© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. This volume provides an overview of applications of conceptual spaces theory, beginning with an introduction to the modeling tool that unifies the chapters. The first section explores issues of linguistic semantics, including speakers negotiation of meaning. Further sections address computational and ontological aspects of constructing conceptual spaces, while the final section looks at philosophical applications. Domains include artificial intelligence and robotics, epistemology and philosophy of science, lexical semantics and pragmatics, agent-based simulation, perspectivism, framing, contrast, sensory modalities, and music, among others. This collection provides evidence of the wide application range of this theory of knowledge representation. The papers in this volume derive from international experts across different fields including philosophy, cognitive science, linguistics, robotics, computer science and geography. Each contributor has successfully applied conceptual spaces theory as a modeling tool in their respective areas of expertise. Graduates as well as researchers in the areas of epistemology, linguistics, geometric knowledge representation, and the mathematical modeling of cognitive processes should find this book of particular interest.
© 2005 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Cognition, Education, and Communication Technology presents some of the recent theoretical developments in the cognitive and educational sciences and implications for the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the organization of school and university education. Internationally renowned researchers present theoretical perspectives with proposals for and evaluations of educational practices. Each chapter discusses different aspects of the use of ICT in education, including: *the role of perceptual processes in learning; *external cognition as support for interactive learning; *the role of meta-cognition; *simulation learning environments as cognitive tools; *the role of science controversy for knowledge integration; *the use of ICT in the development of educators; and *the role of narratives in education. ICT has great potential for revolutionizing education. Large investments of resources are being made, often without a strong understanding of how ICT will or should be implemented. The expectation is that students will show immediate improvements in terms of their motivation to learn and their learning achievements, but reality is different. Progress of ICT in education requires more than just computers in the classroom. it demands an understanding of the complex processes contributing to human learning and how they interact with new technologies. This text provides theoretical perspectives on the learning processes that can be used as a foundation for constructing pedagogically valuable tools based on ICT. The combination of results--from cognitive science and pedagogy, with more practically oriented suggestions for how ICT can be used in various forms of education--makes this book suitable for researchers and students in the cognitive and educational sciences, as well as for practitioners and planners of education.
Freksa, C., Newcombe, N., Gärdenfors, P. & Wölfl, S. 2008, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence: Preface.
This volume is a collection of some of the most important philosophical papers by Peter Gärdenfors. Spanning a period of more than 20 years of his research, they cover a wide ground of topics, from early works on decision theory, belief revision and nonmonotonic logic to more recent work on conceptual spaces, inductive reasoning, semantics and the evolutions of thinking. Many of the papers have only been published in places that are difficult to access. The common theme of all the papers is the dynamics of thought. Several of the papers have become minor classics and the volume bears witness of the wide scope of Gärdenfors research and of his crisp and often witty style of writing. The volume will be of interest to researchers in philosophy and other cognitive sciences.
Our ability to 'think' is really one of our most puzzling characteristics. What it would be like to be unable to think? What would it be like to lack self-awareness? The complexity of this activity is striking. 'Thinking' involves the interaction of a range of mental processes--attention, emotion, memory, planning, self-consciousness, free will, and language. So where did these processes arise? What evolutionary advantages were bestowed upon those with an ability to deceive, to plan, to empathize, or to understand the intention of others? In this compelling new work, Peter Gardenfors embarks on an evolutionary detective story to try and solve one of the big mysteries surrounding human existence--how has the modern human being's way of thinking come into existence. He starts by taking in turn the more basic cognitive processes, such as attention and memory, then builds upon these to explore more complex behaviors, such as self-consciousness, mindreading, and imitation. Having done this, he examines the consequences of "putting thought into the world" -i.e., using external media like cave paintings, drawings, and writing. Immensely readable and humorous, the book will be valuable for students in psychology and biology, and accessible to readers of popular science.
Masterton, G., Zenker, F. & Gärdenfors, P. 2017, 'Using conceptual spaces to exhibit conceptual continuity through scientific theory change', European Journal for Philosophy of Science, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 127-150.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. There is a great deal of justified concern about continuity through scientific theory change. Our thesis is that, particularly in physics, such continuity can be appropriately captured at the level of conceptual frameworks (the level above the theories themselves) using conceptual space models. Indeed, we contend that the conceptual spaces of three of our most important physical theories—Classical Mechanics (CM), Special Relativity Theory (SRT), and Quantum Mechanics (QM)—have already been so modelled as phase-spaces. Working with their phase-space formulations, one can trace the conceptual changes and continuities in transitioning from CM to QM, and from CM to SRT. By offering a revised severity-ordering of changes that conceptual frameworks can undergo, we provide reasons to doubt the commonly held view that CM is conceptually closer to SRT than QM.
Mealier, A.-.L., Pointeau, G., Gardenfors, P. & Dominey, P.F. 2016, 'Construals of meaning The role of attention in robotic language production', INTERACTION STUDIES, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 48-76.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zwarts, J. & Gaerdenfors, P. 2016, 'Locative and Directional Prepositions in Conceptual Spaces: The Role of Polar Convexity', JOURNAL OF LOGIC LANGUAGE AND INFORMATION, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 109-138.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis. Social learning is essential for human evolution. To achieve such learning, cultural processes which trigger the development of active teaching and intergenerational transmission and accumulation of knowledge are needed. The understanding of how such systems and processes were developed over a long time is essential for our understanding of human evolution. The identification of children's learning activities in the archaeological record is crucial for how we may develop this understanding.
Hogberg, A., Gardenfors, P. & Larsson, L. 2015, 'Knowing, Learning and Teaching-How Homo Became Docens', CAMBRIDGE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 847-858.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bååth, R., Lagerstedt, E. & Gärdenfors, P. 2014, 'A prototype-based resonance model of rhythm categorization.', i-Perception, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 548-558.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Categorization of rhythmic patterns is prevalent in musical practice, an example of this being the transcription of (possibly not strictly metrical) music into musical notation. In this article we implement a dynamical systems' model of rhythm categorization based on the resonance theory of rhythm perception developed by Large (2010). This model is used to simulate the categorical choices of participants in two experiments of Desain and Honing (2003). The model accurately replicates the experimental data. Our results support resonance theory as a viable model of rhythm perception and show that by viewing rhythm perception as a dynamical system it is possible to model central properties of rhythm categorization.
Within linguistics a word class is defi ned in grammatical terms as a set of words that exhibit the same syntactic properties. In this paper the aim is to argue that the meanings of different word classes can be given a cognitive grounding. It is shown that with the aid of conceptual spaces, a geometric analysis can be provided for the major word classes. A universal single-domain thesis is proposed, saying that words in all content word classes, except for nouns, refer to a single domain.
This article contains comments on the other papers in this volume. I take up the roles of the world, the mind and the society in my semantic theory. I show how semantic differences between languages can be seen as attending to different parts of event structures. The role of the emotion domain in relation to the meaning of pejoratives is discussed. Finally, the idea that articles in language should be seen as an extension of pointing is shown to be congenial with my theory of semantics based on conceptual spaces.
Gardenfors, P. 2014, 'Cornments: The Role of Attention in Lexical Semantics', CROATIAN JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY, vol. 14, no. 41, pp. 269-276.
The aim of this article is to present an evolutionarily grounded explanation of why we speak in sentences. This question is seldomly addressed, neither in the Chomskian tradition nor in cognitive linguistics. I base my explanation on an analysis of different levels of communication. I identify four levels: praxis, instruction, coordination of common ground and coordination of meaning. The analysis will be focused on the evolutionary benefits of communicating about events as a way of coordinating actions. A cognitively grounded model of events will be outlined. My central thesis is that the communicative role of sentences is to express events.
The meanings of words are not permanent but change over time. Some changes of meaning are quick, such as when a pronoun changes its reference; some are slower, as when two speakers find out that they are using the same word in different senses; and some are very slow, such as when the meaning of a word changes over historical time. A theory of semantics should account for these different time scales. In order to describe these different types of meaning changes, I present an analysis of three levels of communication: instruction, coordination of common ground and coordination of meaning. My first aim is to show that these levels must be considered when discussing lexical semantics. A second aim is to use the levels to identify the communicative roles of some of the main word classes, in particular nouns, adjectives, verbs, indexicals and quantifiers. I argue that the existence of word classes can, to a large extent, be explained by the communicative needs that arise on the different levels. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Rama Fiorini, S., Gärdenfors, P. & Abel, M. 2014, 'Representing part-whole relations in conceptual spaces.', Cognitive Processing, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 127-142.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper, we propose a cognitive semantic approach to represent part-whole relations. We base our proposal on the theory of conceptual spaces, focusing on prototypical structures in part-whole relations. Prototypical structures are not accounted for in traditional mereological formalisms. In our account, parts and wholes are represented in distinct conceptual spaces; parts are joined to form wholes in a structure space. The structure space allows systematic similarity judgments between wholes, taking into consideration shared parts and their configurations. A point in the structure space denotes a particular part structure; regions in the space represent different general types of part structures. We argue that the structural space can represent prototype effects: structural types are formed around typical arrangements of parts. We also show how structure space captures the variations in part structure of a given concept across different domains. In addition, we discuss how some taxonomies of part-whole relations can be understood within our framework.
Sinha, C. & Gärdenfors, P. 2014, 'Time, space, and events in language and cognition: a comparative view.', Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1326, pp. 72-81.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
We propose an event-based account of the cognitive and linguistic representation of time and temporal relations. Human beings differ from nonhuman animals in entertaining and communicating elaborate detached (as opposed to cued) event representations and temporal relational schemas. We distinguish deictically based (D-time) from sequentially based (S-time) representations, identifying these with the philosophical categories of A-series and B-series time. On the basis of cross-linguistic data, we claim that all cultures employ both D-time and S-time representations. We outline a cognitive model of event structure, emphasizing that this does not entail an explicit, separate representation of a time dimension. We propose that the notion of an event-independent, metric "time as such" is not universal, but a cultural and historical construction based on cognitive technologies for measuring time intervals. We critically examine claims that time is universally conceptualized in terms of spatial metaphors, and hypothesize that systematic space-time metaphor is only found in languages and cultures that have constructed the notion of time as a separate dimension. We emphasize the importance of distinguishing what is universal from what is variable in cultural and linguistic representations of time, and speculate on the general implications of an event-based understanding of time.
Zenker, F. & Gärdenfors, P. 2014, 'Modeling Diachronic Changes in Structuralism and in Conceptual Spaces', Erkenntnis, vol. 79, no. Supplement 8, pp. 1547-1561.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2013, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Our aim in this article is to show how the theory of conceptual spaces can be useful in describing diachronic changes to conceptual frameworks, and thus useful in understanding conceptual change in the empirical sciences. We also compare the conceptual space approach to Moulines's typology of intertheoretical relations in the structuralist tradition. Unlike structuralist reconstructions, those based on conceptual spaces yield a natural way of modeling the changes of a conceptual framework, including noncumulative changes, by tracing the changes to the dimensions that reconstitute a conceptual framework. As a consequence, the incommensurability of empirical theories need not be viewed as a matter of conceptual representation.
Gardenfors, P. & Lohndorf, S. 2013, 'What is a domain? Dimensional structures versus meronomic relations', COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 437-456.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Gardenfors, P. & Zenker, F. 2013, 'Theory change as dimensional change: conceptual spaces applied to the dynamics of empirical theories', SYNTHESE, vol. 190, no. 6, pp. 1039-1058.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Osvath, M., Persson, T. & Gardenfors, P. 2012, 'Foresight, function representation, and social intelligence in the great apes', BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 234-+.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Warglien, M., Gardenfors, P. & Westera, M. 2012, 'Event structure, conceptual spaces and the semantics of verbs', THEORETICAL LINGUISTICS, vol. 38, no. 3-4, pp. 159-193.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Johansson, P., Hall, L. & Gardenfors, P. 2011, 'Choice blindness and the non-unitary nature of the human mind', BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES, vol. 34, no. 1.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Gärdenfors, P. 2009, 'The social stance and its relation to intersubjectivity', Annals of the International Institute of Sociology, vol. 11, pp. 291-305.
Williams, M., McCarthy, J., Gardenfors, P., Stanton, C.J. & Karol, A. 2009, 'A Grounding Framework', Autonomous Agents And Multi-Agent Systems, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 272-296.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In order for an agent to achieve its objectives, make sound decisions, communicate and collaborate with others effectively it must have high quality representations. Representations can encapsulate objects, situations, experiences, decisions and behavior just to name a few. Our interest is in designing high quality representations, therefore it makes sense to ask of any representation; what does it represent; why is it represented; how is it represented; and importantly how well is it represented. This paper identifies the need to develop a better understanding of the grounding process as key to answering these important questions. The lack of a comprehensive understanding of grounding is a major obstacle in the quest to develop genuinely intelligent systems that can make their own representations as they seek to achieve their objectives. We develop an innovative framework which provides a powerful tool for describing, dissecting and inspecting grounding capabilities with the necessary flexibility to conduct meaningful and insightful analysis and evaluation. The framework is based on a set of clearly articulated principles and has three main applications. First, it can be used at both theoretical and practical levels to analyze grounding capabilities of a single system and to evaluate its performance. Second, it can be used to conduct comparative analysis and evaluation of grounding capabilities across a set of systems. Third, it offers a practical guide to assist the design and construction of high performance systems with effective grounding capabilities.
In contrast to other animals, humans are good at mind-reading in the sense that they can represent the contents of the minds of others. In this article, the competence for inter-subjectivity is divided into representing the emotions, the attention, the intentions and the beliefs and knowledge of others. Recent attempts to exploit control theory for modelling various cognitive functions are discussed and it is outlined how this modelling approach can be combined with the analysis of inter-subjectivity. © Academia Europaea 2007.
Kuhn, W., Raubal, M. & Gärdenfors, P. 2007, 'Editorial: Cognitive semantics and spatio-temporal ontologies', Spatial Cognition and Computation, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3-12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We are not entirely satisfied with the evolutionary explanation provided by Suddendorf & Corballis (S & C) for why only humans should be capable of advanced mental time travel. General social factors do not suffice, given that other primates are also highly social. We discuss the evolutionary mechanisms that have generated mental time travel typical to humans, focusing on ecological factors. © 2007 Cambridge University Press.
Johansson, S., Zlatev, J. & Gardenfors, P. 2006, 'Why don't chimps talk and humans sing like canaries?', BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 287-288.
Zlatev, J., Persson, T. & Gardenfors, P. 2005, 'Triadic bodily mimesis is the difference', BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 720-+.
Gardenfors, P. 2004, 'Conceptual Spaces as a Framework for Knowledge Representation', Mind and Matter, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 9-27.
Gardenfors, P. 2004, 'Emulators as sources of hidden cognitive variables', BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 403-+.
Gardenfors, P. & Brinck, I. 2003, 'Co-operation and Communication in Apes and Humans', Mind & Language, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 484-501.
Gärdenfors, P. 1997, 'Att tala med maskinerna', Human IT, vol. 1, no. 3.
This chapter describes the three levels of inductive inference. One of the most impressive features of human cognitive processing is the ability to perform inductive inferences. The three levels of accounting for observations are: the linguistic, the conceptual, and the subconceptual level. In the linguistic level, the way of viewing observations consists of describing them in some specified language. The language is assumed to be equipped with a fixed set of primitive predicates and the denotations of these predicates are taken to be known. In the conceptual level, observations are not defined in relation to some language, but characterized in terms of some underlying 'conceptual space. The conceptual space, which is more or less connected to perceptual mechanisms, consists of a number of 'quality dimensions. In the subconceptual level, observations are characterized in terms of inputs from sensory receptors. The observations are thus described as occurring before conceptualization. This chapter argues that depending on which approach to observations is adopted, thoroughly different considerations about inductive inferences will come into focus. © 1995 Elsevier B.V.
GARDENFORS, P. 1990, 'THE DYNAMICS OF BELIEF SYSTEMS, FOUNDATIONS VS COHERENCE THEORIES', REVUE INTERNATIONALE DE PHILOSOPHIE, vol. 44, no. 172, pp. 24-46.
This chapter examines whether there can be scientific knowledge, the possession of which would be inimical to mankind. If the answer is positive, it is natural to impose restrictions on scientific research that may produce this kind of knowledge. Critics of unlimited scientific freedom argue that certain types of knowledge should be forbidden because it is dangerous. The chapter distinguishes between two main types of dangers. The first type is knowledge that will lead to undesirable material consequences. The most common fear is that certain forms of new knowledge will inevitably lead to technology that can be misused if put in the wrong hands. Thus knowledge is marked dangerous because it is believed to have dangerous practical consequences. The second type of danger is that certain knowledge is dangerous because of its mental consequences. It may threaten the established society or some of its institutions, or even the established view of humanity itself. Thus, some knowledge is thought to be counter-ideological or subversive, and thus, not desirable. © 1989, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
GARDENFORS, P. 1988, 'CONDITIONALS - JACKSON,F', THEORIA, vol. 54, pp. 68-72.
The purpose of this note is to formulate some weaker versions of the so called Ramsey test that do not entail the following unacceptable consequence If A and C are already accepted in K, then "if A, then C" is also accepted in K. and to show that these versions still lead to the same triviality result when combined with a preservation criterion. © 1987 Polish Academy of Sciences.
Gärdenfors, P. & Sahlin, N. 1983, 'Decision making with unreliable probabilities', British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 240-251.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper presents a decision theory which allows subjects to account for the uncertainties of their probability estimates. This is accomplished by modelling beliefs about states of nature by means of a class of probability measures. In order to represent uncertainties of those beliefs a measure of epistemic reliability is introduced. The suggested decision theory is evaluated in the light of empirical evidence on ambiguity and uncertainty in decision making. The theory is also compared to Tversky & Kahneman's prospect theory. 1983 The British Psychological Society
GARDENFORS, P. & SAHLIN, N.E. 1983, 'DECISION-MAKING WITH UNRELIABLE PROBABILITIES', BRITISH JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL & STATISTICAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 36, no. NOV, pp. 240-251.
GARDENFORS, P. 1982, 'DYNAMIC-MODELS AS TOOLS FOR FORECASTING AND PLANNING - A PRESENTATION AND SOME METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS', THEORY AND DECISION, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 237-273.View/Download from: Publisher's site
GARDENFORS, P. 1981, 'AN EPISTEMIC APPROACH TO CONDITIONALS', AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 203-211.
GARDENFORS, P. 1975, '2 PAPERS ON RATIONALITY AND GROUP PREFERENCES - DANIELSSON,S', THEORIA, vol. 41, pp. 170-175.
Hansson, B. & Gärdenfors, P. 1975, 'Filtrations and the finite frame property in boolean semantics', Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, vol. 82, no. C, pp. 32-39.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This chapter reviews that in modal logic, it is often interesting to know whether certain logic has the finite model property (FMP), because it, then, immediately follows that it is decidable, provided it is finitely axiomatizable. For a logic to have the FMP means to be characterized by a class of finite models or, equivalently, that each non-theorem is rejected by some finite model for the logic in question. The chapter also focuses on the finite frame property (FFP), which means that every non-theorem is rejected by some finite frame for the logic. It is trivial that the FFP entails the FMP. Although the fact that logic has the FFP is independent of which kind of frames are used, the techniques for proving this may differ in complexity. The chapter uses Boolean semantics to describe a comparatively simple filtration method. © 1975, North-Holland Publishing Company
Positionalist voting functions are those social choice functions where the positions of the alternatives in the voter's preference orders crucially influence the social ordering of the alternatives. An important subclass consists of those voting functions where numbers are assigned to the alternatives in the preference orders and the social ordering is computed from these numbers. Such voting functions are called representable. Various well-known conditions for voting functions are introduced and it is investigated which representable voting functions satisfy these conditions. It is shown that no representable voting function satisfies the Condorcet criterion. This condition and Arrow's independence condition, which are typical non-positionalist conditions, are shown to be incompatible. The Borda function, which is a well-known positionalist voting function, is studied extensively, conditions uniquely characterizing it are given and some modifications of the function are investigated. © 1973 D. Reidel Publishing Company.
Warglien, M. & Gärdenfors, P. 2015, 'Meaning negotiation' in Frank, Z. & Peter, G. (eds), Applications Of Conceptual Spaces: The Case For Geometric Knowledge Representation, Springer, Cham, pp. 79-94.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. While 'meaning negotiation has become an ubiquitous term, its use is often confusing. A negotiation problem implies not only a convenience to agree, but also diverging interest on what to agree upon. It implies agreement but also the possibility of (voluntary) disagreement. In this chapter, we look at meaning negotiation as the process through which agents starting from different preferred conceptual representations of an object, an event or a more complex entity, converge to an agreement through some communication medium. We shortly sketch the outline of a geometric view of meaning negotiation, based on conceptual spaces. We show that such view can inherit important structural elements from game theoretic models of bargaining – in particular, in the case when the protagonists have overlapping negotiation regions, we emphasize a parallel to the Nash solution in cooperative game theory. When acceptable solution regions of the protagonists are disjoint, we present several types of processes: changes in the salience of dimensions, dimensional projections and metaphorical space transformations. None of the latter processes are motivated by normative or rationality considerations, but presented as argumentation tools that we believe are used in actual situations of conceptual disagreement.
Zenker, F. & Gärdenfors, P. 2015, 'Communication, rationality, and conceptual changes in scientific theories' in Frank, Z. & Peter, G. (eds), Applications of Conceptual Spaces: The Case for Geometric Knowledge Representation, Springer, Cham, pp. 259-277.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. This article outlines how conceptual spaces theory applies to modeling changes of scientific frameworks when these are treated as spatial structures rather than as linguistic entities. The theory is briefly introduced and five types of changes are presented. It is then contrasted with Michael Friedman's neo-Kantian account that seeks to render Kuhn's 'paradigm shift as a communicatively rational historical event of conceptual development in the sciences. Like Friedman, we refer to the transition from Newtonian to relativistic mechanics as an example of 'deep conceptual change. But we take the communicative rationality of radical conceptual change to be available prior to the philosophical meta-paradigms that Friedman deems indispensable for this purpose.
Gardenfors, P. 2014, 'Computational complexity and cognitive science: How the body and the world help the mind be efficient' in Baltag, A. & Smets, S. (eds), Johan van Benthem on Logic and Information Dynamic, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 825-833.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Computational complexity has been developed under the assumption that thinking can be modelled by a Turing machine. This view of cognition has more recently been complemented with situated and embodied cognition where the key idea is that cognition consists of an interaction between the brain, the body and the surrounding world. This chapter deals with the meaning of complexity from a situated and embodied perspective. The main claim is that if the structure of the world is taken into account in problem solving, the complexity of certain problems will be reduced in relation to Turing machine complexity. For example, search algorithms can be simplified if the visual structure of the world is exploited. Another case is the logical problem of language acquisition, claiming that children cannot learn language simply by considering the input. It is argued that this problem will not arise if it is taken into account that children's learning of grammatical features often exploits world knowledge.
Gardenfors, P. 2014, 'David Makinson and the extension of classical logic' in Hansson, S.O. (ed), David Makinson on Classical Methods for Non-Classical Problems, Springer, pp. 11-18.View/Download from: Publisher's site
There are two major ways to deal with the limitations of classical logic. It can be replaced by systems representing alternative accounts of the laws of thought (non-classical logic), or it can be supplemented with non-inferential mechanisms. David Makinson has a leading role as proponent of the latter approach in the form of the inferential-preferential method in which classical logic is combined with representations of preference or choice. This has turned out to be a highly efficient and versatile method. Its applications in non-monotonic logic and belief revision are used as examples.
Gardenfors, P. 2012, 'The Cognitive and Communicative Demands of Cooperation' in van Eijck, J. & Verbrugge, R. (eds), Games, Actions and Social Software: Multidisciplinary Aspects, Springer, Germany, pp. 164-183.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Gärdenfors, P. & Zenker, F. 2011, 'Using Conceptual Spaces to Model the Dynamics of Empirical Theories.' in Olsson, E.J. & Enqvist, S. (eds), Belief Revision meets Philosophy of Science, Springer, Germany, pp. 137-153.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In Conceptual Spaces (Gärdenfors 2000), dimensions and their relations provide a topological representation of a concept's constituents and their mode of combination. When concepts are modeled as n-dimensional geometrical structures, conceptual change denotes the dynamic development of these structures. Following this basic assumption, we apply conceptual spaces to the dynamics of empirical theories. We show that the terms of the structuralist view of empirical theories can be largely recovered. Based on the logically possible change operations which a concept's dimensions can undergo (singularly or in combination), we identify four types of (increasingly radical) change to an empirical theory. The incommensurability issue as well as the importance of measurement procedures for the identification of a radical theory change are briefly discussed.
Gardenfors, P. 2010, 'What are the benefits of broad horizons?' in International Comparative Social Studies, pp. XIII-XX.
Gärdenfors, P. & Osvath, M. 2010, 'Prospection as a cognitive precursor to symbolic communication' in The Evolution of Human Language: Biolinguistic Perspectives, pp. 103-114.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Cambridge University Press 2010. What are the significant forces behind the evolution of language? Explaining how language evolved involves answering two quite distinct scientific questions (Bickerton 2003; Tomasello 2003). The first is why humans have developed a system of symbolic representation as a basis for much of their communication. The second is why this system has acquired the structural characteristics of the syntax of extant human languages. In this paper, we focus on the first question. Homo sapiens is the only species we know to have a symbolic language. If one believes that language has come into existence according to the principles of evolutionary theory, there should be some selective advantage that has promoted the development of language among humans. Recently, a popular approach has been that language arose as a result of increased social interaction, for example as a consequence of increasing group size (Dunbar 1996) or as some form of ritualization (Deacon 1997; Knight 1998b). However, despite all the merits of these proposals, they have problems explaining why humanlike symbolic language has not evolved among other apes or animals (Bickerton 2002: 209; Gärdenfors 2004: 237; Johansson, Zlatev, and Gärdenfors 2006). As a matter of fact, the social interaction among many species is highly developed. Bickerton (2002: 210) argues: 'When a complex and unique development occurs in only one species, the most logical conclusion is that the selective pressure driving that development must have been unique to that species.
Gardenfors, P. 2007, 'Representing actions and functional properties in conceptual spaces' in Ziemke, T., Zlatev, J. & Frank, R.M. (eds), Body, Language and Mind: Volume 1: Embodiment, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany, pp. 167-196.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Humans have a unique capacity to share and understand others' mental states, such as beliefs, emotions, desires, attentional foci, and intentions. Representing the mental states of others is called intersubjectivity. , which is in the philosophical and psychological debate, the capacity is commonly known as having a theory of mind. This chapter compares phylogenetic and ontogenetic aspects of intersubjectivity. For this purpose, intersubjectivity is decomposed into five capacities: representing the emotions of others (empathy), representing the attention of others, representing the intentions of others and representing the beliefs and knowledge of others (theory of mind), and representing the desires of others. From the analysis of these five factors it is made clear that humans exhibit more intersubjectivity than other animals. By studying the development of human children, a great deal about when and how the different forms of intersubjectivity emerge has been learnt. Similarly, from studies of other animal species, in particular primates, a rough picture of the phylogeny of intersubjectivity can be drawn. In addition to the ontogenetic and phylogenetic themes, the evolution of the uniquely human forms of intersubjectivity, more precisely about what have been the evolutionary forces that have generated the advanced levels in humans are speculated in the chapter. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gärdenfors, P. 2007, 'Understanding cultural patterns' in Learning in the Global Era: International Perspectives on Globalization and Education, pp. 67-84.
Gardenfors, P. & Williams, M. 2007, 'Multi-Agent Communication, Planning, and Collaboration' in Schalley, A.C. & Khlentzos, D. (eds), Mental States: Language and Cognitive Structure, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 197-253.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Williams, M. & Gardenfors, P. 2007, 'Communication, Planning and Collaboration based on Representations and Simulations' in Editor, A.C.S. & Editor, D.K. (eds), Mental States: Volume 1: Evolution, function, nature; Volume 2: Language and cognitive structure, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 95-122.
Gardenfors, P. 2005, 'Concept Learning and Nonmonotonic Reasoning' in Cohen, H. & Lefebvre, C. (eds), Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science, Elsevier, The Netherlands, pp. 824-845.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Gardenfors, P. 2005, 'The detachment of thought' in Erneling, C.E. & Johnson, D.M. (eds), The Mind As a Scientific Object: Between Brain and Culture, Oxford University Press, USA, pp. 323-341.
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss concept learning and non-monotonic reasoning. Humans learn new concepts extremely fast. One or two examples of a new concept are often sufficient for one to grasp its meaning. Traditional theories of concept formation, such as symbolic or connectionist representations, have problems explaining the quick learning that is exhibited by humans. In contrast to these representations, the chapter advocates a third form of representing categories, which employs geometric structures. It is discussed that this form is appropriate for modeling concept learning. A learning model that shows how properties and concepts can be learned in a simple but naturalistic way is then explained. This model accounts well for the role of similarity judgments in concept learning. Finally, as an application, the concept representations are used to give an analysis of non-monotonic reasoning. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd.
Johansson, P. & Gardenfors, P. 2005, 'Introduction to cognition, education, and communication technology', pp. 1-20.
Gardenfors, P. 2004, 'How to make the Semantic Web more semantic' in Varzi, A.C. & Vieu, L. (eds), Formal Ontology in Information Systems: Proceedings of the Third International Conference (FOIS-2004), IOS Press, pp. 17-36.
Gärdenfors, P. 2014, 'Comments: The role of attention in lexical semantics', Croatian Journal of Philosophy, pp. 269-276.
This article contains comments on the other papers in this volume. I take up the roles of the world, the mind and the society in my semantic theory. I show how semantic differences between languages can be seen as attending to different parts of event structures. The role of the emotion domain in relation to the meaning of pejoratives is discussed. Finally, the idea that articles in language should be seen as an extension of pointing is shown to be congenial with my theory of semantics based on conceptual spaces.
Novianto, R., Williams, M.-.A., Gärdenfors, P. & Wightwick, G. 2014, 'Classical conditioning in social robots', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), International Conference on Social Robotics (ICSR), Springer Verlag, Sydney, Australia, pp. 279-289.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Classical conditioning is important in humans to learn and predict events in terms of associations between stimuli and to produce responses based on these associations. Social robots that have a classical conditioning skill like humans will have an advantage to interact with people more naturally, socially and effectively. In this paper, we present a novel classical conditioning mechanism and describe its implementation in ASMO cognitive architecture. The capability of this mechanism is demonstrated in the Smokey robot companion experiment. Results show that Smokey can associate stimuli and predict events in its surroundings. ASMO's classical conditioning mechanism can be used in social robots to adapt to the environment and to improve the robots' performances.
Wang, X., Williams, M.-.A., Gardenfors, P., Vitale, J., Abidi, S., Johnston, B., Kuipers, B. & Huang, A. 2014, 'Directing human attention with pointing', Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2014 RO-MAN: The 23rd IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE/RSJ International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, IEEE, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 174-179.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pointing is a typical means of directing a human's attention to a specific object or event. Robot pointing behaviours that direct the attention of humans are critical for human-robot interaction, communication and collaboration. In this paper, we describe an experiment undertaken to investigate human comprehension of a humanoid robot's pointing behaviour. We programmed a NAO robot to point to markers on a large screen and asked untrained human subjects to identify the target of the robots pointing gesture. We found that humans are able to identify robot pointing gestures. Human subjects achieved higher levels of comprehension when the robot pointed at objects closer to the gesturing arm and when they stood behind the robot. In addition, we found that subjects performance improved with each assessment task. These new results can be used to guide the design of effective robot pointing behaviours that enable more effective robot to human communication and improve human-robot collaborative performance.
Bååth, R., Lagerstedt, E. & Gärdenfors, P. 2013, 'An Oscillator Model of Categorical Rhythm Perception.', CogSci, Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, cognitivesciencesociety.org, Berlin, Germany.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Categorical perception is a well studied phenomenon in, forexample, colour perception, phonetics and music. In this ar-ticle we implement a dynamical systems model of categoricalrhythm perception based on the resonance theory of rhythmperception developed by Large (2010). This model is used tosimulate the categorical choices of participants in two experi-ments of Desain and Honing (2003). The model is able to ac-curately replicate the experimental data. Our results supportsthat resonance theory is a viable model of rhythm perceptionand they show that by viewing rhythm perception as a dynami-cal system it is possible to model properties of categorical per-ception.
Fiorini, S.R., Abel, M. & Gärdenfors, P. 2013, 'Structure, similarity and spaces', CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Interdisciplinary Workshop The Shape of Things, CEUR, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 71-74.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Copyright © 2013 for the individual papers by the papers' authors. Much of the discussion about shape representation during the last two decades was fundamentally related to questions about the representation of parts. Inspired by the cognitive processes governing how people represent and think about parts, we give a brief summary of our framework for representing part structures. In particular, we are interested in the role of similarity and prototype effects in this context.
Gärdenfors, P. 2013, 'The role of cooperation in the evolution of protolanguage and language', Workshop on Evolution of Mind, Brain, and Culture, Penn Museum, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 193-216.
Williams, M.A., Abidi, S., Gärdenfors, P., Wang, X., Kuipers, B. & Johnston, B. 2013, 'Interpreting robot pointing behavior', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), International Conference on Social Robotics (ICSR), Springer, Bristol, UK, pp. 148-159.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The ability to draw other agents' attention to objects and events is an important skill on the critical path to effective human-robot collaboration. People use the act of pointing to draw other people's attention to objects and events for a wide range of purposes. While there is significant work that aims to understand people's pointing behavior, there is little work analyzing how people interpret robot pointing. Since robots have a wide range of physical bodies and cognitive architectures, interpreting pointing will be determined by a specific robot's morphology and behavior. Humanoids and robots whose heads, torso and arms resemble humans that point may be easier for people to interpret, however if such robots have different perceptual capabilities to people then misinterpretation may occur. In this paper we investigate how ordinary people interpret the pointing behavior of a leading state-of-the-art service robot that has been designed to work closely with people. We tested three hypotheses about how robot pointing is interpreted. The most surprising finding was that the direction and pitch of the robot's head was important in some conditions. © Springer International Publishing 2013.
Gärdenfors, P. 2012, 'The cognitive and communicative demands of cooperation', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 164-183.View/Download from: Publisher's site
I argue that the analysis of different kinds of cooperation will benefit from an account of the cognitive and communicative functions required for that cooperation. I review different models of cooperation in game theory-reciprocal altruism, indirect reciprocity, cooperation about future goals, and conventions-with respect to their cognitive and communicative prerequisites. The cognitive factors considered include recognition of individuals, memory capacity, temporal discounting, prospective cognition, and theory of mind. Whereas many forms of cooperation require no communication or just simple communication, more advanced forms that are unique to humans presuppose full symbolic communication. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Hemeren, P. & Gärdenfors, P. 2012, 'A framework for representing action meaning in artificial systems via force dimensions', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Conference on Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), Springer, Oxford, UK, pp. 99-106.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
General (human) intelligence critically includes understanding human action, both action production and action recognition. Human actions also convey social signals that allow us to predict the actions of others (intent) as well as the physical and social consequences of our actions. What's more, we are able to talk about what we (and others) are doing. We present a framework for action recognition and communication that is based on access to the force dimensions that constrain human actions. The central idea here is that forces and force patterns constitute vectors in conceptual spaces that can represent actions and events. We conclude by pointing to the consequences of this view for how artificial systems could be made to understand and communicate about actions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Gärdenfors, P. 2011, 'Semantics based on conceptual spaces', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Indian Conference on Logic and Its Applications (ICLA), Springer Link, Delhi, India, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The overall goal is to show that conceptual spaces are more promising than other ways of modelling the semantics of natural language. In particular, I will show how they can be used to model actions and events. I will also outline how conceptual spaces provide a cognitive grounding for word classes, including nouns, adjectives, prepositions and verbs. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Williams, M., Gardenfors, P., Johnston, B.G. & Wightwick, G.R. 2010, 'Anticipation as a Strategy: A Design Paradigm for Robotics', Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 6291 - Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management, Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Belfast, Northern Ireland, pp. 341-353.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Anticipation plays a crucial role during any action, particularly in agents operating in open, complex and dynamic environments. In this paper we consider the role of anticipation as a strategy from a design perspective. Anticipation is a crucial skill in sporting games like soccer, tennis and cricket. We explore the role of anticipation in robot soccer matches in the context of reaching the RoboCup vision to develop a robot soccer team capable of defeating the FIFA World Champions in 2050. Anticipation in soccer can be planned or emergent but whether planned or emergent, anticipation can be designed. Two key obstacles stand in the way of developing more anticipatory robot systems; an impoverished understanding of the âanticipationâ process/capability and a lack of know-how in the design of anticipatory systems. Several teams at RoboCup have developed remarkable preemptive behaviors. The CMU Dive and UTS Dodge are two compelling examples. In this paper we take steps towards designing robots that can adopt anticipatory behaviors by proposing an innovative model of anticipation as a strategy that specifies the key characteristics of anticipation behaviors to be developed. The model can drive the design of autonomous systems by providing a means to explore and to represent anticipation requirements. Our approach is to analyze anticipation as a strategy and then to use the insights obtained to design a reference model that can be used to specify a set of anticipatory requirements for guiding an autonomous robot soccer system.
Gardenfors, P. 2007, 'Cognitive semantics and image schemas with embodied forces', EMBODIMENT IN COGNITION AND CULTURE, pp. 57-76.
Gardenfors, P. & Williams, M.-.A. 2007, 'Multi-agent communication, planning, and collaboration based on perceptions, conceptions, and simulations', MENTAL STATES, VOL 1: EVOLUTION, FUNCTION, NATURE, pp. 95-121.
Gardenfors, P. & Warglien, M. 2006, 'Cooperation, conceptual spaces and the evolution of semantics', SYMBOL GROUNDING AND BEYOND, PROCEEDINGS, pp. 16-30.
Gardenfors, P. 2004, 'Cooperation and the evolution of symbolic communication', EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, pp. 237-256.
Gärdenfors, P. 2002, 'The Role of Higher Order Similarity in Induction and Concept Formation.', KR, Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 629-629.
Williams, M. & Gardenfors, P. 2001, 'Reasoning about Categories in Conceptual Spaces', Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Morgan Kaufmann, Seattle Washington, pp. 385-392.
IJCAI is the most prestigious international conference in AI. This paper provided the first computational model for conceptual spaces which can be applied in cognitive agents.
Gardenfors, P. 1997, 'Meanings as conceptual structures', MINDSCAPES: PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE, AND THE MIND, pp. 61-86.
Gärdenfors, P. 1996, 'Belief Revision and Knowledge Representation.', TARK, Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 117-117.
Gardenfors, P. 1995, 'Speaking about the inner environment - Discussion of Wallace Chafe's paper "Accessing the Mind Through Language"', OF THOUGHTS AND WORDS, pp. 143-151.
GARDENFORS, P., LINDSTROM, S., MORREAU, M. & RABINOWICZ, W. 1991, 'THE NEGATIVE RAMSEY TEST - ANOTHER TRIVIALITY RESULTS', LOGIC OF THEORY CHANGE, pp. 129-134.
MAKINSON, D. & GARDENFORS, P. 1991, 'RELATIONS BETWEEN THE LOGIC OF THEORY CHANGE AND NONMONOTONIC LOGIC', LOGIC OF THEORY CHANGE, pp. 185-205.
Gärdenfors, P. 1990, 'Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Logic: Two Sides of the Same Coin?', ECAI, pp. 768-773.
Gärdenfors, P. & Makinson, D. 1988, 'Revisions of Knowledge Systems Using Epistemic Entrenchment.', TARK, Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 83-95.