Can supervise: YES
Garrido, W, Bendrups, D & Hayward, P 2019, Musica de Chiloe - Folklore, Syncretism, and Cultural Development in a Chilean Aquapelago, 1sr, Lexington Books, Lanham.
Hayward, P 2018, Scaled for success: The internationalisation of the mermaid, John Libbey, USA.
© 2018 John Libbey Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. Emerging from the confluence of Greco-Roman mythology and regional folklore, the mermaid has been an enduring motif in Western culture since the medieval period. It has also been disseminated more widely, initially through Western trade and colonisation and, more recently, through the increasing globalisation of media products and outlets. Scaled for Success offers the first detailed overview of the mermaids dispersal outside Europe. Complementing previous studies of the interrelationship between the mermaid and Mami Wata spirit in West Africa, this volume addresses the mermaids presence in a range of Middle Eastern, Asian, Australian, Latin American and North American contexts. Individual chapters identify the manner in which the mermaid has been variously syncretised and/or resignified in contexts as diverse as Indian public statuary, Thai cinema and Coney Islands annual Mermaid Parade. Rather than lingering as a relic of a bygone age, the mermaid emerges as a versatile, dynamic and, above all, polyvalent figure. Her prominence exemplifies the manner in which contemporary media-lore has extended the currency of established folkloric figures in new and often surprising ways. Analysing aspects of religious symbolism, visual art, literature and contemporary popular culture, this copiously illustrated volume profiles an intriguing and highly diverse phenomenon. Philip Hayward is editor of the journal Shima and holds adjunct professor positions at the University of Technology Sydney and at Southern Cross University. His previous volume, Making a Splash: Mermaids (and Mermen) in 20th and 21st Century Audiovisual Media, was published by John Libbey Publishing/Indiana University Press in 2017.
Hayward, P 2017, Making a Splash Mermaids (and Mer-Men) in 20th and 21st Century Audiovisual Media, JOHN LIBBEY PUBLISHING, United Kingdom.
Mermaids have been a feature of western cinema since its inception and the number of films, television series, and videos representing them has expanded exponentially since the 1980s. Making a Splash analyses texts produced within a variety of audiovisual genres. Following an overview of mermaids in western culture that draws on a range of disciplines including media studies, psychoanalysis, and post- structuralism, individual chapters provide case studies of particular engagements with the folkloric figure. From Hans Christian Andersen’s "The Little Mermaid" to the creation of Ursula, Ariel’s tentacled antagonist in Disney’s 1989 film, to aspects of mermaid vocality, physicality, agency, and sexuality in films and even representations of mermen, this work provides a definitive overview of the significance of these ancient mythical figures in 110 years of western audio-visual media.
© 2017 Taylor & Francis. The study of television and music has expanded greatly in recent years, yet to date no book has focused on the genre of comedy television as it relates to music. Music in Comedy Television: Notes on Laughs fills that gap, breaking new critical ground. With contributions from an array of established and emerging scholars representing a range of disciplines, the twelve essays included cover a wide variety of topics and television shows, spanning nearly fifty years across network, cable, and online structures and capturing the latest research in this growing area of study. From Sesame Street to Saturday Night Live, from Monty Python to Flight of the Conchords, this book offers the perfect introduction for students and scholars in music and media studies seeking to understand the role of music in comedy onscreen and how it relates to the wider culture.
Álvarez, R, Munita, D, Mera, R, Borlando, Í, Ther-Ríos, F, Núñez, D, Hidalgo, C & Hayward, P 2019, 'Rebounding From Extractivism: The history and re-assertion of traditional weir-fishing practices in the Interior Sea of Chiloé', Shima: the international journal of research into island cultures, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 155-173.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hayward, P 2019, 'Elaborating the aquapelagic imaginary: Catalina Island, tourism and mermaid iconography', Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 89-102.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Institution for Marine and Island Cultures, Mokpo National University. This article revisits and updates a discussion of the cultural function and prominence of the mermaid in 20th and 21st century Catalina Island (California) that originally appeared in the journal Contemporary Legend in 2013. Drawing on recent critical-theoretical work on the concept of the aquapelago and of the aquapelagic imaginary, I examine the manner in which the deployment of mermaid imagery on Catalina island is related to the location's orientation to coastal and marine tourism. In particular, I examine the interplay between the conscious deployment of iconography and broader patterns of social use, examining the manner in which the local aquapelagic imaginary has been developed as a cultural asset in the island's destination branding and more general representation of place.
Hayward, P 2019, 'Oecusse and the Sultanate of Ocussi-Ambeno: Pranksterism, misrepresentation and micro-nationality', Small States and Territories, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 183-194.
Occussi-Ambeno, a fictional sultanate initially conceived by Aotearoan/
Zealander anarchist artist Bruce Grenville in 1968 and represented and developed by him and others over the last fifty years, is notable as both an early example of a virtual micronation (i.e. a type that does not attempt to enact itself within the physical territory it claims) and as an entity affixed to an entire pre-existent territory (in the case of the Sultanate of Occussi- Ambeno, that of Oecusse on the north-west coast of the island of Timor). The latter aspect is pertinent in that however imaginary the micronation is, its association with a region of a small state raises questions concerning the ethics of (mis)representation. This is particularly pertinent in the case of Oecusse, which was occupied by Indonesian forces in 1975 and had its distinct identity subsumed within the Indonesian state until Timor-Leste (and Oecusse as its exclave) successfully gained independence in 2002. Discussions in the article compare the anarcho- pranksterist impulse behind the creation of the Sultanate of Occussi-Ambeno and its manifestation in visual media – primarily through the design and production of ‘artistamps’ (faux postage stamps) – to related economic and socio-political contexts.
Hayward, P 2019, 'Sanctuary islands in a hostile matrix: The perception, representation, and protection of the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, Gulf of Mexico', Island Studies Journal, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 157-170.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019—Institute of Island Studies. The Flower Garden Banks (FGBs), located in the Gulf of Mexico due south of the Texas-Louisiana border, are protrusive, ocean-floor diapirs. These features, which occur widely around the Gulf’s coastal plains and continental shelf, are caused by dome-shaped extrusions of salt deposits into the strata above them. The FGBs are distinct and merit analysis on account of the peculiarity of their fate in the Anthropocene Era in a region that has been heavily exploited and impacted by both offshore oil-drilling and by commercial and recreational fishing. Unlike many other diapirs, the FGBs have benefitted from perception, identification, and characterisation as distinct islands (in the biogeographical sense of the term), and from their successful nomination as a US National Marine Sanctuary (NMS). This article reflects on these aspects with regard to the nature of and criteria informing the US Act that enabled the creation of NMSs; the key concept of ‘sanctuaries’ involved; and the manner in which the FGBs have been conceived, protected, and represented under the Act. Attention is also accorded to the manner in which the FGBs have been represented in various media and how this effectively creates them for the general public. Drawing on these discussions, the article identifies both the complexity involved in conceptualising a submarine space as an NMS and the fragility of such sanctuaries in the late Anthropocene and, more specifically, during a period of political turmoil within the nation-state that established them.
Hayward, P 2019, 'The dark side of christmas: Incarceration and alienation in Gabrielle Brady's film Island of the Hungry Ghosts (2018)', Shima: the international journal of research into island cultures, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 182-190.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Christmas Island is located 350 kilometres south of Jakarta and 1,400 kilometres north-west of the mid-north coast of the state of Western Australia (Figure 1) and has a land area of 165 square kilometres. The island’s history of human inhabitation is comparatively shallow, commencing in 1899, shortly after it was claimed by the United Kingdom, the merchant adventurer George Clunies-Ross began to exploit its considerable phosphate deposits by importing indentured labourers from Malaya, Singapore and China (see Hunt, 2011). Initially administered by the Clunies-Ross family and British colonial authorities in Singapore, the island was transferred to Australian control in 1958 and since 1997 - together with the Cocos [Keeling] Islands - has formed part of Australia’s Indian Ocean Territories. The cultural and linguistic diversity of the island’s population is highly distinct within Australia on account of the prominence of individuals with non-European ancestry within its community. Of its population of 1843 (2016 Australian Bureau of Statistics census figures), 61.5% were born outside of Australia. 21.1% identify as being of Chinese ancestry, 12% Malay and 25.9% claim Australian, English or Irish ancestry. These census figures merit comment in that for all they may represent the population of Christmas Island at the date of census, a hidden aspect of ABS statistics is the proportion of those surveyed who were temporary residents at time of census.1 With regard to the continuing and/or multi-generational population of the island, those of Chinese and Malay ancestry are the most prominent, with traces of their 120-year
involvement with the island being present in its material and folkloric history
Hayward, P 2018, 'Mermaids, mercultures and the aquapelagic imaginary', Shima : The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 2-11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hayward, P 2018, 'Salt marsh synthesis: Local politics, local identity perception and autonomy initiatives on canvey island (Essex, UK)', Island Studies Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 223-234.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 — Institute of Island Studies, University of Prince Edward Island, Canada. Canvey Island, located on the north side of the Thames Estuary, has experienced periodic inundations since its earliest periods of settlement. The island was sparsely populated until the late 1800s when a series of developments, including the construction of fixed links to the mainland, attracted migrants from the East End of London who went on to form the core of the present-day population. The recent and relatively homogenous nature of this migration pattern has led to a local perception of difference from the more established communities of the adjacent Essex shore. The latter factor has contributed to a growing push for local autonomy on the island, which has connected with broader national political trends. The article identifies the manner in which experiences and perceptions of insularity can foster distinct senses of local difference and marginalisation that result in autonomy initiatives at grassroots levels. With regard to the latter, parallels are also drawn with previous local autonomy initiatives in the United Kingdom, particularly those of the Isle of Dogs in 1970. The article also emphasises the role of the imagination and representation of locality in promotional, popular cultural and political discourse that informs senses of community identity in various ways.
Hayward, P 2018, 'Secessionism, submergence and Siteresponsive art: The Embassy of the Commonwealth of New Bayswater at the 1st Fremantle Biennale', Shima, vol. 12, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018, Shima Publications (Australia). Assertions of territorial and, particularly, micronational secession have often been highly performative and/or rhetorical. In this regard, they closely parallel aspects of conceptual, performance and installation art practice. It is unsurprising then that a number of prominent micronations have been formed by artists in response to local issues and/or as components of broader artistic projects. The Embassy of the Commonwealth of New Bayswater, created by Perth artist Jessee Lee Johns for the inaugural Fremantle Biennale in 2017, is a prime example of site-responsive art's ability to provide illuminating representations of key issues in local discourse. The installation merits sustained consideration in this journal due to its intersection with recent debates concerning micronationality in the form of its wry engagement with aspects of Western Australian secessionist politics. Its other significant aspect is its address to issues of sea level rise, encroachment and submergence - a phenomenon whose impacts are likely to over-ride the viability of many low-lying territories let alone any secessionist pretensions individuals or communities inhabiting them may have.
Hayward, P & Moore, AM 2018, 'Vertical Features in Flux: Elevation, Interiority and the Anthropocene Disruption of South West Louisiana’s Five Salt Dome Land Islands', Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, vol. 7, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
While islands are clearly delineated from mainland locations by virtue of their encirclement by water, fixation on this element has led to an under-appreciation and related under-exploration of the comparability of islands to elevated terrestrial features such as hills, mountains and ridges. In this article we discuss the manner in which the five so-called salt dome ‘islands’ (SDIs) of south-western Louisiana exhibit a continuum of features across locations that range from an island (Belle) to a hill (Jefferson) with the remainder (Avery, Cote Blanche and Weeks) occupying positions within these dualities. Salt domes are landscape elements produced when areas of horizontal salt deposits are forced into the strata above, where they form dome shaped intrusions. Some of these distort the surface and protrude above flat areas of land as small hills. In the case of the five salt domes discussed in this article, their protrusion above the swamplands and drier flatlands of south-western Louisiana has resulted in their perception, identification and nomenclative representation as islands. In this article, we focus on the verticality and material spatiality of the SDIs and consider the ways in which their islandness has been effected by the commercial operations that have operated on/in them. Particular focus is given to various mining and related underground storage enterprises that have disrupted the physical nature of the salt domes’ subterranean spaces, the surface that covers them and surrounding land- and water-scapes. Verticality and interiority are identified as key – if often under-recognised – aspects of islandness in general and of the SDIs in particular.
Hayward, P & Thorne, CW 2018, 'I's the Merb'Y: Masculinity, mermen and contemporary Newfoundland', Shima : The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 209-230.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Shima Publications (Australia). In late 2017 initial, low-key publicity for a charity calendar featuring a range of bearded Newfoundlanders posing as mermen resulted in international media coverage that discussed and commended the non-stereotypical images produced for the project. This article situates the calendar's imagery within the history of regional folklore concerning mermen and mermaids, the socio-cultural character of the island of Newfoundland and, in particular, the milieu of its port capital, St. John's. Through these perspectives, the article analyses aspects of masculinity present in an island society that has experienced significant transitions in recent decades in relation to the decline of its fishery, the increasing workrelated mobility of former fisherpeople, increasing ethnic diversity and immigration, and the breaking down of once strongly held attitudes of Newfoundland as being isolated, homogenous and tradition-based. In terms of Island Studies discourse, this has involved the island's transition from being a relatively autonomous aquapelagic assemblage to an increasingly post-aquapelagic one firmly incorporated within a nation-state. Long viewed as a quintessential "folk setting", Newfoundland is in a state of change that includes the gradual modification of regional stereotypes of masculinity. The revised images and roles presented in the calendar can be seen to represent new, more fluid definitions of masculinity appropriate for an increasingly more cosmopolitan - yet proudly unique - island society.
Fitzgerald, J, Hayward, P & Reis, A 2017, 'Maracatu Nação Noronha: Embodied cultural practice and its sustainability on an isolated Brazilian island', Shima : The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 205-219.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fernando de Noronha is situated approximately 430 km from the northeast coast of Brazil, and is the only populated island within a UNESCO World Heritage-listed archipelago of the same name. This article focusses on the contemporary maracatu ensemble based on the island, Maracatu Nação Noronha, and its significance within the local community. Maracatu is a distinctive northeast Brazilian performance genre with historical links to Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion that blends the African practice of worshipping multiple orixás (spirits) with the Catholic practice of worshipping multiple saints. Maracatu has a long history of grassroots performative traditions and is closely connected to Brazilian carnaval. Maracatu ensembles typically include percussionists, singers, dancing orixás and characters representing members of the court within African crowning ceremonies held during the era of slavery. The article examines the development of Maracatu Nação Noronha since 2002, with a particular focus on music, movement and dance. It explores links between Maracatu Nação Noronha's activities and the historical development of maracatu, and examines how the group has adapted to the island's sociocultural environment in the process of connecting with, and educating, local and tourist audiences. It discusses the significance and sustainability of embodied practices and cultural identity development and creation in the context of a small island whose community is still significantly rooted on mainland practices. The article draws on field trips by the authors in 2012 and 2014, as well as interviews with local residents heavily involved with establishment and maintenance of island maracatu.
Hayward, P 2017, 'A Fleeting Aquapelago: A theoretical consideration of the Japanese presence in the Torres Strait 1880s-1940s', South Pacific Studies, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 71-86.
In the 1880s-early 1940s a number of people from poor coastal communities in Japan relocated to the northern fringes of Australia, and particularly the southern end of the Torres Strait, to work in the pearling industry. This group formed a distinct community centred on Thursday Island and also worked more broadly throughout the region. Their economic activity and related lifestyle were closely premised on their interaction with the sea oor and with navigating to and from pearling areas. As part of this activity they came in close contact and interaction with Torres Strait Islanders and other indigenous groups. The article identi es the manner in which the Japanese community’s interactions with other communities, other living species, spaces and technologies within the Torres Strait created a distinct aquapelagic assemblage. Discussion of this particular topic is preceded and informed by an overview of the development of Island Culture Studies in the period 1999–2016 and of the concept of the aquapelago arising in this context.
Hayward, P 2017, 'Gaming The Tide: The territorialisation of temporarily exposed English sandbanks for social cricket events', Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, vol. 6, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hayward, P & Konishi, J 2017, 'Introduction: Island music and performance cultures', Shima : The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 1-4.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fitzgerald, J & Hayward, P 2016, 'Chart Mythos: The JAMs' and The KLF's Invocation of Mu', Shima: the international journal of research into island cultures, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 50-67.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The JAMs and The KLF, two overlapping popular music ensembles led by British multi-media performers Jimmy Cauty and Bill Drummond, were notable for both the success they had with a batch of singles in the late 1980s and early 1990s and the complex mythology they constructed and celebrated in song lyrics, music videos, press releases and short films. Key to their mythological project was their association with the fictional lost island-continent of Mu (with the band name JAMs being an abbreviation for ‘Justified Ancients of Mu Mu’). The latter identity was derived from Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson’s Illuminatus trilogy of novels in which the aforementioned “ancients” were a secret brotherhood involved in combatting the rival Illuminati, who originated in Atlantis. As the JAMS’ and KLF’s oeuvres progressed, aspects of Mu and Atlantis were synthesised by Cauty and Drummond with elements of other actual and fictional islands. The article traces the initial imagination and representation of Mu in esoteric crypto-historical literature, its rearticulation in Shea and Wilson’s counter-cultural novels and its invocation and function in Cauty and Drummond’s work with The JAMs and The KLF.
Hayward, P 2016, 'Enduring perceptions: Placenaming and the perception of Louisiana’s salt dome islands', Island Studies Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 417-430.
© 2016 – Institute of Island Studies, University of Prince Edward Island, Canada. Salt domes are geological features that occur when areas of salt deposits are pressured into layers above them, causing dome shaped distortions in horizontal strata. In some instances, the distortions protrude above flat areas of land or else appear underwater as seamounts. In the case of the five Louisiana salt dome hills considered in this article, their distinct elevation above the swampy bayous and flatlands surrounding them has led to their characterisation as islands by indigenous Atakapa-Ishak peoples and by subsequent Francophone and Anglophone settlers. The article considers the ways in which the five salt domes’ islandness has been perceived, enhanced and/or undermined by various local inhabitants and/or the industries that have operated on them. Discussion of these aspects involves consideration of the manner in which the salt dome islands’ islandness is mutable and complex, particularly with regard to human impacts. This mutability is discussed with regard to both individual island placenames and the islands’ overall designations.
Hayward, P 2016, 'Tanka Transitions: Shrimp Paste, Dolphins and the Aquapelagic Assemblage of Tai O', Locale : the Australian-Pacific Journal of Regional Food Studies, vol. n6, no. -, pp. 1-10.
Tai O, located off the northwest coast of Hong Kong’s Lantau Island, has a distinct socio-economic and cultural character premised on its position at the centre of an aquapelagic assemblage within the broader Pearl River Delta area. The area is well known as a centre for cultural heritage tourism within which culinary heritage, and particularly shrimp paste production, is a key element. Recent developments in Hong Kong fisheries policy have curtailed shrimp fishing around the island and required its shrimp paste operation to realign its production and manufacturing operations. In tandem with these changes, the island has recently developed as a centre for dolphin-watching tourism. The article examines the nature of Tai O’s contemporary use of marine resources, the nature of community adjustments to external circumstances and the likely longevity of its livelihood activities and distinct culinary products.
Hayward, P & Hill, M 2016, 'Voodoo Threads: the cultural trajectory of Dr John's 'I Walk on Gilded Splinters', Journal of World Popular Music, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 262-285.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article traces the manner in which a particular composition steeped in New Orleans’ creole culture (and in voodoo, in particular)—Dr. John’s ‘I Walk on Gilded Splinters’—has undergone a series of transitions since its original recording in 1967. The article commences with a discus- sion of the song, related repertoire and Dr. John’s creative persona with regard to the compos- er’s New Orleans heritage. Subsequent sections provide an account of the manner in which the composition has become established within a number of soul/rock/pop genres, and identify those elements that have been core to its successive modifications. Moving to a more contem- porary focus, the article identifies the manner in which Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Dr. John’s particular reactions to it revived and re-inflected his creative persona. The conclusion reflects on the significance of the composition’s cultural trajectory over 50 years of performance and of the shifting nature of the composer’s presentation of his material for different audiences.
Hayward, P 2015, 'Mountain airs, mockingjays and modernity: Songs and their significance in The Hunger Games', Science Fiction Film and Television', Science Fiction Film and Television, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 75-89.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hayward, P 2015, 'Sounding the Aquapelago: The Cultural-Environmental Context of ni-Vanuatu women's liquid percussion performance', Perfect Beat: the Pacific journal of research into contemporary music and popular culture, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 113-127.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article reviews the cultural-environmental context of the Leweton community’s liquid percussion practice and the production of the Vanuatu Women’s Water Music (henceforth VWWM) DVD with regard to the conceptual framework of the aquapelago. The latter has contended that human societies closely interacting with marine environments can be characterized as inhabiting an aquapelago by virtue of their activities creating an aquapelagic assemblage of terrestrial and marine elements. Following a summary discussion of aspects of the aquapelago, the article first considers the nature of the Leweton community’s liquid percussion practice in its traditional context and then addresses the contemporary developments that led to the production of the DVD, with particular regard to aspects of community livelihood and cultural transition. Drawing on these, the article posits the practices as quintessentially aquapelagic.
Hayward, P & Hill, M 2015, 'The Scent of Success: Image-Sound Relations and Audio-logo-visuality in Baz Luhrmann’s two promotional films for Chanel No.5 perfume', Screen Sound: The Australasian Journal of Soundtrack Studies, vol. 5, pp. 36-50.
This article analyses Baz Luhrmann’s two short promotional films for Chanel No 5 perfume (2004 and 2014) in terms of the aesthetic styles deployed for their promotional functions. The article begins by providing a contextual introduction to Luhrmann’s oeuvre and to aspects of Michel Chion’s notion of ‘audio-logo-visuality’ (2009) relevant to the director’s oeuvre. Section I discusses Luhrmann’s first Chanel No 5 commercial, made in 2004, the nature of its music track and the role of narration in the production. Section II considers Luhrmann’s reworking of the song ‘You’re the one that I want’ (from the 1978 film Grease) for his 2014 promotional film. Our discussion of the latter details the manner in which the audio-lyrical text is complemented and extended in the visual text to promote its product through a complex cluster of associations. The analyses identify two contrasting approaches to the use of music in the films’ promotion of the perfume product and two distinct patterns of audio-logo-visuality.
Hayward, P & Rahn, A 2015, 'Opening Pandora's Box: pleasure, consent and consequence in the production and circulation of celebrity sex videos', Porn Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 49-61.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hayward, P & Zennor, S 2015, 'The Mermaid Chair: Transplanting Cornish folklore to a fictional American Island', Cornish Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 62-83.
Khamis, S & Hayward, P 2015, 'Fleeting and Partial Autonomy: A historical account of quasi-micronational initiatives on Lundy Island and their contemporary reconfiguration on MicroWiki', Shima: the international journal of research into island cultures, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 69-84.
Sinnewe, E, Kortt, MA, Dollery, B & Hayward, P 2015, 'Three of a kind? The special case of Australia's Island Councils', Economic Papers: a journal of applied economics and policy, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 150-164.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In common with many other countries, Australian local government policy-makers have focussed heavily on improving financial sustainability and operational efficiency through structural change and other modes of systemic reform. However, this system-wide approach cannot adequately deal with small island councils due to their sui generis characteristics. In an effort to fill this gap in the literature, this article examines the financial sustainability of Australia's three island councils - Flinders, Kangaroo and King - over the period 2008-2013 in order to determine whether alternative organisational arrangements may be better suited to their unique circumstances. In so doing, our study contributes to the literature by providing the first empirical analysis of the financial viability of Australia's island councils while considering the need for an alternative organisation entity in an effort to enhance their long-term financial sustainability.
Grydehøj, A & Hayward, P 2014, 'Social and economic effects of spatial distribution in island communities: Comparing the Isles of scilly and Isle of wight, UK', Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 9-19.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014. There has been increasing awareness that communities based on islands are subject to particular island-related factors (the so-called 'island effect'). This paper sheds empirical light on how the island effect differs in different kinds of island communities, specifically solitary islands on the one hand and archipelagos on the other. It does so by comparing two subnational island jurisdictions (SNIJs) in England: the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. By analysing census statistics, we show how the spatial distribution in the Isles of Scilly (an archipelago) and the Isle of Wight (a solitary island) is interrelated with patterns of population and employment. Although the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight are both tourism economies, the data indicates that, in social and economic terms, the Isles of Scilly benefits while the Isle of Wight suffers as a result of their different patterns of spatial distribution. We conclude that an island community's spatial distribution has a significant influence on its societal development and that the island effect differs among islands with different patterns of spatial distribution.
Hayward, P & Kuwahara, S 2014, 'Takarajima: A Treasured Island. Exogeneity, folkloric identity and local branding.', Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 20-30.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014. This article examines the manner in which local identity can be constructed on small islands from the selective prioritisation and elaboration of exogenous elements that become localised by this process and can subsequently function as a brand within contemporary tourism markets. The particular analysis of identity motifs on Takarajima island that we expound examines aspects of the relationships between folklore and contemporary media and references contemporary debates concerning archaeology's interface with folklore and popular culture in the context of (non-scientific) 'treasure hunting'.
Hayward, P & Tran, GTH 2014, 'At the edge: Heritage and tourism development in Vietnam's Con Dao archipelago', Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 113-124.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014. This article outlines the development of Vietnam's Con Dao archipelago (and Con Son island in particular) as tourism destinations since the formal reunification of Vietnam in 1975. In particular it examines the nature of the area's two main tourism attractions, Con Son's prison sites and memorials and the archipelago's natural environment, and how these have been marketed to and experienced by national and international tourists. This discussion also involves considerations of the concept of thanatourism and how the latter might be understood to operate in a Vietnamese context. The final sections of the article consider development plans and options for the archipelago; how these can be understood within national political contexts; and what problems there might be with their implementation.
Hutubessy, BG, Mosse, JW, van Zwieten, PAM & Hayward, P 2014, 'Towards an ecosystem approach to small island fisheries: A preliminary study of a balanced fishery in Kotania Bay (Seram Island, Indonesia)', Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 98-105.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014. The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF) is a holistic one as EAF considers all species as important elements within the eco-system. An EAF requires that community and ecosystem structure should be maintained by harvesting fish communities in proportion to their natural productivity, thereby sustaining the balance of species and sizes in a community. This article draws from research on the reef fish community and catch in Kotania Bay on Seram Island in Maluku, Indonesia, an area of approximately 6000. ha. Based on the trophic guild (ie the aggregation of species utilizing similar food resources) on the reef, the biomass of predator fish currently being captured now represents 40.4% of the total catch biomass. Members of the grouper family, the humphead wrasse (. Cheilinus undulatus) and trevally (. Caranx melampygus) in particular, have become targeted for sale in fish markets. If these predators are selectively targeted and exploited, the overall reef fishery and the human populations that depend on it may become imperilled, given these species' significant roles in controlling those lower in the food chain. This study thereby emphasizes the need for balanced fisheries informed by the EAF model in small island fisheries management in order to sustain food security in such regions.
Performers from non-Western locations have a number of options when attempting to access Western music markets. This case analyzes the manner in which a performer from a tiny national market, remote from the Western music industry's North Atlantic center, succeeded in deploying her heritage and location to gain a foothold in regional and international markets without the involvement of a powerful Western company and/or patron to mold and mediate her access. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Hayward, P & Kuwahara, S 2013, 'Divergent trajectories: Environment, heritage and tourism in Tanegashima, Mageshima and Yakushima', Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 29-38.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2013. This article addresses aspects of contemporary heritage orientation of Tanegashima and Yakushima islands in southern Japan in the context of their historical association; the status of adjacent Mageshima island; and the divergent nature of the tourism attractions and related industries that have developed on the islands from the late 20th Century on. The discussion involves two aspects of heritage and heritage protection and exploitation; in the case of Yakushima, one focused on the natural environment and, in the case of Tanegashima, one substantially premised on historical and present-day technological refinements and innovations. As might be expected, these different orientations result in different engagements with issues of environmental protection. The islands' divergent trajectories illustrate the range of potential developments for small islands and the problem with over-generalistic characterisations of island 'essences' and/or predetermined socio-economic destinies.
The remote, southern Japanese island of Minami Daito was first settled in 1900. It is part of the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa but is geographically distant from the main Okinawan archipelago and displays many non-Okinawan linguistic, cultural and social characteristics. The island was settled by two culturally disparate groups: pioneers from Hachjio Island, 1150 kilometres to the north east, who established a sugarcane industry on the previously uninhabited island; and workers from Okinawa, some 450 kilometres to the west, who were brought in to work in the fields and refineries run by Hachijoan supervisors. Over the last century the island has experienced a process of rapprochement and consolidation between the two communities that has resulted in linguistic syncreses and, more recently, the incorporation of Hachijoan descendents into a local music culture that primarily derives from Okinawa. Since the late 1980s a small group of musicians have coalesced in a musical initiative that has, to date, produced several CDs, a number of original songs and a performing ensemble that has gained external concert and media exposure. This activity has created a sense of cultural cohesion and a distinct identity for contemporary Minami Daitoans. This article analyses the historical process of consolidation; the context and nature of the musical material performed in recent years (with particular regard to song texts); and the manner in which the island community inter-relates with other areas of Japan. © Equinox Publishing Ltd 2013.
Reis, A & Hayward, P 2013, 'Pronounced particularity: A comparison of governance structures on lord howe island and fernando de noronha', Island Studies Journal, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 285-298.
This paper compares and contrasts the management systems and governance structures of two island sites with national and international World Heritage recognition: Lord Howe Island (off the mid-east coast of Australia) and Fernando de Noronha (off the north-east coast of Brazil). Using historical and contemporary references, the paper explores the manner in which two distinct approaches to governance are implicated in the daily living of community members, and considers their socioeconomic activities. We use the case of tourism and World Heritage management as examples of the complexities involved in the different forms of governance structures adopted by these two small oceanic islands: similar in nature and official status, but significantly different when the outcomes of their governance practices are analysed. In the final part of the paper, we suggest mechanisms and approaches that can promote sustainable local engagement with island issues. © 2013 - Institute of Island Studies, University of Prince Edward Island, Canada.
Fitzgerald, J, Hayward, P & Brennan, D 2012, 'Planes of illusion: Music soundtrack, rendition and attribution in Sanctum (2011)', Perfect Beat, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 111-126.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mainstream commercial cinema's increasing access to highly advanced computer-generated imagery (CGI) has allowed it to produce convincing evocations of places and experiences that increasingly blur the line between the represented 'real' of actual locations and digitally generated fictional spaces. This article discusses one such evocation: the spectacular cave system featured in the film Sanctum (2011), directed by Alister Grierson. The frst part of this article examines the manner in which audio-visual elements of the film produce a representation of a Papua New Guinean landscape and locale and, in particular, analyses the manner in which David Hirschfelder's score provides an element of musical exoticism that serves to complement this. The second part of the article discusses issues of cultural use relevant to the film score's prominent use of an unattributed vocal sequence. © Equinox Publishing Ltd 2013.
© 2012. Designed in 1964 as a symbol for the (then) fledgling Singaporean tourism industry that reflected Singapore's maritime heritage, the Merlion - a figure comprising a lower half fish and upper half lion - has become a widely recognized icon of the modern island-state. But despite its prominence in representations of Singapore, the figure has divided opinion and generated debate amongst Singaporeans. Since the 1980s and increasingly in the 1990s and 2000s, artists, writers and critics have variously re-imagined and modified the Merlion in order to comment on aspects of Singapore's national project. Prompted by the re-imagination of the Merlion at Singapore's third Biennale of Arts (2011), this article develops comparisons to similar international symbols and analyses the role and historical trajectory of the Merlion in Singaporean society and the manner in which it has stimulated discussion of the island-state's identity.
© 2012 Institution for Marine and Island Cultures, Mokpo National University. This article analyses the contemporary nature of the smoked tuna (ikan asar1Ikan asar is a term that refers to smoked fish in general (ikan: fish+asar: smoked) but is used almost exclusively in Ambon to refer to smoked tuna. To avoid ambiguity we refer to 'smoked tuna' throughout the article rather than using the Bhasa term that its retailers and consumers commonly employ.1) trade in Ambon city (in Maluku province, eastern Indonesia) with particular regard to the operation of its central precinct along Piere Tendean Road, between the outer city suburbs of Galala and Hative Kecil, and the connection between this area and the region's fishing grounds. The precinct is chosen as a focus since its location has been determined by a complex set of historically determined socio-political forces that are still actively in play. The article's case study emphasises the dynamic nature of circumstances concerning the supply chain of products in locations experiencing substantial population growth, socio-cultural disruption and/or modernisation. The 'foodways' involved in the article's case study are, thereby, not discrete and/or stable but, rather, volatile ones that have been variously shortcut, diverted and/or disrupted under external pressures of various degrees of magnitude and/or immediacy. The maintenance of the foodways involved has required adaptation, ingenuity and the investment of socio-cultural commitment over and above the simple inducement of commercial opportunity. The food product engendered by this dynamic system is therefore not purely a market commodity (as in a simplistic economic model) but rather a cultural one with distinct attributes and significance that crystallise the intersection of various spheres of human and environmental activity in a spatio-temporal context. In attempting to provide an analysis of Ambonese smoked tuna and its Galala-Hative Kecil precinct - and the co...
Grydehøj, A & Hayward, P 2011, 'Autonomy initiatives and quintessential Englishness on the Isle of Wight', Island Studies Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 179-202.
This article addresses the nature of autonomist impulses and initiatives that developed on the Isle of Wight, off the southern coast of England, in the late 20th Century. Drawing on recent discussions of the process of decolonization of island territories and the broader field of study of ethnopolitical mobilization in support of regional autonomy, the article considers the reasons why local autonomist initiatives failed to secure significant traction with the local population. Focus is placed on the historical process of identity building, on how the Isle of Wight community conceptualizes its relationship with England as a whole and of the manner in which the island and its heritage has been considered as quintessentially English. © 2011 Institute of Island Studies, University of Prince Edward Island, Canada.
Hayward, P & Kuwahara, S 2008, 'Transcience and durability: Music industry initiatives, Shima Uta and the maintenance of Amami culture', Perfect Beat, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 44-63.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Music's deep connection to social identities has been distinctively intensified by globalization. This intensification is due to the ways cultural separation and social exchange are mutually accelerated by transnational flows of technology, media, and popular culture. The result is that musical identities and styles are more visibly transient, more audibly in states of constant fission and fusion than ever before.
This article offers a critique of the notion of globalisation and of common assumptions about the efficacy and applicability of a range of new cultural technologies to non-western/developed cultures. In particular, the article stresses the materiality of planet Earth and the politics of resources in its less economically 'enabled' regions as elements which must be taken into account in the kinds of theoretical writing emerging in the field of new cultural technology studies. As befits the frequently used communicative modes of various interviewees and collaborators from the western Pacific region whose ideas inform my thinking in this article, my contentions are expressed through a mixture of conventional critical argument and a series of examples, allusions, metaphors and aphorisms intended to inform and stimulate the engaged reader.
Hayward, P 2000, 'Riding the rhythms: A short survey and critique of Australian popular music studies and its relationship to mainstream Australian Ethno-/Musicology', Musicology Australia, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 176-186.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Crowdy, D & Hayward, P 1999, 'From the ashes: A case study of the Re-development of local music recording in Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) following the 1994 volcanic eruptions', Convergence, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 67-82.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Over the last decade, a series of publications - such as, most notably, Steve Jones's Rock Formations (1992),1 Michael Chanan's Repeated Takes (1995)2 and Paul Théberge's Any Sound You Can Imagine (1997)3 - have offered accounts of the impact of various technological innovations on contemporary music culture. Almost without exception, they have advanced their analyses with near-total reliance on examples drawn from the North Atlantic core of the Western music industry. To date, the impact of various technologies on the music cultures and industries of the rest of the planet have been little examined. While these cultures and industries may 'lag behind' their better-facilitated western counterparts in terms of provision of new equipment and associated creative and industrial practices, the impact of new technologies on these territories is just as marked and complex as it is in the West.
This article concentrates on one particular textual and thematic cluster within the Hollywood feature film Mars Attacks! (1996), Tim Burton's big-budget homage to Cold-War era Science Fiction cinema - the affectivity and significance of musical sounds (and sound technologies). In particular, with reference to the work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari (1987) 1 and the application of aspects of their work to uses of music in contemporary cinema in Murphie (1996); 2 it considers the role of sound passages (and their associations) as territorialising refrains which eventually clash to produce the film's narrative denouement. 3.
This article follows-up a previous study - in the Spring 1995 issue of Convergence1 - which analysed the early development of music CD-ROMs with particular regard to Australian music industry initiatives. The 1995 study signalled the emergence of the Internet as a threat to the further development and exploitation of music CD-ROMs and noted that 'predictions as to when the Internet will effectively render music CD- ROMs redundant tend to opt for a five to 15-year period'.2 It also suggested that 'the two forms will be able to co-exist and complement each other (at least during a transitional stage).3 This article analyses these characterisations and conclusions with reference to the production and consumption of music CD-ROMs in Australia in the period 1995- 96. While the case studies offered here are specifically national, the analyses and prognoses are more generally applicable to the international music/media industry.
Invented in 1917, the theremin was one of the first musical synthesisers to be used in public performance. Largely forgotten in the 1980s, its 'lost history' was re-examined by Steven Martin's acclaimed documentary Theremin - An Electronic Odyssey (USA 1993). The success of the film, and the re-emergence of the theremin onto the retail market, has stimulated a revival of interest in the instrument. This article examines aspects of the theremin's history, its sonic affectivity and the manner in which it has, through its various uses in music production and cinema soundtrack, become a shifting signifier of modernity, futurism, other-worldliness and, more latterly, a nostalgia for such concepts and perceptions.
Hayward, P & Orrock, G 1995, 'Window of Opportunity CD-ROMs, The International Music Industry and Early Australian Initiatives', Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 61-79.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Over the last five years the CD-ROM has risen to become a prominent new-technology medium and consumer item. This paper documents and analyses the development of CD-ROM software by the international music industry and contextualises this development within a broader history of format successions. It discusses the influential XPLORA 1 disk assembled in collaboration with Peter Gabriel's Real World Company and the manner in which this CD-ROM set what has developed as a standard blueprint for the first wave of music CD-ROMs. The paper then provides a case study of the Australian music industry's exploratory use of the medium during 1994, and the relation of that exploration to national cultural policies. The study concludes by speculating as to the likely obsolescence of the CD-ROM form and its likely dis/re-placement by media such as the Internet. © 1995, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.
Hayward, P 2018, 'Changelings, conformity and difference: Dyesebel and the Sirena in filipi no popular culture' in Scaled for Success: The Internationalisation of the Mermaid, John Libbey, USA, pp. 107-128.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The Philippines consists of a group of over 7500 islands located north of central Indonesia and south of Taiwan. Positioned at the northern apex of the so-called ‘Coral Triangle’ – a hotspot for marine diversity that holds some of the world’s richest fishing stocks – the communities of many small islands and the coastal areas of larger ones exemplify the integration of marine and terrestrial spaces for livelihood purposes that has been identified asaquapelagic.¹ As I discussed in the introduction to a previous study of the representations of mermaids (Hayward 2017a), this orientation also extends to the cultures of
Hayward, P 2018, 'From dugongs to sinetrons: Syncretic mermaids in Indonesian culture' in Scaled for Success: The Internationalisation of the Mermaid, John Libbey Publishing, UK, pp. 89-106.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Contemporary Indonesian language has a number of compound terms that describe mermaid-like creatures. Four of these are modifications of the term duyung, denoting a dugong. The literal meaning of the modified terms are as follows: putri duyung (girl/dugong), ikan duyung (fish/dugong) and ikan duyung betina and ikan duyung perempuan (fish/dugong/woman). Two further terms that are broader in their designation are putri laut (sea woman) and the (Arabic language) bintu’l-bahar (daughter of the sea). While several of these terms specify mixed (human) female, dugong and/or fish identities, none specifies the standard portmanteau female/fish form of the Western mermaid. Another term, naga, merits mention at this point. Naga refers to a variety of reptilian creatures, including dragons, but also includes creatures with human components, usually heads, or heads and upper torsos, and creatures that can switch between reptilian and human forms. The term originates in Hindu mythology and, similar to its original Indian circulation (discussed in Chapter 2), there are distinct similarities and blurrings of form and role between nagas and fish/human figures. Despite its history of Dutch colonisation and a significant number of Dutch terms being acquired and/or modified in the Indonesian language, the Dutch term meermin (and its male variant meerman) have not been adopted, although (as discussed in Section II), the Dutch introduced the European form of the fish-tailed mermaid in the early stages of their intrusion into the archipelago.
August 2014 – Nkandla, South Africa. Following sustained criticism for misappropriating 246 million rand to improve his private residence, President Jacob Zuma’s reputation was further tarnished by reports that he had used witchcraft against his opponents during the Apartheid era.1 Another, even more sensational, story appeared soon after. Combining the opulence theme of the former and the supernatural theme of the latter, a report alleged that he had kept two mermaids in his private swimming pool in order to use their magical power to his advantage (Nchee 2014). The story was accompanied by a photo purporting to depict the corpses of the mermaids in question, supposedly found after a fire at his residence (Figure 1, above). While there are some folkloric accounts of mermaid-like creatures in South Africa,2 the figures in the photo were more akin to Western examples of the species and, more precisely, to a number of recent cinematic representations of them. This was unsurprising, given that the photo actually showed two mermaids made as props for the Hollywood film Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides (Rob Marshall, 2011).3 While the accusation that Zuma had used mermaid power was greeted with considerable scepticism in South Africa, it illustrates the extent to which contemporary cinema and television have established the mermaid as a figure that can be inserted into various national discourses and contexts.4 As this Introduction – and the volume as a whole – demonstrates, the nature of such insertions is multifaceted and its
outcomes are varied.
Hayward, P 2018, 'Japan: The mermaidisation of the Ningyo and related folkloric figures' in Scaled for Success: The Internationalisation of the Mermaid, John Libbey Publishing, UK, pp. 51-68.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Early 2017 saw the release of a US independent film production entitled The Ningyo, directed by Miguel Ortega. Set in 1909, the film follows the adventures of a professor from a Californian University who sets out to track down the ningyo, a legendary Japanese creature, part human, part fish, whose flesh has magical properties in that anyone who consumes it becomes able to live healthily for centuries. The film chronicles the extremes to which the professor will go to prove his hunch that the ningyo are real rather than mythical creatures. The ningyo is a figure from Japanese folklore that features in a range of narratives and visual materials dating back to ancient times, and the legend of the beneficial effects of consuming its flesh are present in several accounts. While the term ningyo is often translated into English language as ‘mermaid’ (or ‘merman’, as the term is not gendered), this is misleading in that the creatures originally described and represented in Japan are not the familiar portmanteau form of the Western mermaid, with abrupt delineations between an upper, fully human half and a lower, fully piscine one, but are rather more varied (and often monstrous) piscine-humanoid beings.
One well-known image (see Figure 1) essentially has a (horned) human head on a fish’s body, whereas other early images have either monkey-like heads or fish-scaled humanoid faces on fish bodies. One of the most significant aspects of Ortega’s film is that it represents a partial reversal of a centuries-long process of the diffusion of mermaid imagery into
Japanese culture from the West and, as will be discussed, a progressive ‘mermaidisation’ of the ningyo and related folkloric figures that has led to them increasingly being rendered in a Western standard form.1 The nature of this standardisation, and of its re-interpretation within these parameters, is explored in the following sections with regard to a variety
of popular cultural representations.
Hayward, P 2018, 'Matsya fabulism: Hindu mythologies, mermaids and syncretism in India and Thailand' in Scaled for Success: The Internationalisation of the Mermaid, John Libbey Publishing, UK, pp. 21-50.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Over the last three decades, Western-style mermaid imagery has become more prominent in various aspects of Indian and Thai public culture. While this may be understood to reflect the manner in which audiovisual media culture has become increasingly internationalised in this period (in parallel with increases in Western tourism to South and South East Asia), it also represents the latest inflection (and/or an intensification) of earlier cultural assimilations into and blendings of indigenous and European traditions. In India, and in South East Asia more generally, Hindu mythology has provided a rich tradition of imagery and narratives that has been adapted.
Hayward, P 2018, 'Swimming ashore: Mermaids in Australian public culture' in Scaled for Success: The Internationalisation of the Mermaid, John Libbey, USA, pp. 171-194.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The British colonisation of Australia began around Sydney in 1788. The early settlers relocated from their homeland at a time when rural–urban drift and major changes in rural land exploitation were breaking long-established patterns of regional culture. Migrants were widely scattered across Australia and many aspects of their traditional customs and folklore dissipated in the process. Since British settlement was premised on the dispossession, marginalisation and decimation of Indigenous peoples, few aspects of Indigenous folklore were adopted by European settler communities. Indeed of all the entities that feature in Indigenous ancestral stories only the hairy hominid now generally known
Hayward, P & Milner, L 2018, 'Shoreline revels: Perversity, polyvalence and exhibitionism at coney Island's mermaid parade' in Scaled for Success: The Internationalisation of the Mermaid, John Libbey, USA, pp. 209-226.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Coney Island owes its existence to the sprawling metropolis to its north. At the time of the initial Dutch settlement of Manhattan Island in the 1600s, the area now known as Coney Island was a small group of sand islands whose shapes and divisions shifted under the influence of currents and weather events. Despite its name, the area is (now) an inverted T-shaped peninsula located at the southern edge of Brooklyn on the east side of New York’s Lower Bay. The peninsula is the result of several centuries of landscape modification. The first phase involved the transformation of a small
Hayward, P & Wang, P 2018, 'Millennial Měirényú: Mermaids in 21st Century Chinese Culture' in Scaled for Success: The Internationalisation of the Mermaid, John Libbey Publishing, UK, pp. 129-147.View/Download from: Publisher's site
As the following sections elaborate, the mermaid (in its standard Western form) has become prominent in various aspects of Chinese popular culture in the early 21stCentury. This phenomenon is closely linked to the loosening of the state controls over cultural production established during the Mao Zedong era (1949–1976). The loosening occurred in protracted form in the 1980s and 1990s as the state shifted towards a form of socialism that embraced aspects of free-market principles. The embrace of the mermaid can be seen to be aligned to a general internationalisation of the Chinese economy and society in that period
Fitzgerald, J & Hayward, P 2017, 'Sonic seduction: Mermaid vocality and its expression in screen soundtracks' in Making a Splash: Mermaids (and Mer-Men) in 20th and 21st Century Audiovisual Media, pp. 75-90.
Hayward, P & Hill, M 2017, 'Once in a Lifetime: Music, Parody, and Comical Incongruity in The Young Ones' in Music in Comedy Television Notes on Laughs, Routledge, USA, pp. 59-72.
he Young Ones, a BBC TV situation comedy program originally broadcast in two series in 1982–1984, is notable for the variety of ways in which it uses music for comic purposes and for the extension of these into related audio-visual production. This chapter addresses the manner in which the parody of a variety of popular and/or subcultural music practices and, in particular, the professional personality and music of veteran English pop performer Cliff Richard, is central to the series and its humour. As Coyle and Morris have identified, parody, referentialism, and diegetic/non-diegetic ambiguities are key aspects of the comic effects of music in film (2010: 202). These three aspects are also key to The Young Ones’ televisual humour. Aside from the series’s opening and closing theme tunes, music predominantly occurs within the sitcom’s diegesis, either in terms of music performed by characters or else in the form of diegetic “drop-ins” from guest musicians. With regard to diegetic performances, humour also derives from an aspect identified by Giuffre and Evans, whereby “songs performed within the film’s diegesis … are perceived as comic due to aspects of lyrics, performance, instrumentation, and/or musical style” (2016: 8). Congruence and incongruence are also key aspects of music in the series. Heiser (2016) has elaborated the manner in which comedy can be provided by incongruent combinations of music and image and/or action that invite (culturally informed) audience members in on jokes in a manner that gives them a pleasurable sense of active interpretation. The Young Ones demonstrates this via a distinct two-tier aspect. It combines crude slapstick humour that does not require specialised cultural knowledge to recognise or respond to and a series of more specific cultural references that an informed audience can also discern to be in play. The latter is particularly marked with regard to Britishness or, rather, of particular British identifications with and inte...
Fitzgerald, J & Hayward, P 2016, 'Roxy Musicology: The Substance of Style' in Chapman, I & Johnson, H (eds), Global Glam and Popular Music: Style and Spectacle from the 1970s to the 2000s, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 69-82.
Cashman, D & Hayward, P 2013, 'The golden fleece: Music and cruise ship tourism' in The Globalization of Musics in Transit: Music Migration and Tourism, pp. 101-114.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hayward, P 2011, 'A place in the world: Globalization, music, and cultural identity in contemporary vanuatu' in Music and Globalization: Critical Encounters, pp. 52-74.
Plewnia, A & Witt, A 2013, 'Introduction', SPRACHVERFALL?: DYNAMIK - WANDEL - VARIATION, 49th Annual Meeting of the Institute-for-German-Language, WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH, Mannheim, GERMANY, pp. 1-8.