Roger Hadgraft is a civil engineer with more than 25 years of experience in improving engineering education. He has published many papers on problem- and project-based learning (PBL), and the use of online technology to support student-centred learning to meet the needs of engineering employers. He was instrumental in introducing a project-based curriculum in civil engineering at Monash University and in several disciplines at RMIT. He established the Master of Sustainable Practice and Bachelor of Sustainable Systems Engineering, both at RMIT. Roger was an ALTC Discipline Scholar and has been a member of several national learning and teaching projects and he has consulted on PBL to universities both nationally and internationally. His current passion is to develop national approaches to engineering curricula.
- Invited speaker, ICTIEE conference, Hyderabad and Jaipur, Jan 2017
- Invited keynote, WocTVET, Nov 2016, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
- Invited keynote, Nov 2016 ICEER conference in Sydney
- Invited keynote, Dec 2014 AAEE conference in Wellington
- Invited keynote, Sep 2013 SEFI conference
- Invited speaker, staff development workshop at Aarhus University, June 2013
- Invited speaker, Nordic Network for Engineering Education, Gothenburg, May 2013
- Invited speaker, LATICE conference, Macau, March 2013
- Adjunct Professor at CQUniversity, 2016–
- Honorary Professor at RMIT University, 2014–
- Adjunct Professor at Aalborg University, Denmark, 2012–.
Can supervise: YES
- graduate outcomes; academic standards
- project-based learning; problem-based learning
- development of professional practice skills
- engineering practice
Cameron, I, Crosthwaite, C, Shallcross, D, Hadgraft, R, Dalvean, J, Maynard, N, Tade, M, Kavanagh, J & Lukey, G 2011, Addressing interdisciplinary process engineering design, construction and operations through 4D virtual environments.View/Download from: Publisher's site
An interactive and immersive learning environment that will allow students to explore the design, construction, commissioning and operation stages of processing facilities is being developed. The learning environment makes use of a series spherical images captured across not only the facility site but also across the construction and operation period that allow students to investigate the design evolution of a particular spatial area through time by moving up and down in the time frame. It is intended to allow students to learn how engineers from a range of disciplines work together on key issues and decisions required for that part of the design. Interviews with key engineering personnel and project stakeholders will permit the students to explore the reasoning behind critical design decisions. Four learning environments are being developed and include the construction of a bulk liquid storage facility in Brisbane, a sewage treatment facility in Melbourne, a weighbridge at a truck service centre in Melbourne and the demolition of an engineering building in Brisbane followed by the construction of a new "live" building. This paper explores how it is envisaged that the learning environments will be implemented and how they will be used in practice in the class room. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Hadgraft, RG, Volker, RE & Stark, KP 1982, Investigation of reservoir release rules using dynamic programming and simulation..
A major surface storage on the Burdekin River in North Queensland is to be constructed to supply water to approximately 680 km SUP 2 of mostly sugar cane. Currently an aquifer in the Delta region provides irrigation water for approximately 300 km SUP 2. The paper describes results from a dynamic programming and simulation study to investigate the performance of several operating rules for the surface reservoir. The possible advantages of conjunctive use of the surface and groundwater reservoirs are also examined. (A)
Hadgraft, RG & Volker, RE 1981, A model for predicting aquifer recharge from rainfall and river flow..
Groundwater management programs frequently require data on the response of the aquifer to its various inputs and outputs. A numerical model has been developed to assist in the assessment of recharge quantities. The model is designed to be capable of representing the processes of rainfall and river recharge, irrigation extraction and leakage to the sea.-from Authors
© 2020, © 2020 Engineers Australia. Three major challenges, sustainability, the fourth industrial revolution, and employability, will require new types of engineering programs, to help students develop skills in cross-disciplinarity, complexity, and contextual understanding. Future engineering students should be able to understand the needs for technological, sustainable solutions in context. The engineering graduates should be able to act in complex and chaotic situations. The question is how engineering institutions are responding now and how they should respond in the future. This article analyses the general responses from engineering education over the last 20 years. These responses are student-centred learning, integration of theory and practice, digital and online learning, and the definition of professional competencies. Examples are given of institutions that are already applying several of these components in the curriculum. On the long-term horizon, more personalised curriculum models are emerging based on students developing and documenting their own learning and career trajectories, as part of their lifelong learning strategy.
Hadgraft, RG 2017, 'Learning Strategies as an Enabler of Study Success', Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, vol. 25S, pp. 157-165.
Engineering students enrol in engineering without a clear understanding of how they can achieve success in the field. The current study explores study strategies of engineering undergraduates across two geographical locations, Malaysia and Australia. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews, in which 16 final-year engineering undergraduates volunteered to participate. Data were analysed using a thematic coding approach and the NVivo software was used to assist with the coding process. The results suggested that engineering students at universities in both locations used very similar learning strategies to achieve different success outcomes such as tofulfil assessment criteria, to achieve a personal goal or success, to endure with challenges, to overcome challenges, to survive after failure and to keep persisting in the programme. Integrating knowledge, visualising engineering applications, optimising the use of learning materials and mastering engineering skills are examples of strategies that were frequently used by the students. The level of importance of each strategy is context dependent.
Hadgraft, RG 2017, 'New curricula for engineering education: Experiences, engagement, e-resources', Global Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 112-117.
© WIETE 2017. In an increasingly complex world, engineering students need to learn innovation and complex problem-solving in socio-technical contexts, combining fundamental knowledge of many disciplines, not just mathematics and physics. Our job as educators is to create engaging learning experiences to take students on a learning journey from high school student to proto-engineer. These learning experiences increasingly draw upon industry-relevant project work. There are now several Australian examples of curricula that combine student immersion in projects, supported by on-line learning. Fortunately, the fundamentals of engineering are being made available (and assessed) on-line, e.g. Khan Academy and numerous MOOCs. Engineering curricula are being flipped from first teach the fundamentals to first engage with the engineering problems and use these problems as motivators for students to learn the fundamentals. This is also assisted by the availability of extraordinary design software to solve the governing equations for most routine engineering tasks. E-learning has morphed from electronic learning in the last 20 years to experiential and engaged learning. This is the future of engineering curricula.
Thebuwana, H, Hadgraft, R & Alam, F 2017, 'Addressing Graduate Competencies: Understanding the Contextual Factors Impacting the Engineering Discipline', Energy Procedia, vol. 110, pp. 359-364.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 The Authors. The knowledge of contextual factors that impact the engineering discipline is one of sixteen competencies that must be demonstrated by engineering graduates upon completion of an accredited engineering degree in Australia. This research critically analyses learning outcomes, learning activities and assessment tasks associated with the knowledge of contextual factors for the Mechanical Engineering (Honours) degrees at two universities to determine how this competency is perceived and addressed within the curriculum. In the majority of cases, the learning outcomes do not address the competency and there are instances where this competency has been misunderstood and misrepresented. Various assessment tasks are used in the subjects that address this competency, including exams, tests, assignments, reports, presentations, tutorials, reflective journals and others. Universities and accreditation providers must review their processes for addressing this competency to ensure it is achieved. Further research is required to define this competency for better alignment and understanding of learning outcomes.
Egelund Holgaard, J, Hadgraft, R, Kolmos, A & Guerra, A 2016, 'Strategies for education for sustainable development - Danish and Australian perspectives', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 112, pp. 3479-3491.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. If engineers are to provide sustainable innovations for future societies, engineers should be able to think and act beyond pure technical competence. This is stressed in political and accreditation frameworks all over the world, and universities are trying to respond to this demand. However, in many cases, sustainability practices seem fragmented and there is a lack of knowledge of strategies and few clear examples of good practice. In this paper, activities to integrate sustainability in two engineering institutions, one in Denmark and one in Australia, are systematically compared to provide an understanding of different kinds of activities and their internal as well as external enablers. A conceptual framework to provide overview of education for sustainability activities and their enablers has been proposed, where activities are related to actors and resources at both university and national levels. The conceptual framework has been developed iteratively - moving back and forth trying to find a suitable structure to capture the contextual pillars of the activities in the two cases, using state-of-art within the research field of education for sustainable development to fill out potential blind spots in the case-material and, finally, continuously shaping the storylines in the two cases to provide the needed overview and understanding of the similarities and differences of the approaches. The interplay between the framework and the case-stories provides a platform for change, as the framework does not only create an overview of activities, it also points out potential routes not taken, and the case studies provide examples of activities, which can be transferred with careful consideration to the internal as well as external context.
Knight, DB, Cameron, IT, Hadgraft, RG & Reidsema, C 2016, 'The Influence of External Forces, Institutional Forces, and Academics' Characteristics on the Adoption of Positive Teaching Practices across Australian Undergraduate Engineering', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 695-711.
Kolmos, A, Hadgraft, RG & Holgaard, JE 2016, 'Response strategies for curriculum change in engineering', International Journal of Technology and Design Education, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 391-411.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 The Author(s) During the last 25 years, there have been many calls for new engineering competencies and a corresponding gradual change in both curriculum and pedagogy in engineering education. This has been a global trend, in the US, Europe, Australia and now emerging in the rest of the world. Basically, there have been two main types of societal challenges that many engineering institutions have responded to: the employability skills of graduates and the need for a sustainability approach to engineering. These are two very different challenges and societal needs; however, the ways engineering institutions have responded form a consistent pattern across many of the content aspects. No matter the specific character of change, three very different curriculum strategies seem to have evolved: an add-on strategy, an integration strategy or a re-building strategy; the latter involves substantial curriculum re-design. The add-on strategy and integration strategy are the ones most commonly used, whereas the re-building strategy is at an emerging stage in most engineering education communities. Most engineering schools find it very challenging to re-build an entire curriculum, so smaller changes are generally preferred. The purpose of this article is to conceptualise these institutional response strategies in a wider literature and present examples of curriculum change within both employability and sustainability. We will maintain that all these strategies are based on management decisions as well as academic faculty decisions; however the implications for using the various strategies are very different in terms of system change, role of disciplines, leader interventions and faculty development strategies. Furthermore, institutions might use all types of response strategies in different programs and in different semesters. The conceptual framework presented here can provide analytical anchors, hopefully creating more awareness of the complexity of systemic change.
Paimin, AN, Hadgraft, RG, Prpic, JK & Alias, M 2016, 'An Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action: Assessing Success Factors of Engineering Students', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 2426-2433.
Lawson, J, Rasul, MG, Howard, P, Martin, F, Hadgraft, RG & Jarman, R 2015, 'Getting it Right: The Case for Supervisors Assessing Process in Capstone Projects', International Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 31, no. 6B, pp. 1810-1818.
Capstone projects represent the culmination of an undergraduate engineering degree and are typically the last checkpoint measure before students graduate and enter the engineering profession. In Australia there is a longstanding interest in and commitment to developing quality capstone experiences. A national study into the supervision and assessment of capstone projects has determined that whilst there is relative consistency in terms of what project tasks are set and assessed, there is not comparable consistency in how these tasks or assignments are marked. Two interconnected areas of assessing process and the role of the supervisor in marking are identified as contentious. This paper presents some findings of a national case study and concludes that whilst further investigation is warranted, assessing process as well as project products is valuable as is the need for greater acceptance of project supervisors as capable of making informed, professional judgments when marking significant project work.
Hadgraft, R & Dane, J 2014, 'Spaces for engaging, experiential, collaborative learning in higher education', International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, vol. 12, pp. 101-122.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A key challenge for higher education institutions around the world is to provide active and engaging learning encounters for a new generation of students to develop their skills for work in a rapidly changing environment. Typically, these students are accustomed to being digitally connected 24/7 and they have real-time access to truly global learning resources. The challenge facing higher education providers is how to create active and engaging learning encounters within an aging stock of infrastructure by a generation of traditional academics, both of which generally foster teacher-led instruction. In considering this conundrum, this chapter is viewed through two lenses: (1) a teacher practising problem-based learning (PBL) for more than 20 years and (2) an educational planner who designs learning spaces. Together the paper explores the challenges of pedagogy and design, some disruptors that are making change imperative and, specifically, the opportunities available in both pedagogy and design to create new learning activities and spaces. The paper argues that curricula need to be dominated by collaborative investigation and problem solving in spaces that encourage and afford such activity. © 2014 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Felder, RM & Hadgraft, RG 2013, 'Educational Practice and Educational Research in Engineering: Partners, Antagonists, or Ships Passing in the Night?', JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 339-345.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Reidsema, C, Hadgraft, RG, Cameron, I & King, R 2013, 'Change strategies for educational transformation', Australasian Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 101-108.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The authors present a position paper suggesting that while there is evidence for change within engineering curricula towards best practice, there are significant barriers primarily at the operational level, which bring into question the likelihood of more widespread adoption of hard won gains. It is argued that transformational change is required which (i) alters the culture of the institution by changing select underlying assumptions and institutional behaviours, processes, and products; (ii) is deep and pervasive, affecting the whole institution; (iii) is intentional; and (iv) occurs over time (Kezar & Eckel, 2002). It is also argued that change leadership of this nature must be distributed, not solely laid at the feet of Deans and Vice Chancellors. A strategy for change is presented based on observations and evidence from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) project "Design based curriculum reform within engineering education" and the recently completed ALTC Discipline Scholars' Survey of Engineering Academics grounded in the research for transformational change within businesses, universities and teaching and learning. This model for change proposes the development of a network of change agents built on a brokerage model to improve best practice and leadership capacity through systematically and directly engaging with the strategic/tactical and operational levels of engineering faculties
Litzinger, TA, Lattuca, LR, Hadgraft, RG, Newstetter, WC, Alley, M, Atman, C, DiBiasio, D, Finelli, C, Diefes-Dux, H, Kolmos, A, Riley, D, Sheppard, S, Weimer, M & Yasuhara, K 2011, 'Engineering education and the development of expertise', Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 123-150.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BACKGROUND: Although engineering education has evolved in ways that improve the readiness of graduates to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century, national and international organizations continue to call for change. Future changes in engineering education should be guided by research on expertise and the learning processes that support its development. PURPOSE: The goals of this paper are: to relate key findings from studies of the development of expertise to engineering education, to summarize instructional practices that are consistent with these findings, to provide examples of learning experiences that are consistent with these instructional practices, and finally, to identify challenges to implementing such learning experiences in engineering programs. SCOPE/METHOD: The research synthesized for this article includes that on the development of expertise, students' approaches to learning, students' responses to instructional practices, and the role of motivation in learning. In addition, literature on the dominant teaching and learning practices in engineering education is used to frame some of the challenges to implementing alternative approaches to learning. CONCLUSION: Current understanding of expertise, and the learning processes that develop it, indicates that engineering education should encompass a set of learning experiences that allow students to construct deep conceptual knowledge, to develop the ability to apply key technical and professional skills fluently, and to engage in a number of authentic engineering projects. Engineering curricula and teaching methods are often not well aligned with these goals. Curriculum-level instructional design processes should be used to design and implement changes that will improve alignment. © 2011 ASEE.
Moore, G, Kerr, R & Hadgraft, R 2011, 'Self-guided field trips for students of environments', European Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 107-118.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In many learning institutions around the world, there is a trend towards larger classes, more flexible learning pathways and reduced teaching resources. Experiential learning is often used in the form of site visits or field trips for students studying engineering, natural resource management, geography and similar disciplines. Providing opportunities for students to undertake field trips without the traditional support mechanism is one of the more challenging issues for subject designers. How can large cohorts of students gain practical exposure to various aspects of the natural or built environment? Although this is typically done using traditional site visits and fieldwork with a high staff/student ratio, the goal has been to use action research to design and develop resources to enable small groups (three or four) to make self-guided visits to sites close to campus. Multimedia resources to examine and interpret aspects of the site that relate to their on-campus learning guide the students. One critical issue in the success of these activities has been proper risk assessment and control procedures. The outcome of this research is a framework to provide a safe, active learning experience by way of self-guided field trips that is suitable for implementation with large classes. © 2011 SEFI.
Godfrey, E & Hadgraft, R 2009, 'Engineering education research: Coming of age in Australia and New Zealand', Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 307-308.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hadgraft, RG 1998, 'Problem-based Learning: A Vital Step Towards a New Work Environment', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 14-23.
Hadgraft, R 1997, 'Student reactions to a problem-based, fourth-year computing elective in civil engineering', European Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 115-123.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Following a significant course review in civil engineering at Monash University, a fourth-year computing elective was introduced in 1995. The author developed the subject as a project-based one, the aim being to allow students to pursue their own computing interests. This paper describes how the subject was run, and documented the student responses. The subject is a good example of student-directed learning, and the enthusiasm and energy which flow from students having ownership of their learning. It also shows how a subject can use a wide range of learning resources, including the Internet, to provide positive outcomes for the department as well as the students. Improvements for the future are included. © 1997 European Society for Engineering Education.
Young, W, Hadgraft, R & Young, M 1997, 'An Application of ‘jigsaw learning’ to teaching infrastructure model development', European Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 11-18.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Skills in group communication, development of problem definition and coordination of activities are essential in modern day multi-disciplinary engineering. The development of these skills requires more than just being told they exist and how the students should acquire them. Students must be exposed to these situations and taught how to handle them. This paper presents a study of a teaching technique that would encourage the development of communication skills between students: ‘jigsaw learning’. The approach consists of dividing students solving a particular problem into a number of groups. A student is first placed into an overall model development group to specify the problem to be solved. Second, he/she works in the component group to create a particular model component. Finally, once the component is developed the student moves back to the original model development group and incorporates the specific component into the overall model. In order to do this successfully, students must communicate the general description of the model to the component group, who share similar expertise. They must then communicate the findings of this expert group back to a more disparate model development group. Each student moves through the steps of: specifying the problem; specifying and considering connections between the components; developing the components; bringing them together; and presenting the results. To assess the success of the approach, a series of studies were carried out by the Higher Education Research Unit. Two questionnaires were distributed. They indicated the approach was successful but refinement was necessary. © 1997 European Society for Engineering Education.
Problem-based learning (PBL) is seen as a way of developing a rounded engineer, one who excels not only in technical accomplishments, but also in communication, teamwork, leadership, innovation and initiative. PBL develops all these skills through a process of problem solving in a resource-rich environment explored by teams of students. This paper shows how a PBL approach can be applied in the development of a new civil engineering course. It does this on a broad scale (looking at the sequence of subjects required in the degree), and on a smaller scale, to show how individual subjects could be implemented. © 1993, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.
There is a pressing need for more efficient methods of delivering updated engineering information, especially in the workplace. Hypertext offers the author the ability to structure information in ways which are more flexible than conventional print media. The intention of presenting training material using hypertext is to develop an explorative attitude in the reader. The reader is encouraged to follow his/her own path through the material, with the option of following some topics to a greater depth than would normally be expected. Hypertext also provides a tightly integrated package of information, guidance, and often also the ability to execute programs or procedures described in the document. It can also provide concise support for experts as well as assistance—in the same document. This paper (i) outlines the concepts and facilities in typical hypertext implementations, (ii) describes the reactions that have been obtained in the use of an on-line code of practice (Australian Rainfall and Runoff), and (iii) offers some guidelines for structuring engineering documents for hypertext. © 1992, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.
Current engineering courses are not structured to develop real problem-solving skills in their students. They rely on a bottom-up approach to learning, where the first three years is spend mostly on theory, with almost no practice at problem definition. Instead, the students spend most of their time solving carefully designed exercises. Real-world problems are not as neatly packaged as these exercises, and, as a consequence, graduate engineers often lack the problem-definition and problem-recognition skills that are essential if the theory they have learned is to be useful to them. On the contrary, a problem-oriented course requires the students to develop those problem recognition skills. It also is intended to develop student-directed learning, and group and communication skills. A problem-oriented approach was used in 1991 in two second-year courses in civil engineering—surveying and computing. The courses were well received by the students, and the average exam result for surveying showed a noticeable improvement, while the average exam result for computing showed a marginal improvement. (There were, however, other encouraging signs in the computing course. The author believes that the difference in response between the two subjects is due to the difference between working in groups and working individually, and a course change for the computing subject for 1992 is proposed. © 1992, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.
Hadgraft, RG & Daniell, TM 1988, 'Computers in hydrology - past, present and future', Civil engineering transactions, vol. CE30, no. 4, pp. 207-223.
Hydrology has developed as a numerically intensive branch of science/engineering. The developments in hardware over the last 30 years, and the parallel developments in computer software are discussed. The effects of this computer revolution on the development of software and modelling in hydrology are examined. This paper also reviews some of the hardware and software issues that are important when developing new software. Some implications for engineering education in computing are discussed. The issues that are relevant today, and a guess at those that might emerge in the future in the use of computers in hydrology are considered.
Hadgraft, RG, Volker, RE & Stark, KP 1982, 'Investigation of reservoir release rules using dynamic programming and simulation.', IN: HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES SYMP. 1982, PREPRINTS OF PAPERS,, BARTON, AUSTRALIA, INST. ENGRS. AUST., P.64-68. (NAT. CO, no. 82-3 ) (ISBN 085825-165-5) (Melbourne, Australia: May 11-13, 1982).
A major surface storage on the Burdekin River in North Queensland is to be constructed to supply water to approximately 680 km SUP 2 of mostly sugar cane. Currently an aquifer in the Delta region provides irrigation water for approximately 300 km SUP 2. The paper describes results from a dynamic programming and simulation study to investigate the performance of several operating rules for the surface reservoir. The possible advantages of conjunctive use of the surface and groundwater reservoirs are also examined. (A)
Hadgraft, RG, Volker, RE & Stark, KP 1981, 'unknown', IN: PROC. 19TH IAHR CONGRESS, (NEW DELHI, INDIA: FEB. 1-7, 1981), vol. 4, New Delhi, India, IAHR, 1981, Subject-C(b), Paper 11.
Dynamic programming and simulation have been used to study a water resource system involving a major surface storage and an aquifer located downstream. The aquifer provides approximately 250,000 ML of irrigation water annually and natural recharge is augmented by artificial recharge using river water. Results are presented from various operating rules to determine the optimal strategy of releases from the surface storage. The operating rules depend on factors such as reservoir level, expected inflows and water demands. (A)
Lawson, J, Zucker, I & Hadgraft, R 2020, 'Students Take over as Curriculum Co-designers and Facilitators: A Case Study from Engineering' in Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, pp. 181-194.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology (FEIT) at the University of Technology Sydney is taking courageous and creative steps in its teaching and learning. FEIT is developing landmark innovations to transform the curriculum to better engage with students and respond to the demands of a rapidly changing future workforce. For example, drawing inspiration from design studios, many programs now contain engineering studios to engage students in authentic and complex problems drawn from professional practice. This chapter reports on the first iteration of ‘Summer Studios’, an innovative subject that involved senior undergraduate students designing and facilitating studios for fellow students.
Tekmen-Araci, Y, Francis, B, Hadgraft, R, Zucker, I, Lawson, J & Jarman, R 2020, 'Changing the Mindset of Engineering Educators to Teach Design Studios' in Lecture Notes in Educational Technology, pp. 169-179.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology at the University of Technology Sydney recruited and established a ‘Learning and Teaching Design’ team. One of the primary aims of this team was to change the mindset of engineering academics to deliver a curriculum that produced More Innovative Design-Abled Students and Staff (MIDAS). To model what an inspiring pedagogy might look like, a set of short, intensive, summer school offerings were designed and delivered. These ‘MIDAS Summer Studios’ aimed to strategically shift the culture of education and to revolutionise how students learn engineering and information technology. In order to confirm that each of the MIDAS Summer Studios and their studio leaders delivered a calibrated student learning experience, a series of training workshops were delivered to ensure the language used by studio facilitators remained consistent. During these workshops, the participants were encouraged to adopt some values and principles. This study reports how these values have been effective in transforming engineering education in one Australian university.
McLaughlin, P, Baglin, J, Chester, A, Davis, P, Saha, S, Mills, A, Poronnik, P, Hinton, T, Lawson, J & Hadgraft, R 2018, 'The global canopy: Propagating discipline-based global mobility' in The Globalisation of Higher Education: Developing Internationalised Education Research and Practice, Springer, Germany, pp. 79-100.View/Download from: Publisher's site
As Australian universities welcome significant numbers of inbound international students and increasingly encourage outbound domestic student mobility, the opportunities for global discipline connectedness, cross-cultural understandings, and fertile learning interactions abound. Yet these two “strands” of students rarely engage in deliberately organized discipline-based activities. They are passing “as ships in the night,” with opportunities for long-term relationships, improved discipline-based networks, and global mobility opportunities unrealized or operating coincidently at the margins of their curriculum. This chapter reports upon the outcomes of a range of approaches to discipline-based teaching and learning between these two cohorts at Australian universities, which illustrate how separate cohorts of inbound and outbound students can interrelate to build discipline-based competencies for navigating tomorrow’s world.
Daver, F & Hadgraft, R 2017, 'Linking materials science and engineering curriculum to design and manufacturing challenges of the automotive industry' in Materials Science and Engineering: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, pp. 1636-1658.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017, IGI Global. All rights reserved. Materials engineering applications are becoming more widespread, varied and sophisticated due to advances in science and increasing interdisciplinary cooperation. To be able to impart engineering graduates with the required technical background, educators need to update the course syllabus and the program curriculum continuously. Most importantly, in a world of constant change, educators need to develop the right graduate capabilities in engineering students. This calls for new, innovative teaching approaches to materials education. This chapter demonstrates the authors' teaching approach through the design and development of an Automotive Materials course at postgraduate level in an 'International Automotive Engineering' program at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. To elucidate this teaching approach to materials education, the authors discuss in detail the need to impart an up-to-date understanding of new, alternative materials, the development of graduate capabilities, interdisciplinary systems thinking towards materials education, and the environmental sustainability of engineering materials.
Lawson, J & Hadgraft, R 2017, 'Building Global Awareness in Remote Locations' in McLaughlin, P & Kennedy, B (eds), The Global Canopy Stories of Discipline-Based Learning Interactions to Promote Global Mobility, The Writing Bureau, pp. 75-84.
Daver, F & Hadgraft, R 2015, 'Linking Materials Science and Engineering Curriculum to Design and Manufacturing Challenges of the Automotive Industry' in Handbook of Research on Recent Developments in Materials Science and Corrosion Engineering Education, pp. 46-66.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015, IGI Global. All rights reserved. Materials engineering applications are becoming more widespread, varied and sophisticated due to advances in science and increasing interdisciplinary cooperation. To be able to impart engineering graduates with the required technical background, educators need to update the course syllabus and the program curriculum continuously. Most importantly, in a world of constant change, educators need to develop the right graduate capabilities in engineering students. This calls for new, innovative teaching approaches to materials education. This chapter demonstrates the authors' teaching approach through the design and development of an Automotive Materials course at postgraduate level in an 'International Automotive Engineering' program at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. To elucidate this teaching approach to materials education, the authors discuss in detail the need to impart an up-to-date understanding of new, alternative materials, the development of graduate capabilities, interdisciplinary systems thinking towards materials education, and the environmental sustainability of engineering materials.
Alam, F, Hadgraft, RG & Alam, Q 2014, 'eLearning: Challenges and opportunities' in Using Technology Tools to Innovate Assessment, Reporting, and Teaching Practices in Engineering Education, IGI Global, pp. 217-226.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014, IGI Global. eLearning will revolutionise higher education in the next decade. Although this has likely been said regularly over the last 20 years, the widespread availability of mobile devices, ubiquitous wifi connections, and the globalisation of industry, driven by global networking infrastructure, will finally deliver the promises of learning anytime anywhere. This chapter reviews the most common forms of eLearning, both synchronous and asynchronous: recorded lectures, learning management systems, online assessment, blogs, and wikis are slowly transforming education towards a student-centred model of learning. The question remains: what is the university's business model when students can collect their learning resources for free from iTunesU?
Alam, F, Hadgraft, RG & Subic, A 2014, 'Technology-enhanced laboratory experiments in learning and teaching' in Alam, F (ed), Using Technology Tools to Innovate Assessment, Reporting, and Teaching Practices in Engineering Education, IGI Global, Hershey PA, USA, pp. 289-302.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014, IGI Global. Laboratory practice plays a crucial role in engineering and technology education. The advancement of computational and computer technologies have ushered in a new horizon in learning and teaching of laboratory practices worldwide. Apart from traditional hands-on laboratory practice, two other laboratories, namely the virtual/simulated laboratory and the remote control laboratory practices, are playing an increasingly dominant role. The virtual and remote laboratory practices offer unique opportunities for students to visualise complex concepts and remove the time and location barrier. This chapter provides a comparative analysis of all three laboratory practices. Additionally, a 3-step laboratory practice and a hybrid laboratory practice developed at RMIT University are described. It is evident that the advancement of computational technology enhances the student learning experience in laboratory practices. However, real world hands-on laboratory practices cannot be fully replaced by the virtual/simulated and/or remote control laboratory practices. They are complementary.
Prestigiacomo, R, Hadgraft, R, Lockyer, L, Knight, S, van den Hoven, E, Martinez-Maldonado, R & Hunter, J 2020, 'Learning-centred Translucence: An Approach to Understand How Teachers Talk About Classroom Data', The 10th international Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference, Frankfurt, Germany.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Teachers are increasingly being encouraged to embrace evidence- based practices to improve their teaching. Learning analytics (LA) offer great promise in supporting these practices by providing evidence for teachers and learners to make informed decisions and transform the educational experience. However, LA limitations and their uptake by educators are also coming under critical scrutiny. This is in part due to the lack of involvement of teachers and learners in the design of LA tools to understand existing educational practices. In this paper, we propose a human-centred approach to generate understanding ofteachers’ data needs through the lens of three key principles of translucence: visibility, awareness and accountability. We illustrate our approach through a participatory design sprint to identify how teachers talk about classroom data. We describe teachers’ perspectives on the evidence they need for making better-informed decisions and discuss the implications of our approach for the design of human- centred LA in the next years.
Hadgraft, RG, Francis, B, Fitch, R, Halkon, B & Brown, T 2020, 'Renewing mechanical and mechatronics programs using studios', SEFI 47th Annual Conference: Varietas Delectat... Complexity is the New Normality, Proceedings, pp. 511-522.
© 2020 SEFI 47th Annual Conference: Varietas Delectat... Complexity is the New Normality, Proceedings. All rights reserved. In a world of rapid change, engineering programs need to adapt to be relevant. This paper addresses the renewal processes for mechanical and mechatronics engineering programs at a large university of technology. The paper sits within a wider curriculum change movement, including all engineering and IT programs at this university. Several meetings have been held over the last 3 years with both industry panels and with academic staff and students to understand the nature of the problem. Using a design-thinking approach, we have explored: global trends, the nature of engineering work and projects, the capabilities required by engineers, and the kinds of capabilities that graduates need to operate confidently in this new world of work. There is a clear need for graduates to be more operational as they move from study to work. Consequently, a major focus on experiential learning is emerging as the key delivery vehicle for new kinds of graduates including projects, studios, and internships. These forms of learning are supported by ready access to online materials as required. A central thread is personalisation of the student learning experience through learning contracts and portfolios. There has been constant demand for change in engineering education for at least the last 20 years. Making change happen, however, is another matter. We are in the fortunate position at this university to have high level support from the Chancellery and the Dean to move our engineering programs to be more relevant to the future. This paper describes the process for engaging our academics, students and industry supporters in that process and will be of interest to many who are grappling with similar transitions.
Braun, R, Bone, D, Brookes, W, Trede, F & Hadgraft, R 2019, 'Studios in DE and EE at UTS: Structure and rationale', 2019 18th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training, ITHET 2019, International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training, IEEE, Magdeburg, Germany.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 IEEE. We describe the Studios we have introduced into our Data and Electronic Engineering programs. We explain the purpose of the Studios, and the structure of activities. We describe the rationale for the significant components. We comment on the success of the components, and lessons learned.
Braun, R, Brookes, W, Hadgraft, R & Chaczko, Z 2019, 'Assessment Design for Studio-Based Learning', Proceedings of the Twenty-First Australasian Computing Education Conference, Australasian Computing Education Conference, ACM, Sydney, Australia, pp. 106-111.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Studio-based learning is not new to computing education, however as the ecosystem of available Open Educational Resources (OERs) expands, the capacity and desire for student self-directed learning is growing. However increasing student autonomy in how and when learning takes place creates challenges around assessment. This paper introduces the design of assessment tasks to support studio-based learning at undergraduate level. It describes an example of using learning contracts and portfolio-based assessment for evaluating individual and team performance. The paper presents some initial observations of the approach taken, and its transferability to other areas of the curriculum.
Hadgraft, R, Francis, B, Lawson, J, Jarman, R & Araci, JT 2018, 'Summer studios - Lessons from a 'small bet' in student-led learning', Proceedings of the 46th SEFI Annual Conference 2018: Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Engineering Education Excellence, SEFI Annual Conference, SEDI, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 815-823.
Hadgraft, RG 2017, 'Rethinking Accreditation Criteria to focus on Design', 2017 7th World Engineering Education Forum (WEEF), World Engineering Education Forum, IEEE, Malaysia, pp. 802-807.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. Accreditation criteria in most countries imply that mathematics and science are the key elements of engineering. This tends to support traditional engineering curricula that emphasise lecture-driven topics in engineering science, such as statics, dynamics, materials, circuits, control, and so on, giving students in four year programs little time to really develop engineering problem solving skills for a world of sustainability and complexity. There is a pressing need to redesign engineering curricula around design and problem solving if new engineers are to grapple with complex challenges such as climate change and the need for continuous and relentless innovation. This paper proposes that a good place to start is to reimagine the accreditation criteria for engineering programs.
Trad, S, Hadgraft, R & Gardner, A 2018, 'Sustainability invisibility: are we hooked on technical rationality?', https://www.sefi.be/?post_type=proceedings, Annual Conference of the European Society for Engineering Education, SEFI, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 479-486.
Hadgraft, RG 2017, 'Transforming engineering education: DESIGN must be the core', Proceedings of the 45th SEFI Annual Conference 2017 - Education Excellence for Sustainability, SEFI 2017, 45th SEFI Annual Conference, Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal, pp. 245-253.
There have been many reviews of engineering education over the last 15 years, yet most engineering curricula remain traditionally focused on the development of technical outcomes, with a small emphasis on design. This paper reviews many of the international reviews, to seek the common themes that need to be addressed. Examples of new curricula are provided. Although the design of new curricula is difficult enough, it is the implementation of change within our existing academic structures that is really the difficult problem to be solved.
Hadgraft, RG & Jin, X 2017, 'Understanding Engineering Competencies in Practice and the Educational Implications', Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education, Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education, AAEE, Sydney, Australia.
Context: Engineering professionals and educators have different interpretations or perspectives on certain engineering competency items, for example, mathematical modelling. The question here is how such differences impact the structuring and interpretation of engineering competencies at the general level.
Purpose: This paper responds to the following questions: How can certain engineering competency items be clustered with others? Is there empirical evidence to support such structures?
Approach: The research questions stems from a comparative literature review of existing national and international engineering competency standards. Empirical data used in this paper was collected from a small-scale survey. Social Network Analysis (SNA) was used as the method for data analysis - engineering competency mapping.
Results: A set of conceptual maps have been made to depict the clustering of 60 engineering competency items identified in a real-life engineering company in China.
Conclusions: It is argued that the Social Network Analysis algorithm can be appropriated for the study of engineering competencies. This algorithm provides indicators of identifying relatively "important" competency items, which create implications for undergraduate engineering practice programs.
Hadgraft, RG, Francis, B, Lawson, J, Jarman, R, Stewart, C, Hsieh, I & Jenkins, G 2017, 'Curriculum transformation with students as partners', Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AAEE 2017), Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering, Australasian Association for Engineering Education, Manly, Australia, pp. 1-9.
8732142. That was my student ID as an undergraduate (now one of the authors).
It was a number, not a name. It distinguished students from professors and all other teaching
staff and, in a symbolic way, reminded us all of our firm place as students, as learners. There
was a big power differential between students and teachers in the 1980s. What we learned
was prescribed, transmitted and tested in implicit ways (no rubrics or marking criteria in those
days) and rarely were our skills tested – just what we knew and could recall at a given time.
Sometimes people say that teaching is an act. Indeed, sage on the stage suggests this
precisely. But being a student is also an act. Students also assume roles and personas.
If we want curriculum transformation, we seek to put a stop to acting – to engage students
and staff in authentic learning.
MIDAS is our curriculum transformation project in the Faculty of Engineering and Information
Technology (FEIT) at UTS – More Innovative Design-Able Students. In MIDAS, we want
students and teachers to be their authentic selves in a true teaching and learning
partnership. MIDAS seeks mutual respect in people, not the fulfilment of roles.
MIDAS doesn’t see students as numbers, but as partners, as people who can learn,
contribute, inspire, teach and create … and it sees teachers as people who also learn,
contribute, inspire, teach and create
Paimin, AN, Alias, M, Prpic, JK & Hadgraft, RG 2017, 'Developing an Instrument to Measure the Cognitive-Affective-Conative Profile of Engineering Students', 2017 IEEE 9th International Conference on Engineering Education (ICEED), International Conference on Engineering Education, IEEE, Kanazawa, Japan, pp. 101-105.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Learning strategies (cognition), emotion (affection) and conation are suggested as important elements of success for engineering students. Identifying student learning profile may help improve successful rate in engineering program. An instrument that can be used for reliably assessing the cognitive- affective-conative profile of students is needed. This paper report the development and initial testing of the questionnaire (CACQ). Quantitative procedures were used. The set of questionnaire was distributed to 207 final year engineering students after being reviewed by four experts. Each of the constructs reached a good reliability value. Strong and positive correlations were established between learning strategy, emotion, conation and achievement motivation measures. The strength of correlations between the constructs also provides an indicator to the unidimensionality of the constructs. This new questionnaire is a promising measure for assessing the cognitive, affective and conative profile of engineering students.
Paimin, AN, Prpic, JK, Hadgraft, RG & Alias, M 2017, 'UNDERSTANDING STUDENT'S LEARNING EXPERIENCES IN HIGHER EDUCATION', INTED2017: 11TH INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE, 11th International Conference on Technology, Education and Development, IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION & DEVELOPMENT, Valencia, SPAIN, pp. 6670-6676.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Braun, R, Brookes, W, Chaczko, Z & Hadgraft, R 2016, 'Position paper: BE (Hons) data engineering', Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET), 2016 15th International Conference on, IEEE, pp. 1-6.
Hadgraft, RG, Lowe, D & Lawson, J 2016, 'Enhancing mechanics education through shared assessment design', ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings, Measuring Learning in Statics & Dynamics - Annual Conference and Exposition (ASEE), American Society for Engineering Education, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© American Society for Engineering Education, 2016.There is considerable commonality between engineering undergraduate programs in terms of content, pedagogies, course structures and assessment practices, particularly in terms of engineering fundamentals such as mechanics. Despite this, and the availability of an array of online resources, there seems to be limited commitment to sharing learning resources among teaching academics and between institutions. Further, there seems to be a specific resistance to sharing those materials that support the teaching and learning of technical content1. Collaborations seen in research networks seem not to have equivalent presence in teaching and learning, despite a literature that points to the benefits of sharing curriculum resources 2,3. A few projects funded by the Federal Office for Learning and Teaching (OLT) in Australia have made freely available resources as deliverables (A proactive approach to addressing student learning diversity in engineering mechanics 4; Promoting student engagement and continual improvement: Integrating professional quality management practice into engineering curricula5; Remotely accessible laboratories: Enhancing learning outcomes6 and many more 7). There has been varied uptake of these, however, and the long-term maintenance of online resources is problematic. There is also a literature that identifies sustainability challenges with open educational resources including funding and intellectual property rights 3. It could be argued that failure to provide resources and, concomitantly the uptake by teaching academics of such resources impedes student access to these resources and therefore impacts their learning. It also contributes to inefficiencies brought about by work duplication. The reasons for limited uptake of resources are both institutional and individual. However, there are nuances to what is meant by a resource, how resources are modified by academics and where in a program they mi...
© 2015 The Authors. E-portfolios are progressively becoming a key means for students to integrate their learning across the entire length of their program. However, the application of e-portfolios in engineering and ICT programs has been generally isolated to a few courses in each program, if at all. This paper summarises the use of e-portfolios to document student learning. Other aspects of the paper include the need for connections to curriculum mapping tools, e-portfolio software platforms, integration of outcomes through the curriculum, professional placements in industry, final year projects, etc.
Rasul, MG, Lawson, JJ, Howard, P, Martin, F & Hadgraft, R 2014, 'Learning and Teaching Approaches and Methodologies of Capstone Final Year Engineering Projects', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION, Capstone Design Conference, TEMPUS PUBLICATIONS, Columbus, OH, pp. 1727-1735.
Bil, C, Hadgraft, R & Ruamtham, P 2014, 'Aerospace engineering: Investigating student perceptions and industry realities', 29th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, ICAS 2014.
Aerospace students have different reasons for choosing their university program. Knowing their perceptions of the aerospace industry and their expectations in their future career can assist in determining the best teaching styles and program structures. A survey was conducted among aerospace students at RMIT University involving all four year levels in the Bachelor of Engineering (Aerospace Engineering) program. The results indicate that there is a mismatch between what the university tries to teach and what students actually learn. Students felt that they have been taught more about technical and analytical skills but less about business practices and ethics/social issues even though these were underlined by both academics and industry.
Pears, A, Harland, J, Hamilton, M & Hadgraft, R 2014, 'Four feed-forward principles enhance students' perception of feedback as meaningful', Proceedings - 2014 International Conference on Teaching and Learning in Computing and Engineering, LATICE 2014, pp. 272-277.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper analyses the outcome of an international study examining student perceptions of feedback. Our initial work built on research by Gibbs which identified linkages between current and subsequent course activities as a critical factor in whether students value the feedback they receive. Drawing on the work of Gibbs on feedback and Biggs on constructive alignment we proposed four principles for achieving student relevant course feedback. Using these principles we analysed the curricula and learning activities of two similar IT courses taught in Australia and Sweden, and contrasted this with student perceptions of the quality of feedback they received. That analysis demonstrated that the learning activities and assessment practices currently in place violated all four principles to a significant degree. Students were also quite unhappy with these courses and did not rate feedback highly. We hypothesised a causal relationship between adherence to the principles we had proposed and student's perceptions of feedback as meaningful and useful. In the present work we report on the results obtained by making changes to the learning activities and assessment practices in the two courses to better align them with the four principles. These results show significant improvement in student satisfaction and attitudes to feedback in course evaluation questionnaires. We conclude that our hypothesis is confirmed and that changing course learning activities to align with the principles we propose improves the student learning experience. © 2014 IEEE.
Grenquist, S & Hadgraft, RG 2013, 'Are Australian and American Engineering Education Programs the Same? The Similarities and Differences between Australian and American Engineering Accreditation Procedures', 2013 ASEE International Forum, ASEE International Forum, American Society for Engineering Education, Atlanta, GA.
Paimin, AN, Alias, M, Hadgraft, RG & Prpic, JK 2013, 'Factors affecting study performance of engineering undergraduates: Case studies of Malaysia and Australia', Research in Engineering Education Symposium, REES 2013, Research in Engineering Education Symposium, pp. 180-186.
While student attrition is of concern to engineering educators there is still a lack of understanding of factors that can contribute to students' success in engineering. The main purpose of this research has been to quantitatively examine the relationships between learning strategy, interest, intention and academic performance informed by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). Participants were 135 Malaysian and 132 Australian engineering undergraduates who completed the Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) scale and Learner Autonomy Profile (LAP-SF) scale. The correlation coefficient analysis shows strong interrelationships between learning strategy, interest and intention while findings of the structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis revealed unexpected but interesting findings across the two countries. Two different models were established for the Malaysian and Australian data suggesting that intention is influenced by strategy only via the establishment of interest. This is consistent with the theory used. Copyright © 2013 Paimin, Hadgraft, Prpic, Alias.
Pears, A, Harland, J, Hamilton, M & Hadgraft, R 2013, 'What is feedback? connecting student perceptions to assessment practices', Proceedings - 2013 Learning and Teaching in Computing and Engineering, LaTiCE 2013, pp. 106-113.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper reports outcomes from an international study examining student perceptions of feedback. Recent work by Grahame Gibbs identifies linkages between current and subsequent course activities as a critical factor in whether students value the feedback they receive. We have investigated the frequency and nature of feedback given to students in two large introductory course settings in engineering and computing in Australia and Sweden and contrasted this with student perceptions of the quality of feedback they received. Data analysed includes audits of levels of verbal and written feedback on assignment work returned to students, and an exploration of student attitudes to feedback in the context of the questions asked in course evaluation questionnaires. Drawing on the work of Gibbs on feedback, and Biggs on constructive alignment we propose four principles for achieving student relevant course feedback. The paper uses these principles as a framework with which to deconstruct and analyse the feedback processes and learning activities of the 2012 versions of the two target courses. The analysis demonstrates that several key principles have been violated. We also discuss how new learning activities could be designed and evaluated to address the concerns we have identified. The results highlight the contextual nature of how feedback is perceived and valued by learners. This provides useful practical guidelines to academics wishing to optimise the value of feedback to students, and minimise wasted effort associated with giving types of feedback that have little value for learners, and which consequently often remain unread. © 2013 IEEE.
Dowling, DG & Hadgraft, RG 2012, 'What should we teach? Defining Your discipline to drive curriculum renewal: An Environmental engineering case study', SEFI 2012 : Engineering Education 2020 : Meet The Future : Proceedings of the 40th SEFI Annual Conference 2012, SEFI - Annual Conference of European Society for Engineering Education, European Society for Engineering Education (SEFI), Thessaloniki, Greece.
In Australia, the federal government, employers, and accrediting bodies, such as Engineers Australia, are calling for more clearly defined program outcomesor exit standardsfor engineering programs [1-3]. Engineering Schools are therefore under increasing pressure to more clearly define what graduates from four or five year engineering programs should knowand be able to do. This paper describes a simple, but elegant stakeholder process that can be used to define the capabilities of a graduate who could claim in-depth techni-cal competence in their discipline. The Defining Your Discipline (DYD) Process  may be used by educational institutions and industry organisations to develop practitioner-authenticated sets of graduate capabilitiesfor their disci-pline. Environmental engineering was the test case for this new process. At the heart of the DYD process is the definition of tasks, in this case the tasks which a graduate from a program should be able to do in their first two or three years after graduation. Stakeholders are given a set of large sticky notes on which they are asked to write, on each note, one task that they would expect a recent graduate to be able to perform in their company. For academics, this is an imaginary task, while for industry representatives, who usually have considerable experience in supervising young graduates, it is more authentic as they know the sorts of tasks that a recent graduate should be able to complete. After about 20-30 minutes, most participants come to a stop. They can't think of any more tasks. Sometimes, it is helpful for them to talk to people around them for more ideas. This might last another 10-15 minutes. So, within 40-50 minutes participants are ready for the next stage, which is to clusterthe tasks into meaningful groups. This takes another 20-30 min-utes. There is usually quite a bit of discussion about the names of the clus-ters, and when negotiating the cluster into which an individual task belongs. The outc...
Dowling, DG & Hadgraft, RG 2011, 'A systematic consultation process to define graduate outcomes for engineering disciplines', RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION SYMPOSIUM, Research in Engineering Education Symposium, UNIV POLITECNICA MADRID, Madrid, Spain, pp. 552-561.
In many countries around the world, there is considerable interest in
the development of robust learning outcomes for engineering and other higher
education programs. These outcomes underpin the accreditation systems
operated by ABET, Engineers Australia, IPENZ, EUR-ACE and the Washington
Accord members. In addition, many national governments are developing
quality assurance processes that will require university programs to deliver an
agreed set of learning outcomes. This paper addresses the development of a systematic, data-driven methodology to develop such learning outcomes.
Maynard, N, Tade, M, Lukey, G, Shallcross, D, Hadgraft, R, Dalvean, J, Cameron, I, Crosthwaite, C & Kavanagh, J 2011, 'Immersive and interactive learning environments - A tale of four plants', SEFI Annual Conference 2011, pp. 563-568.
Copyright © 2015 SEFI. Four interactive and immerse virtual reality learning environments have been developed that allow students to move through processing facilities in their own time. While nothing replaces an actual site visit such a learning environment allows students to explore at their own pace many different aspects of the design and operation of such a plant. Students who may be mobility-impaired or suffer from some other form of disability may use such a learning environment that they might otherwise be unable to explore fully. The foundation of each of the learning environments is series of high-resolution, spherical photographic images captured across the sites on different vertical levels. The software used to generate the images allows the students to pivot their viewpoint both horizontally and vertically, as well as zooming in and out. Students may step between adjacent nodes using hot spots embedded in the image or by selecting nodes from a map of the facility. Activities embedded in each of the systems permit students to make connections between theories learnt in the class room and the reality in an operating plant.
Nousala, S, Hall, W & Hadgraft, R 2011, 'Socio-technical systems for connecting social knowledge and the governance of urban action', WMSCI 2011 - The 15th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Proceedings, pp. 335-340.
This paper seeks to expand our focus to understand how communities can assemble and manage knowledge to support more rational decisions regarding government services and actions in the community environment. We focus on the knowledge transfer interface between communities and urban councils, with a view to extending theoretical understanding of such transfers, and the socio-technical knowledge support systems interfacing between action groups and councils.
Paimin, AN, Hadgraft, R, Prpic, JK & Alias, M 2011, 'An examination of learning strategy, interest, intention and academic performance: Case studies of Australia and Malaysia', Research in Engineering Education Symposium 2011, REES 2011, pp. 824-833.
High attrition rates in engineering program are a concern worldwide. We are exploring the hypothesis that conation is an important factor for success in engineering study. This ongoing PhD research project is exploring cognitive, affective and conative elements using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) model, which proposes a logical progression from cognitive through affective and conative to performance. The three elements were examined in the form of learning approaches namely learning strategy, learning interest (motive) and learning intention respectively. Participants consisted of 122 Australian students and 136 Malaysian students who completed a background questionnaire, the Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) scale and the Learner Autonomy Profile (LAP-SF) scale. The data analysis shows strong interrelationships between learning strategy, learning interest and learning intention. However, results in the multiple regression analysis revealed that the combination of the three learning factors did not strongly predict academic performance of the participants at both locations. Gender difference was found which revealed different learning preferences patterns between the Australian and Malaysian participants. Results are being further explored using semi-structured interview. In light of the demands for increased participation in higher education in many countries, it is important that we better understand what leads to good academic performance in engineering if we are to address the high levels of attrition that occur at many universities.
Chang, RL, Stern, L, Sondergaard, H & Hadgraft, R 2009, 'Places for learning engineering: A preliminary report on informal learning spaces', 2009 Research in Engineering Education Symposium, REES 2009.
This is a report on an investigation of undergraduate engineering learning spaces that were newly introduced in 2008. The new spaces include formal learning spaces designed to enable student-centred, small group learning, and informal café-style spaces. The project investigates the research question: Does an availability of spaces for informal learning lead to an increase in behaviours that one might expect to be conducive to increased informal or collaborative learning? The initial findings from the survey data suggest that there may be some increased use of informal learning spaces if they are made available to students. © 2009 Chang, R.L., Stern, L., Sondergaard, H., and Hadgraft, R.
Paimin, AN, Hadgraft, RG & Prpic, JK 2009, 'An exploration of the conative domain among engineering students', 2009 Research in Engineering Education Symposium, REES 2009.
Concerns about student retention, demotivation and lack of confidence in engineering courses has been discussed over the past 15 years. This study suggests the need of exploration study on conative domain to prepare students for future challenges in engineering study. One promising line of research is to promote a deeper understanding of the concept of conative domain, to explain the confusion between the idea of conation as motivation and resilience, and to discuss several researches on conation in educational contexts. This paper is part of an ongoing PhD research project that aims to explore conative domain among engineering students. It reviews existing literature in this topic and presents preliminary findings from surveys and interviews. The results from surveys showed students were less confident of their own technical skills and have a lower level of self-esteem compared to employers' perception. Results from lecturers' interviews showed students' attitudes and interest were the major obstacle that affects their willingness in exploring engineering skills.
Prpic, JK & Hadgraft, RG 2009, 'Building a community of scholars', 2009 Research in Engineering Education Symposium, REES 2009.
This is an outline for a workshop aimed at building and strengthening a global community of researchers in engineering education. © 2009 Authors.
Hadgraft, R 2008, 'Computer-aided learning and assessment: The natural partner for project-based learning', ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings.
There are significant pressures on higher education in Australia: continually reducing funding per student in real terms, an exponential growth in the knowledge base and growth in complexity of the problems that engineers face. Students need more project work to allow them to develop real engineering expertise (as opposed to engineering knowledge and skills). Project-based learning is aided by ready access to good online materials that can help students acquire basic skills and that will allow them to test their basic competency. It's time that we shared these learning resources across the sector (both nationally and internationally). Specifically, we should identify existing good online materials and make them readily available. We should develop, if necessary, good online assessment so that students can test their skills at any time, without waiting for end of semester exams. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2008.
Hadgraft, RG 2008, 'Computer-aided learning and assessment is needed to aid project-based learning', Proceedings of 36th European Society for Engineering Education, SEFI Conference on Quality Assessment, Employability and Innovation.
There are significant pressures on higher education: reducing funding per student in real terms, an exponential growth in the knowledge base and growth in complexity and interconnectedness of the problems that engineers face as the Earth's climate and society changes. Students need more project work to allow them to develop real engineering expertise to tackle these complex problems (as opposed to acquiring just basic engineering knowledge and skills). Project-based learning is aided by ready access to good online materials that can help students acquire basic skills and that will allow them to test their basic competency. It is time to make these learning resources more readily available across the sector (both nationally and internationally). Although there are vast collections of tutorials and other learning objects, they are not yet well organised and it is difficult to see where the gaps are. For example, is there a site that would allow someone to study any topic in civil engineering in an organised way? As well, we should develop good online assessment so that students can test their skills at any time, without waiting for end of semester exams. This paper is a call to action for the international discipline communities to organise the existing online resources and to develop additional resources and online assessment.
Hadgraft, RG, Carew, AL, Therese, SA & Blundell, DL 2008, 'Teaching and assessing systems thinking in engineering', Research in Engineering Education Symposium 2008, pp. 230-235.
Hadgraft, R & Goricanec, J 2007, 'Engineering sustainability?!', ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings.
Hadgraft, RG & Goricanec, JL 2007, 'Student engagement in project-based learning', Proceedings of the Inaugural International Conference on Research in Engineering Education, ICREE.
In 2003-4, The School of Civil and Chemical Engineering at RMIT University made a strong commitment to project-based learning through the redesign of its major programs: civil and infrastructure engineering, chemical engineering and environmental engineering. A project-based course became one quarter of each semester of each of the three programs, as a means of developing the required graduate capabilities. An important aim of such project-based learning is to bring real engineering problems into the classroom, to engage students in understanding the nature of engineering problems, and also to provide incentive in the acquisition of the seemingly difficult technical skills in other courses. The authors' experiences over many years indicate that such projects work for many, but not all, students. Some students fail to engage in the project work, for various reasons. This project set out to understand the reasons for engagement and non-engagement among first year civil and environmental engineering students. Students want interesting work, and an own-choice project seems to provide this. Being interested was the factor most strongly correlated with both course and program engagement. Student groups also need careful management by tutors so that they properly understand what is required of them (and don't get stressed and waste time in non-productive work). The groupwork component of these projects helps to connect students with other students, which they list as an important motivator for them as they move through first year. Finally, first year students need careful guidance and orientation to their new university environment so that they can develop appropriate study habits as well as appropriate communication and research skills to match what is expected of them. © 2007 ASEE.
Hadgraft, R, Xie, M & Angeles, N 2004, 'Civil and infrastructure engineering for sustainability', ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings, pp. 1835-1844.
The redesign of the civil engineering program as civil and infrastructure program for introduction by the School of Civil and Chemical Engineering at RMIT University, Melbourne-Australia, was presented. The key changes in the redesign were identification of graduate capabilities as the focus of student learning, use of sustainability principles, creation of stream of engineering practice courses, and use of team-based, project-based learning. Some of the capabilities identified were sustainability, problem solving and decision making, technical competence, and teamwork and leadership. A series of industry meetings with a range of engineering employers and graduates and also with stakeholders were held to seek their input into the new program.
Hadgraft, R 2003, 'Program renewal for sustainable engineering at RMIT university', ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings, pp. 7487-7497.
Program renewal for sustainable engineering at RMIT university is discussed. Program renewal is the process of moving existing engineering degree programs at RMIT in line with the University's Teaching and Learning Strategy. The process follows the teaching cycle of identifying professional needs defining outcomes, creating learning activities and finding learning resources. It was concluded that the university is engaged in substantial renewal of its degree program based on graduate capabilities. Inclusive teaching that recognises four learning styles and stages include understanding the problem in its context, thoery, application and new possibilities.
Hadgraft, RG & Grundy, P 1998, 'A new degree in civil engineering', 1ST UICEE ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION UNDER THE THEME: GLOBALISATION OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, 1st UICEE Annual Conference on Engineering Education on Globalisation of Engineering Education, UICEE, FACULTY ENGINEERING, MONASH UNIV, CLAYTON, AUSTRALIA, pp. 78-82.
Wigan, MR & Hadgraft, RG 1997, 'Learning styles and hypermedia supported learning', 1ST ASIA-PACIFIC FORUM ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION, FORUM PROCEEDINGS, 1st Asia-Pacific Forum on Engineering and Technology Education, USICEE, CLAYTON, AUSTRALIA, pp. 241-245.
Hadgraft, R & Wigan, M 1996, 'Evaluating hypertext', IEEE International Conference on Multi-Media Engineering Education - Proceedings, pp. 403-408.
This paper discusses an on-going project to evaluate the effectiveness of hypertext course materials in active use. It provides some summary statistics which illustrate a wide range of reader behaviour. The explanations of such behaviour are, no doubt complex, and sifting some useful information from the data is not simple. Some success has been obtained in the use of a simple stochastic model based on transition matrices, and some of the hypotheses addressed and suggested by this model, are discussed. The authors feel that the transition matrix approach may provide a valuable means of matching multimedia designs to the patterns of use for which they are aimed.
Hadgraft, R & Wigan, M 1996, 'Insights from modelling user behaviour in a hypertext', IEEE International Conference on Multi-Media Engineering Education - Proceedings, pp. 419-424.
This paper reports modelling of tracking data collected for a large system of Windows Help files used in a second year computing course. It proposes a model based on Markov process theory that has given some insights into the basic patterns of use. This model could be used as the basis for helping an author to develop a more suitable menu and link structure, and also for developing a dynamic help system to deliver to the reader the topics that are of most interest. The context of this modelling work is described in an accompanying paper.
Hadgraft, RG & Daniell, TM 1994, 'Obtaining the art of hydrological modelling using problem based learning', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, pp. 645-650.
The development, the positive aspects, the negative aspects and the useability of particular hydrologic models have been discussed extensively at recent conferences. In discussing hydrological modelling, and areas that need to be addressed, it becomes increasingly obvious that the real problem is not so much inadequate models, as inadequate users. Training and education of the users are increasingly important, and this paper attempts to describe an approach that rather than teaching models, encourages the art and skills of modelling. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a way of reversing the present trend of pushing more direct content into the courses; one aspect is to teach a process such as modelling, as well as a selection of models. Models will come and go, but modelling is a skill that will continue. In Problem Based Learning, a problem is presented in its context as much as possible. Several concepts may be incorporated into a single problem. With the choice of problem based learning, the student modeller is confronted immediately with the big issues, rather than hydrological processes. The connection of the problems and the topics is shown in this paper via a concept map, indicating appropriate interrelationships. Monash University has already moved its hydrology course at third year somewhat along the lines of PBL. Environmental Engineering programs, which encompass much of the hydrology courses within their frameworks, are shown to be particularly appropriate for this method of learning.
Katergaris, J & Hadgraft, R 1994, 'Uncertainty in basic data and its effect on hydrological studies', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, pp. 199-204.
The objective of this study was to estimate the uncertainty in basic streamflow data through the use of confidence limits. The intention was to then determine how this uncertainty propagates through a typical hydrological study - in this case, a simple flood frequency analysis. Based on rating curves from several stations, the uncertainty was of the order of 10-20% of the flow values. When these errors were passed through a flood frequency study, the width of the confidence intervals increased in width by 15-30%. This paper is one step in drawing attention to the importance of uncertainty in hydrological investigations. Although some papers have attempted to assign uncertainty in the results of particular studies, few also consider the uncertainty associated with the basic data on which the study rests.
Siriwardena, L & Hadgraft, R 1994, 'Regional flood frequency in Victoria', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, pp. 247-252.
This study shows the difficulty in incorporating regional skews in flood frequency analysis in Australia, as they are inconsistent, unstable and very subjective to elimination of low outliers, especially when estimated from short records. A regional procedure of flood estimation was also developed by regression of standardised 100-yr flood estimates against mean annual rainfall. Only 30% of stations yielded better estimates from the regional procedure compared to the at-site procedure of a fitted LP-III distribution.
Hadgraft, R, Kendall, M & Lau, A 1993, 'New software, new solutions', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, pp. 265-270.
Much existing engineering software has been written in Fortran (or similar third generation programming languages such as C and Pascal), and much new software is based on these types of tools. While it is true that many (perhaps most) engineers are never required to write substantial computer programs, many will have a need to develop occasional, specific solutions to problems that they face. We need to make ourselves as productive as possible, and using traditional programming tools is not the way to solve these problems. This paper surveys a growing body of end user oriented development tools, and shows, by example, how they can be applied in development of engineering software. These tools are characterised by offering inherent user friendliness in a windowed environment, providing the user with menus, dialog boxes and graphical output. They have the added advantage that they can be combined within an environment such as Microsoft Windows to create a workbench of tools which work in a similar way. When combined with the hypertext help built into Windows, we can provide ourselves and our colleagues with applications with considerable in-built help and tutorial assistance.
HADGRAFT, RG & WIGAN, MR 1989, 'A POSSIBLE PROTOTYPE FOR A NEW AUSTRALIAN RAINFALL AND RUNOFF', HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES SYMPOSIUM 1989 : COMPARISONS IN AUSTRAL HYDROLOGY, 18TH SYMP ON HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES : COMPARISONS IN AUSTRAL HYDROLOGY ( PREPRINTS ), INST ENGINEERS AUSTRALIA, UNIV CANTERBURY, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND, pp. 481-482.
HADGRAFT, RG & WIGAN, MR 1989, 'ASSESSMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE CODIFICATION AND DELIVERY OF ENGINEERING EXPERIENCE', WATERCOMP 89, 1ST AUSTRALASIAN CONF ON TECHNICAL COMPUTING IN THE WATER INDUSTRY ( PREPRINTS ), INST ENGINEERS AUSTRALIA, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA, pp. 160-164.
HADGRAFT, RG & WIGAN, MR 1989, 'TOWARDS EFFECTIVE FIELD SUPPORT AND RETRAINING FOR ENGINEERS WHO USE AUSTRALIAN RAINFALL AND RUNOFF', HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES SYMPOSIUM 1989 : COMPARISONS IN AUSTRAL HYDROLOGY, 18TH SYMP ON HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES : COMPARISONS IN AUSTRAL HYDROLOGY ( PREPRINTS ), INST ENGINEERS AUSTRALIA, UNIV CANTERBURY, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND, pp. 468-472.
Graham, LB & Hadgraft, RG 1984, 'FARM DAM CHANNEL BYWASHES.', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, pp. 348-352.
Channel bywashes are side discharge channel spillways, which provide an alternative to conventional farm dam bywashes on steep sites, or where hydraulic problems of very wide bywash outlet widths occur. They do not, however, offer a means of significantly reducing the width of return slope required for a particular project. Analysis of channel bywash flow requires an iterative step solution, using either a computer or powerful programmable calculator. The engineer must judge whether a conventional bywash or channel bywash is appropriate in a particular circumstance.
Hadgraft, RG 1983, 'PORTABLE USER INTERFACE FOR FORTRAN PROGRAMS.', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, pp. 151-155.
Hadgraft, RG, Volker, RE & Stark, KP 1981, 'OPTIMAL CONJUNCTIVE OPERATION OF A SURFACE RESERVOIR AND AN AQUIFER.', Proceedings, Congress - International Association For Hydraulic Research, pp. 183-191.