Peter Gunn is the Associate Professor of Forensic Biology at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS), where he is also a Co-director of the Centre for Forensic Science.
Associate Professor Gunn gained his PhD in Biochemistry from the University of Adelaide in 1982, specialising in the manipulation and analysis of bacterial DNA. After several years in academia and business, he was appointed the Technical Director of Genetic Technologies Corporation Pty Ltd, the first company in Australia to provide human DNA testing for criminal and civil matters.
In 1992, Associate Professor Gunn was Managing Director of Silbase Scientific Services Pty Ltd., which specialised in paternity and criminal DNA testing. He has also managed the Department of Molecular Biology at Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology, where he was responsible for establishing laboratory testing for several inherited and infectious diseases using DNA technology.
Prior to joining UTS in 2012, Associate Professor Gunn was the Senior Operations Manager of the Forensic Biology Section of the Forensic Science Services Branch at the NSW Police Force. The Forensic Biology Section was formed to provide the Forensic Service Group with specialist biological examinations and advice that are not available elsewhere in NSW. During Associate Professor Gunn’s tenure, the section conducted examinations on approximately 5,000 items from crimes ranging from break and enter, through to multiple homicides.
Associate Professor Gunn’s area of expertise includes DNA, DNA profiling, forensic biology, criminal, disaster victim identification (DVI), genetics, paternity, kinship and parental DNA.
Can supervise: YES
Massively parallel sequencing
Forensic applications of molecular biology
Identification of huamn and non-human remains & body fluids
Investigation of Human Remains
Cell Biology & Genetics
Wai, KT, Gunn, P & Barash, M 2019, 'Development of the MitoQ assay as a real-time quantification of mitochondrial DNA in degraded samples.', International Journal of Legal Medicine, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 411-417.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mitochondrial DNA is a reliable genetic material for estimating maternally related haplogroups and ancestries. Exploring maternal DNA inheritance is particularly useful when nuclear DNA is degraded or limited, as the copy number of mitochondrial DNA is far greater than the copy number of nuclear DNA. Normal mitochondrial DNA copy number has been estimated to 100 copies per buccal epithelial cell, 4000 copies in skeletal cells and 7000 copies in myocardial cells. This estimation is usually performed via extrapolation from the nuclear DNA quantitation. It is essential to reduce this variability and accurately quantify the exact number of copies of mitochondrial DNA, especially in compromised samples of a forensic or ancient nature. While useful, the testing of mitochondrial DNA is often long and costly and comes with limited success. The accurate quantification of mitochondrial DNA using specific quantitative PCR assays can be used to make better decisions on the downstream testing and success of amplification. As a result, this study develops a real-time assay for the quantification of mitochondrial DNA copy number and assesses its performance on a set of degraded DNA samples. The developed MitoQ assay has been shown to be highly specific to the human mitochondrial genome with no amplification of nuclear pseudogenes being observed and outperformed a previously published concordant assay. Additionally, a high sensitivity was measured to 280 copies of mitochondrial DNA. Minimal variation was observed between each replication cycle, indicating the assay to be robust and repeatable. Overall, this study presents a real-time assay that is sensitive and robust to quantifying mitochondrial DNA copy number in degraded samples. Furthermore, there is potential to incorporate the assay as an additional target in current qPCR assays which use a six-dye chemistry and provide a complete overview of a sample's quality and quantity.
Prasad, E, Van der Walt, L, Cole, A, van Oorschot, RAH, Barash, M, Gunn, P & Raymond, J 2019, 'The effects of soaking for DNA recovery on the striation patterns of fired cartridge cases', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2019, © 2019 Australian Academy of Forensic Sciences. The recovery of trace DNA from fired cartridge cases has recently gained increased interest throughout the literature, with a variety of methods currently being explored. Soaking fired cartridge cases in a lysis buffer holds potential in producing meaningful DNA profiles; however, chemical interactions between the lysis buffer and brass cartridge cases may limit the efficacy of this method. This preliminary study examines the effects of soaking on the microscopic striation detail of brass and nickel 9 mm Parabellum (9 mmP) calibre and.22 Long Rifle (.22LR) calibre fired cartridge cases. Headstamp and coarse striation patterns on 9 mmP fired cartridge cases and finer striation patterns along the outer wall of.22LR fired cartridge cases were microscopically examined prior to and following soaking. Soaking was performed by submerging the fired cartridge cases in 380 µl of ATL buffer (Qiagen, Germany) for 20 minutes. Microscopic analysis of brass and nickel 9 mmP and.22LR fired cartridge cases showed that coarse and fine striation detail remain unaffected following soaking. These results indicate that comparative ballistics examinations may be performed following DNA recovery using the soaking method.
Summerell, AE, Frankham, GJ, Gunn, P & Johnson, RN 2019, 'DNA based method for determining source country of the short beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) in the illegal wildlife trade', Forensic Science International, vol. 295, pp. 46-53.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 The Authors The illegal trade in wild animals being sold as 'captive bred' is an emerging issue in the pet and zoo industry and has both animal welfare and conservation implications. DNA based methods can be a quick, inexpensive, and definitive way to determine the source of these animals, thereby assisting efforts to combat this trade. The short beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is currently one of the species suspected to be targeted in this trade. As this species is distributed throughout Australia and in New Guinea (currently comprising of five recognised sub-species), this project aimed to develop a DNA based method to definitively determine the source country of an echidna and explore the use of non-invasive sampling techniques. Here we use non-invasively sampled echidna quills and demonstrate the extraction of mitochondrial DNA and amplification of a region of the mitochondrial genome. Phylogenetically informative markers for analysis of a 322 bp segment of the D-loop region were developed, and subsequently validated, using animals with known source locations allowing us to reliably distinguish between echidnas from New Guinea, and Australia. This research presents the first validated forensic protocols for short beaked echidnas and will be an integral tool in understanding the movement of animals in this emerging trade.
Walton, A, Moret, S, Barash, M & Gunn, P 2019, 'The frequency of fingerprint patterns separated by ethnicity and sex in a general population from Sydney, Australia', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Phan, K, Barash, M, Spindler, X, Gunn, P & Roux, C 2019, 'Retrieving forensic information about the donor through bacterial profiling', International Journal of Legal Medicine.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. When fingermarks are left on a surface, bacteria originating from the donor's skin are also deposited. The skin microbiome is believed to be extremely diverse between individuals, allowing for potential matching between the bacterial communities and touched objects, known as 'bacterial profiling'. This study stepped further and investigated how the bacterial profile could be used as an indicator of donor characteristics of potential forensic intelligence interest. Forty-five participants were asked to touch DNA-free playing cards with their dominant and non-dominant hands. Cards were swabbed and bacterial communities determined through 16S rRNA sequencing. Diversity and abundance of bacteria were compared to donor characteristics of gender, age, ethnicity, handedness, home location, sample location, occupation, diet type, use of moisturisers, use of hand sanitisers and use of public transport. Correlations between the bacterial profile with gender, ethnicity, diet type and hand sanitiser use were found. Specifically, the absence of Lactococcus indicated a primarily Chinese diet, while the absence of Alloiococcus indicated female gender, Asian ethnicity and hand sanitiser use. Testing of the prediction models demonstrated highest accuracy for gender estimation, while the prediction of other characteristics showed lower success. This study showed a correlation between the presence of certain bacterial species on donor's hands and personal characteristics of potential forensic relevance, thus demonstrating a novel application of microbiome genotyping in forensic science.
Ruan, T, Barash, M, Gunn, P & Bruce, D 2018, 'Investigation of DNA transfer onto clothing during regular daily activities.', International Journal of Legal Medicine, vol. 132, no. 4, pp. 1035-1042.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Low levels of DNA from an unidentified human source, often referred to as trace DNA, are ubiquitous, can be transferred onto objects by either direct or indirect methods and have an unknown longevity in situ. Clothing items from crime scenes are often submitted for trace DNA analysis, usually in attempt to identify a person of interest. This study examined the transfer of DNA onto three 10 × 10 cm areas located on the front, back and shoulder of an individual's external clothing (n = 300) during a regular day's activity. After wearing for a day, the DNA quantity on all three areas increased approximately 8-fold, which usually corresponded with an increase in the endogenous DNA from the wearer on the front area of the shirt. However, the back area of the shirt was more likely to demonstrate mixtures of endogenous and extraneous DNA. An additional study was also carried out to examine whether domestic laundering is a possible mechanism for the transfer of foreign DNA onto freshly laundered items and revealed that 74% of UV-treated cotton swatch samples produced DNA profiles after laundry with household garments. In summary, this study highlights the ease of DNA transfer onto an individual's external clothing during a regular day, and that extraneous DNA may be already on the clothing item prior to it being worn. The study provides empirical data to assist in the interpretation of trace DNA profiles and support a Bayesian approach to estimate statistical likelihoods for the transfer of foreign DNA. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
Wai, KT, Barash, M & Gunn, P 2018, 'Performance of the Early Access AmpliSeq™ Mitochondrial Panel with degraded DNA samples using the Ion Torrent™ platform.', Electrophoresis, vol. 39, no. 21, pp. 2776-2784.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The Early Access AmpliSeq™ Mitochondrial Panel amplifies whole mitochondrial genomes for phylogenetic and kinship identifications, using Ion Torrent™ technology. There is currently limited information on its performance with degraded DNA, a common occurrence in forensic samples. This study evaluated the performance of the Panel with DNA samples degraded in vitro, to mimic conditions commonly found in forensic investigations. Purified DNA from five individuals was heat-treated at five time points each (125°C for 0, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min; total n = 25). The quality of DNA was assessed via a real-time DNA assay of genomic DNA and prepared for massively parallel sequencing on the Ion Torrent™ platform. Mitochondrial sequences were obtained for all samples and had an amplicon coverage averaging between 66X to 2803X. Most amplicons (157/162) displayed high coverages (452 ± 333X), while reads with less than 100X coverage were recorded in five amplicons only (90 ± 5X). Amplicon coverage was decreased with prolonged heating. At 72% strand balance, reads were well balanced between forward and reverse strands. Using a coverage threshold of ten reads per SNP, complete sequences were recovered in all samples and resolved kinship and, haplogroup relations. Additionally, the HV1 and HV2 regions of the reference and 240-min heat-treated samples (n = 10) were Sanger-sequenced for concordance. Overall, this study demonstrates the efficacy of a novel forensic Panel that recovers high quality mitochondrial sequences from degraded DNA samples.
Khuu, A, Chadwick, S, Moret, S, Spindler, X, Gunn, P & Roux, C 2018, 'Impact of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate treatment on subsequent DNA analysis.', Forensic science international, vol. 286, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Fingermarks can be exploited for both their ridge detail and touch DNA. One-step luminescent cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming techniques used for fingermark enhancement, such as PolyCyano UV (Foster+Freeman Ltd) and Lumicyano™ (Crime Science Technology), claim to be compatible with DNA analysis as they reduce the need for post-staining to increase contrast of the developed fingermark. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that these one-step luminescent cyanoacrylates have on DNA analysis and how they compare to conventional CA techniques. Four donors each deposited five sets of natural fingermarks, to which a known amount of washed saliva cells was dispensed onto half of each set of fingermarks. Each set was treated with either a conventional CA technique or a one-step luminescent CA technique prior to collection and processing of DNA, with one set left as a non-fumed control. It was found that DNA was still recoverable and detectable following each of the treatments. Lumicyano™ had a similar impact on DNA profiles as conventional CA fuming and with post-stain, however, the degradation effect of PolyCyano UV on DNA was greater than the conventional treatments. For quantities of DNA such as that from touch DNA, the use of PolyCyano UV to enhance fingermarks may impact subsequent DNA analysis by causing allele drop out at larger fragment sizes.
Walton, AD, Moret, S, Gunn, P & Barash, M 2018, 'Comment on "Linkage analysis of a model quantitative trait in humans: Finger ridge count shows significant multivariate linkage to 5q14.1" by Medland et al., "Common Genetic Variants Influence Whorls in Fingerprint Patterns" by Ho et al. and "Hot on the Trail of Genes that Shape Our Fingerprints" by Walsh et al .', Forensic science international. Genetics, vol. 36, pp. e14-e16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Wilson-Wilde, L, Yakovchyts, D, Neville, S, Maynard, PJ & Gunn, P 2017, 'Investigation into Ethylene Oxide Treatment and Residuals on DNA and Downstream DNA Analysis', Science and Justice, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 13-20.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Recent years have seen a significant increase in the sensitivity of DNA testing, enabling the determination of DNA profiles from low levels of cellular material. However, the increased sensitivity is in many ways a double-edged sword as background contaminating DNA generated during the manufacture of consumables and sampling devices is now being detected and may compromise the interpretation of the DNA profile results. This study initially demonstrated the effectiveness of Ethylene Oxide (EO) as a post-production treatment to eliminate DNA on swabs, used as a sampling device for the recovery of cellular material. Subsequently, the potential adverse effects of any residual EO remaining on the swabs on the downstream DNA analysis on both rayon and cotton swabs were investigated and the levels of remaining EO measured. Two main variables were tested: the amount of time elapsed since EO treatment of the swabs prior to use, and the time elapsed between cellular material collection and DNA analysis. Residual levels of EO were found to be below quantitation levels and therefore also international standards. The results indicated that while there was a negligible effect of EO treatment on DNA recovered from rayon swabs, there was however an adverse effect on the DNA profiles recovered from cotton swabs. The adverse effect was negatively correlated with time since EO treatment and positively correlated with time to DNA analysis.
Gunn, PR, Roux, CP & Walsh, SJ 2014, 'The nucleic acid revolution continues will forensic biology become forensic molecular biology?', Frontiers in Genetics, vol. 5, pp. 1-4.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Molecular biology has evolved far beyond that which could have been predicted at the time DNA identity testing was established. Indeed we should now perhaps be referring to forensic molecular biology. Aside from DNAs established role in identifying the who in crime investigations, other developments in medical and developmental molecular biology are now ripe for application to forensic challenges. The impact of DNA methylation and other post-fertilization DNA modifications, plus the emerging role of small RNAs in the control of gene expression, is re-writing our understanding of human biology. It is apparent that these emerging technologies will expand forensic molecular biology to allow for inferences about when a crime took place and what took place. However, just as the introduction of DNA identity testing engendered many challenges, so the expansion of molecular biology into these domains will raise again the issues of scientific validity, interpretation, probative value, and infringement of personal liberties. This Commentary ponders some of these emerging issues, and presents some ideas on how they will affect the conduct of forensic molecular biology in the foreseeable future.
Raymond, J, Van Oorschot, R, Walsh, SJ, Gunn, PR & Roux, CP 2011, 'How far have we come with trace DNA since 2004? The Australian and New Zealand experience', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 231-244.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In 2004, a survey was sent to forensic organisations in every jurisdiction in Australia and New Zealand, benchmarking practices in relation to trace DNA analysis. Concerning issues were identified such as a lack of standard training protocols, little ongoing training or proficiency testing, and poor information gathering and sharing. To assess the changes occurring in the five years since this survey, a follow-up was devised and distributed to the same organisations in early 2009. Seventy-seven surveys were received from persons active in the field of trace DNA including crime scene and laboratory personnel, and managers. The major difference noted between the two surveys was the implementation of new technologies, primarily robotic automation and subsequent changes in extraction methodology. Disappointingly, training, research and proficiency test levels were still found to be lacking, a concern given the findings of recent international forensic reviews. A major deficiency still noted from the 2004 survey was the absence of effective data management systems, indicating that the wider intelligence-led application of this evidence is not fully utilised. Reviewing the methods and processes of the dissemination of forensic data in the policing environment has the potential to broaden its application to crime prevention strategies
Raymond, JJ, Van Oorschot, R, Gunn, PR, Walsh, SJ & Roux, CP 2009, 'Trace evidence characteristics of DNA: A preliminary investigation of the persistence of DNA at crime scenes', Forensic Science International: Genetics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 26-33.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The successful recovery of trace or contact DNA is highly variable. It is seemingly dependent on a wide range of factors, from the characteristics of the donor, substrate and environment, to the delay between contact and recovery. There is limited research on the extent of the effect these factors have on trace DNA analysis. This study investigated the persistence of trace DNA on surfaces relevant to the investigation of burglary and robbery offences. The study aimed to limit the number of variables involved to solely determine the effect of time on DNA recovery. Given that it is difficult to control the quantity of DNA deposited during a hand contact, human buffy coat and DNA control solution were chosen as an alternative to give a more accurate measure of quantity. Set volumes of these solutions were deposited onto outdoor surfaces (window frames and vinyl material to mimic burglary and `bag snatch offences) and sterile glass slides stored in a closed environment in the laboratory, for use as a control. Trace DNA casework data was also scrutinised to assess the effect of time on DNA recovery from real samples. The amount of DNA recovered from buffy coat on the outdoor surfaces declined by approximately half over two weeks, to a negligible amount after six weeks. Profiles could not be obtained after two weeks. The samples stored in the laboratory were more robust, and full profiles were obtained after six weeks, the longest time period tested in these experiments. It is possible that profiles may be obtained from older samples when kept in similarly favourable conditions.
Raymond, JJ, Van Oorschot, R, Gunn, PR, Walsh, SJ & Roux, CP 2009, 'Trace DNA success rates relating to volume crime offences', Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 136-137.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this study, 252 trace DNA samples (from handled surfaces) from 201 burglary, robbery and drugs cases were compiled to assess success rates and to interpret the value of trace DNA evidence in volume crime investigations. The average amount of DNA recovered from the trace DNA samples collected was 1.7 ng. Full or major (12 or more alleles) profiles were recovered from 14% of samples. Samples from firearms and burglary points of entry were the least successful. Mixtures were recovered from 21% of samples, presenting a case for the collection of more elimination profiles to enable more samples to be used for database purposes. The research highlighted the difficulties in collecting data relating to the success rates of samples. Computerised automation of this process would be extremely beneficial in the assistance of policy development, method application, training, and investigative usefulness.
Raymond, JJ, Van Oorschot, R, Walsh, SJ, Roux, CP & Gunn, PR 2009, 'Trace DNA and street robbery: A criminalistic approach to DNA evidence', Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 544-546.View/Download from: Publisher's site
It is now routine to detect trace DNA from handled objects, and with such low quantities of DNA the principles of criminalistics are now more relevant to biological evidence. This study aimed to provide data into the abundance, transfer and persistence of trace DNA, in a particular crime scenariostreet robbery. Items commonly stolen during a robbery (handbags and wallets) were swabbed to determine the background levels of DNA present. The likelihood of DNA transferring onto wallets during and after a robbery was investigated, as was the amount of handling time needed for the offender's DNA to become a major component in the recovered profile. A significant amount of DNA was recovered from wallets and bags in regular use, including small amounts of non-owner DNA. This indicates that background DNA may interfere with the recovery of offenders DNA. Profiles recovered from wallets stolen in a simulated robbery were in the majority mixtures, however the robber was a major component of the mixture or a single source profile in 40% of the profiles. The findings demonstrate that background data on the trace evidence characteristics of DNA will aid its interpretation and presentation in criminal trials.
Raymond, JJ, Walsh, SJ, Van Oorschot, R, Gunn, PR, Evans, L & Roux, CP 2008, 'Assessing trace DNA evidence from a residential burglary: abundance, transfer and persistence', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 442-443.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Raymond, JJ, Walsh, SJ, Van Oorschot, R, Gunn, PR & Roux, CP 2004, 'Trace DNA: an underutilised resource or Pandora's Box? A review of the use of trace DNA analysis in the investigation of volume crime', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 668-686.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Spectacular advanctes in DNA technology have greatly expanded its applicability to forensic science. As the processes become sufficiently sensitive to detect trace DNA, a vast number of crime scene samples not previously considered for analysis are now able to be tested. However, in spite of these obvious benefits, trace DNA analysis raises problems not often considered by investigators and forensic scientists. This paper discusses the history and development of trace DNA analysis. It suggests a trend of underutilisation and discusses issues surrounding its application and alternative uses for the results gained. The approach in the past has been that DNA evidence was solely employed as an absolute form of evidence and consequently, research focused primarily on increasing sensitivity and discrimination power. We are suggesting that DNA evidence should be treated as any other trace evidence. Research to provide data for basic trace evidence properties of deposit, presence, transfer and persisitence may allow trace DNA analysis to be more effectivly utilised in the investigation of crime. Together with recent developments in forensic intelligence, this research could facilitate the progressive applications of trace DNA analysis to volume crime investigations, an outcome wuth the potential to reduce the rate of volume crime and contribute to crime prevention strategies.
Gunn, PR, Trueman, K, Stapleton, P & Klarkowski, DB 1997, 'DNA analysis in disputed parentage: The occurrence of two apparently false exclusions of paternity, both at short tandem repeat (STR) loci, in the one child', ELECTROPHORESIS, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1650-1652.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sudbury, AW, Marinopoulos, J & Gunn, P 1993, 'Assessing the evidential value of DNA profiles matching without using the assumption of independent loci.', Journal - Forensic Science Society, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 73-82.View/Download from: Publisher's site
DNA profiling allows determination of the alleles at multiple loci on an individual's genome. The frequencies of these alleles are then estimated from a sample drawn from the population. If the occurrences of alleles at different loci are independent, the frequencies may be multiplied together to give an estimate of the probability of DNA from a randomly-chosen member of the population matching the DNA in question. However, there is doubt as to whether the assumption of independence can be justified. This paper discusses a method of calculating the probability of a match that does not require the assumption of independence. A suitable set of criteria is also derived that offer an objective approach to the determination of a match from two DNA samples.
Balazs, I, Neuweiler, J, Gunn, P, Kidd, J, Kidd, KK, Kuhl, J & Mingjun, L 1992, 'Human population genetic studies using hypervariable loci. I. Analysis of Assamese, Australian, Cambodian, Caucasian, Chinese and Melanesian populations.', Genetics, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 191-198.
Population genetic studies, in Australian, Assamese, Cambodian, Chinese, Caucasian and Melanesian populations, were performed with several highly polymorphic DNA loci. Results showed that the Caucasian and Chinese had the highest level of heterozygosity. The size range of the majority of the polymorphic DNA fragments of a locus was the same in the different populations. The distinguishing feature of each ethnic group was the relative frequency of a particular set or group of alleles. For example, alleles greater than 9.0 kb in size, in D14S13, or from 4.5 to 4.7 kb, in D18S27, were less than half as frequent in Caucasians than in the other populations. Overall, there were groups of alleles, at one or more loci, whose frequencies were different among some of the ethnic groups and therefore could be used to differentiate one group from the other.
Powell, KFH, Gunn, PR & Bellamy, AR 1988, 'Nucleotide sequence of bovine rotavirus genomic segment 10: An RNA encoding the viral non-structural glycoprotein', Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 763.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Gunn, PR, Sato, F, Powell, KFH, Bellamy, AR, Napier, JR, Harding, DR, Hancock, WS, Siegman, LJ & Both, GW 1985, 'Rotavirus neutralizing protein VP7: Antigenic determinants investigated by sequence analysis and peptide synthesis', Journal of Virology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 791-797.
The rotavirus neutralizing antigen, VP7, is a 37,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein which is a major component of the outer shell of the virion. The amino acid sequence of VP7 for strain S2 (human serotype 2) and Nebraska calf diarrhea virus (bovine serotype) has been inferred from the nucleic acid sequence of cloned copies of genomic segment nine. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of these two VP7 proteins with those already determined for other rotavirus strains reveals extensive sequence conservation between serotypes with clusters of amino acid differences sited predominantly in hydrophilic domains of the protein. Six peptides have been synthesized that span the hydrophilic regions of the molecule. Antisera to these peptides both recognize the respective homologous peptides in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay and bind to denatured VP7 in a Western blot. However, none of the antisera either recognize virus or exhibit significant neutralizing activity, indicating that these peptide sequences are not available on the surface of the virus.
GUNN, PR & EGAN, JB 1979, 'INVITRO SYNTHESIS OF THE STAPHYLOCOCCAL EXO-ENZYME PENICILLINASE', PROCEEDINGS OF THE AUSTRALIAN BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 12, pp. 106-106.
Gunn, PR, Roebuck, H & Summerell, A 2017, 'Gunn, P.R., H. Roebuck, and A. Summerell, Forensic Biology, in Expert Evidence, I. Freckleton and H. Selby, Editors. 2017, Thomson Reuters: Melbourne.' in Selby, H & Freckleton, I (eds), Expert Evidence.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Gunn, P, Raymond, MA, Lecompte, MH & Gunn, P 2011, 'Forensic Biology' in Freckleton, I & Selby, H (eds), Expert Evidence, Thomson Reuters, Melbourne.
Gunn, PR 2015, 'The role of next-generation molecular biology in the development of a modern forensic biology laboratory', International Conference of Genomics, Xi'an, China.
NSW Police Force
Forensic & Analytical Science Services
Australian Federal Police