Robert is a practicing Clinical Psychologist and Supervisor fully accredited by the Psychology Board of Australia (PBA) to practice and supervise Clinical Psychology. Robert has worked in a wide range of clinical settings, including the Department of Aged Care and Disability (DADHC), Liverpool-Fairfield Community Mental Health (Sydney South West Area Health Service), and Penrith/Blue Mountains Mental Health Network. He was a lecturer and clinic supervisor on the clinical masters program at Western Sydney University from 2010-2015 and a lecturer in clinical psychology at UTS from 2015 to 2017. Robert is currently a research fellow within the Institute for Positive Psychology and Education, Australian Catholic University. He continues to run a small private practice in Western Sydney. Robert maintains major clinical and research interests in 3rd wave CBT, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), personality disorders, psychosis, and schema therapy processes.
- Australian Psychological Society (APS) Clinical College.
- Australian Clinical Psychology Association (ACPA) Founding Member.
- Association for Contextual Behavioral Science (ACBS) (Board member for Australian and New Zealand Branch)
- International Society for Schema Therapy (ISST) accredited member.
Can supervise: YES
Phillips, K, Brockman, R, Bailey, PE & Kneebone, II 2019, 'Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form Version 3 (YSQ-S3): Preliminary validation in older adults.', Aging and Mental Health, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 140-147.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The aim of the current study was to establish the reliability and validity of one of the most used schema questionnaires, Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form Version 3 (YSQ-S3) in older adults.104 participants aged 60-84 years were recruited. They were administered a battery of questionnaires, including the YSQ-S3, Young-Atkinson Mode Inventory (YAMI), Germans (Personality) Screener, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and the Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS). The YSQ-S3 was completed a second time by 83 participants a median of 12 days later.Satisfactory internal consistency reliability was found for 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas (EMS) of the YSQ-S3. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory for 17 of 18 EMS. Convergent validity was evident from significant correlations between the EMS of the YSQ-S3 and the vulnerable child and angry child schema modes from the YAMI. Congruent validity was evident from correlations of the majority of the EMS with the GDS, the GAI, German's (Personality) Screener and the BPNS measure.By and large the YSQ-S3 demonstrates internal and test re-test reliability in as well as congruent and convergent validity, in older adults. This suggests the YSQ-S3 may be of use in work establishing the utility of schema therapy in this population, and that schema therapy with older people warrants further exploration. Notwithstanding this some re-development of some EMS items appears to be required for the YSQ-S3 to be more relevant to older people.
© 2018 The Author(s). Background: The treatment of eating disorders is a difficult endeavor, with only a relatively small proportion of clients responding to and completing standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Given the prevalence of co-morbidity and complex personality traits in this population, Schema Therapy has been identified as a potentially viable treatment option. A case series of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g) yielded positive findings and the study protocol outlined in this article aims to extend upon these preliminary findings to evaluate group Schema Therapy for eating disorders in a larger sample (n = 40). Methods/design: Participants undergo a two-hour assessment where they complete a number of standard questionnaires and their diagnostic status is ascertained using the Eating Disorder Examination. Participants then commence treatment, which consists of 25 weekly group sessions lasting for 1.5 h and four individual sessions. Each group consists of five to eight participants and is facilitated by two therapists, at least one of who is a registered psychologist trained on schema therapy. The primary outcome in this study is eating disorder symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include: cognitive schemas, self-objectification, general quality of life, self-compassion, schema mode presentations, and Personality Disorder features. Participants complete psychological measures and questionnaires at pre, post, six-month and 1-year follow-up. Discussion: This study will expand upon preliminary research into the efficacy of group Schema Therapy for individuals with eating disorders. If group Schema Therapy is shown to reduce eating disorder symptoms, it will hold considerable promise as an intervention option for a group of disorders that is typically difficult to treat. Trial registration:ACTRN12615001323516. Registered: 2/12/2015 (retrospectively registered, still recruiting).
Brockman, R, Ciarrochi, J, Parker, P & Kashdan, T 2017, 'Emotion regulation strategies in daily life: mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression', Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 91-113.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brockman, RN & Calvert, FL 2017, 'Imagery Rescripting for PTSD and Personality Disorders: Theory and Application', Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 23-30.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Imagery Rescripting is a psychotherapy technique that has been integrated into Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) interventions in the treatment of various psychiatric populations including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), personality disorders, specific phobias, depression, obsessive–compulsive disorder, social phobia, and suicide risk. Whilst empirical evidence for imagery rescripting is accumulating, the technical application and theoretical rationale for its use can differ markedly depending on treatment protocol, treatment population, and research group. One such instance is in the case of PTSD and personality disorders where there is significant disparity in the rationale and application of imagery rescripting for the two populations. This paper describes the theoretical and technical differences between protocols for the use of imagery rescripting with these two populations. It will be argued that the differences between these protocols may not necessarily represent meaningful disorder-specific considerations. Instead, choosing between different protocols for the application of imagery rescripting may be better guided by considering the goals of the intervention as well as the individual client’s readiness for mastery in rescripting. Finally, current research limitations in this field are highlighted and the authors suggest future research directions for further clarity in clinical decision-making regarding this intervention.
Gonsalvez, CJ, Brockman, R & Hill, HRM 2016, 'Video feedback in CBT supervision: Review and illustration of two specific techniques', Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, vol. 9.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Copyright © British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies 2016. There is now expert consensus that directly observing the work of trainee therapists vs. relying upon self-report of sessions, is critical to providing the accurate feedback required to attain a range of competencies. In spite of this expert consensus however, and the broadly positive attitudes towards video review among supervisees, video feedback methods remain under-utilized in clinical supervision. This paper outlines some of the weaknesses that affect feedback based solely on self-report methods, before introducing some of the specific benefits that video feedback methods can offer the training and supervision context. It is argued that video feedback methods fit seamlessly into CBT supervision providing direct, accessible, effective, efficient and accurate observation of the learning situation, and optimizing the chances for accurate self-reflections and planning further improvements in performance. To demonstrate the utility of video feedback techniques to CBT supervision, two specific video feedback techniques are introduced and described: the Give-me-5 technique and the I-spy technique. Case examples of CBT supervision using the two techniques are provided and explored, and guidance as to the supervision contexts in which each of the two techniques are suitable, individually, and in tandem, are outlined. Finally, best practice guidelines for the use of video feedback techniques in supervision are outlined.
Marshall, E-J & Brockman, RN 2016, 'The Relationships Between Psychological Flexibility, Self-Compassion, and Emotional Well-Being', Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 60-72.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Despite theoretical overlap between self-compassion and psychological flexibility, empirical links between these constructs is limited. This study examined the relationships between psychological flexibility, self-compassion, and emotional well-being to add to the literature on understanding the importance of self-compassion as a possible contributor to mental health, adding support to continuing development of compassion-based therapies. Relationships among these constructs were explored using survey data from a sample of 144 university psychology students (110 females and 34 males, aged 17–60 years). Self-compassion was significantly correlated with psychological flexibility processes, including mindful acceptance, defusion, and emotional well-being. Regression analyses indicated that self-compassion predicts significant unique variance above and beyond psychological flexibility across various indices of emotional well-being. These findings support the association between psychological flexibility, self-compassion, and emotional well-being, with implications for 3rd-wave models of therapy, including acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and compassion-based approaches. Therapies incorporating compassion processes may potentially lead to improved treatment outcomes.
Brockman, R & Murrell, E 2015, 'What Are the Primary Goals of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychosis? A Theoretical and Empirical Review', Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 45-67.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Despite a rise in the popularity of cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis (CBTp) over the past 15 years, recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have concluded that CBTp has only modest effects on psychotic syndrome outcomes and that empirical evidence of its superiority over other psychosocial treatments is poor (Jones, Hacker, Meaden, Cormac, & Irving, 2012; Wykes, Steel, Everitt, & Tarrier, 2008). However, for some time now, some authors prominent in the development of CBTp have argued the primary goals of CBTp not to be global syndrome reduction but the amelioration of emotional distress and behavioral disturbance in relation to individual psychotic symptoms (Birchwood & Trower, 2006). A review of the theoretical and empirical literature related to CBTp reveals broad support for this position. Implications and recommendations for research into the efficacy of CBTp are discussed.
Brockman, R, Kiernan, M & Murrell, E 2015, 'Psychometric Properties of Two Brief Versions of the Voices Acceptance and Action Scale (VAAS): Implications for the Second-wave and Third-wave Behavioural and Cognitive Approaches to Auditory Hallucinations.', Clinical psychology & psychotherapy, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 450-459.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Despite a steep rise in the evidence base for third-wave cognitive and behavioural therapy approaches over the past decade, a scarcity of change measures relevant to these therapies as applied to psychosis is arguably slowing empirical progress in the area. The Voices Acceptance and Action Scale (VAAS), a measure of acceptance of voice experiences, is a notable exception. However, there are no published data on its psychometric properties outside of that provided by the scale developers. The current study explored the psychometric properties of two brief versions of the VAAS in a sample of psychotic voice hearers in a routine outpatient mental health service. Evidence from the current study suggests that both brief versions are robust measures of acceptance of voice experiences. Some limited support for the shortened VAAS-9 as being a marginally improved scale over the original brief VAAS-12 was also found. The current study found acceptance of voices to be highly related to depression, anxiety, stress and general negative affect and to predict unique variance in depression and general negative affect beyond that attributable to negative beliefs about voices and thought suppression. It was also found that acceptance was positively related to the use of reappraisal, indicating that the distinctiveness of acceptance from appraisal processes may be less pronounced in this context than what was has been reported previously. Implications for future research, as well as the practice of second-wave and third-wave cognitive and behavioural approaches to psychosis, are discussed.Two brief versions of the VAAS instrument were found to be robust measures of acceptance of psychotic voice experiences. The construct of acceptance of voices is highly related to indices of well-being and negative appraisal processes in psychosis and appears to offer an alternative route to therapeutically addressing the toxic effects of negative beliefs about voices. The recent focus on acceptan...
Talbot, D, Smith, E, Tomkins, A, Brockman, R & Simpson, S 2015, 'Schema modes in eating disorders compared to a community sample', Journal of Eating Disorders, vol. 3, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Talbot et al. Background: The aim of this study was to examine the association between eating disorders (ED) and schema modes, and identify which specific schema modes are associated with particular eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED). Methods: A total of forty seven women with eating disorders and 89 women from the community participated in this study. Eating disorder diagnosis was determined by a clinician treating the eating disorder and was confirmed on the basis of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The Schema Mode Inventory (SMI) was used to explore the association between schema modes and eating disorder diagnostic status. Results: A series t-tests revealed that when compared to the community sample, the ED group scored significantly higher on 10 out of 12 maladaptive schema modes, and significantly lower on both adaptive schema modes. A series of planned contrasts revealed that the AN, BN, and OSFED groups each scored significantly higher than the community sample group in the majority of maladaptive schema modes, with slight variations between groups. Further, AN, BN, and OSFED groups each scored significantly lower than the community sample group for the two SMI scores categorized as adaptive. All Cohen's d that reached significance ranged 0.55-2.24. Conclusions: The current study shows a tendency for females with eating disorders to rely on maladaptive schema modes more frequently, and more adaptive schema modes less frequently compared to a community sample. These findings provide initial empirical support for a schema mode model of eating disorders.
Brockman, R, Kiernan, M, Brakoulias, V & Murrell, E 2014, 'The Relationship Between Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Maintenance Processes, Emotional Distress, and Positive Psychotic Symptoms: Evidence That CBT Is “Not a Quasi-Neuroleptic”', Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 101-116.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp) has enjoyed a steep rise in popularity over the past 15 years; however, recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have concluded that CBTp has only modest effects on psychotic syndrome outcomes and that empirical evidence of its superiority over other psychosocial treatments is poor. And although it has been argued by some prominent authors that CBTp is not designed to alleviate the “psychotic syndrome,” there is little empirical evidence linking CBTp change mechanisms with syndrome versus single-symptom outcome measures. This study investigated the relationship between CBTp change processes, beliefs about voices, and thought control strategies, with a range of outcome measures including global positive psychotic symptoms in a sample of 40 voice hearers with established diagnosis of psychotic disorder. Consistent with the assertions of Birchwood and Trower (2006), global positive symptoms were found to be generally poorly related to CBTp change processes. Conversely, these CBTp change processes were found to be generally strongly related to measures of emotional distress and some measures of single psychotic symptoms. The implications for past and future CBTp treatment outcome studies are discussed.