Can supervise: YES
Vertical Greening Systems (VGS)
Selecting your Green Wall Site
Checklist for Appraising the Suitability of an
Existing Wall Structure for Green Wall Retrofit
Weight loading and External forces
Drainage and Irrigation
Professional Consultants and Advice
Achievable DIY Designs
Disclaimers and Acknowledgment
Allan, P & Stutterheim, C 2007, Moved to design.
Allan, P, Bryant, M & Yarina, L 2019, 'Applying and communicating indigenous land management knowledge systems and practices to climate change adaptation', Historic Environments, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 36-36.
There has often been a mutually beneficial relationship between cities and their rural hinterlands. The Kapiti region outside the city of Wellington in New Zealand is a prime example: it once provided Wellington's food, water and cultural diversity for both Māori and European settlers. However, productivity-driven agriculture and extensive dormitory-suburbanization have affected significant parts of this once-abundant hinterland. Food production is becoming more mono-cultural, water quality is degrading, ecosystems' biodiversity is disappearing, provincial town centres are shrinking, emigrating youth are leaving unbalanced demographics, Māori are increasingly disassociating their culture from their traditional lands and natural disasters are causing more impact—all of which is making Kapiti less resilient, and severing the once-healthy city-hinterland relationship. Our work on future settlement opportunities in Kapiti proposes alternatives, using experimental design-led research methods to develop speculative architectural and landscape architectural schemes. The schemes are framed by some of the spatial attributes of resilience: diversity, complexity, redundancy, interconnectivity and adaptability. Collectively, the work reveals design strategies that have a potential to rebuild hinterlands' culture, town centres, housing, agriculture, community and ecosystems and to recalibrate the broader relationship between hinterlands and metropolitan systems.
Bryant, M, Allan, P & Smith, H 2017, 'Climate Change Adaptations for Coastal Farms: Bridging Science and Mātauranga Māori with Art and Design', TPJ The Plan Journal, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 497-518.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Indigenous coastal farming communities need to address future climate change impacts, yet many communities are slow to respond, due to lack of adequate information, economic pressures, the abstract nature of climate change science and poor communication between what science knows and what indigenous farming communities need to know. Art and design can address these issues by synthesizing broad scientific principles with local place-specific culture and their visual language can effectively communicate short and long-term benefits to local communities. Art and design are thus both generative research methods and media for representation. This research uses art and design to provide a bridge between the Māori culture of a local farming community in coastal New Zealand and climate change science. It provides a framework of strategies for new farm practices. Underpinned by the qualitative awareness of thresholds and an open-ended toolbox of land-based strategies, the role of the framework is to catalyze adaptation. The framework is responsive to both the Māori worldview and scientific knowledge, and has the potential to provide a model for other coastal communities.
The article offers information on the word "HĪkoi" which is used for walking and talking and it harbours something about movement and something about a world view that links land to life to ancestry. Topics discussed includes landscape in Aotearoa New Zealand, the 2015 New Zealand Institute of Landscape Architects awards show and important role of the user in innovation in landscape architecture.
Allan, P & Bryant, M 2014, 'The attributes of resilience : a tool in the evaluation and design of earthquake-prone cities', International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, pp. 109-129.View/Download from: Publisher's site
– This paper aims to propose the concept of resilience as a way of aligning these disciplines. Theories of recovery planning and urban design theories have a common interest in providing for the health and safety of urban communities. However, the requirements of safe refuge and recovery after a disturbance, such as an earthquake, are sometimes at odds with theories of urbanism.
– The paper analyses the data from two case studies: the earthquake and fire of 1906 in San Francisco and the Chile earthquake of 2010. It uses a set of resilience attributes already embedded in the discourse of urban theory to evaluate each city's built environment and the way people have adapted to that built environment to recover following an earthquake.
– The findings suggests that resilience attributes, when considered interdependently, can potentially assist in the design of resilient cities which have an enhanced capacity to recover following an earthquake.
– They also suggest that the key to the successful integration of recovery planning and urban design lies in a shift of thinking that sees resilience as a framework for the design of cities that not only contributes significantly to the quality of everyday urban life but also can be adapted as essential life support and an agent of recovery in the event of an earthquake.
Allan, P & Smith, H 2013, 'Research at the Interface: Bicultural studio in New Zealand, a Case Study', MAI Journal: A New Zealand Journal of Indigenous Scholarship, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 133-149.
It has been suggested that Aotearoa New Zealand's designed and cultural landscapes do not reflect its status as a bi-cultural nation. To address this problem, the Landscape Architecture programme at Victoria University of Wellington set up a partnership with Manaaki Taha Moana: Enhancing Coastal Ecosystems for Iwi and Hapü, funded until 2015 by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington. Masters' students were asked to explore landscape design that would help iwi and hapü envisage ecological restoration or design projects that might enhance connections to their ancestral lands. This research considers the focus groups with students and iwi held after the studio and proposes a strategy for more effective bi-cultural design partnerships, which includes establishment of a protocol with a "research at the interface" approach. Finally, it recommends a number of strategies to better educate students in the responsibilities of designing in a bi-cultural environment and to promote more effective bi-cultural partnerships in the future.
Misni, A, Baird, G & Allan, P 2013, 'The effect of landscaping on the thermal performance of housing', International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 29-48.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© SPSD Press from 2010. The heat island effect influences most of the major cities around the world. This urban phenomenon occurs because air temperatures in densely built urban areas are higher than the temperatures of the surrounding rural countryside. In tropical cities, the exterior environment is already extremely warm due to high air temperatures, especially during dry seasons. However careful planning and development of exterior spaces can reduce the adverse impact of these temperatures. This paper investigates the effect of landscaping on the thermal performance of housing in a hot-humid tropical climate. The climatic parameters, physical characteristics of building construction, and landscape design of three private houses in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia were measured and surveyed. The study focuses on the potential impact of shade trees and different types of foliage on the thermal performance of houses of different ages. Sets of instrument were placed in several outdoor and indoor locations around the houses. Result show that the outdoor air temperatures of the well-landscaped houses were usually lower compared to the minimally-landscaped house. The main findings show that well-designed landscaping around single-family houses could potentially reduce heat build-up by shading, evapotranspiration, and wind channelling by as much as 3°C.
Allan, P, Bryant, M, Wirsching, C, Garcia, D & Teresa Rodriguez, M 2013, 'The Influence of Urban Morphology on the Resilience of Cities Following an Earthquake', Journal of Urban Design, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 242-262.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper proposes a conceptual theory of resilience in urbanism and demonstrates its application through a case study. The theory's underpinnings are the attributes of resilience that have been developed in ecological sciences, but have clear parallels in urbanism. They suggest that it may be possible to enhance the resilience of a city through the design of its urban morphology. The paper explores these ideas by examining the relationship between the community's adaptive behaviour and the spaces of the city of Concepción after its 2010 earthquake. This empirical evidence suggests that the role of the urban designer in earthquake-prone cities is perhaps more critical before an earthquake happens and that the more the idea of a resilient urban morphology is embedded as part of daily life, the more effective it is likely to be in the aftermath of a major earthquake.
Theories of recovery planning and urban design share a common interest in providing for the health and safety of urban communities. However, the requirements of safe refuge and recovery after a disturbance, such as an earthquake, are sometimes at odds with theories of urbanism. This paper proposes the concept of resilience and its interdependent attributes as a way of aligning these theories. It tests the concept through a focus on two case studies, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the Chile earthquake of 2010. The key to the successful integration of recovery planning and urban design lies in a shift of thinking that sees resilience as a framework for the design of urban space so that it can not only contribute significantly to the quality of everyday urban life but also can be adapted as essential life support and an agent of recovery in the event of a disaster.
Cowan, H, Beattie, G, Hill, K, Evans, N, McGhie, C, Gibson, G, Lawrance, G, Hamilton, J, Allan, P, Bryant, M, Davis, M, Hyland, C, Oyarzo-Vera, C, Quintana-Gallo, P & Smith, P 2011, 'The M8.8 Chile earthquake, 27 february 2010', Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 123-166.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The largest earthquake of 2010 by magnitude (Mw8.8), and the subject of this article, struck south-central Chile in the early hours of 27 February 2010. The earthquake was a "mega-thrust" event, involving the rupture of a section of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, where the Nazca plate dips at a shallow angle beneath the Pacific margin of South America. Understanding this event and its effects, including tsunami is of particular significance to urban centres that share close proximity to "subduction zones". These include Seattle, Vancouver, Tokyo and Wellington, together with smaller New Zealand towns of the eastern North Island and upper South Island. The tectonic setting of south-central Chile has similarities to the East Coast of the North Island, and the modern built environment of Chile shares attributes with New Zealand. However, New Zealand has not experienced a large subduction earthquake in the North Island region in at least 200 years, so an understanding of the Chile event and its impact is important for bench-marking of local practices and building resilience. This report summarises the observations of the NZSEE/EQC teams, supplemented by media updates on the Chilean reconstruction experience one year after the earthquake.
Allan, P & Roberts, J 2010, 'Constructing Resilience: The Wellington Studio', Landscape Review, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 18-30.
Allan, P & Roberts, J 2009, 'urban resilience and the open space network', Tephra, no. 22.
Benson, T, Jaochim, L, Smith, H, Allan, P, Bryant, M, Suaalii-Sauni, T, Fatu Lefale, P & Dawson, C 2021, 'Indigenous Art, Resilience and Climate Change' in Devy, GN (ed), Environment and Belief Systems, Routledge India, India.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Benson Tracey Tracey Benson Joachim Lee Lee Joachim Indigenous Australian songlines, river worlds and realities This section explores some of the river countries of Eastern Australia as a way of mapping and layering knowledge systems used to understand the river and to posit rivers systems and fresh water as a critical part of adapting to climate change. The rivers chosen all have significance to the authors, who have knowledge of these rivers through cultural connections as well as through lived experience. The focus is on three rivers: 1) Dhungala (Murray River), Australia's longest river and part of the Murray-Darling Basin, the driest river system in the world (Murray River); 2) Breimba (Clarence River) of northern NSW. Apart from the Murray River, it is the largest river in mainland Australia south of the Tropic of Capricorn; and 3) Molongo River, which cuts through the middle of Canberra and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and feeds into the Murrumbidgee River, part of the Murray-Darling Basin. Smith Huhana Huhana Smith Allan Penny Penny Allan Bryant Martin Martin Bryant Mātauranga Māori, art and design: unconventional ways for addressing climate change impacts In this study, the authors explore mātauranga Māori knowledge to cultivate a more culturally determined approach to land and waterways, and have generated visions, strategies and actions through art and design to provide a more inherently accessible, inclusive and integrative approach to adaptation. This research asks the question: How do we bridge the gap between these knowledge systems to make compelling and achievable solutions? Using a case study farm in the Horowhenua, the study applies three Māori methods: whakapapa (the interrelated genealogies between all things), hīkoi (walking talking hui with knowledge specialists across lands and waterways) and kōrero tuku iho (oral narratives of place). The intent of the research outlined in this section is to encourage adaptation of housing, agri...
Part of the series Key Concepts in Indigenous Studies, this book focuses on the concepts that recur in any discussion of nature, culture and society among the indigenous.
Allan, P & Bryant, M 2019, 'Thresholds and contingencies: A design process for regional coastal resilience' in Mossop, E (ed), Sustainable Coastal Design and Planning, Routledge, Abbingdon, pp. 277-292.
Adaptation for climate change and resilience in coastal regions outside urban centers will be a protracted program. Cities, with their high population densities and capital investment, are deemed most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, and hence this is where most research and money is invested. However, the impacts of climate change in underfunded coastal regions are likely to be no less significant. From a resilience perspective, these regions provide a back-up service to the cities. They provide biodiversity and recreation opportunities and, with worldwide food and water scarcity likely to be one of the most significant threats of climate change, and as producers of a high percentage of these resources, they have the potential to contribute to global solutions.Although the climate change impacts associated with rural, urban, and suburban sites in coastal regions are similar, the challenges are somewhat different. For coastal farms to remain viable, access to land is critical, but inundation from flooding and sea level rise is likely to effectively diminish arable land in low lying areas by up to 50% in some cases. And, because land is relatively cheap, extensive suburban development continues to occur along the seafront with road networks that prioritize waterfront views for individual houses over neighborhood amenity and community networks. Perhaps most significant is that there are very few financial incentives to alter the status quo. This chapter addresses a way of thinking about adaptation to climate change in regional coastal areas that relies not on financial incentives and government policy, but rather on a community-based approach.
Smith, H & Allan, P 2017, 'He Whakawhiti Korero: A Conversation about a Collaboration' in McCarthy, C & Stocker, M (eds), Colonial Gothic to Maori Renaissance. Essays in memory of Jonathan Mane-Wheoki, Victoria University Press, Wellington NZ, pp. 238-247.
Allan, P & Smith, H 2014, 'The New New Zealand: Methods for Reimagining the Identity of Aotearoa, NZ' in Venice Architectural Design Research, pp. 56-59.
Bryant, M & Allan, P 2013, 'Open Space Innovation in Earthquake Affected Cities' in Tiefenbacher, J (ed), Approaches to Disaster Management - Examining the Implications of Hazards, Emergencies and Disasters, In-Tech, USA, pp. 183-204.View/Download from: Publisher's site
There are two types of resilience: engineering resilience, and ecological resilience.  Engi‐
neering resilience is drawn from environmental sciences where the resistance to disturbance
and rate of return to an optimal equilibrium is paramount. It is predicated on understanding
the componentry of a system, the universal applicability of resilience principles, and its
'efficiency, constancy and predictability'  – all attributes at the core of engineers' briefs for
Ecological resilience (ex ecological sciences) is about the interrelatedness of a system's
components and forces; how a system can undergo change and still retain function and
structure; how it can self-organize; and how it can increase the capacity for learning and
adaptation.  Evolution exemplifies ecological resilience: it is a force (within a system) that
uses random mutations of components (of a system) to lasting advantage. But it is hard to
predict how it will work. The characteristics of ecological resilience are immeasurable, different
at different scales, dependent on persistence, change and unpredictability, balanced by
multiple equilibria, and accepting of experimentation, knowing that it is safe to fail. These
characteristics may not always be apparent, but will probably surface when there is a disturb‐
ance, when there is a need to adapt.  Nature tells us, paradoxically, that it is perhaps a
mistake to try too hard to avoid shocks; that stability lets risk accumulate without providing
capability or capacity to deal with disaster; and that volatility actually keeps things manageable
In the wake of apocalyptic disturbances, such as hurricanes, floods and earthquakes, the
concept of resilience has penetrated recent urbanism theory. But which type of resilience?
Allan, P 2014, 'The New NZ: methods for reimagining the identity of Aotearoa NZ', Architectural Design Research Symposium, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand, pp. 56-59.
Presents the outputs of nationally (NZ) funded research project: Adaptation Strategies to Address Climate Change Impacts on Coastal Māori Communities in Aotearoa-New Zealand
Irga, P, Wilkinson, S, Allan, P, Torpy, F, Douglas, A & Pettit, T Hort Innovation 2019, DIY laneway greening – simplifying vertical greening at a community level. Milestone Report 1., no. GC17002, Sydney, Australia.
The objective of this report is to establish an enabling environment to facilitate the uptake of vertical greening systems, more commonly known as 'Green Walls', within urban environments at a community level. To achieve this, a coherent framework will be provided, that will provide guidance on planning, designing and managing a green wall within community space. This project is a collaborative enterprise that unites academia, government and community know-how to produce a complete, practical and inclusive means of enabling the expansion of urban greening.
Allan, P 2019, 'Raising Warragamba Dam will do far more harm than good', Foreground.