as fingermark detection reagents on porous surfaces', 6th European Academy of Forensic Science Conference Abstracts, 6th European Academy of Forensic Science Conference.
Fukumoto, T, Thomas, P, Stuart, BH, Adam, G, Simon, P, Shimmon, R & Guerbois, JL 2011, 'Kinetic and mechanistic analysis of the polymerisation of dimethylol urea', Proceedings of the 3rd Joint Czech-Hungarian-Polish-Slovak Thermoanalytical Conference, Slovak Chemical Society, Stara Lesna, pp. 1-5.
Chan, JH, Stuart, BH, Roux, CP, Shimmon, R, Lennard, CJ & Spindler, X 2010, 'The synthesis of 1,4-anthraquinones and their application as fingermark detection reagents on porous surfaces', 20th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences Abstract Book, 20th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Sydney.