Can supervise: YES
Cutler, RL, Torres-Robles, A, Wiecek, E, Drake, B, Van der Linden, N, Benrimoj, SIC & Garcia-Cardenas, V 2019, 'Pharmacist-led medication non-adherence intervention: reducing the economic burden placed on the Australian health care system.', Patient Preference and Adherence, vol. 13, pp. 853-862.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background: Scarcity of prospective medication non-adherence cost measurements for the Australian population with no directly measured estimates makes determining the burden medication non-adherence places on the Australian health care system difficult. This study aims to indirectly estimate the national cost of medication non-adherence in Australia comparing the cost prior to and following a community pharmacy-led intervention. Methods: Retrospective observational study. A de-identified database of dispensing data from 20,335 patients (n=11,257 on rosuvastatin, n=6,797 on irbesartan and n=2,281 on desvenlafaxine) was analyzed and average adherence rate determined through calculation of PDC. Included patients received a pharmacist-led medication adherence intervention and had twelve months dispensing records; six months before and six months after the intervention. The national cost estimate of medication non-adherence in hypertension, dyslipidemia and depression pre- and post-intervention was determined through utilization of disease prevalence and comorbidity, non-adherence rates and per patient disease-specific adherence-related costs. Results: The total national cost of medication non-adherence across three prevalent conditions, hypertension, dyslipidemia and depression was $10.4 billion equating to $517 per adult. Following enrollment in the pharmacist-led intervention medication non-adherence costs per adult decreased $95 saving the Australian health care system and patients $1.9 billion annually. Conclusion: In the absence of a directly measured national cost of medication non-adherence, this estimate demonstrates that pharmacists are ideally placed to improve patient adherence and reduce financial burden placed on the health care system due to non-adherence. Funding of medication adherence programs should be considered by policy and decision makers to ease the current burden and improve patient health outcomes moving forward.
Torres Robles, A, Wiecek, E, Cutler, R, Drake, B, Benrimoj, SI, Fernandez-Llimos, F & Garcia Cardenas, M 2019, 'Using dispensing data to evaluate adherence implementation rates in community pharmacy', Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cutler, RL, Van Der Linden, N, Charlie Benrimoj, SI, Fernandez-Llimos, F & Garcia-Cardenas, V 2019, 'An evidence-based model to consolidate medication adherence cost estimation: the medication adherence cost estimation framework.', Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 555-567.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Aim: To develop a standardized framework determining the economic impact of medication nonadherence. Materials & methods: Secondary analysis of existing literature reported cost data, aggregating cost outcome indicators. Weighted-average cost analysis performed, determining the proportional contribution to total cost. Results: Direct costs were reported in 92% of studies and indirect costs in 4% of studies. Three most utilized cost categories were hospital (68%), primary care (18%) and pharmacy costs (72%). Average unadjusted direct costs ranged from $625 to $154,203 contributing to 88% of the total cost; adjusted medical costs ranged from $565 to $56,313 representing 96% of the total cost. Conclusion: The medication adherence cost estimation framework enables the comparison of costing studies, facilitating informed health policy decision-making based on consistent evidence and terminology.
Cutler, R, Fernandez-Llimos, F, Frommer, M, Benrimoj, SI & Garcia Cardenas, MV 2018, 'Economic impact of medication nonadherence by disease groups: a systematic review', BMJ Open, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
To determine the economic impact of medication non-adherence across multiple disease groups.
A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus in September 2017. Studies quantifying the cost of medication non-adherence in relation to economic impact were included. Relevant information was extracted and quality assessed using the Drummond checklist.
Seventy-nine individual studies assessing the cost of medication non-adherence across 14 disease groups were included. Wide-scoping cost variations were reported, with lower levels of adherence generally associated with higher total costs. The annual adjusted disease-specific economic cost of non-adherence per person ranged from $949 to $44 190 (in 2015 US$). Costs attributed to 'all causes' non-adherence ranged from $5271 to $52 341. Medication possession ratio was the metric most used to calculate patient adherence, with varying cut-off points defining non-adherence. The main indicators used to measure the cost of non-adherence were total cost or total healthcare cost (83% of studies), pharmacy costs (70%), inpatient costs (46%), outpatient costs (50%), emergency department visit costs (27%), medical costs (29%) and hospitalisation costs (18%). Drummond quality assessment yielded 10 studies of high quality with all studies performing partial economic evaluations to varying extents.
Medication non-adherence places a significant cost burden on healthcare systems. Current research assessing the economic impact of medication non-adherence is limited and of varying quality, failing to provide adaptable data to influence health policy. The correlation between increased non-adherence and higher disease prevalence should be used to inform policymakers to help circumvent avoidable costs to the healthcare system. Differences in methods make the comparison among studies challenging and an accurate estimation of true magnitude of the co...