- TCM morbidity and clinical auditing research
- Neurophysiological parameters of acupuncture
- Point location, acupuncture theories and practical techniques
- Final year clinic
Reyna Zeballos, J, Hanham, J, Vlachopoulos, P & Meier, P 2019, 'Using factor analysis to validate a questionnaire to explore self-regulation in learner-generated digital media (LGDM) assignments in science education', Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 128-152.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This research is a validation study of a survey instrument to assess student self-regulation which aims to fill a methodological gap by capturing self-regulation processes while completing learner-generated digital media (LGDM) assignments. For this purpose, the study developed and validated a self-regulation learning questionnaire. Data were gathered from seven science subjects (Years 1 to 3, n = 341) which used LGDM assignments during Semester 1, 2017. Students were asked to complete a 40-item online questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered at three times during the semester (Weeks 2, 6, and 10). Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify factor structures, followed by confirmatory factor analysis to test the validity of the constructs defined by exploratory factor analysis. Analysis of the data revealed a ten-factor structure – six concerning self-regulation, two concerning student attitudes towards LGDM assignments, one concerning assignment ownership, and one concerning assignment motivation. The variables empirically verified in this study have important practical implications, as they could provide educators with the direction in which to target interventions to improve learners' experiences with LDGM. The study findings also contribute to the field by providing scholars with a validated research instrument that can be used in future studies.
Reyna Zeballos, J, Hanham, J, Vlachopoulos, P & Meier, P 2019, 'A Systematic Approach to Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) Assignments and their Effect on Self-Regulation in Tertiary Science Education', Research in Science Education.
This study explored the self-regulation strategies and learning experiences of undergraduate science students who were completing LDGM assignments that had been implemented using a theory-driven, systematic approach. The rationale for using LGDM in science education is to facilitate student learning of complex scientific concepts through the multimodal representation of content using digital media. The study was conducted in seven science subjects from first to third year in Autumn 2017, using a sample of 348 undergraduate science students attending a university located in Sydney, Australia. All the participants were enrolled in subjects that required them to communicate complex scientific concepts using digital media. Training on LGDM was conducted online (n=199) and in blended mode (n=149). The study used a mixed-methods approach with a validated self-regulation questionnaire, LMS logs, assessment scores, group contribution data, open-ended questions, and interviews. Online students were more likely than blended students to report using self-regulation strategies for goal setting, time management, task strategies, and help-seeking. Data triangulation revealed that participation in LDGM assignments was perceived by students to contribute to their science content knowledge, provide them with digital media skills, and nurture their capacity for working in groups. The findings of this study have implications for how LDGM is deployed in science education.
Reyna Zeballos, JL & Meier, P 2018, 'A Practical Model for Implementing Digital Media Assessments in Tertiary Science Education', American Journal of Educational Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 27-31.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) has been incorporated as a learning tool to assess students in Higher Education over the last decade. There are models developed for video making in the classroom that considers technical know-how, pedagogies or a combination of both. However, there is the absence of a student-centred, practical framework to inform academics and students on the implementation of digital presentations as an assessment tool in the curricula. This conceptual paper proposes a new framework to assist with the design, implementation and evaluation of LGDM as assessment tools. The framework considers the following elements: (1) pedagogy; (2) student training; (3) hosting of videos; (4) marking schemes; (5) group contribution; (6) feedback; (7) reflection, and; (8) evaluation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the basic elements of the framework and provide practical implementation strategies that academics from any discipline could apply to their classrooms.
Reyna Zeballos, JL, Hanham, J & Meier, P 2018, 'The Internet explosion, digital media principles and implications to communicate effectively in the digital space', E-Learning and Digital Media, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 36-52.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Being literate has traditionally meant being able to read and write using the media of the day. In the 21st century, being literate requires additional skills such as competence with digital media creation. Until recently, those who could afford and use equipment and applications to produce digital media content were typically developers and technicians. With the development of prosumer electronics, in conjunction with the use of mobile devices and tablets, a shift has occurred in the accessibility of these tools, becoming more affordable for the general population. Video sharing services, social software and Web 2.0 applications have made it possible to host a digital media ecosystem on the Internet, and this has led to the proliferation of User-Generated Content. These technological advances have changed how we communicate, socialise and learn. Effective communication using digital media is underpinned by a set of design principles which most students are not likely to be aware. This paper built on two previous papers on the Digital Media Literacy Framework and the Taxonomy of Digital Media types for teaching and learning. It argues the importance of digital media principles to develop effective communication in the digital space. Students now require knowledge of these principles, in conjunction with conceptual and functional skills, for effective communication in the digital space.
Reyna Zeballos, JL, Meier, P & Hanham, J 2018, 'A Framework for Digital Media Literacies for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education', E-Learning and Digital Media, vol. 15, no. 4.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Across a broad range of subjects in higher education institutions, students are required to complete assessment tasks that involve the production of digital artefacts. Examples include podcasts, digital stories, animations, video, and blended media. To produce effective digital artefacts, one must be
digitally literate. This requires a certain set of technical, audio-visual, behavioural, critical and social skills. In this article, the authors propose a framework that can be used to develop digital media literacies and train students in digital media creation. The framework considers three
interdependent domains: conceptual, functional, and audio-visual. A series of examples will be provided to illustrate the importance and interdependent nature of these domains. Implications of the framework on student training is discussed.
Reyna Zeballos, JL & Meier, P 2018, 'Using the Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) Framework in Tertiary Science Education: A Pilot Study', Education Sciences, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1-23.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) has become prevalent in higher education. Frameworks have been developed for video-making in the classroom that consider technical requirements, pedagogies, and the combination of both. However, missing is a practical model to guide academics and students on the implementation of LGDM assignments. This research aims to test a model to design, implement, and evaluate LGDM as an assessment tool. The model was built based on research gaps and it considers the following elements: (1) pedagogy, (2) student training, (3) hosting of videos, (4) marking schemes, (5) group contribution, (6) feedback, (7) reflection, and (8) evaluation. For this purpose, five science subjects (N = 270) were used to test the model as a guide to implementing LGDM assignments. Data was gathered using a validated 33-step questionnaire instrument. Additionally, group contributions were received using the SPARKPlus peer review application, and marks attained were gathered. Methodological triangulation of the datasets suggested that students have a positive attitude toward LGDM for science learning. Students enjoyed the group work and creativity, and they identified digital media support as a critical component of their learning experience. Preliminary data support using the LGDM framework to design digital media assignments for science education.
Reyna Zeballos, J & Meier, P 2018, 'Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) as an Assessment Tool in Tertiary Science Education: A Review of Literature', IAFOR Journal of Education, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 93-107.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) in tertiary science education focuses on research skills, inquiry, active learning, teamwork, and collaboration. LGDM across disciplines is under-theorised, under-researched, and only in its early development. This paper evaluates the research in the field of LGDM in tertiary science education. The literature review had four
stages – identification, screening, filtering, and selection of relevant scholarly research. Results showed that research in the field of LGDM assignments had been done without a systematic approach to designing, implementing, and evaluating the assessment task. Most studies neglected student digital media training and are characterised by a lack of compelling marking
rubrics or strategies to ensure efficient groupwork. Studies also lack rigorous methodologies for data capture to evaluate the intervention and they use small sample size cohorts and different digital media types that require different sets of production skills. With the empirical data available, validation of the benefits of LGDM assignments in science education is not
possible, and studies have limited scalability. These gaps in the literature create a need to develop theoretical models for the design, implementation, and evaluation of LGDM in the classroom. This paper discusses future research needs in this field and the implications for assessment design.
Zheng, S, Kim, C, Lal, S, Meier, P, Sibbritt, D & Zaslawski, C 2018, 'The Effects of Twelve Weeks of Tai Chi Practice on Anxiety in Stressed But Healthy People Compared to Exercise and Wait-List Groups-A Randomized Controlled Trial.', Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 83-92.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether 12 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) practice can reduce anxiety in healthy but stressed people. METHOD: Fifty participants were randomized into TC (n=17), exercise (n=17), and wait-list (WL) groups (n=16). Outcome measures used were State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale 14 (PSS14), blood pressure and heart rate variability, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Short Form 36. RESULTS: Significant improvements were observed from baseline for both TC and exercise groups for both state (p <0.01) and trait (p <0.01) anxiety, PSS14 (p <0.01), VAS (p <0.01), mental health domain (p <0.01), and vitality domain (p <0.01). Superior outcomes were also observed for TC when compared with WL for state and trait anxiety (p <0.01) and mental health domain (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: TC reduces stress levels in healthy individuals and provides a safer, cost effective, and less physically vigorous alternative to exercise.
Elsdon, DS, Spanswick, S, Zaslawski, C & Meier, PC 2017, 'Protocol: Testing the Relevance of Acupuncture Theory in the Treatment of Myofascial Pain in the Upper Trapezius Muscle.', Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 67-74.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A protocol for a prospective single-blind parallel four-arm randomized placebo-controlled trial with repeated measures was designed to test the effects of various acupuncture methods compared with sham. Eighty self-selected participants with myofascial pain in the upper trapezius muscle were randomized into four groups. Group 1 received acupuncture to a myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in the upper trapezius. Group 2 received acupuncture to the MTrP in addition to relevant distal points. Group 3 received acupuncture to the relevant distal points only. Group 4 received a sham treatment to both the MTrP and distal points using a deactivated acupuncture laser device. Treatment was applied four times within 2 weeks with outcomes measured throughout the trial and at 2 weeks and 4 weeks posttreatment. Outcome measurements were a 100-mm visual analog pain scale, SF-36, pressure pain threshold, Neck Disability Index, the Upper Extremity Functional Index, lateral flexion in the neck, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale, Working Alliance Inventory (short form), and the Credibility Expectance Questionnaire. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to assess the differences between groups.
Smith, CA, Zaslawski, CJ, Cochrane, S, Zhu, X, Zheng, Z, Loyeung, B, Meier, PC, Walsh, S, Xue, CC, Zhang, AL, Fahey, PP & Bensoussan, A 2017, 'Reliability of the NICMAN Scale: An Instrument to Assess the Quality of Acupuncture Administered in Clinical Trials', EVIDENCE-BASED COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Meier, P, Elsdon, D, Garvey, M, Li, WH, Loyeung, YK, Michaeil, C, Morgan, N, Walsh, S, Zheng, S & Zaslawski, C 2017, 'Moxibustion in Australia: a clinical audit of moxibustion use in a University outpatient Chinese medicine clinic', Australian Journal of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 17-21.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Reyna Zeballos, JL, Hanham, J & Meier, P 2017, 'A taxonomy of digital media types for Learner-Generated Digital Media assignments', E-Learning and Digital Media, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 309-322.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The notion of students as co-creators of content in higher education is gaining popularity, with an ever-increasing emphasis on the development of digital media assignments. In a separate paper, the authors introduced the Digital Media Literacies Framework, which is composed of three interrelated domains: (1) conceptual, (2) functional, and (3) audiovisual, each of which defines a set of prosumer principles used to create digital artefacts. This framework fills a gap in the literature and is the first step towards the provision of a systematic approach to designing digital media assignments. This paper expands on the Digital Media Literacies Framework through the
incorporation of Technological Proxies and proposes a taxonomy of digital media types to help educators and students to visualise the skills needed to complete Learner-Generated Digital Media assignments. A taxonomy of digital media types is presented considering the conceptual,
functional, and audiovisual domains of the Digital Media Literacies Framework. The taxonomy spans a range of Learner-Generated Digital Media assignments, from the creation of an audio podcast to the complexity of blended media or game development. Implications of the taxonomy
for teaching and learning in higher education are discussed.
Zheng, S, Kim, C, Meier, P, Sibbritt, D & Zaslawski, C 2017, 'Development of a Novel Questionnaire for the Traditional Chinese Medicine Pattern Diagnosis of Stress', JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 276-285.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017. Currently, there is no definitive diagnosis or list of signs and symptoms for "stress" in either modern biomedicine or Chinese medicine (CM). While modern theories on stress relate to the neurological interaction of a stressor or stimuli on the autonomic nervous system, it is generally regarded as subjective in nature and as such each individual will likely present varying somatic or cognitive signs and symptoms. A questionnaire was therefore developed, based on textual research, that incorporated both general as well as gender specific signs and symptom responses to determine the most common CM patterns associated with individuals who report as feeling stressed. For the 45 females who completed the questionnaire, the mean percentage of symptoms per CM pattern showed that the pattern with the highest average percentage was heart qi deficiency (61.88%) followed by liver blood deficiency (60.23%) and then heart blood deficiency (60.12%). For males (n = 16), heart qi deficiency was also the highest scoring CM pattern with a scoring percentage of 54.81%. In males, however, heart blood deficiency was second with 53.29% followed by liver blood deficiency with 51.10%. Of the general non gender-specific symptoms collected (n = 65 symptoms), the symptom most commonly reported by both men and women was "anxious or racing thoughts", followed by "constant worrying" and "inability to concentrate". The CM diagnostic pattern results may prove useful for clinicians as the change in diagnostic understanding will also modify the treatment principle and subsequent treatment with acupuncture or herbal medicine. Future CM research studies should consider including the questionnaire either as a diagnostic aid or as an outcome measure for acupuncture or herbal medicine studies related to stress.
Reyna Zeballos, JL, Meier, P, Geronimo, F & Rodgers, K 2016, 'Implementing Digital Media Presentations as Assessment Tools for Pharmacology Students', American Journal of Educational Research, vol. 4, no. 14, pp. 983-991.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
At the Faculty of Science we introduced the use of digital presentations as assessment tools for
third-year pharmacology students. A cohort of 167 students self-allocated into groups of four and were assigned a
topic related to the pharmacology lecture material. A one-hour lecture was delivered to discuss digital media
principles (visual design, video composition, multimedia learning principles, etc.) and how to apply these to create
digital media projects. During practical classes, students developed a storyboard and received feedback and technical
advice from tutors. Towards the end of the semester, students uploaded their preliminary presentations to a YouTube
channel and received feedback from lecturers, tutors, and peers before submitting the final version. A marking rubric
was developed and shared with students at the beginning of the semester. The study used a mixed-methods approach
to evaluating the intervention. A comprehensive 35-step questionnaire was used, covering demographics, students'
attitudes towards technology, digital media support, understanding of the assignment, and knowledge construction
and skills gained. It also contained five open-ended questions. A high response rate was achieved for the voluntary
survey (97/167). Additionally, students reviewed contributions of group members using SPARKPlus, and the marks
attained were used to triangulate the questionnaire responses. In summary, the data shows that students found the
assignment was engaging, fostered learning and creativity, and that they gained additional skills relevant to their
Reyna Zeballos, JL & Meier, P 2016, 'Learning to Surf: Explaining the Flipped Classroom (FC) to Science Students Using an Analogy', American Journal of Educational Research, vol. 4, no. 17, pp. 1213-1216.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Most of the literature in educational technology targets academics, educational designers, and policy makers. To date, there are no scholarly papers which help students to understand and 'buy into' educational technology. We expect students to engage with contemporary ways of teaching and learning, without fostering any attitudinal change. According to the current literature, Flipped Classrooms (FC) have become increasingly popular in higher education since 2012. Research done in this field has increased considerably in the last four years, judging by the number of scholarly published papers across different disciplines. A review of the literature indicated the implementation of FC suffers from several deficits, such as a rigorous and consistent approach, effective theoretical frameworks, and evaluation structures. Research is also pointing to the need to support students in transitioning from traditional classroom style to FC. To facilitate this transition, a communication strategy is required to help students adopt this model of learning. It is in the best interest of educators to ensure that students understand the rationale behind the FC. This paper outlines how the FC can be explained to science students using a 'learning to surf' analogy.
Zheng, S, Lal, S, Meier, P, Sibbritt, D & Zaslawski, C 2014, 'Protocol: the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi practice on anxiety in healthy but stressed people compared to exercise and wait-list comparison groups: a randomized controlled trial.', Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 159-165.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Stress is a major problem in today's fast-paced society and can lead to serious psychosomatic complications. The ancient Chinese mind-body exercise of Tai Chi may provide an alternative and self-sustaining option to pharmaceutical medication for stressed individuals to improve their coping mechanisms. The protocol of this study is designed to evaluate whether Tai Chi practice is equivalent to standard exercise and whether the Tai Chi group is superior to a wait-list control group in improving stress coping levels. This study is a 6-week, three-arm, parallel, randomized, clinical trial designed to evaluate Tai Chi practice against standard exercise and a Tai Chi group against a nonactive control group over a period of 6 weeks with a 6-week follow-up. A total of 72 healthy adult participants (aged 18-60 years) who are either Tai Chi naïve or have not practiced Tai Chi in the past 12 months will be randomized into a Tai Chi group (n = 24), an exercise group (n = 24) or a wait-list group (n = 24). The primary outcome measure will be the State Trait Anxiety Inventory with secondary outcome measures being the Perceived Stress Scale 14, heart rate variability, blood pressure, Short Form 36 and a visual analog scale. The protocol is reported using the appropriate Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) items.
Smith, CA, Zaslawski, CJ, Zheng, Z, Cobbin, DM, Cochrane, S, Lenon, GB, Loyeung, Y, Meier, PC, Walsh, S, Xue, C, Zhang, T, Zhu, X & Benosoussan, A 2011, 'Development of an instrument to assess the quality of acupuncture: Results from a Delphi process', Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 441-452.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background: Quality acupuncture influences the outcomes of clinical research, and issues associated with effective administration of acupuncture in randomized controlled trials need to be addressed when appraising studies. Objective: The study objective was to achieve consensus on domains and items for inclusion in a rating scale to assess quality acupuncture administered in clinical research. Study design and subjects: An active group of Australian acupuncture researchers initially identified a pool of items assessing quality. The Delphi consensus process was then used to select and reduce the number of items, and an additional expert panel of 42 researchers were invited to participate. Participants initially ranked items along a five-point scale for the first Delphi round, and indicated an agree or disagree response during the second round. For an item to be retained into the second round, an item had to attain greater than 80% agreement that the item described a dimension of quality acupuncture and related study design. Results: Thirty-two (32) experts agreed to participate in the study. After two rounds of the Delphi process, consensus was reached on 14 domains and 26 items relating to quality acupuncture. Domains, items, and minimum standards related to study design; rationale of the intervention; criteria relating to needling stimulation either manual or electrostimulation; duration and frequency of treatment; and practitioner training. Conclusions: Items for inclusion in an instrument to assess quality acupuncture in clinical research were identified. Further development of the instrument including relative weighting of items and reliability testing is under way.
Meier, PC & Rogers, C 2007, 'The need for traditional Chinese medicine morbidity research', Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 284-288.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long justified its practice on empirical phenomenology. Questions remain, however, as to the legitimacy of this approach and its relevance to TCM practice and educational developments in the 21st century. General medical practice (GMP) has used practice-based data collected over the past 25 years to develop relevant medical curriculum and enhance patient care. As TCM becomes ever more incorporated into Western educational and health systems, it too must concern itself with providing a solid evidence base to be used in enhancing patient care and educational curriculum. Computer generated data related to patient problems or problem complexes abstracted from TCM clinical records can provide the basis for practitioner development and the enhancement of training programs that will Lead to improvements in patient care. Such locally valid and representative data can also be used to inform research programs, public policy and evidence-based commissioning. The key to developing such systems is standardising TCM terminology and data collection protocols. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meier, PC & Rogers, C 2006, 'Reporting Traditional Chinese Medicine morbidity - A University of Technology, Sydney, project with an emphasis on developing standards for testing and reporting data', Journal Of Alternative And Complementary Medicine, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 529-534.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Objectives: Morbidity in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) research is an emerging field. Few studies have been published, and there is a lack of international standards for data collection and reporting. Based on the experience of developing a computer
Meier, PC, Ballinger, S, Hoi, B & Vickland, V 2006, 'Neurophysiological Effects of Harmonisation : The effect of Harmanization on Hearth Rate Variability, Respiratory Rate and Electroencephalograph', Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 73-89.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Harmonization is a prctice whereby the harmoniser who is centered in silent prayer, opens and nourishes the subjects' chakrasm using touch. This technique has been widely used since 1983, with substantial anecdotal evidence wbout its benefits, but no published peer-reviewed data. This preliminary study aimed to discover if standard physiological measuring techniques can detect any significant changes in the central and autonomic nervous system and the cardiopulmonary system during harmonisation. A simple, comparative design was used, with one experimental group of 20 self-selecting, healthy women, naive to harmonisation. The results were compared with reference data, matched for age and gender, from non-intervention control studies conducted by the same experimeners in the same neurophysiological laboratory. An 80-minute recording session determined baseline, intervention and stabilisation measurements on electroencephalographic, electrocardiographic and respiratory data. A significant lowering of brain activity was found during theopening phase of harmonisation, implying a state of increased mental focus coupled with a sense of calmness and relaxation, while significant changes to heartbeat/respiration ratios were observed during the nourishing phase. This suggests that different physiological processes affecting the central and autonomic nervous system and the cardiopulmonary system may occur during different phases of harmonisation.
Meier, PC 2001, 'Acupuncture - Testing the Sham', Australasian Science, vol. 22, no. 1.
Meier, PC, Rogers, C & Cobbin, DM 1998, 'Critical Analysis of Treatment Protocols and Outcomes at the UTS Acupuncture Clinic - a preliminary report', Meeting Point, vol. 7.
Meier, PC 1994, 'A Chinese Application for Australian Medicinal Plants', Meeting Point, vol. 4.
Meier, PC 1991, 'Dodonaea viscosa', Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism, vol. 3, no. 4.
Reyna Zeballos, J & Meier, P 2019, 'Self-Regulation Processes in Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) Assignments.', Exploring New Frontiers in Education. The 13th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, iated.org, Valencia (Spain).View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Digital Media as an assessment tool is used in Higher Education as a vehicle to learn the subject content and to develop communication skills. Although it became a common practice in the last decade, the research field is considered to be under-theorised, under-researched and barely sufficient. Several gaps in the literature have been identified such as a practical model to implement digital media in the classroom, lack of educator's know-how in digital media production, and effective marking rubrics. Additionally, methodological approaches to measure LGDM effectiveness in the classroom as a learning tool are in embryonic stages. The literature reported studies with small sample size, qualitative approaches and lack of student training and support. An extra layer of complexity is the different digital media types such as audio podcast, digital story, animation, and video. These digital artefacts require a different set of production skills. Therefore, the comparison between studies can be problematic. However, many advantages of using LGDM has been highlighted by researchers with questionable empiric evidence. Due to the nature of digital media production workflow, characterised by being time-consuming, iterative and resource-intensive, we posit that students engaging in LGDM assignments require self-regulation skills to succeed on the task. For instance, developing a storyboard that requires to be evidence-based, visualisation of the content using multimodality, learning the different applications to produce the assets for the project, and engaging in the final production phase will require self-regulation skills. This paper discusses how understanding self-regulation processes in LGDM assignments can lead to a personalisation of student learning experience when LGDM assignments are used in the classroom.
Reyna Zeballos, J & Meier, P 2019, 'A Practical Guide to Implement Digital Media Assignment in Undergraduate Science education', https://www.asera.org.au/conference, The 50th Annual Conference for the Australasian Science Education Research Association, ASERA, Queenstown, pp. 34-38.
Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) assignments empower students to become co-creator of knowledge instead of passive consumers of content. The affordability of digital technologies and devices such as a smartphone and tablets created the opportunity to use digital media in the classroom. Research in LGDM assignments focused on the content and neglected the importance of effective communication in the digital space. Part of the issue is because of educators' lack of understanding of digital media production workflow. This paper aimed to present an evidence-based guide to help science educators to design, implement and evaluate LGDM assignments in the classroom. Five theoretical models were developed, refined and trialled in Autumn 2017 using a mixed-methods approach in undergraduate science students (n=1,687). These models helped to identify student training in digital media, the development of useful marking rubrics, and the design, implementation and evaluation of the LGDM assignments. Students reported enjoying learning with LGDM assignments and believe that the digital media assignment helped them to work as a part of the team, including the development of conflict resolution and communication skills. This paper discusses the results of the successful implementation of LGDM at a Faculty level.
Reyna Zeballos, JL, Hanham, J & Meier, P 2018, 'Theoretical Considerations to Design Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) Assignments in Higher Education.', INTED2018 Proceedings, International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED, Valencia (Spain), pp. 1285-1292.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Digital media as a pedagogical vehicle of learning is becoming common in tertiary educational settings. Students are becoming co-creator rather than passive consumers of content. Most of the research in the field Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) focus on learning course content and neglect the importance of effective communication in the digital space. Students outside media and design courses are not trained on how to create digital media. This paper discusses four different frameworks to use digital media with a dual purpose: learning the subject content and upskill students in the development of digital media literacies.
The initial model is the Digital Media Literacy Framework (DMLF) that considers three domains: (i) conceptual, (ii) functional, and (iii) audiovisual. The conceptual domain is related to the identification of suitable content and storyboard production. In contrast, the functional domain includes the technical skills (software and applications) students require for digital media content creation. The audiovisual domain represents the digital media principles that ensure the adequate production of digital media.
The second model is the Taxonomy of Digital Media Types for Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) assignments. The taxonomy map required skills in each of the domains previously discussed and link them with the different types of digital media artefacts.
The third model addresses the core digital media principles at a prosumer level to secure the efficient production of digital media. Principles include layout design, colour theory, typography, use of images and basic video principles.
Finally, the last model, the LGDM framework considers eight steps that are crucial for the implementation of digital media assignment. These steps include: (i) pedagogy, (ii) student training, (iii) hosting of content, (iv) marking rubric, (v) group contribution, (vi) student feedback, (vii) reflection, and (viii) evaluation.
From the educa...
Reyna Zeballos, JL, Hanham, J & Meier, P 2018, 'A Methodological Approach to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) Assignments in Science Education.', World Conference on Educational Media and Technology, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC, Amsterdam, pp. 287-298.
Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) has been an essential part of teaching, learning and assessment practices in Higher Education for more than a decade. Notwithstanding, the field is still considered under-theorised, under-researched and in its infancy. Research studies of LGDM have been mainly qualitative, and implementations of LGDM have rarely been underpinned with systematic approaches that take into account factors such as the training needs of students and appropriate rubrics. Empirical findings from research on LDGM have tended to have limited generalisability, due to the majority of studies drawing on relatively small sample sizes. This paper aims to propose a framework, using a longitudinal, mixed-methods approach to examine changes in students' self-regulation processes overtime and their relationships with individual and group performance on LDGM assignments in a range of science-based subjects. We also intend to capture group contribution data, Learner Management System (LMS) logs and marks attained with the LGDM task. The qualitative components will include open-ended questions, individual structured interviews and focus groups. Methodological triangulation will be used to evaluate the student learning experience with LGDM assignments. The framework appears to be one of the first systematic approaches in the literature to evaluate LGDM as an assessment tool in higher education. Work in progress and research needs are presented.
Reyna Zeballos, JL, Horgan, FG, Ramp, D & Meier, P 2017, 'Using Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) as an Assessment Tool in Geological Sciences.', Proceedings of the International Technology, Education and Development Conference INTED2017, Valencia, Spain, The 11th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, INTED2017, INTED 2017, Valencia (Spain), pp. 40-40.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This study explores learner-generated digital media (LGDM) as an assessment tool in Geological Sciences. The aim was to engage students with the geology subject further and to develop their digital media literacies. For this purpose, a cohort of 97 students from the undergraduate Geological Processes subject (Autumn 2016) at the University of Technology Sydney, were randomly allocated to groups of 2-5 students. The students were asked to produce a five-minute digital media presentation on a chosen study topic. A lecture and workshop on digital media principles were delivered to prepare the students for the task early in the semester. Support and feedback were provided across the entire semester by the lecturer and digital media tutor through computer practicals and preparatory assignments. Group contribution was monitored using the SPARKPlus application. An online questionnaire was used at the end of the semester to gauge students' attitude towards LGDM. The survey assessed demographics, digital media support, attitudes toward the assignment, and the contribution of LGDM to skills development. Methodological triangulation was used with data sets from the questionnaire, group work and marks obtained. Our preliminary results indicate that students had a positive attitude towards LGDM as an assessment tool and that the assessment provided a novel opportunity for students to apply attributes such as 'creativity' to their learning experience of geology. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed.
Davila, YC, Huber, E, Reyna Zeballos, J & Meier, P 2017, 'Improving the undergraduate Science experience through anevidence-based framework for design, implementation andevaluation of flipped learning', Me, Us, IT! Proceedings ASCILITE2017: 34th International Conference on Innovation, Practice and Research in the Use of Educational Technologies in Tertiary Education, Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, ASCILITE, Toowoomba, Queensland, pp. 57-62.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Flipped Learning (FL) is a student-centred pedagogical approach where new content is introduced prior to class which permits more time during class for active learning. Despite the growing body of evidence of the effectiveness of FL, many educators are reluctant to adopt this approach to teaching or are unsure of how to implement FL in their classes. Many students are uncertain of how to adapt their approaches to learning to a FL curriculum. In response to these challenges and calls for a robust framework to guide the design and implementation of FL, we developed the Flipped Teacher and Flipped Learner (FTFL) Framework based on the pedagogical literature. This paper reports on the use of our FTFL framework in the redesign of a large first year science subject from a traditional delivery to a FL delivery. We evaluated the efficacy of the redesign using a mixed methods approach with data on students' interactions with FL activities, and student and educator experiences. Findings from two iterations of the redesign indicate successful implementation of FL through high student engagement with online and class materials, and positive feedback from students and academics. Using the FTFL framework to guide the design and integration of FL, with an emphasis on clear communication, is key to our successful FL intervention and support of student learning.
Reyna Zeballos, JL, Hanham, J, Meier, P, Vlachopoulos, P & Geronimo, F 2017, 'Exploring Self-Regulation in Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) Assignments in First Year Science Students.', Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Canberra, ACT.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Reyna Zeballos, JL, Davila, YC & Meier, PC 2016, 'Enhancing the Flipped Classroom Experience with the Aid of Inclusive Design', Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Vancouver, pp. 1789-1801.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Flipped classrooms are increasingly used in tertiary institutions to engage students in active learning tasks and foster independent learning skills. The use of technology such as digital video, screencasts and interactive presentations is impacting the design of flipped classrooms. This creates an opportunity to apply the principles of Inclusive Design in the planning, development and deployment of resources used to flip the classroom. The aim of this paper is to discuss the integration of Inclusive Design into Flipped Classroom interventions to cater for a wider range of learners. For this purpose, we reviewed the pedagogical foundations of Flipped Classrooms, the advantages and disadvantages of its implementation, and discuss Inclusive Design enablers.
Davila, YC, Reyna Zeballos, J, Huber, E & Meier, P 2016, 'Enhancing engagement in flipped learning across undergraduate Science using the Flipped Teacher and Flipped Learner Framework', Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Science and Mathematics Education, Australian Conference on Science and Mathematics Education, The University of Queensland, pp. 40-41.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Berle, C, Zaslawski, C, Cobbin, D, Meier, P, Walsh, S & Cheah, SL 2013, 'The effect of acupuncture treatment compared to sham laser for lateral elbow pain: a randomised controlled pilot study', Australian Journal of Acupunture and Chinese Medicine, WFAS World Federation of Acupuncture Societies, Australian Acupuncture and chinese Medicine Association, Sydney, pp. 25-32.
Background: Lateral elbow pain is a common painful musculoskeletal condition affecting approximately 1–3% of the population. Methods: A randomised participant-blinded controlled pilot study was undertaken to determine whether acupuncture could relieve pain and improve function for this condition. Twenty participants were randomly allocated to either a standardised acupuncture protocol (n= 11) or sham laser (n= 9) over ten sessions. Outcome measures were PPT test, McGill/Melzac pain, DASH and VAS pain questionnaires. Participants were evaluated at baseline, on completion of treatment (week five) and one month later. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups at baseline for any outcome parameter. There were no significant changes found at completion or one month follow-up for the PPT and VAS measures. There were significant improvements for the acupuncture group for the McGill questionnaire at week five for the affective (p= 0.01) and miscellaneous (p= 0.02) sections; week nine total score (p< 0.03), affective (p= 0.01) and miscellaneous (p= 0.01) sections; the DASH at week five for work (p= 0.02) and sport (p= 0.01) modules and week nine general (p < 0.04), work (p= 0.01) and sport (p= 0.006) modules. There were no significant changes for any outcome measure for the control group. There was no significant difference found between the two groups for blinding efficacy (expectancy/credibility scale) and experience of deqiat baseline or on completion. Conclusion: Results indicate that acupuncture may be helpful in alleviating pain and improving arm functionality, but small participant numbers preclude any definitive conclusions, a larger sufficiently powered study is required.
Meier, PC, Rogers, C & Craig, AR 2008, 'Acupuncture and major depressive disorder: is pattern differentiation necessary', AACMA Annual Conference, Sydney.
Meier, PC 2007, 'Auditing Traditional Chinese Medicine', International Oriental Medicine Symposium of Dong-Eui University, Korea, Busan.
Berry, K, Ferguson, J, Cobbin, DM, Zaslawski, CJ, Walsh, SP & Meier, PC 2006, 'Integration fo CAM in Public Helath Care Services - A reflection on soem of the experiences from the UTS Alcohol and Other Drugs Clinical Placement Program as Rozelle Hospital', AACMA Annual Conference, Adelaide.
Meier, PC & Rogers, C 2006, 'Setting Standards for Clinical Audits', World Federationof Acupuncture Societies, World Conference on Acupuncture, Indonesia.
Meier, PC, Rogers, C & Cobbin, DM 2004, 'Reporting TCM Morbidity', WFAS World Conference on Acupuncture, Gold Coast.
Meier, PC 2004, 'Integrating Complementary Medicine', UTS Royal North Shore Hosptial Science Conference.
Berry, K, Ferguson, J, Cobbin, DM, Zaslawski, CJ, Walsh, SP & Meier, PC 2004, 'Acupuncture: Panacea or Placebo? An examination of the effectiveness of acupuncture as an adjunct to existing alcohol and other drug (AOD) programs', 15th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm.
Berry, K, Ferguson, J, Cobbin, DM, Zaslawski, CJ, Walsh, SP & Meier, PC 2004, 'An Examination of the Effectiveness of Acupuncture as an adjunct to existing alcohol and other drug treatment programs', WFAS World Conference on Acupuncture.
Berry, K, Ferguson, J, Cobbin, DM, Zaslawski, CJ, Walsh, SP & Meier, PC 2004, 'An Examination of the effectiveness of acupuncture as an adjunct to existing alcohol and other drug treatment programs', UTS Royal Norht Shore Hospital 21st Annual Scientific Research Conference.
Meier, PC, Rogers, C & Cobbin, DM 2000, 'Developing an Evidence Base for Acupuncture', Tamworth rural Health Conference, Tamworth.
Meier, PC 1999, 'Acupuncture and Continence', 8th national Conference on Incontinence.
Meier, PC, Rogers, C & Cobbin, DM 1998, 'Critical Analysis of Treatment Protocols and Outcomes at the UTS Acupuncture Clinic', AUstralasian Acupuncture and Chinese Herbal Medicine Conference.
Meier, PC, Rogers, C & Cobbin, DM 1998, 'The Why, Where and HOw of an Acupuncture Clinic - a study in progress'.
Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) has been incorporated as a tool to assess students in K-12 and higher education in the last decade. There are frameworks developed for video making in the classroom that considers technical know-how and a model that incorporate pedagogies. However, there is the absence of a practical framework to inform academics and students on the implementation of digital presentations as an assessment tool in the curricula. The aim of this poster is to propose a model for how to design, implement and evaluate LGDM as assessment tools in tertiary education. This evidence-based framework considers the following elements: (1) pedagogy; (2) student training; (3) hosting of videos; (4) marking schemes; (5) group contribution; (6) feedback; (7) reflection, and; (8) evaluation. The model serves as a conduit between theory and good practice.
With the implementation of Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM) as an assessment tool (Reyna et al., 2017), students are increasingly becoming co-creators of content in Higher Education. To implement digital media assessments, educators require an understanding of the different media types and the skills involved in the effective production. This understanding will enable them to effectively allocate student workload and marks for the task. It will also inform the design of marking rubrics that assess digital media as part of communication skills. The digital media type and its complexity will define if the task should be individual or group work. If group work is required, a strategy such as a peer review needs to be implemented to ensure every member of the group contributes. Additionally, if educators understand digital media types and the skills required to produce LGDM, they can scaffold student digital media literacy across curricula.
This research proposes a Learning Workflow for Digital Media Assignments (LWDMA) based on two theoretical underpinnings: the Digital Media Literacies Framework (DMLF)(Reyna et al., 2017); and the concept of digital technologies as Technological Proxies (TPs) in the learning process (Hanham et al., 2014). The DMLF proposed three domains (conceptual, functional, and audio-visual) which need to be mastered to produce effective LGDM. In contrast, TP theory identifies digital technologies as agents performing important tasks on behalf of the user. Currently, this project is collecting data that will inform the validity of the LWDMA.