Philip Maynard is a forensic scientist with expertise in the areas of trace evidence and chemical/arson analysis. He graduated with a BSc and a PhD in Chemistry from the University of Sydney. He has four years' experience in case work at the Physical Evidence section of the NSW Division of Analytical Laboratories. His work at the Division included arson and explosives analysis, analysis of firearm discharge residues, glass and paint analysis for motor vehicle accidents and microanalysis/scanning electron microscope imaging. He joined the Department of CMF in 1998, managing the specialised forensic instrumentation in the laboratory and supervising undergraduate laboratory classes. He also conducts research in the areas of drug analysis, fingerprinting, motor vehicle paints, and forensic imaging. He is a member of the Australian Forensic Science Society and the Royal Australian Chemical Institute.
Can supervise: YES
Seckiner, D, Mallett, X, Maynard, P, Meuwly, D & Roux, C 2019, 'Forensic gait analysis - Morphometric assessment from surveillance footage.', Forensic science international, vol. 296, pp. 57-66.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Following the technological rise of surveillance cameras and their subsequent proliferation in public places, the use of information gathered by such means for investigative and evaluative purposes sparked a large interest in the forensic community and within policing scenarios. In particular, it is suggested that analysis of the body, especially the assessment of gait characteristics, can provide useful information to aid the investigation. This paper discusses the influences upon gait to mitigate some of the limitations of surveillance footage, including those due to the varying anatomical differences between individuals. Furthermore, the differences between various techniques applied to assess gait are discussed, including biometric gait recognition, forensic gait analysis, tracking technology, and marker technology. This review article discusses the limitations of the current methods for assessment of gait; exposing gaps within the literature in regard to various influences impacting upon the gait cycle. Furthermore, it suggests a 'morphometric' technique to enhance the available procedures to potentially facilitate the development of standardised protocols with supporting statistics and database. This in turn will provide meaningful information to forensic investigation, intelligence-gathering processes, and potentially as an additional method of forensic evaluation of evidence.
Leung, D, Forbes, S & Maynard, P 2019, 'Volatile organic compound analysis of accelerant detection canine distractor odours.', Forensic science international, vol. 303.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ignitable liquid detection dogs have been observed to falsely-respond to the pyrolysis products of common burned household items such as carpets and garden hoses, where ignitable liquids were not present. These responses from the canines are described as coming from distractor odours and decrease the reliability of detector dogs. The purpose of this research was to study the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the odour profile of pyrolysed carpet and garden hose substrates, and determine whether a chemical similarity exists between these pyrolysis headspace profiles and target ignitable liquids, which may explain the false-positive behaviour of these detector dogs. Garden hose and carpet samples obtained from domestic settings were heated at a constant temperature for a specified time to produce pyrolysis products. A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was developed to extract the VOCs from burned substrates. The odours of the burned substrates were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). A GC-MS/MS method was developed targeting the characteristic aromatic compounds in gasoline. Each pyrolysed substrate produced a complex and unresolved odour profile when analysed by GC- MS. GC-MS analysis failed to find any similarities between the odours of the burned substrates and ignitable liquids. GC-MS/MS analysis of pyrolysed garden hose and carpet substrate odours resolved and identified a wide range of aromatic target compounds - and these were present in high abundances in the hose samples. This indicates that there are significant chemical similarities between vapours of ignitable liquids and their distractor odours, which will have implications for the training of ignitable liquid detector dogs.
Maynard, PJ, Skinner, K, Bolton, M & Moret, S 2019, 'Potential application of liquid dye penetrants for serial number restoration on firearms', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 674-684.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Seckiner, D, Mallett, X, Roux, C, Meuwly, D & Maynard, PJ 2018, 'Forensic image analysis – CCTV distortion and artefacts', Forensic Science International, vol. 285, pp. 77-85.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wilson-Wilde, L, Yakovchyts, D, Neville, S, Maynard, PJ & Gunn, P 2017, 'Investigation into Ethylene Oxide Treatment and Residuals on DNA and Downstream DNA Analysis', Science and Justice, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 13-20.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Recent years have seen a significant increase in the sensitivity of DNA testing, enabling the determination of DNA profiles from low levels of cellular material. However, the increased sensitivity is in many ways a double-edged sword as background contaminating DNA generated during the manufacture of consumables and sampling devices is now being detected and may compromise the interpretation of the DNA profile results. This study initially demonstrated the effectiveness of Ethylene Oxide (EO) as a post-production treatment to eliminate DNA on swabs, used as a sampling device for the recovery of cellular material. Subsequently, the potential adverse effects of any residual EO remaining on the swabs on the downstream DNA analysis on both rayon and cotton swabs were investigated and the levels of remaining EO measured. Two main variables were tested: the amount of time elapsed since EO treatment of the swabs prior to use, and the time elapsed between cellular material collection and DNA analysis. Residual levels of EO were found to be below quantitation levels and therefore also international standards. The results indicated that while there was a negligible effect of EO treatment on DNA recovered from rayon swabs, there was however an adverse effect on the DNA profiles recovered from cotton swabs. The adverse effect was negatively correlated with time since EO treatment and positively correlated with time to DNA analysis.
Jackson, F, Bunford, J, Maynard, P & Roux, C 2015, 'Surveys of vehicle colour frequency and the transfer of vehicle paints to stationary objects in Sydney, Australia', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 248, pp. 124-128.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jackson, F, Bunford, J, Maynard, P & Roux, C 2015, 'Surveys of vehicle colour frequency and the transfer of vehicle paints to stationary objects in Sydney, Australia (vol 248, pg 124, 2015)', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 251, pp. 115-115.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chadwick, SR, Xiao, LH, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2014, 'PolyCyano UV: an investigation into a one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming process', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1-14.View/Download from: Publisher's site
PolyCyano UV (Foster?+?Freeman Ltd) is a new one-step process for developing luminescent fingermarks using cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming without the need for further chemical treatment. In this study, conditions including the amount of PolyCyano UV powder, the humidity level of the fuming chamber, and the time and temperature of the fuming process were optimised. A variety of different surfaces were tested and aged fingermark samples were also examined. The PolyCyano-UV-developed fingermarks were compared with conventional CA-developed fingermarks and subsequently stained with rhodamine 6G. PolyCyano UV was able to develop high-quality fingermarks on the surfaces tested. However, when examined under UV light, the luminescence of PolyCyano-UV-developed fingermarks was found to be weaker than conventional CA-developed fingermarks that were stained with rhodamine 6G. When used in sequence with rhodamine 6G, PolyCyano UV was found to give significantly improved contrast compared with conventional CA-developed fingermarks stained with rhodamine 6G.
Benedict, I, Corke, E, Morgan-Smith, R, Maynard, PJ, Curran, JM, Buckleton, JS & Roux, CP 2014, 'Geographical variation of shoeprint comparison class correspondences', Science and Justice, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 335-337.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The underlying principles involved in the interpretation of shoeprint comparisons have become a topical subject due to criticisms in the 2009 National Academy of Science (NAS) report on forensic sciences  . Difficulties in the application and understanding of these principles were also highlighted in a recent court ruling  and subsequent discussion of the ruling. We report here a survey that may inform some aspects of this interpretation and discuss the implications of findings from this survey in the light of that court ruling and more importantly the NAS report. 1,511 shoeprints were taken from student volunteers in Auckland, Wellington and Dunedin, New Zealand. 500 shoeprints were sampled from student volunteers at Australian universities. 100 from each of the University of Technology in Sydney, University of Queensland in Brisbane, University of Newcastle, Charles Sturt University in Bathurst and University of Canberra, Australia. These cities are distributed along the east coast of Australia. The shoeprints, taken from each country, were compared against each other for the presence of any pattern correspondences However shoeprints have not been compared between countries. In all locations the pattern of some common and many rare outsole patterns was repeated, with Converse Chuck Taylor All Stars and Vans Canvas Era common in all locations.
Braasch, K, de la Hunty, MA, Deppe, J, Spindler, X, Cantu, AA, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2013, 'Nile red: Alternative to physical developer for the detection of latent fingermarks on wet porous surfaces?', Forensic Science International, vol. 230, no. 1-3, pp. 74-80.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper describes the application of a luminescent lipid stain, nile red, for the development of latent fingermarks on porous surfaces. An optimised formulation is presented that provides rapid development of latent fingermarks on porous surfaces that are or have been wet. A comparison with physical developer (PD), the method of choice to enhance such fingermarks, indicated that nile red was a simpler and more stable technique for the development of fingermarks. The nile red formulation showed similar performance to PD across a range of substrates and ageing conditions, although PD still showed greater sensitivity on five-year-old examination booklets used in a pseudo-operational study. The pseudo-operational trial also indicated that nile red consistently developed different fingermarks to those enhanced by PD, suggesting that it preferentially targets a different fraction of the latent fingermark deposit. Significantly, the compatibility of nile red in a detection sequence with indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin and PD is reported.
Jackson, FM, Maynard, PJ, Cavanagh-Steer, KL, Dusting, T & Roux, CP 2013, 'A survey of glass found on the headwear and head hair of a random population vs. people working with glass', Forensic Science International, vol. 226, no. 1-3, pp. 125-131.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study investigated the prevalence of glass particles on the headwear and head hair of two different population groups; the general public who do not work with glass, and glaziers from OBrien® Glass Industries who work with glass and have regular contact with broken glass. The 232 samples collected from the head hair and headwear from the random population resulted in the recovery of 6 glass fragments in total on 6 individuals (i.e. one fragment each). All of these fragments were from head hair samples with no multiple fragments recovered. The two headwear samples that were taken revealed no fragments. These results were in contrast to the survey that was conducted on the head hair and headwear of 25 glaziers from OBrien®, in which 138 glass fragments were found in total on 24 of the 25 glaziers. The size and number of fragments found in each sample were also generally larger for the glaziers group. The results from this study indicate that the prevalence of glass on the head hair and head wear of the random population is very low in comparison to the head hair and headwear of those who have regular contact with breaking glass. The significance of this finding with respect to the interpretation of glass evidence is also discussed
Wood, M, Maynard, PJ, Spindler, X, Roux, CP & Lennard, CJ 2013, 'Selective targeting of fingermarks using immunogenic techniques', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 211-226.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Latent fingermark detection remains one of the most commonly utilised forensic practices when dealing with scenes of crime or related items. Although many options are available to detect and visualise these marks, the quest for techniques with greater sensitivity and selectivity continues. This has led to many improvements in detection methods and also numerous new techniques being developed. However, these have largely only led to incremental advancements despite the desire for transformational improvements. The use of immunology in the detection of latent fingermarks is an area that has been investigated more recently as a possible proposal to provide these transformational improvements, specifically to overcome sensitivity and selectivity issues currently seen with existing methods. This paper reviews the attempts to harness the detection capabilities of immunology and utilise them in the field of latent fingermark detection. Results achieved to date have highlighted many advantages and possibilities in detection and visualisation of latent marks, including the possibility of gaining `intelligence from the marks themselves. This paper also presents a brief introduction to the use of aptamers as the next logical step in immunogenic techniques for investigation.
Montgomery, LN, Spindler, X, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2012, 'Pretreatment strategies for the improved cyanoacrylate development of dry latent fingerprints on nonporous surfaces', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 517-542.
Cyanoacrylate fuming is a popular technique commonly used by evidence examiners for the development of latent fingermarks on nonporous surfaces. The process involves the preferential formation of hard, white polycyanoacrylate along the ridgelines of the fingerprint as opposed to the substrate background. This preferential deposition results in contrast between the fingerprint and substrate. This contrast may be further enhanced through the use of staining techniques such as rhodamine 6G. Because the cyanoacrylate mechanism is believed to be initiated by fingerprint constituents and catalyzed by moisture, it follows that fingerprints subjected to harsh conditions (e.g., heat, low humidity, or UV light) often produce poorly developed results. This study aimed to further investigate and validate the use of 10 percent w/v methylamine as a pretreatment strategy to overcome the limitations associated with the cyanoacrylate development of dry fingerprints and to compare the results with those obtained using previously proposed pretreatment solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed treatment was demonstrated on samples similar to those encountered in casework, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the treated fingerprints confirmed the rejuvenation of the dry latent deposits through a qualitative assessment of the polymer morphology
Wood, M, Maynard, P, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2012, 'Visualization of Latent Fingermarks Using an Aptamer-Based Reagent', ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, vol. 51, no. 49, pp. 12272-12274.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wood, M, Maynard, PJ, Spindler, X, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2012, 'Visualization of latent fingermarks using an aptamer-based reagent', Angewandte Chemie, vol. 124, no. 49, pp. 12438-12440.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Don't touch! Aptamers selected against lysozyme are transformed into aptamer-based reagents, with which latent fingermarks can be developed with high selectivity and sensitivity. The design of aptamers targeting components of latent fingermarks opens up a new range of detection methods that previously have not been explored.
Chadwick, SR, Maynard, PJ, Kirkbride, KP, Lennard, CJ, McDonagh, AM, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2012, 'Styryl dye coated metal oxide powders for the detection of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces', Forensic Science International, vol. 219, no. 1-3, pp. 208-214.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Conventional fingermark powders rely on contrast induced by absorption/reflection (e.g. black powder) or luminescence in the visible region (e.g. Blitz GreenÂ®). In most cases, these powders provide sufficient contrast; however, in some circumstances surface characteristics can interfere with the visualisation of powdered fingermarks. Visualisation in the near infra-red (NIR) region, however, has been shown to eliminate interferences commonly encountered in the visible region. In this study, a mixture of rhodamine 6G and the NIR laser dye styryl 11 (STaR 11) was coated onto an aluminium oxide nanopowder and then mixed with silver magnetic powder to develop and visualise fingermarks in the NIR. When compared to Blitz GreenÂ®, it was determined that the STaR 11 magnetic powder was better suited for marks deposited on textured surfaces and for older marks, whereas Blitz GreenÂ® performed better on smooth glossy surfaces. The ability of the STaR 11 mixed dye formulation to be visualised in both the visible and NIR regions also provides a significant advantage over conventional luminescent fingermark powders.
Ma, R, Shimmon, R, McDonagh, A, Maynard, P, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2012, 'Fingermark detection on non-porous and semi-porous surfaces using YVO4:Er,Yb luminescent upconverting particles', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 217, no. 1-3, pp. E23-E26.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chadwick, SR, Maynard, PJ, Kirkbride, KP, Lennard, CJ, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2011, 'Use of Styryl 11 and STaR 11 for the luminescence enhancement of cyanoacrylate-developed fingermarks in the visible and near-infrared regions', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1505-1513.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In current casework, most post-cyanoacrylate stains rely on luminescence emission in the visible region (400-700 nm). While traditional stains such as rhodamine 6G work well under most circumstances, some surfaces may generate background luminescence under the same conditions. Detection in the near-infrared region (NIR > 700 nm) has shown to be effective in minimizing the interferences from such surfaces. The laser dye styryl 11 generated strongly luminescent fingermarks when applied after cyanoacrylate fuming on all surfaces tested. When compared to rhodamine 6G, the dye was superior only when viewed in the NIR. Styryl 11 was subsequently combined with rhodamine 6G, and the mixed stain formulation (named StaR 11 by the authors) induced stronger luminescence compared with styryl 11 alone with an ability to visualize in both the visible and NIR regions. Reliable and consistent results were obtained when using either styryl 11 alone or the STaR 11 mixture. The enhancement achieved did not otherwise vary depending on the source of the fingermark secretions. With visualization possible in both the visible and NIR regions, the styryl 11/rhodamine 6G mixture showed significant potential as a post-cyanoacrylate stain.
Fung, TC, Grimwood, KM, Shimmon, R, Spindler, X, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2011, 'Investigation of hydrogen cyanide generation from the cyanoacrylate fuming process used for latent fingermark detection', Forensic Science International, vol. 212, no. 1-3, pp. 143-149.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cyanoacrylate fuming is one of the most common techniques employed for the detection of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces such as plastic and glass. The technique is generally applied by exposing items of interest to the vapours generated by heating a suitable quantity of commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive. In this study, the potential for highly toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to be generated from the overheating of cyanoacrylate was investigated. Two commercial cyanoacrylate adhesives and two quantitative methods for the determination of HCN were employed: (i) the sodium picrate method; and (ii) the picrateresorcinol method. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was used to confirm the presence of cyanide. In addition, the thermal decomposition of cyanoacrylate was studied using simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGADTA). It was determined that detectable and quantifiable amounts of HCN were generated from the thermal decomposition of cyanoacrylate monomer and polymer at temperatures as low as 200 8C. Using an optimised picrateresorcinol method, it was shown that around 10 mg of HCN could be generated from the heating of 1 g of cyanoacrylate monomer at 200 8C. For one of the adhesives tested, this increased to above 100 mg of HCN when 1 g of cyanoacrylate monomer was heated at 280 8C. Recommendations are provided that, if followed, should ensure that the cyanoacrylate fuming process can be safely applied with minimal risk to the operator.
Ma, R, Bullock, EA, Maynard, PJ, Reedy, BJ, Shimmon, R, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP & McDonagh, AM 2011, 'Fingermark Detection On Non-Porous And Semi-Porous Surfaces Using Nayf(4):Er,Yb Up-Converter Particles', Forensic Science International, vol. 207, no. 1-Mar, pp. 145-149.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article describes the first use of an anti-Stokes material, or up-converter, for the development of latent fingermarks on a range of non-porous surfaces. Anti-Stokes materials can absorb long-wavelength light and emit light at a shorter wavelength. This property is unusual in both natural and artificial materials and so fingermark detection techniques based on anti-Stokes luminescence are potentially sensitive and selective. Latent fingermarks on luminescent and non-luminescent substrates, including Australian polymer banknotes (a well-known `difficult surface), were developed with sodium yttrium tetrafluoride doped with erbium and ytterbium (NaYF4:Er,Yb) by dry powder, wet powder, and cyanoacrylate staining techniques. This study illustrates the potential of up-converter phosphors for the detection of latent fingermarks.
Benson, SJ, Lennard, CJ, Hill, DE, Maynard, PJ & Roux, CP 2010, 'Forensic Analysis Of Explosives Using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Irms)-Part 1: Instrument Validation Of The Deltaplusxp Irms For Bulk Nitrogen Isotope Ratio Measurements', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 193-204.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A significant amount of research has been conducted into the use of stable isotopes to assist in determining the origin of various materials. The research conducted in the forensic field shows the potential of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to pr
Benson, SJ, Lennard, CJ, Maynard, PJ, Hill, DE, Andrew, AS, Neal, K, Stuart-williams, H, Hope, J, Walker, GS & Roux, CP 2010, 'Forensic Analysis Of Explosives Using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Irms)-Part 2: Forensic Inter-Laboratory Trial: Bulk Carbon And Nitrogen Stable Isotopes In A Range Of Chemical Compounds (Australia And New Zealand)', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 205-212.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Comparability of data over time and between laboratories is a key issue for consideration in the development of global databases, and more broadly for quality assurance in general. One mechanism that can be utilized for evaluating traceability is an inte
Chan, J, Spindler, X, Brust, A, Shimmon, R, Maynard, P, Lennard, C, Stoilovic, M & Roux, C 2010, 'Evaluation of DFO and 1,2-indanedione formulations under two different Australian conditions', Science & Justice, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 38-38.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Chan, JH, Shimmon, R, Spindler, X, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP & Stuart, BH 2010, 'An investigation of isatin as a potential reagent for latent fingermark detection on porous surfaces', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 320-336.
This study investigated isatin as a potential fingermark enhancement reagent for use on porous surfaces. A number of parameters were investigated, including concentration, solvent system, pH of the solution, and optimization of the development conditions. It was determined that isatin at a concentration of 0.05% (w/v) provided the optimum balance between the luminescence of the fingermark ridges and background. A carrier solvent of dioxane mixed with acetone [12.5% (v/v)] produced the most intense luminescence. It was determined that the optimum pH for the development of fingermarks was 5.0 and that this could be reached by the addition of 4% (vlv) sodium carbonate buffer. The use of a dry heat press at 180°C for 10 s provided optimal development conditions.
Ma, R, Shimmon, R, Maynard, P, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2010, 'Further research into novel fingermark detection techniques using anti-Stokes luminescence', Science & Justice, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 43-43.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Masaki, L, Brooks, EM, Robertson, J, Maynard, P & Roux, C 2010, 'The forensic examination of black, brown, blond, and red hairs using digital imaging and colour analysis', Science & Justice, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 39-39.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Benson, SJ, Lennard, CJ, Maynard, PJ, Andrews, A, Hill, D & Roux, CP 2009, 'Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) - Preliminary study on TATP and PETN', Science & Justice, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 81-86.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The application of isotopic techniques to investigations requiring the provision of evidence to a Court is limited. The objective of this research was to investigate the application of light stable isotopes and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to solve complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. Due to the current threat of organic peroxide explosives, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), research was undertaken to determine the potential of IRMS to differentiate samples of TATP that had been manufactured utilising different starting materials and/or manufacturing processes. In addition, due to the prevalence of pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) in detonators, detonating cord, and boosters, the potential of the IRMS technique to differentiate PETN samples from different sources was also investigated. Carbon isotope values were measured in fourteen TATP samples, with three deï¬nite groups appearing in the initial sample set based on the carbon data alone. Four additional TATP samples (in a second set of samples) were distinguishable utilising the carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions individually, and also in combination with the oxygen isotope values. The 3D plot of the carbon, oxygen and hydrogen data demonstrated the clear discrimination of the four samples of TATP. The carbon and nitrogen isotope values measured from ï¬fteen PETN samples, allowed samples from different sources to be readily discriminated. This paper demonstrates the successful application of IRMS to the analysis of explosives of forensic interest to assist in discriminating samples from different sources. This research represents a preliminary evaluation of the IRMS technique for the measurement of stable isotope values in TATP and PETN samples, and supports the dedication of resources for a full evaluation of this application in order to achieve Court reportable IRMS results.
Benson, SJ, Lennard, CJ, Maynard, PJ, Hill, D, Andrews, A & Roux, CP 2009, 'Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) - Discrimination of ammonium nitrate sources', Science & Justice, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 73-80.View/Download from: Publisher's site
An evaluation was undertaken to determine if isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) could assist in the investigation of complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. The focus of the research was on ammonium nitrate (AN), a common oxidiser used in improvised explosive mixtures. The potential value of IRMS to attribute Australian AN samples to the manufacturing source was demonstrated through the development of a preliminary AN classiï¬cation scheme based on nitrogen isotopes. Although the discrimination utilising nitrogen isotopes alone was limited and only relevant to samples from the three Australian manufacturers during the evaluated time period, the classiï¬cation scheme has potential as an investigative aid. Combining oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values permitted the differentiation of AN prills from three different Australian manufacturers. Samples from ï¬ve different overseas sources could be differentiated utilising a combination of the nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Limited differentiation between Australian and overseas prills was achieved for the samples analysed. The comparison of nitrogen isotope values from intact AN prill samples with those from post-blast AN prill residues highlighted that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the prills was not maintained post-blast; hence, limiting the technique to analysis of un-reacted explosive material.
Maynard, PJ, Jenkins, J, Edey, C, Payne, GL, Lennard, CJ, McDonagh, AM & Roux, CP 2009, 'Near infrared imaging for the improved detection of fingermarks on difficult surfaces', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 43-62.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The near infrared spectral region offers advantages over the visible region in the detection of latent fingermarks due to increased contrast and decreased background luminescence. In this work, a chemical imaging system was used to image latent fingermarks in the near-infrared (NIR) region. A variety of porous, non-porous and semi-porous surfaces were tested using standard chemical and physical enhancement techniques. NIR dyes were also used to enhance latent marks. Both absorption and luminescence properties of the treated marks were examined over the spectral range 650-1100 nm. Significant NIR absorption was found for ninhydrin, iodine/benzoflavone, physical developer, and powdering. NIR luminescence emission was found for DFO, ninhydrin with zinc salt post treatment, 1,2-indanedione and genipin. Significant NIR luminescence emission was found for cyanoacrylate fuming followed by staining with NIR dyes. In addition, metal oxide powders coated with NIR dyes were able to enhance fingermarks on a patterned and highly luminescent surface.
Choi, M, McBean, KE, McDonagh, AM, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2008, 'An evaluation of nanostructured zinc oxide as a fluorescent powder for fingerprint detection', Journal of Materials Science, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 732-737.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zinc oxide is evaluated as a fluorescent powder for the detection of fingermarks on non-porous surfaces. Pure and lithium-doped nanostructured zinc oxide powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The zinc oxide powders were applied to fresh and aged fingermarks deposited on non-porous surfaces such as glass, polyethylene and aluminium foil. Zinc oxide was found to produce clear fluorescent impressions of the latent fingermarks when illuminated with long-wave UV light
Choi, M, McDonagh, AM, Maynard, PJ & Roux, CP 2008, 'Metal-containing Nanoparticles and Nano-structured Particles in Fingermark Detection', Forensic Science International, vol. 179, no. 2-3, pp. 87-97.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article reviews the application of metal-containing nanoparticles and nano-structured particles to fingermark detection. This area of research is attracting significant interest as advances in nanoscience are being incorporated into the field of forensic fingermark detection. Although more research is needed before some of the techniques presented can be implemented in routine casework, nanotechnology is likely to play a major role in the future to deliver more selective and more sensitive ways to detect and enhance fingermarks.
Stuart, BH, Notter, SJ, Langlois, NE, Maynard, PJ, Ray, AS & Berkahn, MB 2007, 'Characterization of the triacylglycerol crystal formation in adipose tissue during a vehicle collision', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 938-942.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The unusual appearance of crystalline fat structures was observed during the postmortem examination of a motor vehicle accident victim. The crystal structures were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometry. The
Choi, M, Smoother, T, Martin, AA, McDonagh, AM, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2007, 'Fluorescent TiO2 powders prepared using a new perylene diimide dye: Applications in latent fingermark detection', Forensic Science International, vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 154-160.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A new, highly fluorescent dye was synthesised using oleylamine combined with a perylene dianhydride compound. The new dye was characterised by H-1 NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as quantum yield. The dye was absorbed onto
Benson, SJ, Lennard, CJ, Maynard, PJ & Roux, CP 2006, 'Forensic applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry - A review', Forensic Science International, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 1-22.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The key role of a forensic scientist is to assist in determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so, assist in the identification of the offender. Many people hold the belief that a particular item can be conclusively linked to a specific pers
Choi, M, McBean, KE, Wuhrer, R, McDonagh, AM, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2006, 'Investigation into the binding of gold nanoparticles to fingermarks using scanning electron microscopy', Journal of Forensic identification, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 24-32.
For the first time, scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the binding of gold nanoparticles to fingermarks placed on nanoporous surfaces. The results show that gold nanoparticles, under standard MMDII conditions, bind preferentially to latent fingermark ridges on nonporous surfaces. Variation in surfactant concentration influences background development but does not affect the binding of gold nanoparticles to the ridges, while pH variation influences the binding to ridges but leaves valley regions unaffected.
Choi, M, McDonagh, AM, Maynard, PJ, Wuhrer, R, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2006, 'Preparation and evaluation of metal nanopowders for the detection of fingermarks on nonporous surfaces', Journal of Forensic identification, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 756-768.
gold and silver nanoparticles using oleylamine as a stabilizer have been formulated for developing latent fingermarks on nonporous surfaces. These nanopowders are compared with conventional powders such as black powder, black magnetic powder, aluminium powder and white powder. Gold nanopowder produced sharp and clear development of latent fingermarks without background staining. Scanning electron microscope images revealed that particles were concentrated inthe fingermark ridge areas, with only minor amounts located in the valley regions.
Burger, FJ, Dawson, M, Roux, CP, Maynard, PJ, Doble, PA & Kirkbride, KP 2005, 'Forensic analysis of condom and personal lubricants by capillary electrophoresis', Talanta, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 368-376.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Condoms may offer sexual assailants a simple and relatively effective means by which they may remove and dispose of the biological evidence of their contact with the victim. Without this valuable probative evidence, the investigator may need to turn to s
Schiemer, C, Lennard, C, Maynard, P & Roux, C 2005, 'Evaluation of techniques for the detection and enhancement of latent fingermarks on black electrical tape', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 214-238.
This study investigated a selection of methods to detect latent fingermarks on black electrical tapes. Subsequently, a sequence of techniques was developed and is suggested as a standard operating procedure. Different formulations of white and silver powder suspensions were developed by comparing Citron detergent and Kodak Photo-Flo as the surfactant in the suspension. A mixture of both surfactants in the suspensions repeatedly produced greater fingerprint development on the adhesive side compared to using either one on its own. Two techniques consistently performed to a higher standard for both fresh and aged marks on the adhesive side: cyanoacrylate followed by a combined basic yellow 40/basic red 28 stain and the white powder suspension. The contrast, sharpness, ridge detail, and simplicity of preparation and application achieved with both of these techniques made them superior to the other methods tested. The sequence that proved successful on the adhesive side of all tapes tested involved cyanoacrylate fuming and application of a fluorescent stain, followed by white powder suspension, and finally gentian violet with a transfer of developed marks if necessary. This sequence allowed maximum development and the greatest enhancement of latent marks, without causing the destruction of the deposit for subsequent methods. Latent fingermarks on the backing (nonadhesive side) of the electrical tape were also successfully developed with cyanoacrylate and the fluorescent stain, so treatment of the backing could be incorporated into the sequence.
Schiemer, CE, Lennard, CJ, Maynard, PJ & Roux, CP 2005, 'Evaluation of techniques for the detection and enhancement of latent fingermarks on black electrical tape', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 215-236.
Bojko, KL, Maynard, PJ, Du Pasquier, E, Lennard, CJ, Stoilovic, M & Roux, CP 2004, 'Evaluation of iodine-benzoflavone and Ruthenium Tetroxide spray reagents for the detection of latent fingermarks at the crime scene', Journal of Forensic Science, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1-9.
Flynn, K, Maynard, P, Du Pasquier, E, Lennard, C, Stoilovic, M & Roux, C 2004, 'Evaluation of iodine-benzoflavone and ruthenium tetroxide spray reagents for the detection of latent fingermarks at the crime scene', JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 707-715.
Langdon, SM, Maynard, PJ, Robertson, J & Roux, CP 2003, 'An evaluation of the Maxcan fibre finder version 3.3 on cotton fibres', Forensic Science International, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 137-145.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The Maxcan fibre finder system is a product of Cox Analytical Systems, Sweden, and has been developed for the primary purpose of searching for fibres on tape lifts. This paper evaluates the ability of the Maxcan system to search for different fibre types and colours under varying conditions. The system performed effectively in most situations, although it did have problems with some search combinations that a human operator would also find difficult in a manual search. The Maxcan system has the added advantages of being objective, consistent and able to do large batch searches unattended. These attributes make it very useful where a large number of tapes need to be searched in casework and also in research where large quantities of data need to be gathered within a reasonable time.
Cantrell, S, Roux, CP, Maynard, PJ & Robertson, J 2001, 'A Textile Fibre Survey as an Aid to the Interpretation of Fibre Evidence in the Sydney Region', Forensic Science International, vol. 123, pp. 48-53.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Frequency figures of the fibre population on textile cinema seats were measured in Sydney, Australia, in winter. Sixteen seats were analysed from a very popular cinema complex, with 3025 fibres classified according to colour, generic class and fluorescence properties (100 greyblack cotton fibres only). The recovered fibres were mostly natural fibres (84%) with cotton the most common generic type (70%). On the contrary, man made fibres were relatively rare (15%) with rayon constituting the majority of these (51%). The most common colour/generic class combinations were greyblack cotton (33%) and blue cotton (30%) accounting for 63% of the total population. All other frequencies were below 5%, most below 1% using only the two properties of colour and generic class. Fluorescence properties were found to be very discriminating as far as greyblack cotton fibres were concerned. These features are considered and discussed and in particular, to emphasise the significance of fibres as evidence of contact.
Maynard, PJ, Allwell, K, Roux, CP, Dawson, M & Royds, D 2001, 'A Protocol for the Forensic Analysis of Condom and Personal Lubricants Found in Sexual Assault Cases', Forensic Science International, vol. 124, pp. 140-156.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study investigated the evidential value of specific methods of analysis for packaging tapes and clear adhesive tapes available in Australia. Fifty-eight adhesive tapes were analyzed using a wide range of optical, physical, and chemical techniques. The results were collated for the purpose of creating an Australian database of adhesive tapes, which would be of assistance in criminal investigation. Each technique was evaluated for its discriminating power, both for comparative purposes and for the identification of adhesive tapes by comparing unknown samples with the database. The combined discriminating power of the techniques applied is very high. It is possible to individually identify the source of an unknown adhesive tape sample in many instances by searching the database. It is also possible to form an opinion on the significance of a failure-to-discriminate result in comparative casework. Further work is still needed to expand and update the database, as well as compiling data on the relative market share of various products.
Kher, A, Mulholland, M, Reedy, BJ & Maynard, PJ 2001, 'Classification of Document Papers by Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Statistical Techniques', Applied Spectrocopy, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 1192-1198.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Infrared (IR) spectra of different varieties of document papers were collected with the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR, 4000-650 cm-1, eight paper varieties) and diffuse reflectance (DRIFTS, 9000-2500 cm-1, six paper varieties) techniques. The spectral data were classified by the application of soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA), using principal components analysis (PCA) to estimate the distance of separation between the different classes of paper samples and discriminant analysis (DA) to obtain a probabilistic classification. The use of DA on spectral data needed a preliminary data reduction step, either by PCA-decomposition of spectra or the selection of discrete spectral features having maximum discriminating ability. The aim of this research was to evaluate these data-reduction techniques and compare the discriminating power of these two spectral techniques (DRIFTS and ATR) by the application of PCA and DA. The use of PCA scores as DA variables provided the best resolution (100% correct classification) for the DRIFTS spectra, while PCA on the ATR spectra resulted in the best discrimination, separating 67.86% paper pairs completely with the use of cross-validation. The results of this study reemphasize that infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical methods of analysis could provide a powerful discriminating tool for the forensic questioned document examiner.
Crossley, MJ, Thordarson, P, Bannerman, JP & Maynard, PJ 1998, 'A convenient procedure for moderate-scale Rothemund synthesis of lipophilic porphyrins: an alternative to the Adler-Longo and Lindsey methodologies', JOURNAL OF PORPHYRINS AND PHTHALOCYANINES, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 511-516.View/Download from: 3.0.CO;2-E">Publisher's site
Roux, C, Maynard, PJ & Morison, R 2018, 'Other instrumental approaches to fibre examination' in Roux, C, Robertson, J & Wiggins, K (eds), Forensic Examination of Fibres, Third Edition, CRC Press, USA, pp. 309-344.
The objectives of a typical forensic analysis of fibres are (1) to identify the fibre type and (2) to compare one or several fibres of an unknown origin to fibres from a known source to determine if they could share a common origin. Collectively, the pool of techniques employed should fulfil the needs for accurate identification and a high degree of discrimination
between similar fibres. In a particular case, choosing appropriate techniques from the wide range available will depend on several factors including the quantity of material available, the exact circumstances of the case under investigation and the instrumental techniques available to the laboratory. As described earlier, a number of techniques are well established and commonly used in forensic science laboratories worldwide. Examples include microscopic (Chapter 5) and microspectrometric (Chapter 6) examinations, infrared (IR) spectroscopy (Chapter 7) and Raman spectroscopy (Chapter 8). While these techniques meet the requirements expressed above in general casework, the context of the case, the nature of the fibre specimens and the questions being asked sometimes justify the application of other techniques. In parallel, new potential techniques are constantly being developed by the broad analytical scientific field and ought to be presented to the forensic
fibre examiner. This chapter discusses instrumental approaches that are not presented elsewhere. It is not meant to be comprehensive and does not include all 'exotic' techniques, but the discussion will focus on the techniques that have been shown to have practical value or the ones
with the best potential to add value to a typical forensic examination of fibres. For the ease of presentation, they will be classified as follows:
Techniques primarily focusing on the fibre:
• Pyrolysis techniques
• Elemental and micro-structural analysis
• Isotope ratio mass spectrometry
Techniques primarily focusing on the fibre dyes:
• High-performance liquid chromat...