Darling, AE, Liu, M, Worden, P, Monahan, L, Demaere, M, Burke, C, Djordjevic, S & Charles, I 2017, 'Evaluation of ddRADseq for reduced representation metagenome sequencing', PeerJ, vol. 5.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
'Who is doing what' is the ultimate open question in microbiome study. Shotgun metagenomics is often applied to gain knowledge of functional roles for bacteria in microbial communities, where the data can be used to predict protein encoding genes and enzymatic pathways present in the community, sometimes leading to testable hypotheses for microbial
function. We describe a method and basic analysis for a metagenomic adaptation of the double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) protocol for reduced representation metagenome profiling. This technique takes advantage of the sequence
specificity of restriction endonucleases to construct an Illumina-compatible sequencing library containing DNA fragments that are between a pair of restriction sites located within close proximity. This results in a reduced sequencing library with coverage breadth that can
be tuned by size selection.
We assessed the performance of the metagenomic ddRADseq approach by applying the method to human stool samples and generating sequence data. We evaluate the extent to which ddRADseq data provides an unbiased reduced representation for microbiome profiling.
Although ddRADseq does introduce some bias in taxonomic representation, the bias is likely to be small relative to DNA extraction bias. ddRADseq appears feasible and could have value as a tool for metagenome-wide association studies.
Chowdhury, PR, DeMaere, M, Chapman, T, Worden, P, Charles, IG, Darling, AE & Djordjevic, SP 2016, 'Comparative genomic analysis of toxin-negative strains of Clostridium difficile from humans and animals with symptoms of gastrointestinal disease', BMC MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Roy Chowdhury, P, Scott, M, Worden, P, Huntington, P, Hudson, B, Karagiannis, T, Charles, I & Djordjevic, S 2016, 'Genomic islands 1 and 2 play key roles in the evolution of extensively drug-resistant ST235 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa', Open Biology, vol. 6, pp. 1-12.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pseudomonas aeruginosa are noscomially acquired, opportunistic pathogens that pose a major threat to the health of burns patients and the immunocompromised. We sequenced the genomes of P. aeruginosa isolates RNS_PA1, RNS_PA46 and RNS_PAE05, which displayed resistance to almost all frontline antibiotics, including gentamicin, piperacillin, timentin, meropenem, ceftazidime and colistin. We provide evidence that the isolates are representatives of P. aeruginosa sequence type (ST) 235 and carry Tn6162 and Tn6163 in genomic islands 1 (GI1) and 2 (GI2), respectively. GI1 disrupts the endA gene at precisely the same chromosomal location as in P. aeruginosa strain VR-143/97, of unknown ST, creating an identical CA direct repeat. The class 1 integron associated with Tn6163 in GI2 carries a blaGES-5–aacA4–gcuE15–aphA15 cassette array conferring resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides. GI2 is flanked by a 12 nt direct repeat motif, abuts a tRNA-gly gene, and encodes proteins with putative roles in integration, conjugative transfer as well as integrative conjugative element-specific proteins. This suggests that GI2 may have evolved from a novel integrative conjugative element. Our data provide further support to the hypothesis that genomic islands play an important role in de novo evolution of multiple antibiotic resistance phenotypes in P. aeruginosa.
Background Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious diarrhea in humans and responsible for large outbreaks of enteritis in neonatal pigs in both North America and Europe. Disease caused by C. difficile typically occurs during antibiotic therapy and its emergence over the past 40 years is linked with the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine. Results We sequenced the genome of Clostridium difficile 5.3 using the Illumina Nextera XT and MiSeq technologies. Assembly of the sequence data reconstructed a 4,009,318 bp genome in 27 scaffolds with an N50 of 786 kbp. The genome has extensive similarity to other sequenced C. difficile genomes, but also has several genes that are potentially related to virulence and pathogenicity that are not present in the reference C. difficile strain. Conclusion Genome sequencing of human and animal isolates is needed to understand the molecular events driving the emergence of C. difficile as a gastrointestinal pathogen of humans and food animals and to better define its zoonotic potential.