Dr Phillippa Carnemolla is an industrial designer specialising in the design and evaluation of inclusive environments, products and information. Her research investigates the breadth of health, care and social impacts resulting from inclusive design approaches, including smart cities, ageing in place and disability housing models.
In her role as Senior Research Fellow in Faculty of Design Architecture and Building at UTS, Dr Carnemolla is working on a diverse range of projects which investigate the impact of the inclusive and participatory design practice on service provision, caregiving and quality of life for older people and people living with disability.
My Home My Community
Funded by: National Disability Insurance Agency
Working with People with Intellectual Disability to understand the barriers they face to living independently in local communities. Participatory design project with the NSW Council for Intellectual Disability and local governments in NSW and VIC.
Beyond the Group Home
Funded by : National Disablity Services (NDS)
Researching the implications of new individualised apartment models of supported housing for people receiving high support.
City of Sydney Disability (Inclusion) Advisory Panel
Board of Directors, Centre for Universal Design Australia
Centennial Park Community Consultative Committee
Can supervise: YES
Ergonomics and Human Factors
Carnemolla, P & Bridge, C 2019, 'Housing Design and Community Care: How Home Modifications Reduce Care Needs of Older People and People with Disability.', International journal of environmental research and public health, vol. 16, no. 11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The extent to which housing design can minimise levels of community caregiving has remained largely unmeasured. This paper reports the potential for home modifications to reduce caregiving in the peoples' homes, particularly older people and people with a disability. It contributes to new knowledge in understanding how housing can play a role in community caregiving and acknowledges the role of the built environment in managing care levels in ageing societies. This paper analyses self-reported care data from 157 Australian community care recipients (average age: 72 years) who had received home modifications within the past 6 months. A before/after comparison of care provided revealed that home modifications reduced hours of care provided by 42% per week. More detailed analysis revealed that the positive association of home modifications with care reduction is stronger with informal care (46% reduction) followed by formal care (16% reduction). These results suggest the role that home modifications, and housing design in general, play in reducing care needs in a community setting.
As home-based health services emerge as a focal point of international discussions of primary
healthcare, the home environment is now recognised as a place for safe and independent living, and
also delivery of care. Consequently, research into how housing improvements can directly impact health
and care outcomes is an increasingly important area of trans-disciplinary research. The links between
health and housing are well established and indicate that housing interventions may be an important
mechanism in health maintenance and improvement. Studies of home modifications have been
published across a number of fields and the extent of their effects are diverse. We undertook a
scoping review according to systematic PRISMA-P (Preferred reporting items for systematic review
and meta-analysis protocols) guidelines to map the breadth and scale of the evidence base,
identify themes and gaps in the evidence as well as grading home modifications research quality.
Seventy-seven studies from 16 countries were included and revealed that home modifications evidence
is measured in terms of a diverse range of effects. Seven key themes emerged including (in decreasing
order); injury and falls prevention; improved function, self-care or independence; physical health and
well-being; caregiving; economic effectiveness; ageing process; and social participation. The strongest
experimental evidence has been conducted in relation to falls prevention.
Carnemolla, P 2018, 'Ageing in place and the internet of things – how smart home technologies, the built environment and caregiving intersect', Visualization in Engineering, vol. 6, no. 1.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018, The Author(s). Smart technologies and the Internet of Things (IoT), have the potential to play a significant role in enabling older people to age in place. Although there has been substantial development of new applications of sensor technology in the home, this has tended to be tele-health focused, and there has been less work done on the role of IoT and ageing in place that more broadly considers caregiving and the built environment. Research in the field of IoT development and evaluation has recognised a number of challenges and limitations associated with past smart technology developments to support Ageing in Place, calling for user centeredness and better integration with broader systems. Compounding this, research into Ageing in Place and home environments has focused on built environments and largely ignored the impact of technology in the lives of older people staying at home. Recognising a gap in acknowledging the potential impact of technology on Ageing in Place theories, the purpose of this paper is to conceptualise a way of framing smart technology within an Ageing in Place model that acknowledges the interaction of smart technology with the built environment and caregiving and to present a framework for visualising the interactions that take place. A review of Environmental Gerontology model development is undertaken and a new model is presented that recognises the role of technology in Ageing in Place. Based on this model, a template is developed and three case studies of older people's experiences of smart home technology, home modifications and caregiving are mapped out. These are used to demonstrate 'proof of concept' of the relationships put forward in the HAST model and the pre-curser for a template to help people map smart technology and its role in supporting caregiving and ageing in place. This paper's position is that technologies such as IoT further support the role of the built environment and caregiving to produce outcomes that ...
Carnemolla, P & Bridge, C 2016, 'Accessible housing and health-related quality of life: Measurements of wellbeing outcomes following home modifications', Archnet-IJAR, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 38-51.
© 2016 Archnet-IJAR, International Journal of Architectural Research. The multi-dimensional relationship between housing and population health is now well recognised internationally, across both developing and developed nations. This paper examines a dimension within the housing and health relationship - accessibility - that to date has been considered difficult to measure. This paper reports on the mixed method results of larger mixed-method, exploratory study designed to measure the impact of home modifications on Health-Related Quality of Life, supported by qualitative data of recipients' experiences of home modifications. Data was gathered from 157 Australian HACC clients, who had received home modifications. Measurements were taken for both before and after home modifications and reveal that home modifications were associated with an average 40% increase in Health-Related Quality of Life levels. The qualitative results revealed that participants positively associated home modifications across six effect themes: increased safety and confidence, improved mobility at home, increased independence, supported caregiving role, increased social participation, and ability to return home from hospital. This exploratory research gives an insight into the potential for accessible architecture to impact improvements in community health and wellbeing.
Bridge, C & Carnemolla, P 2014, 'An enabling BIM block library: An online repository to facilitate social inclusion in Australia', Construction Innovation, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 477-492.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Design/methodology/approach - An action-based research methodology was used to design, develop and deploy three enabling blocks as part of a plan to develop a larger library of tools for BIM practitioners. The Enabling Block Library is an open access library of Australian code-compliant mobility elements published online. This paper discusses the design and development of the library components in detail, explaining how each of the three blocks was selected in our pilot evaluation and how each was identified; fact-checked; planned (designed); deployed (action); and then evaluated.Findings - The process and evaluation highlights that appropriate code-compliant design tools can support greater social inclusion aspects of a built environment project. These are tools that are relevant to the full spectrum of industry users of BIM, including designers, engineers and certifiers. Research limitations/implications - Because this paper documents the project while in an early launch phase, with a small number of launch blocks, the research results were limited in their ability to thoroughly measure industry or educational impact. However, the results showed how a socially inclusive BIM block library can be developed and why this is important, with literature supporting the potential of its dissemination to the design and construction industry.Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of socially inclusive Building Information Modelling (BIM) library components. BIM requires and integrates many sets of predefined blocks or collection of attributes. Any one of the individual blocks can be replicated and/or stored in a block library for later reuse. However, few if any current block libraries contain or have access to the blocks that enable social inclusion.Originality/value - The paper applied action-based research methodology in the development, deployment and evaluation of exploratory BIM use to create more socia...
Carnemolla, P & Bridge, C 2014, 'The potential of a home modification strategy – a universal design approach to existing housing', Assistive Technology Research Series, International Conference on Universal Design, IOS Press, Lund, Sweden, pp. 259-268.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The significance of home modifications for ageing populations extends beyond the physical modification of an existing home. This paper discusses the potential for home modifications to impact the process of ageing well. Home modifications apply Universal Design Principles in the targeted and restricted setting of an existing home environment. There is evidence to suggest that home modifications operate on dual levels - addressing broader societal concerns about accessible housing and care demand, while concurrently addressing the individual needs of older people who want to age well in their own home. This paper refers to preliminary findings of an ongoing research project investigating the value of home modifications. It uses a mixed method approach (AQoL utility scoring and thematic analysis) to analyse survey responses from home modification recipients (n=89). Preliminary findings reveal an increase in utility scores following home modifications, this increase in health related quality of life is further supported by the thematic analysis. These results are discussed in terms of the dual role that home modifications play in responding to individual needs and broader society and reinforce that home modifications play a variety of roles in supporting ageing well at home that extend beyond the physical environment. In conclusion, the research supports and contributes to developing evidence that home modifications have the potential to support the changing social needs of Australia's ageing populations in ageing well by impacting health related quality of life and improving feelings of independence, and safety/confidence. © 2014 The authors and IOS Press.
Carnemolla, P & Bridge, C 2012, 'Home modifications: Implications for care provision within existing housing stock for an ageing population', 6th Australasian Housing Researchers' Conference, AHRC 2012.
Despite Australian housing policy encouraging the provision of new and accessible housing stock, there remains a distinct shortage of accessible housing set against a rapidly ageing demographic. This paper uses person-environment fit theory as its foundation, to illustrate the potential for home modifications to mitigate some of Australia's escalating housing challenges arising due to an aging housing stock and an ageing population. By presenting research outputs from a project commissioned for the Home Modification and Information Clearinghouse, the paper indicates the potential application of home modifications to substitute for caregiving in the home, thus offsetting the need for residential care and/or new accessible housing. Following a literature review, case-based analyses are presented to demonstrate key variables affecting home modifications and care costs. The review findings indicate that home modifications support ageing in place, reduce home hazards and supplement care services thus reducing care needs. Initial values derived from the case studies suggest the potential for home modifications to be cost effective within a community care approach and in the context of limited housing alternatives. The paper concludes that because home modifications support ageing in place, reduce home hazards and supplement care services, they contribute to reducing care needs and are therefore an underutilised tool in mitigating the challenges of providing adequate supply of new accessible housing stock. The paper identifies the need for further data collection in order to better understand the cost effectiveness of investments in home modifications and how they substitute for care. This further study is now in its initial phase and data collection is expected to begin in January 2013.
National Disability Insurance Agency (NDIA)
National Disability Services (NDS)
Council for Intellectual Disbaility (CID)
National Associatio of Women in Construction (NAWIC)