Nico Schulenkorf is Associate Professor of Sport Management at UTS. His research focuses on the social, cultural and health-related outcomes of sport and event projects within and between disadvantaged communities. For several years, Nico has been involved in sport-for-development and health promotion programs in countries such as Sri Lanka, Israel and the Pacific Islands. He has been working with local and international NGOs, Government Agencies, Sport Associations and Ministries in developing capacities to implement, monitor and evaluate development projects.
Nico has published his research in the leading sport management and sociology journals; his latest co-authored book is Global Sport Leadership (Routledge, 2019) and the co-edited volumes Critical Issues in Global Sport Management (Routledge, 2017) and Managing Sport Development: An International Perspective (Routledge, 2016). For his long-term contribution to the advancement of social justice on an international level, Nico has previously received the UTS Vice Chancellor’s Human Rights Award.
Nico is co-founder and past editor of the Journal of Sport for Development (JSFD) and currently serves on the journal's Advisory Board. He is also an editorial board member of Sport Management Review (SMR), the European Journal for Sport and Society (EJSS) and Sport and Entertainment Review (SER). In the past, Nico also held the role of Director of the Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand (SMAANZ).
Can supervise: YES
Sport-for-Development, Intergroup Relations, Capacity Building, Social Capital, Social Identities, Sport Event Leverage
The Experience Economy
Event Project Management
Sport in the International Marketplace
This book explores the global developments in sport leadership and practice. Drawing on the vast and ever-growing leadership literature, the book examines advances in leadership theory and practice in the context of the challenges faced by those working in global sport management positions. It explores the various dimensions of leadership, with a particular focus on the development of leadership theory. It also looks at the operational and contextual elements of leadership in a global sport environment and finally reflects on the status quo, and explores future challenges and research opportunities for leadership and global sport management.
Critical Issues in Global Sport Management will provide researchers, students and practitioners with a collection of chapters that examine the latest concepts and challenges faced by the global sport industry. The book identifies and evaluates current issues and complexities faced by those charged with the responsibility of managing sport in compound business contexts as well as intricate social environments.
Sherry, E, Schulenkorf, N & Phillips, P 2016, Managing Sport Development: An International Approach, Routledge.
This is the first undergraduate textbook to offer a complete introduction to sport development, covering theory and its application to managerial practice, with examples from international contexts.
Sherry, E, Schulenkorf, N & Phillips, P 2016, Managing Sport Development: An International Approach, Routledge.
Sport development is an area of exponential growth in the international sport industry. This book offers a complete introduction to sport development, covering theory and its application to managerial practice, with examples from international contexts.
This book provides a critical approach to sport-for-development, acknowledging the potential of this growing field but also emphasising challenges, problems and limitations, particularly if programs are not adequately planned, delivered or monitored. The book features both critical theory and reflective praxis, and will thus be useful to both academics and practitioners.
Godfrey, J, Wearing, S, Schulenkorf, N & Faulkner, S 2020, 'The ‘volunteer tourist gaze’: commercial volunteer tourists’ interactions with, and perceptions of, the host community in Cusco, Peru', Current Issues in Tourism.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper presents the commodified volunteer tourist gaze through the use of a case study which contextualizes commercial volunteer tourism. Interviews undertaken with volunteer tourists in Cusco, Peru, and on-the-ground participant observation, provide insights into what we term a ‘volunteer tourist gaze’ underpinned by neo-colonial tendencies. The findings demonstrate that volunteer tourists are not passive consumers of a destination, but actively engage in a multi-sensory, embodied experience. This is evidenced in the way they describe their interactions with local people, and their views and perceptions of poverty in Cusco. However, the findings suggest that the volunteer-host interactions and experiences do little to foster cross-cultural understanding, particularly given the limitations to these interactions imposed by a significant language barrier. Instead, the commodified volunteer tourist gaze perpetuates neo-colonial discourses by emphasizing the differences between volunteer tourists from the developed world (the haves) and host communities in the Global South (the have nots).
Herold, DM, Breitbarth, T, Schulenkorf, N & Kummer, S 2020, 'Sport logistics research: reviewing and line marking of a new field', International Journal of Logistics Management.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Although logistics management is a crucial part of local and global sports events, there is no research-driven characterization of “sports logistics management”. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a framework that allows for a more structured recognition of logistics in sports, in general, and sport event management, in particular. In addition, we conduct a systematic literature review of sports logistics management and locate opportunities for future research both for sports management and logistics management scholars.
Welty Peachey, J, Schulenkorf, N & Hill, P 2020, 'Sport-for-development: A comprehensive analysis of theoretical and conceptual advancements', Sport Management Review.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Over the past decade, the field of sport-for-development (SFD) has experienced significant growth and diversification across research and practice. In this review paper, the authors provide a comprehensive analysis and discussion of the theoretical and conceptual developments within SFD, addressing a gap in the literature. Following a sport-focused review of SFD literature, the authors first identify five theoretical and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from within the SFD space. As a second step, they analyze and discuss scholarly work that has utilized these theories and frameworks. Building on a comparison of key messages, themes, and concerns, the authors highlight that to date, limited SFD scholarship has truly applied, extended, or challenged existing frameworks and conceptualizations. Motivated by this review, they posit several conceptual advancements, and offer directions for future research and theoretical development.
Sugden, JT, Schulenkorf, N, Adair, D & Frawley, S 2020, 'The role of sport in reflecting and shaping group dynamics: The “intergroup relations continuum” and its application to Fijian rugby and soccer', Sport Management Review, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 271-283.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A significant body of knowledge exists around the role of intergroup relations in sport for development and peace (SFDP). However, while numerous SFDP studies have investigated overt conflict, scholars have typically overlooked the varied nature of intergroup relations in comparatively stable SFDP environments. In addressing that issue, this paper explores intergroup relations in the context of Fiji, a country which in recent years has moved from a society characterized by the politics of coup d'état to democratic government and relatively peaceful social relations. That said, Fiji has long been shaped by a fundamental cultural divide between Indigenous Fijians (iTaukei) and Fijians of Indian ancestry (Indo-Fijians): this is reflected in the de facto separatism between these groups in relation to their role in rugby union and Association football (soccer). In this paper, the authors present a qualitative framework—the Intergroup Relations Continuum (IRC)—by which to ‘map’ intergroup relations as they apply in Fiji according to identity, ethnicity and sport. While the IRC is applied here in a Fijian context, the model is intended to be generalizable, aiming to provide a practical instrument for researchers, sport managers, policymakers and local stakeholders.
Joachim, G, Schulenkorf, N, Schlenker, K & Frawley, S 2020, 'Design thinking and sport for development: enhancing organizational innovation', Managing Sport and Leisure, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 175-202.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Rationale/purpose: To determine if the field of sport for development (SFD) presents opportunities for the employment of design thinking approaches toward enhancing organizational innovation. Design/methodology/approach: We undertook a scoping study to determine if and how SFD research and practice aligns with five established themes of design thinking practice. Findings: Design thinking indicators are present across the breadth of SFD research. A total of 14 SFD articles display total thematic alignment with design thinking practice, particularly in regard to five key indicators of such alignment: (a) deep user understanding, (b) diversity of perspectives, (c) testing for user feedback, (d) futuristic thinking, and (e) bias toward action. Practical implications: Five key indicators represent logical points of entry for the employment of design thinking in SFD research and practice. Research contribution: Design thinking has become popular in the broad field of management, but this is the first study of the concept in the sport management domain.
Schulenkorf, N, Edwards, D & Hergesell, A 2020, 'Guiding qualitative inquiry in sport-for-development: The sport in development settings (SPIDS) research framework', Journal of Sport for Development, vol. 8, no. 14, pp. 53-69.
The burgeoning field of sport-for-development (SFD) is witnessing a steady increase in experience-related empirical investigations. To support academics—and in particular young and emerging scholars—with a rigorous framework for investigating social and cultural phenomena in different SFD contexts, we propose the process-oriented sport in development settings (SPIDS) research framework. SPIDS represents a guiding framework that advocates a qualitative approach to researching SFD projects in which multiple methods are combined for a holistic in-depth investigation. In this paper, we apply practical examples from the SFD field to the SPIDS framework and discuss its individual sections in a step-by-step manner. Specific focus is placed on aspects of reflection and reflexivity as distinctly important and underpinning aspects of qualitative SFD research.
Hoekman, MJ, Schulenkorf, N & Welty Peachey, J 2019, 'Re-engaging local youth for sustainable sport-for-development', Sport Management Review, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 613-625.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Despite increasing evidence that sport-for-development (SFD) programs can contribute to community development, there remains a lack of empirical inquiry into different socio-managerial aspects of SFD. For example, in attempts to achieve locally sustained SFD programs, the roles, responsibilities and potential impact of re-engaged youth need further investigation. The authors define re-engaged youth as previous program participants who have maintained strong links with the organization and who return to the program at a later stage as volunteers or staff members. In this paper, the authors examine ways in which Re-engaged youth of the Blue Dragon Children Foundation's SFD program contribute to sustainable management and indirectly to community development within a disadvantaged community setting in Hanoi, Vietnam. Following an interpretive mode of inquiry, the authors conducted and analyzed two focus groups (six participants each) and 12 in-depth interviews with re-engaged youth (n = 7) and key program stakeholders (n = 5). Overall, re-engaged youth represented key drivers for organizational success; they served as program culture experts, role models, leaders and mentors, and creators of a family feel in SFD and beyond. The authors argue that re-engaged youth are demonstrating a number of important change agent capabilities that enable them to uniquely gauge and best respond to the needs of program participants and local communities in complex sociocultural environments.
MacFarlane, JD, Phelps, S & Schulenkorf, N 2019, 'Fitness industry self-regulation: institutional or by choice?', Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 506-524.View/Download from: Publisher's site
\Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to document and explore the perceptual motivations for voluntary and continued affiliation with a fitness industry register by its affiliates (“members”) and non-affiliates (“non-members”). The formation of fitness industry registers to impart self-regulation is a common global occurrence. Their sustainment, however, is reliant on the motivations and voluntary support of industry members. Limited work has been done in this area. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative study uses the interpretive research paradigm, involving semi-structured interviews with 12 Auckland, New Zealand, fitness centre managers, industry associations, New Zealand Register of Exercise Professionals (Reps NZ) and Fitness New Zealand. Lenox’s (2006) participation-contingent benefits framework provides the necessary lens to explore the perceptual motivations behind participation/non-participation by fitness centres with an industry self-regulatory system (i.e. Reps NZ). Findings: Whereas participation-contingent benefits are perceived minimal, and exceeded by affiliation limitations, there is institutional congruence for industry regulation to exist, thus creating institutional pressures that encourage affiliation and retention. Whereas affiliates choose to absorb the associated inconveniences of affiliation to “support” Reps NZ, non-affiliates question the register’s regulatory form, choosing to avoid the affiliation costs and limitations. Originality/value: This study lends further support that institutional development is crucial for inclusive, substantive and sustainable self-regulatory systems. Regardless of the perceived low return on participation-contingent benefits, industry self-regulation can be sustained if there is a desire by industry members to maintain the institutional notion that the regulation needs to exist.
Schulenkorf, N & Siefken, K 2019, 'Managing sport-for-development and healthy lifestyles: The sport-for-health model', Sport Management Review, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 96-107.View/Download from: Publisher's site
With increased globalization and modernization of people's lives, lifestyle behavior has changed substantially in many countries around the world. This change has brought two key behavior modifications: a reduction in physical activity and an increase in unhealthy eating patterns. Consequently, non-communicable diseases have overtaken communicable diseases as a key health risk area. In response to this issue, healthy lifestyle initiatives and sport-for-development (SFD) programs are now implemented across the world, including projects in the heavily affected Pacific Islands region. In this paper, the authors critically reflect on their lived experiences and the underpinning management processes of the Wokabaot Jalens, a health-focused SFD initiative in Vanuatu. The authors propose the sport-for-health model as a flexible conceptual tool that establishes the nexus between sport management, health promotion, sociocultural development, policy, and sustainability. The authors provide practical and theoretical implications and suggest that the model can underpin and conceptually support other SFD initiatives—and specifically health-related development projects—in the Pacific region and beyond.
Schulenkorf, N, Giannoulakis, C & Blom, L 2019, 'Sustaining commercial viability and community benefits: management and leverage of a sport-for-development event', European Sport Management Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 502-519.View/Download from: Publisher's site
When managed strategically, sport events have the capacity to generate economic, sociocultural, and health-related benefits for host communities. To date, the majority of academic research has focused on the impact components of large-scale and mega-sport events, such as the Olympic Games. In an attempt to provide empirical evidence of management strategies and tactics related to small-scale events, the purpose of this study was to examine how an event business strategically manages and leverages an event to sustain its commercial viability, while focusing on generating social benefits for the community. Through the lens of sport-for-development theory and event leverage concepts, we explore the case of an annual, mass participation sporting event on the island of Spetses, Greece. Against the background of financial hardship and subsequent social disparity in the country, our qualitative investigation includes 19 semi-structured interviews with various stakeholders of the Spetses Mini Marathon. Outcomes of the qualitative analysis indicated three main thematic categories: (a) managing context, (b) engaged change agent, and (c) involved community. In the midst of an economic crisis, the change agent managed to secure the commercial sustainability of the event, while generating several social, cultural, economic, and sporting benefits for the local community through a participatory community approach. In discussing our findings, we provide implications for strategic management and leverage of local sport events, and we highlight opportunities and challenges for maximizing the reputational capital for organizers as well as social benefits for communities.
Welty Peachey, J, Schulenkorf, N & Spaaij, R 2019, 'Sport for Social Change: Bridging the Theory–Practice Divide', Journal of Sport Management, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 361-365.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Theory development around sport for social change agendas has received greater attention from scholars over the past 10 years. Yet, it remains underdeveloped when compared with theoretical advancements and innovations in other aspects of the sport industry. In this special issue, we bring to light some of the most recent conceptual and empirical work exploring the theory–practice connection in the field of sport for social change.
Sugden, J, Adair, D, Schulenkorf, N & Frawley, S 2019, 'Exploring sport and intergroup relations in Fiji. Guidance for researchers undertaking short-term ethnography.', Sociology of Sport Journal, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 277-288.
There is a key tension associated with ethnographic explorations into the lives of people in the Global South – ‘outsider’ researchers from the Global North who lack experience of the environments they are seeking to understand. A considered response, therefore, is for scholars to seek physical immersion in a field – to live among those they are trying to understand. Such ethnographic inquiries are optimal when researchers have the capacity to engage over long periods of time. However, in some circumstances, this may not feasible. Thus, questions arise about the veracity of field work investigations that are not only temporally brief but undertaken by scholars who lack local experience. This paper reflects on the experiences of a researcher who was faced with those challenges. It provides guidance as to how scholars might prepare for short-term ethnography (STE) in field work, along with the limitations and constraints of such an approach. The research centered on a sport for development and peace study into intergroup relations and ethnic separatism in Fijian sport.
Schulenkorf, N, Sherry, E & Richards, J 2018, 'JSFD in times of change: A reflection on milestones met and challenges ahead', Journal of Sport for Development, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 38-39.
Five years from its inauguration, we look back and reflect on the Journal of Sport for Development's organizational developments, key achievements, and future opportunities. In this contribution, the outgoing editors exercise their editorial license one last time to issue the new leadership team with a few challenges going forward…
Spaaij, R, Schulenkorf, N, Jeanes, R & Oxford, S 2018, 'Participatory research in sport-for-development: Complexities, experiences and (missed) opportunities', Sport Management Review, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 25-37.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this paper, the authors examine how participatory research can be conceptualized and fostered in sport-for-development (SfD). The authors offer a conceptualization of participatory research that centers on the interplay between three dimensions: participation, power, and reflexivity. Drawing on variegated experiences with SfD research across different geographical locations, the authors scrutinize the conceptual and empirical linkages between these dimensions, and how these linkages are influenced by structures of authority. Findings suggest that most SfD research falls short with regard to the critical challenge of embracing and delivering high degrees of participation, power shifting, and reflexivity. More specifically, SfD researchers typically fail to relinquish power and control over the research process. The SfD research community would likely benefit from greater inclusivity and collaboration when designing creative ways to improve this state of affairs. The authors conclude by reflecting on the implications and by suggesting ways to promote participatory and activist research in SfD contexts.
Mack, M, Schulenkorf, N, Adair, D & Bennie, A 2018, 'Factors influencing the development of elite-level sports officials in Australia: the AFL, ABA and FFA', Sport in Society, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1240-1257.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Previous research into sports officiating at the elite level has primarily
focused on factors that impact negatively on sports officials, including
experiences of abuse, time pressures and fear of failure. However,
factors that have positively influenced the development of elite
officials have largely been neglected. This is problematic, as a better
knowledge about how elite officials progress to top-tier competitions
may improve officiating performance and role satisfaction. This study
therefore, aims to identify factors that work positively for individuals
who seek to reach elite levels of sport officiating. This is important
because it can assist our understanding of how to create a positive
environment for the development of young officials, thereby helping
with role satisfaction, improved chances of retention and, where
appropriate, pathways into career development at the elite level of
sport. The context for this study is Australia, with a focus on national
competitions in basketball, football (soccer) and Australian Rules
football as representative samples for referees and umpires.
Frawley, SM, Favaloro, D & Schulenkorf, N 2018, 'Experience-Based Leadership Development and Professional Sport Organizations', Journal of Sport Management, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 123-134.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In recent years, there has been a significant interest around leadership development practices within the field of management. Leadership development is particularly important within the highly competitive sport industry, where leadership performance is under constant and ever-increasing scrutiny. For sport organizations, strong
leadership can be a source of significant competitive advantage, and hence, increased focus on leadership and investment into the development of talent has occurred. However, there has been a surprising lack of scholarly research into leadership and the associated processes within the sport management field, particularly from an Australian perspective. This paper addresses this gap as it examines the nature of experience-based leadership
development practices within three of Australia’s leading professional sport organizations. Following a qualitative multicase study approach, the thematic analysis of 15 in-depth semistructured interviews with members of the senior executive of each case organization suggested that the national sport organizations placed significant emphasis on experience-based opportunities as a way of developing their workforce. Via the
adoption of McCall’s experience-based leadership development
framework, four main themes emerged: the importance of experience-based opportunities for leadership development; leadership development through involvement and exposure to experiences; networking opportunities gained from experienced-based exposure; and the relationship between on-the-job experience and formal leadership education. These findings extend our knowledge of current leadership development and practices implemented in national sport organizations and highlight the importance of effective leadership within highly competitive sport markets. Based on these findings, implications are provided for current practice illustrating the benefits that an experience-based approach to leadership development within sport organiza...
The field of sport-for-development (SFD) has experienced significant growth and increased academic rigor over the past 15 years. As sport management scholars have started to critically investigate and evaluate SFD programs, they have in turn contributed to the future design and improvement of SFD initiatives that today are more strategically planned and pedagogically sound than ever before. As part of the 20th anniversary series of Sport Management Review, the author looks back at some of the key achievements of sport management scholarship and proposes new and exciting areas for future enquiry. In particular, while past research can be classified under the four headings of SFD programming and design; sustainable management and capacity building; creating and leveraging impacts and outcomes; and conceptual/theoretical advancements, the author suggests that future studies may attend to the managerial concepts of leadership, entrepreneurship and Design Thinking to maximise the potential of sport (management) to contribute to desired, innovative and sustained community development outcomes.
Sherry, E, Schulenkorf, N, Seal, E, Nicholson, M & Hoye, R 2017, 'Sport-for-Development in the South Pacific Region: Macro-, Meso-, and Micro-Perspectives', Sociology of Sport Journal, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 303-316.View/Download from: Publisher's site
As the field of sport-for-development (SFD) has developed, there has been increasing debate over the ability of SFD programs to effect lasting structural change on target communities. Highlighting the barriers to SFD program delivery in five Pacific Island nations, in this paper we argue that numerous challenges emerging at macro-, meso-, and micro-levels must be explored, understood, and accounted for to enact structural change. Building on thematic findings from our empirical cross-nation research project, we discuss the importance of addressing SFD challenges at all levels of society to ensure that interventions are appropriately tailored for the specific and often divergent sociocultural contexts in the Pacific Islands region. We argue for a more holistic approach to planning, management, and evaluation when attempting to deliver structural change through sport.
Sherry, E, Schulenkorf, N, Seal, E, Nicholson, M & Hoye, R 2017, 'Sport-for-development: Inclusive, reflexive, and meaningful research in low- and middle-income settings', Sport Management Review, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 69-80.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Research in and around sport-for-development (SFD) has increased steadily since the first scholarly work in the field was conducted in the 1990s. As SFD has grown into an established and respected area of study, it has also diversified in its research approaches and methodologies. In this article, we reflect on our experiences as researchers in low- and middle-income countries and specifically discuss the combination of traditional research methods and innovative approaches to qualitative inquiry within two distinct projects that were funded under a single SFD program. We highlight the efficacy of a flexible, innovative, and locally relevant research design, and advocate for inclusive, reflexive, and participatory research approaches during the monitoring and evaluation processes. Finally, we identify likely success factors and challenges for current SFD research, and offer recommendations for future qualitative inquiries in and around sport-based development programs.
Schulenkorf, N & Schlenker, K 2017, 'Leveraging sport events to maximize community benefits in low-and middle-income countries', Event Management, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 217-231.View/Download from: Publisher's site
For many years, special events have played an important role as strategic elements within community development. However, to date little work has been conducted on how to maximize the social potential of special events in low-and middle-income countries. In addressing this issue, we reflect on event management processes and leverage mechanisms that have underpinned a community sport event in the Pacific Island nation of Samoa, and identify strategies for maximizing beneficial event outcomes. We present findings related to previously identified leverage areas, including sociocultural and participatory leverage, and also suggest new areas that seem particularly relevant in the context of community development, including educational, health-related, and reputational leverage. Finally, key challenges and opportunities for event managers and local communities are discussed, implications for event leverage are provided, and areas for future research are outlined.
MacFarlane, J, Phelps, S & Schulenkorf, N 2016, 'Discovering Network Legitimacy in the Fitness Industry: A Case Study of REPs NZ', International Journal of Sport Management, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 129-153.
Fitness industry registers may strategically attempt to enhance their field’s professional legitimacy via self-imposed regulation. Incorporating a conceptual framework of organisational legitimacy, this study identifies how 12 Auckland fitness centre managers perceive register affiliation. Representatives from the New Zealand Register of Exercise Professionals (REPs NZ) and Fitness New Zealand also contributed. Findings suggest participants are aware of the industry regulation concept, but opinions are mixed and member benefits are observed as minimal. Tensions exist between affiliates and non-affiliates regarding observed substantive/symbolic affiliate behaviours and the actual/perceived role of REPs NZ. Organisations act strategically and institutionally to acquire legitimacy through affiliation.
Misener, L & Schulenkorf, N 2016, 'Rethinking the Social Value of Sport Events Through an Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD) Perspective', Journal of Sport Management, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 329-340.View/Download from: Publisher's site
With an increasing emphasis on the social value of sport and events, there has been a shift in focus regarding the management and development process of event projects as well as their associated outcomes. This shift is about emphasizing a more strategic approach to developing social benefits by recognizing and utilizing leveragable resources related to sport events as a means of fostering lasting social and economic change (Chalip, 2006; O’Brien & Chalip, 2007; Schulenkorf & Edwards, 2012). In this paper, we adapt and apply the asset-based community development (ABCD) model as a means of developing a more action-oriented, community-based approach to leveraging the social assets of sporting events. In applying the ABCD approach, we aim to shift the focus of event-led projects away from attempts to “solve” social problems (i.e., deficit perspective) to enhancing the existing strengths of communities (i.e., strengths perspective). We reflect on case study findings that highlight the challenges and opportunities in realizing an ABCD approach for disadvantaged communities through an examination of a healthy lifestyle community event initiative in the Pacific Islands.
Richards, J, Sherry, E, Philpott, O, Keane, L, Schulenkorf, N & Bauman, A 2016, 'Evaluation Protocol: Netball to promote physical and mental health in Samoa and Tonga', Journal of sport for development, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1-11.
The purpose of this evaluation is to address a gap between current practice and existing evidence in the sport-for-development sector. Despite pervasive positive rhetoric about the health implications of sport
programs that continues to attract ongoing international investment, the evidence base remains limited. Therefore, we aim to conduct a process and impact evaluation of the One Netball Pacific program in Samoa
and Tonga. Specifically, we aim to assess the organisational objectives of “creating more opportunities for women and girls to take part in physical activity through netball” to “improve health-related behaviours”
and “reduce the impact of non-communicable diseases in these communities”
For several years, sport-for-development (SFD) programs have been implemented around the world to make a positive difference for disadvantaged or underprivileged communities. Within this context, special events have been used to complement regular development activities to celebrate social, cultural, and sporting achievements. To date, little managerial work has been conducted on the specific contributions that special events can play in the context of ongoing SFD endeavors. In addressing this issue, this paper presents findings from an empirical investigation of a participatory SFD event in the Pacific Islands. Findings suggest that special events can create new interest and excitement for SFD activities, re-engage stakeholders to the wider SFD program, leverage partnerships, and provide opportunities to build and shape local management capacity. In discussing these findings, the paper highlights potential positive and negative impacts of special SFD events and provides practical and theoretical implications for SFD program design, management, and leverage.
Despite the significant increase of published research in sport-for-development (SFD), to date there have been no attempts to rigorously review and synthesize scholarly contributions in this area. To address this issue, we conducted an integrative review of SFD literature to portray an overarching and holistic picture of the field. Through a comprehensive literature analysis following Whittemore and Knafl’s (2005) five-step process, we provide evidence of the status quo of current SFD research foci, authorship, geographical contexts, theoretical frameworks, sport activity, level of development, methodologies, methods, and key research findings. Our study shows an increasing trend of journal publications since 2000, with a strong focus on social and educational outcomes related to youth sport and with football (soccer) as the most common activity. A large majority of SFD research has been conducted at the community level, where qualitative approaches are dominant. The geographical contexts of authorship and study location present an interesting paradox: Although the majority of SFD projects are carried out in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, 90% of SFD authors are based in North America, Europe, and Australia. We conclude our study by providing new perspectives on key issues in SFD and by outlining current research and theoretical gaps that provide the basis for future scholarly inquiry.
Sherry, E & Schulenkorf, N 2016, 'League Bilong Laif: rugby, education and sport-for-development partnerships in Papua New Guinea', Sport, Education and Society, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 513-530.View/Download from: Publisher's site
League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission
(National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school attendance and significant problems with anti-social behaviour within PNG communities, LBL was designed to contribute to (1) improvements in student engagement with education in and out of the
classroom; and (2) communication of positive social messages, with a focus on respect generally, and gender equity in particular. This paper discusses the qualitative review of the pilot phase of the LBL project, and the implications for programme design and delivery for education outcomes through a SFD programme. Data were collected through a combination of 23 interviews and focus groups with 33 individual representatives from relevant organisations and government departments in the areas of sport, education and community evelopment. Preliminary findings indicate that despite a challenging beginning, the LBL programme has made some progress in terms of the initial development of programme aims and stakeholder engagement, largely because of the rigorous design process that kept desired programme outcomes at the forefront.
Godfrey, J, Wearing, S & Schulenkorf, N 2015, 'Medical Volunteer Tourism as an Alternative to Backpacking in Peru', Tourism Planning and Development, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 111-122.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Medical volunteer tourism (MVT) and backpacking are both alternatives to mass tourism; yet, while backpackers simply aim to “get off the beaten track”, medical volunteer tourists (MVTs) aim to additionally “give back”. This paper examines the experiences of MVTs in Peru and explores MVT as an alternative to backpacking for Generation Y. Findings are derived from a case study conducted of a commercial volunteer tourism organisation in Cusco, Peru. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 MVTs and 3 staff members. In this paper, we describe what the MVTs did at the local clinics, explore the contribution they made to the host community, discuss the benefits the MVTs themselves gained from the experience, and examine the similarities and differences between MVTs and backpackers. There is a wide overlap between the demographics, motivations, and experiences of MVTs and backpackers: they are generally young, stay for a longer rather than a brief period of time, focus on participatory activities, and often view their choice of travel as more ethical than mainstream mass tourism. However, MVTs differ from backpackers, in that they attempt to make a positive contribution to the host community, while simultaneously benefitting their own personal and professional development.
Schulenkorf, N 2015, 'Sport for Development and Peace: A Critical Sociology, by S.C. Darnell, London, Bloomsbury Academic, 2012, £50.00 (hardback), 192 pp., ISBN 978-1-849-66344-1', International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 155-157.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Schulenkorf, N & Spaaij, R 2015, 'Commentary: Reflections on theory building in sport for development and peace', International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, vol. 16, no. 1/2, pp. 71-77.
Building on the limited yet important groundwork that has been laid in regard to the theoretical and conceptual underpinning of sport for development and peace (SDP), the special issue on Theory Building in SDP provides a starting point for exploring contemporary challenges in the sector. In our reflective commentary, we engage critically with the four articles in the special issue through a discussion of cross-cutting themes and issues.
Sport-for-development (SFD) provides a platform for sport to be used as a tool or ‘‘hook’’ to contribute to positive outcomes in areas including economic development, social inclusion, cultural cohesion, healthy lifestyles, education, gender equity, as well as reconciliation and peacebuilding. The area of sport for social change (SFSC) represents a sub-field of SFD that uses sport as a catalyst to build social capacity and develop socially and physically healthy communities. The Managing sport for Social Change special issue of Sport Management Review brings together a collection of conceptual advances, empirical research papers and teaching case studies from a range of social and cultural perspectives, with a focus on managing sport for social change; aimed at engaging critically with sport management theory and praxis, and discussing associated practical and policy implications. Theoretical gaps and recommendations for future research, including: local engagement, innovative research methodology, and a broadening of the scope of research are also discussed.
Siefken, K, Schofield, G & Schulenkorf, N 2015, 'Process evaluation of a walking programme delivered through the workplace in the South Pacific island Vanuatu', Global Health Promotion, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 53-64.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background: The South Pacific region is experiencing significant rates of chronic diseases. Well evaluated health promotion programmes are needed as a central piece of a strategic solution. Just as important as the evaluation itself is how that evaluation outcome can be communicated for future programme use by local programme planners. The objective of this study is to evaluate a physical activity (PA) programme that was designed for Pacific women in urban Vanuatu, and subsequently to develop new techniques to display data that support the understanding and communication of programme success and challenges.
Methods: Data collection methods included quantitative Likert scale questions and qualitative open ended questions. A new analysis technique visualises open-ended process evaluation data. We present
themes using word sizes proportional to the frequency of the themes identified through thematic analysis.
Results: The Likert scale technique revealed little meaningful information; almost all participants rated most elements of the programme highly. This may be related to Pacific people being frequently inclined to assent with external ideas. Open-ended questions provided more significant insights. For example, we found a stronger change in eating habits (68.9%) than in exercise behaviour (28.2%).
Conclusion: We present an evaluation of the first pedometer-based PA intervention in the Pacific and respond to the paucity of process evaluations that have been carried out in the context of low- and
middle-income countries. Moreover, the new thematic data visualisation (TDV) approach may aid in understanding complex and cluttered data in a constructive and coordinated way; we present a new approach in health promotion research.
Schulenkorf, N, Sugden, J & Burdsey, D 2014, 'Sport for development and peace as contested terrain: place, community, ownership', International Journal of Sport Policy, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 371-387.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Under the Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) umbrella, an increasing number of sport projects are staged all over the world to improve the social, cultural, educational or psychological circumstances of marginalized and/or fractured communities. In research on such initiatives, only limited empirical examinations exist that focus specifically on garnering the perspectives of key players from local communities regarding value and impact of SDP. In addressing this issue, our study investigates the local lessons learnt from 13 Football for Peace (F4P) partnership projects that featured a mixture of Jewish, Arab, Bedouin and Circassian communities in Israel. Following an interpretive mode of enquiry, 30 interviews and two focus groups with key stakeholders were conducted, with an emphasis on exploring local experiences. Our findings highlight the diversity of community perspectives in relation to the following themes: values and delivery; engagement and commitment; and scope, regularity and sustainability. Specifically, our analysis illuminates the diverse interpretations and responses that exist in relation to the ethos, meanings and achievements of F4P, and calls for an appreciation of the intricacies, complexities and nuances in the way that the programme (and SDP work more generally) is received. Finally, the article demonstrates how the multiple theorizations and interpretations of community found within academic literature are reproduced and literally played out – but also contested, challenged, rejected and reformulated – in the practice of SDP.
Siefken, K, Schofield, G & Schulenkorf, N 2014, 'Laefstael jenses: An investigation of barriers and facilitators for healthy lifestyles of women in an urban Pacific island context', Journal of Physical Activity & Health, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 30-37.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background: The Pacific region has experienced rapid urbanization and lifestyle changes, which lead to high rates of noncommunicable disease (NCD) prevalence. There is no information on barriers and facilitators for healthy lifestyles in this region. In response, we present the first stage of a rigorous development of an urban Pacific health intervention program. This paper describes formative work conducted in Port Vila, Vanuatu. The objective of this paper was to understand cultural barriers and facilitators in Pacific women to lifestyle change and use the findings to inform future health interventions. Methods: Semi-structured focus groups with 37 female civil servants divided into 6 groups were held verbally to understand barriers and facilitators for healthy lifestyles. Results: Several perceived barriers and facilitators were identified. Inter alia, barriers include financial limitations, time issues, family commitments, environmental aspects, and motivational hindrances that limit time and opportunities for healthy lifestyle behavior. Facilitators include more supportive environments, social support mechanisms, and the implementation of rigorous health policies. Conclusions: Formative work is essential in designing health intervention programs. Uncovered barriers and facilitators help inform the development of culturally relevant health interventions.
Spaaij, R & Schulenkorf, N 2014, 'Cultivating safe space: Lessons for sport-for-development projects and events', Journal of Sport Management, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 633-645.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Recent research has examined how sports events and sport-for-development projects can create, sustain, and maximize positive social impacts for local communities. This article takes this debate forward by arguing that the cultivation of safe space is a key ingredient of sport-for-development management and community event leverage. Safe space is conceptualized as a multidimensional process that involves physical, psychological/ affective, sociocultural, political, and experimental dimensions. Drawing on empirical findings from Sri Lanka, Israel, and Brazil, the article shows how these dimensions of safe space operate and interact in practice, and identifies practical strategies that sport managers, policymakers, and practitioners can use to cultivate safe spaces in and through sports projects and events.
Khoo, C, Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D 2014, 'The opportunities and challenges of using cricket as a sport-for-development tool in Samoa', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 76-102.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study investigates benefits and challenges associated with the use of sport – in this case cricket – as a community development tool in Samoa. This Pacific Island nation, like others in the region, has been the focus of various development programs in the post-colonial era, with developed economy neighbours like Australia and New Zealand providing aid funding. Some of that has involved sport as a development tool, underpinned either by funding from the national government, foreign aid agencies, or a combination of both. The present paper, by focusing on a cricket for development (CFD) program in Samoa, aims to explore outcomes and limitations associated with the use of sport as a community engagement tool. The paper pursues that goal by examining the activities of relevant sport and government organisations, and – most crucially – it interviews key stakeholders involved in the CFD process in Samoa. In short, the prime purpose of this paper is to identify and interpret – from the perspective of locals – whether the CFD program has brought benefits to Samoan communities, and the challenges and limitations they see thus far. This is important because, to date, there has been an absence of qualitative inquiry into the efficacy of sport for development (SFD) programs in Samoa, and very limited research in a Pacific Islands context.
Richards, J, Kaufman, Z, Schulenkorf, N, Wolff, E, Gannett, K, Siefken, K & Rodriguez, G 2013, 'Advancing the Evidence Base of Sport for Development: A New Open-Access, Peer-Reviewed Journal', Journal of sport for development, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-3.
We are pleased to release the first edition of the Journal of Sport for Development (JSFD) and we would like to take this opportunity to briefly describe its origins and objectives. In doing so, we endeavour to clarify for researchers, implementers, funders and policy-makers how we believe JSFD fits into the expanding sport for development (SFD) landscape.
It is widely accepted that the United Nations International Year of Sport and Physical Education (IYSPE) in 2005 was an advocacy success and sparked a mass expansion in the SFD sector.1
This built on several previous international resolutions that recognised recreational play as a human right and emphasised the social potential of sport.2-9 Over the last decade, SFD has enjoyed widespread and international growth, in terms of resources, constituents, and public awareness.10 During this period several entities have attempted to define and demarcate the SFD sector. We believe that establishing a common definition is a critical step towards unifying a diverse range of stakeholders, many of which separately articulate the role of sport for social change and peace. However, we prefer to view these areas as integral parts of the sector and have adapted a previously described broad and inclusive definition for SFD:
Schulenkorf, N 2013, 'Sport for Development Events and Social Capital Building: A Critical Analysis of Experiences from Sri Lanka', Journal of Sport for Development, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 25-36.
Most of the `evidence' that sport and event projects contribute to positive social development in divided societies remains anecdotal. In answering the call for empirical evaluations, this paper investigated the role of a sport-for-development project in contributing to intergroup development and social capital building between disparate communities in ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with various stakeholders after the weekend-long Intercultural Sports Meeting (ISM) project in rural Sri Lanka, assessing participant experiences, behaviour, and attitudinal changes. Findings suggest that socially focused short-term initiatives have the potential to be a source and a vehicle for intercommunity development; they can provide much needed excitement, animation and vibrancy. However, to contribute to sustainable social benefits sport events ought to be used to grow and leverage a nested sport-for-development program instead of being featured as a stand-alone exercise. In fact, the ability of short-term interventions to create social capital needs to be critically assessed and claims about events lasting contributions to social capital should be treated with caution.
Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D 2013, 'Temporality, transience and regularity in sport-for-development: synchronizing programs with events', Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 99-104.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Definitions on sport-for-development remain silent on guidelines for the longevity and regularity of projects. In other words, initiatives ranging from one-day sport events to decade-long sport programs are all combined - simplistically so - under the S4D definitional banner. We argue that this vagueness provides significant challenges for academics and practitioners trying to evaluate, compare and learn from different projects. A focus on temporality, transience and regularity (TTR) within the S4D paradigm may open up the prospect of analyzing the duration and cycle of different types of S4D activities, i.e. transitory one-off activities, occasional interventions and ongoing day-to-day programs, and trying to pinpoint the efficacy of these approaches in relation to the aspirations of S4D project organizers, the needs of local populations and the impacts on host communities. With this background and research problem in mind, this paper will investigate the inter-related themes of TTR in S4D. We also pursue an associated proposition by theorizing the potential significance of synchronizing special events with regular sport programs.
Events legacies have become a common feature in the public policy rhetoric surrounding sport events of all sizes. Public policy planners and event organizers are increasingly promoting the legacies of sport events to justify significant investments required to host them. Within the context of special events, legacy is most often recognized as the long-term or permanent outcomes for a host city from staging an event. These outcomes include potential economic, tourism, social, physical, and/or environmental factors. However, the justification of legacies from events remains complicated due to inconsistent conceptualizations of legacy across academic and industry practice. While legacy is an increasing component of event bids as well as funding justifications and postevent reports, the concept itself has attracted limited critical analysis. This article puts forth a comprehensive review of literature that has sought to define legacy, from 1991-2008, drawing on event management, sport management, and urban planning contexts. An inductive interpretive analysis of definitions was undertaken, in which key considerations were identified and definitions assessed against these. The analysis revealed five key considerations of legacy in application to the sport event management context. In doing so, this article contributes to both theoretical debate and improved strategic practice surrounding the emergence of legacy as justification for staging sport events.
Schulenkorf, N 2012, 'Sustainable community development through sport and events: A conceptual framework for Sport-for-Development projects', Sport Management Review, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The number of aid organisations, NGOs and government agencies pursuing the Millennium Development Goals and seeking to improve the everyday needs and social life of disadvantaged communities has been growing over the past decade. Particularly in divided societies, Sport-for-Development projects have increasingly been staged to contribute to intergroup togetherness, social cohesion and community empowerment. While the analyses of individual sport and event initiatives highlights their capacity to impact positively on people and groups, they do not provide strategic guidelines, models or frameworks for community empowerment. However, such models are needed to foster practical research in the area of community development that can inform sport and event planning, management and leverage. In an attempt to fill this gap, this paper presents and discusses the Sport-for-Development (S4D) Framework, which can be used to guide the strategic investigation of sport and event projects and their contribution to understanding and measuring direct social impacts and sustainable social outcomes for (disparate) communities. The S4D Framework presents a holistic yet flexible management tool that can take account of cultural heterogeneity and program diversity, while shaping implementation, directing evaluation, and encouraging future planning of development initiatives. To conclude, this paper suggests different ways in which the S4D Framework can be empirically tested and validated through both qualitative and quantitative research.
Schulenkorf, N & Edwards, DC 2012, 'Maximizing Positive Social Impacts: Strategies for Sustaining and Leveraging the Benefits of Inter-Community Sport Events in Divided Societies', Journal of Sport Management, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 379-390.
Building on the evidence of social impacts generated by sport events, there is a need for research to identify strategies suitable for maximizing event benefits for disparate interest communities. This paper investigates the opportunities and strategic means for sustaining and leveraging social event benefits arising from intercommunity sport events in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Following an interpretive mode of inquiry, findings are derived from the analysis of two focus groups and 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. To maximize event benefits, findings suggest that event organizers and host communities focus strategically on children as catalysts for change; increase ethnically mixed team sport activities; provide event-related sociocultural opportunities; combine large-scale events with regular sport-for-development programs; and engage in social, cultural, political and educational event leverage. By implementing these strategies and tactics, intercommunity sport events are likely to contribute to local capacity building and inclusive social change, which can have flow-on effects to the wider community. These findings extend the academic literature on strategic event planning, management and leverage, as they provide a focus on community event leverage for social purposes in a developing world context â an area which has thus far received limited empirical research.
Siefken, K, Schofield, G & Schulenkorf, N 2012, 'Womens’ healthy lifestyle behaviour in urban Vanuatu–an in-depth investigation', Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 15, pp. 286-287.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Schulenkorf, N & Sugden, J 2011, 'Sport for Development and Peace in Divided Societies: Cooperating for Inter-Community Empowerment in Israel', The European Journal for Sport and Society, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 235-256.
The idea of using sport for social, cultural and community development has been promoted for decades; however, only limited empirical research can be found that analyses the strategic potential of sport projects in contributing to conflict resolution, reconciliation and peace building in deeply divided societies. This study concentrates upon the experiences of a number of Football for Peace (F4P) projects operating in Israel in 2009. It identifies and investigates the inter-community sport management strategies employed in a particular project that featured Jewish, Arab, and Circassian communities in Northern Israel. The article focuses on and assesses the role played by external change agents in facilitating project delivery and development. Following an interpretive mode of enquiry, observations and focus group discussions with key project facilitators and sport coaches were conducted exploring participant experiences and using this information to develop practical recommendations for social development through sport. The following six strategic dimensions were elicited as critical elements for promoting positive inter-community relations, building local capacity and enhancing overall social development: greater emphasis on training for all volunteers; the provision of role model support; the development of local commitment and leadership; improvement of sport programming; the facilitation of wider community involvement; and project augmentation and extension. We argue that these practical suggestions have transferable implications for other grassroots organisations and NGOs that use sport projects in divided and/or disadvantaged communities elsewhere in the world.
Schulenkorf, N, Thomson, AK & Schlenker, K 2011, 'Intercommunity sport events: Vehicles and catalysts for social capital in divided societies', Event Management, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 105-119.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sport events are believed to promote dialogue, integration and peaceful understanding among disparate groups, even when other forms of negotiation have not been successful (Croft, 2005; Sugden, 2006). However, the social outcomes from sport events are largely anecdotal and there is a need to empirically examine the active engagement of groups with âothersâ in participatory sport event projects (Auld & Case, 1997; Chalip, 2006). This paper investigates the potential of an intercommunity sport event in contributing to intergroup development and social capital building in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. It follows an interpretive mode of inquiry where findings are derived from the analysis of 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. By providing evidence of the varying socio-cultural experiences at the event, this paper discusses the eventâs impact on intergroup relations and its influence on the stock of social capital available to communities. Findings can assist governments, policymakers and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in advancing policies and practical measures that build on events as vehicles and catalysts for enhanced intergroup relations and the creation of social capital.
Schulenkorf, N 2010, 'Bridging the divide: The role of sport events in contributing to social development between disparate communities', European Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 127-131.
Sport events offer valuable experiences to participants, supporters, and other stakeholders while its impacts are of significant economical, political, social and psychological importance. From a social perspective, sport has been described as a language which all people in the world understand and speak and which is able to emotionally unite groups (Dyreson 2003). However, despite the increased recognition and use of sport and event projects as important contributors to the social fabric of multicultural societies, evaluations of inter-community sport events for the purposes of social development have largely been overlooked.
Schulenkorf, N 2010, 'Sport events and ethnic reconciliation: attempting to create social change between Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim sportspeople in war-torn Sri Lanka', International Review for the Sociology of Sport, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 273-294.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Reconciliation is about bringing disparate communities together and creating the intercommunication necessary to reduce intergroup barriers, generate understanding, and connect with others to achieve a peaceful togetherness. This paper investigates the role of sport events in contributing to reconciliation and inclusive social change between disparate communities in ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Following an interpretive mode of enquiry, findings suggest that if strategically designed, sport events allow the establishment of interpersonal friendships and the creation of inclusive social identities along national lines, organisational lines, common interests and imagined factors. Events can create âmomenta of togethernessâ for members of disparate ethnic groups and as such may contribute to positive social change and a sense of imagiNation. While sport events provide a starting point, booster and catalyst for positive social change and development on a community level, they need to be integrated into a larger agenda of socio-political support to make a significant contribution to reconciliation and peace in divided societies.
There is increasing evidence that NGOs and Government agencies are turning to sport events as a tool for reconciliation and inter-community development (Burnett, 2006; Gasser & Levinsen, 2004; Stidder & Haasner, 2007; Sugden, 2006), yet the different roles and responsibilities of the organising `change agent within development projects have not received much empirical investigation. To address this gap, this paper analyses the different roles and responsibilities of an international sport event change agent in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Following an interpretivist mode of inquiry, findings of this research are derived from the analysis of 2 focus groups and 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. Findings suggest that the change agent holds nine key roles and responsibilities in the inter-community development process. These are being an agent for community participation; a trust builder; a networker; a leader; a socially responsible advocate; a resource developer; a proactive innovator; a financial supporter; and a strategic planner for the long-term sustainability of projects. This research suggests that it is important to fulfil these roles to secure active community participation, to achieve positive sociocultural event impacts and outcomes, and to provide a strategic framework for sustainable inter-community development.
Schulenkorf, N 2009, 'An ex ante framework for the strategic study of social utility of sport events', Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 120-131.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The area of sport event tourism has been growing over the past decade, which has led to an increasing amount of research on both the economic and social impacts of sport events. Whereas a substantial number of ex post assessment frameworks for event evaluation is available, there is growing demand for process orientated ex ante frameworks that guide the strategic study of social utility of events. To address this issue, this paper presents a framework suitable for theoretical and practical research in the area of inter-community sport events. It combines the areas of community participation, intergroup relations, social identity and event impacts in a process towards generating social development within and among communities. The ex ante framework is designed to support the strategic investigation of inter-community sport events and their contribution to social capital, social change and capacity building, and ultimately the enhancement of communitiesâ quality of life.
Schulenkorf, N & Siefken, K 2020, 'Sport-for-Development and (Partnerships with) the Health Sector: Reflections from the Pacific Islands' in Welty Peachey, J & Green, C (eds), Forming Partnerships and Linkages in Sport for Development and Peace: Considerations, Tensions, and Strategies, Sagamore, Urbana.
In this chapter, we are using the Oceania Football Confederation’s Just Play program as a backdrop to establishing a holistic healthy lifestyle approach to community development; one that aims to contribute to reducing the risk for developing NCDs by providing the nexus between sport, health, socio-cultural development and policymaking. Based on our reflections, we also provide practical recommendations and linkage development opportunities for other healthy lifestyle projects that aim to make a positive difference in the Pacific and elsewhere in the world.
Schulenkorf, N & Siefken, K 2019, 'South Pacific: Fostering healthy lifestyles' in Collison, H, Darnell, S, Giulianotti, R & Howe, D (eds), Handbook of Sport for Development and Peace, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 506-516.
In this chapter, we look back at the achievements and limitations of a number of significant sport-for-development (SFD) initiatives in the Pacific Islands that have been staged in this culturally diverse and geographically remote area. We reflect on the lessons learnt and discuss these in the context of the SFD Healthy Lifestyle Quadrant – an inclusive framework that combines sport, health, socio-cultural development and policy-making (see Schulenkorf and Siefken, 2019).
Stai, P, Schulenkorf, N, Godfrey, J & Phelps, S 2018, 'Sri Lanka' in Sports Volunteers Around the Globe Meaning and Understanding of Volunteering and its Societal Impact, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 249-262.
While it is recognised that volunteers can have a significant impact on the operations of sport organisations, previous research has not focused on the motivations and experiences of overseas volunteers in sport-for-development (SFD) settings. In addressing this issue, this chapter reflects on an empirical study around motivations and experiences of international SFD volunteers in post-war Sri Lanka.
Schulenkorf, N & Schlenker, K 2018, 'The role of highlight events in sport-for-development' in Dodds, M, Heisey, K & Ahonen, A (eds), Routledge Handbook of International Sport Business, Routledge International Handbooks, USA, pp. 356-363.
When strategically managed, sport can be an exciting and proactive space for economic, social, cultural, physical and educational development. Consequently, around the world government agencies, aid organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been implementing sport-for-development (SFD) projects in disadvantaged communities for several years. Most of these initiatives also include special events such as cultural festivals, sport tournaments and educational workshops as part of the overall program portfolio. In this chapter, we focus on discussing the opportunities and challenges of using ‘highlight events’ as a leverage strategy to reach – and benefit – participants and the wider community.
Schulenkorf, N, Sherry, E & Rowe, K 2017, 'Global sport-for-development' in Critical Issues in Global Sport Management, Routledge, pp. 176-191.
In this chapter, we aim to familiarise students with sport-for-development (SFD) by providing a review of the SFD literature. We base this chapter on a recently conducted integrated literature review that synthesised all SFD research studies published between 2000 and 2014 (see Schulenkorf, Sherry and Rowe, 2016). In particular, we present the status quo of SFD activity in relation to the research foci, authorship, journal outlets, dates of publication, geographical contexts, thematic areas, sport activities, and research methodologies. Based on this review, we will reflect on the implications of SFD as an emerging area of research and provide recommendations for future work in the field.
Thomson, A, Schlenker, K, Schulenkorf, N & Brooking, E 2017, 'The Social and Environmental Consequences of Hosting Mega-Sport Events' in Frawley, S (ed), Managing Sport Mega-Events, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 150-164.
The social and environmental consequences of sport mega-events have become increasingly important when trying to understand the benefits and costs of hosting such events for cities and their residents. Thus, event bids and related marketing campaigns often tell us about the benefits that mega-events may bestow on host cities, such as community pride, enhanced community cohesion and/or urban regeneration. However, many intangible, or soft, opportunities are not always backed up by evidence, or underpinned by an adequate understanding of how these outcomes are realised. This chapter presents an overview of recent research in the areas of social and environmental consequences of mega-events, including: a) civic pride and community cohesion; b) urban regeneration and displacement effects; and c) environmental impacts and legacies.
In this introductory chapter, we provide the background, purpose and context for Critical Issues in Global Sport Management. In the remaining 19 chapters of this book we invite readers to explore, learn, discuss and reflect on the latest concepts, issues and trends in managing sport.
In this final chapter of Critical Issues in Global Sport Management, we as editors reflect on a number of the key debates highlighted in the book. Moreover, with the use of practical examples, we critically discuss how current issues, challenges, and emerging trends in global sport are likely to develop in the future.
Hoekman, M & Schulenkorf, N 2016, 'Sustainable management of sport-for-development through youth re-engagement: the FREYCA framework' in Hayhurst, L, Kay, T & Chawansky, M (eds), Beyond Sport for Development and Peace: Transnational Perspectives on Theory, Policy and Practice, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 135-149.
The relationship between sport participation and personal, community as well as societal development has recently received increased attention within sport sociology and sport politics discourses. However, despite their importance for Sport-for-Development (SFD) practice, process-based investigations of sport programmes and their potential to contribute to sustainable social competencies have only recently been addressed by sport management researchers. In the context of the Blue Dragon Children's Foundation (BDCF), an international NGO based in Hanoi, Vietnam, this chapter examines the management of social processes in SFD work, with a focus on re-engaged youths as ‘change agents’ and their contributions to community development. We propose a newly designed Framework for Re-Engaged Youth as Change Agents (FREYCA) that highlights the contribution of re-engaged youth workers in the context of sustainable SFD projects.
Phillips, P & Schulenkorf, N 2016, 'Coaches, Officials and Change Agents in Sport Development' in Sherry, E, Schulenkorf, N & Phillips, P (eds), Managing Sport Development: An International Approach, Routledge, pp. 107-118.
Schulenkorf, N, Sugden, J & Sugden, J 2016, 'Sport for Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding' in Sherry, E, Schulenkorf, N & Phillips, P (eds), Managing Sport Development: An International Approach, Routledge, pp. 147-158.
Sherry, E, Schulenkorf, N & Phillips, P 2016, 'Evaluating Sport Development' in Sherry, E, Schulenkorf, N & Phillips, P (eds), Managing Sport Development: An International Approach, Routledge, pp. 161-176.
Sherry, E, Schulenkorf, N & Phillips, P 2016, 'What is Sport Development?' in Sherry, E, Schulenkorf, N & Phillips, P (eds), Managing Sport Development: An International Approach, Routledge, pp. 1-12.
Godfrey, J, Wearing, S & Schulenkorf, N 2015, 'The Motivations of Medical Volunteer Tourists and a Discussion of the Underlying Ethics: A Qualitative Case Study from Cusco, Peru' in Slocum, SL, Kline, C & Holden, A (eds), Scientific Tourism: Researchers as Travellers, Routledge, Abingdon, UK, pp. 131-147.
The purpose of this chapter is to explore the motivations and experiences of medical volunteer tourists (MVTs) from developed countries volunteering in developing countries, and to examine the underlying ethics relating to this form of volunteer tourism. We seek to develop an understanding of the relationship between scientific tourism and medical volunteer tourism, and to investigate experiences that provide both learning and training for MVTs to develop skills for their future medical careers.
Siefken, K, Schofield, G & Schulenkorf, N 2014, 'Inspiring Pacific Women for Lifestyle Change: An Attempt to Halt the Spread of Chronic Diseases' in Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D (eds), Global Sport-for-Development: Critical Perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 216-242.
This chapter intends to acquaint the reader with the challenges and recent successes of managing health promotion programmes in Pacific Island Communities. In particular, it reports on programme logistics, on-site issues, opportunities and challenges for health promotion programme sustainability, limitations and success stories. The research-based lifestyle change programme Wokabaot Jalens (Bislama term for ‘walking challenge’), which was implemented in Vanuatu, serves as an example to describe our hands-on experiences; Wokabaot Jalens engages urban Ni-Vanuatu women in regular exercises and encourages healthy eating behaviour. Examples and experiences
from neighbouring Pacific island countries are drawn upon to accentuate challenges and opportunities for health promotion programmes in this region. The presentation of this reflective praxis exercise is intended to aid future practitioners and/or researchers in programme design, management and evaluation.
Adair, D & Schulenkorf, N 2014, 'Global Sport-for-Development in Theory and Praxis: Reflections' in Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D (eds), Global Sport-for-Development: Critical Perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 245-249.
This chapter reflects on what the combination of essays in the book "Sport-for-Development: Critical Perspectives" has revealed about the nuances of theory and praxis in sport-for-development (S4D). This is done against a background where each of the chapters under ‘Framework’, while focused primarily on conceptual concerns, has also drawn upon experiences from field work.
Similarly, each of the chapters under the ‘From the Field’ section, while focused primarily on programme delivery issues, has been informed by theoretical assumptions. Therefore, the final chapter allows for commentary within these two sections. In the process, it dwells upon opportunities and challenges for the S4D genre, including emerging trends with respect to critical engagement and reforms to practice.
Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D 2014, 'Sport-for-Development: The Emergence and Growth of a New Genre' in Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D (eds), Global Sport-for-Development: Critical Perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 3-11.
In this chapter we briefly survey the S4D field, evaluate its origins and evolution. We pinpoint key problems for the genre, both in terms of theory and praxis, and establish how the book "Sport-for-Development: Critical Perspectives" and its constituent chapters proposes to address these shortcomings. Our focus is on explaining the significance of critical theory informing practice, and of practice informing scholarship. In short, the chapter highlights the value of conceptual rigour underlying S4D programme goals, planning and delivery, and the subsequent imperative for monitoring, evaluation and critical reflection thereafter.
Commeh, MK & Schulenkorf, N 2013, 'Brenu Beach Resort: Innovation for financial independence' in Liburd, JJ, Carlsen, J & Edwards, D (eds), Networks for Innovation in Sustainable Tourism, Tilde University Press, Prahran, pp. 64-70.
In August 2001, the New Pat1'iotic Party (NPP) had assumed power in Ghana. One of the reasons for the NPP's success was the promise to invest in and develop the local economy under the slogan 'Golden Age of Business', especially among the private sector community. The change towards a new democratic government resulted in wide-ranging goodwill from the local population, who were expecting a new level of personal and professional freedom in Ghana. The business sector was longing for positive change, as for almost 30 years private businesses had not received significant support from the preceding govenunents. People in the tourism industry were finally encouraged to invest into their innovative business ideas and motivated to start up small enterprises to increase their quality of life. 01'iginality, creativity and appropriateness are generally described as key elements for innovation. While innovation is associated with the introduction of new ideas or concepts, geographers use the expression' coping strategies' when describing innovation under difficult social circumstances (Yaro 2004). In Ghana, for most entrepreneurs in the tourism sector the term hmovation is part of daily life's 'coping', or a constant survival process. People practice innovation to survive in their business envirolunent, and they alter and adapt according to the resources available - a process which, in Ghanaian, is represented by the Akan _ Adinkra twisting symbol JlrkyinkyiIfimearung dynamism and versatility. nil Ghanaians believe that these characteristics underlie the resourcefulness of mankind, and that one changes and adapts as life evolves (Bodomo et al. 2010).
Schulenkorf, N 2013, 'Asian German Sports Exchange Programme: Innovative social sporting networks' in Liburd, JJ, Carlsen, J & Edwards, D (eds), Networks for Innovation in Sustainable Tourism: Case Studies and Cross-Case Analysis, Tilde University Press, Prahran, pp. 71-79.
The Asian German Sports Exchange Programme (A.G.S.E.P.) is an NGO which has been conducting sport events and international exchanges between Sri Lankan and European sport teams since 1989. Against the background of a long lasting civil war, social sport event tourism provides an innovative, sustainable form of tourism in Sri Lanka. This type of active tourism has a socio-cultural focus and combines people's travel experiences with the emotional factor of contributing to the advancement of intercultural understanding and peace in a divided country. With their sport tourism co-operation, A.G.S.E.P. and Aquarius Resort aim to provide an opportunity for friendly competition and social approximation between international and local sport teams, and even more importantly, between local teams from the estranged ethnic communities of war-torn Sri Lanka.
Schulenkorf, N & Edwards, DC 2013, 'Planning and evaluating sport events for sustainable development in disadvantaged communities' in Pernecky, T & Luck, M (eds), Events, Society and Sustainability: Critical and contemporary approaches, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 79-94.
Sport events of all forms and sizes have been growing in volume and importance over the past century. Sport events can vary in scale and type and represent a temporary drawing together of resources to provide structured sport activities for participants, spectators and other stakeholders. These activities can feature either informal or formal competition between organised individuals and teams of athletes. Sport events are popular in many societies as they can provide people and their communities with both economic and social opportunities such as entertainment, socialisation and the establishment of contacts and networks between people and groups. A growing awareness of the social opportunities by government agencies and community groups has lead to sport events being used as a method for fostering community development and delivering broader social benefits. This chapter illustrates the significance of sport events in our society and examines their ability to contribute to sustainable development in disadvantaged communities. The chapter discusses opportunities and challenges in the areas of sport event planning and evaluation. Moreover, it introduces the Sport-for-Development (S4D) Framework that can be used to guide and facilitate the creation of sport event activities designed to benefit people in (disadvantaged) communities.
Sugden, J & Schulenkorf, N 2013, 'Sport for development and peace in divided societies: developing cross-community sport partnerships in Israel' in Stidder, G & Hayes, S (eds), Equity and Inclusion in Physical Activity and Sport, Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon, pp. 102-124.
The idea of using sport for social, cultural and community development has been promoted for decades; however, only limited empirical research can be found that analyses the strategic potential of sport projects in contributing to conflict resolution, reconciliation and peace building in deeply divided societies. This chapter overviews the experiences of a number of Football 4 Peace (F4P) projects operating in Israel between 2001 and 2010, and concentrates in more detail on two typical CCSP (Cross Community Sport Partnerships), one that was established in 2004 and another in 2009. Among other things, the chapter focuses on and assesses the role played by external change agents in facilitating project delivery and development. Following an interpretive mode of enquiry, observations, diary records and focus group discussions with key project facilitators and sport coaches were conducted exploring participant experiences and using this information to develop practical recommendations for social development through sport.
Schulenkorf, N & Edwards, DC 2012, 'Sport event management: Creating engaging experiences' in Leberman, S, Collins, C & Trenberth, L (eds), Sport Business Management in New Zealand and Australia, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne, pp. 320-332.
This chapter is concerned with an increasingly popular area of the experience economy, the management of sport events. Sport events represent a temporary drawing together of resources to create a particular experience for participants, spectators and other stakeholders. Depending on the size of the sport event it can take weeks, months or years of preparation to deliver an experience that is over in a matter of hours or days. Sport event management is fundamentally about creating engaging experiences, and leveraging them to achieve lasting benefits for all those involved. Getting the experience right such that participants, spectators and other stakeholders are satisfied is critically important for the future popularity of any sport event. This chapter focuses on examining sport event experiences and investigates the meanings attached to them. It combines the areas of event planning, management and design and uses examples from Australia, New Zealand and international contexts to illustrate the significance of sport events in our society. In particular, the chapter presents an overview of how sport activities can be designed to impact positively on people, so that engaging experiences (Pine and Gilmore, 2011) can be created.
Schulenkorf, N & Adair, D 2012, 'Sport Development' in Leberman, S, Collins, C & Trenberth, L (eds), Sport Business Management in New Zealand and Australia, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne, pp. 284-298.
Fundamentally, sport development is about providing opportunities for individuals and communities to engage in grassroots physical activities in terms of what can be described as 'the common good'. When appropriately conceived and managed, sport allows participants to optimise their physical fitness levels and has the capacity to provide people of varying ages with valuable social experiences. People who work in sport development, therefore, share a similar goal of motivating individuals to participate in sport for purposes of health promotion and wider social benefit. However, as we will see in this chapter, the purposes, values and desired outcomes of sport development are not static; indeed, the more recent move to sport-for-development indicates a fundamental move away from sport participation as the key objective and towards involvement in sport as a vehicle to achieve desired social outcomes. Indeed, the principle goal of sport-for-development managers today is the deployment of sport and physical activity programs to engage people from varying ethnocultural and socio-economic backgrounds, within which ideals of interpersonal respect, intergroup harmony and community cohesion are crucial.
Schulenkorf, N & Thomson, AK 2011, 'United through Sports: Managing Sport-For-Development Programs in Disadvantaged Communities' in Ratna, A & Lashua, B (eds), Community and Inclusion in Leisure Research and Sport Development, Leisure Studies Association, Eastbourne, pp. 55-76.
Sport programs and special events have received increasing interest and support by local, state, federal governments, as well as third sector organisations as a tool for reducing intergroup conflict and facilitating cooperation between disparate communities. While impact assessments and sociological investigations of sport-for-development projects have become subject to some empirical analysis, there has been limited research that explores how sport can be operationalised to achieve desired social development outcomes. To fill this gap, this paper investigates two independent sport-for-development case studies from Sri Lanka and rural Australia, and utilises interviews, observations and document analysis techniques to explore organisational approaches and management strategies employed to facilitate social development through sport. Findings are analysed in relation to Thomson et al.âs (in press) management framework, which is used as the basis for a wider discussion on the implications for sport-for-development initiatives in disparate community settings. Through adopting an approach where leadership values community interests and needs, strategies outlined in this document can contribute to sport being used as a vehicle to achieve wider social outcomes, including informal reconciliation, inclusive social change, and overall social development.
The focus of this chapter is on understanding how positive social impacts can be created and leveraged through sport events to achieve lasting peaceful outcomes for disparate communities. The chapter builds on practical work in Sri Lanka and suggests ways for event planners and managers to maximise and leverage social benefits for participants, spectators, supporters and the wider community. The chapter is underpinned by a discussion of the concept of intergroup relations and an examination of previous research on the contribution sport events make to peace and inclusive social development. Strategies for maximising sport event benefits are highlighted; they represent valuable learning opportunities for those interested in fostering peace through sport event tourism
Schulenkorf, N 2008, 'A.G.S.E.P., Sri Lanka' in Carlsen, J, Liburd, J, Edwards, D & Forde, P (eds), Innovations for Sustainable Tourism: International Case Studies, BEST Education Network, Esberj, Denmark, pp. 85-94.
The Asian German Sports Exchange Programme (A.G.S.E.P.) is an NGO, which has been conducting sport events and international exchanges between Sri Lankan and European sport teams since 1989. The organisation is based in Marawila, in rural western Sri Lanka, and was founded by the current CEO of the programme, Dr. Dietmar Döring, who at that time was the national coach of the table tennis team. Dr. Döring saw an opportunity to use sport events as an avenue to enhance tourism and the relationships between estranged ethnic communities in Sri Lanka. The philosophy of A.G.S.E.P. is that sport is an ideal way of connecting people and transcending social, cultural, ethnic and religious cleavages. Sport provides a neutral platform for all participants, who are able to experience and learn from each other in a playful and open atmosphere
Schulenkorf, N & Commeh, MK 2008, 'Brenu Beach Resort, Ghana' in Carlsen, J, Liburd, J, Edwards, D & Forde, P (eds), Innovations for Sustainable Tourism: International Case Studies, BEST Education Network, Esbjerg, Denmark, pp. 76-84.
At the time of this case study project in August 2001, the National People Party (NPP) had just come to power in Ghana. One of the reasons for the NPPs success was the promise to invest in and develop the local economy under the slogan `Golden Age of Business. The change towards a new democratic government resulted in wide-ranging goodwill from the local people, who were expecting a new level of personal and professional freedom in Ghana. The business sector was longing for positive change, as for almost 30 years private businesses had not received significant support from the preceding governments. People in the tourism industry were finally encouraged to invest into their innovative business ideas, and motivated to start up small enterprises to increase their quality of life
Godfrey, J, Wearing, S, Schulenkorf, N & Faulkner, S 2016, 'Constructing Identity through the ‘Moral Consumption’ of Volunteer Tourism', 26th Annual CAUTHE Conference: The Changing Landscape: The Impact of Emerging Markets and Destinations, Blue Mountains International Hotel School, Sydney, pp. 1281-1287.
Identity is associated with both travel experiences and consumption behaviours in contemporary consumer culture. Tourism experiences can be used to shape and reinforce identity; alternative tourism (e.g. volunteer tourism) in particular is closely associated with self-development. The volunteer tourism sector has been increasingly criticised in both academia and the mass media for creating a commercial product which potentially attracts more tourism-focussed volunteers who may be more likely to negatively impact the host community. Nonetheless, volunteer tourism is still widely associated with authenticity and altruism and arguably carries connotations of moral superiority compared to mainstream tourism. In this paper we argue that through the ‘moral consumption’ of volunteer tourism, Generation Y are able to access new forms of personal identity (e.g. altruistic, professional experience) and social identity (e.g. ‘moral’ tourist, global citizen). This paper is based on a case study of commercial volunteer tourists in Cusco, Peru.
Godfrey, J, Wearing, S & Schulenkorf, N 2015, 'Neo-Colonialism and the Volunteer Tourist Gaze: Commercial Volunteer Tourism in Cusco, Peru', 25th Annual CAUTHE Conference: Rising Tides and Sea Changes: Adaptation and Innovation in Tourism and Hospitality, School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Gold Coast, pp. 135-141.
In recent years volunteer tourism has become increasingly commercialised and this has shifted the relationship between the volunteer tourist, the volunteer tourism organisation and the host community. Compared to mass tourism, the more reciprocal tourist-host interaction of volunteer tourism has traditionally been assumed to create a more authentic travel experience resulting in increased cross-cultural understanding. However, this paper suggests that this is perhaps no longer the case in contemporary commercial volunteer tourism. The paper presents a case study of a large commercial volunteer tourism organisation in Cusco, Peru and explores the volunteer tourists’ perceptions of Cusco and their interactions with the host community.
Godfrey, JL, Wearing, SL & Schulenkorf, N 2013, 'A critical case study of medical volunteer tourists in Peru', Sustainability Issues and Challenges in Tourism Conference, Sustainability Issues and Challenges in Tourism Conference, Bogaziçi University, Istanbul, pp. 43-47.
While there has been an increasing amount of research on volunteer tourism, limited empirical work has explored the phenomenon of medical volunteer tourism. This paper examines a Peru-based commercial volunteer tourism organisation to investigate the experiences of skilled and unskilled volunteer tourists at local medical clinics in Cusco, Peru. An analysis of in-depth interviews with twelve volunteers suggests volunteers performed similar tasks at the medical clinics regardless of their medical background. While it appears the volunteers improved their Spanish language skills and acquired medical experience at under-resourced clinics, they may or may not have benefited the local community.
Schulenkorf, N 2011, 'Benefits of Intercultural Cooperation in Sport-for-Development: Complementing International Expertise with Local Community Knowledge', Sport as a Mediator between Cultures Conference, Sport as a Mediator between Cultures Conference, International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE), Wingate Institute, Israel, pp. 161-174.
There is increasing evidence that government agencies and NGOs are turning to sport-for-development (S4D) projects as a tool for inclusive social change, reconciliation and peace-building in divided societies. In a developing world context, it is particularly challenging for (Western) sport organisers and âchange agentsâ to establish and maintain projects that are both professionally managed and culturally meaningful. Surprisingly, the involvement of international change agents and their cooperation with local communities at intergroup development projects has not received much empirical investigation. In addressing this gap, the purpose of this paper is twofold: First, an analysis of the roles and responsibilities of a sport event change agent in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka is presented. Central to this analysis are the sport and event activities of the Asian-German Sports Exchange Programme, and their contribution to reconciliation and peace building in Sri Lanka. Second, in discussing the research findings and their importance for inclusive and sustainable development, this paper incorporates additional practical experiences from S4D projects such as the âFootball for Peaceâ initiative in Israel, and the âHealthy Communitiesâ program in Vanuatu. Despite their contextual differences, all these sport-based development projects are designed to make a lasting difference within and between disadvantaged communities.
Schulenkorf, N 2010, 'Community empowerment through sport and events: A conceptual framework for sport-for-development projects', Global Events Congress IV: Festivals & Events Research: State of the Art Proceedings Online, Global Events Congress, UK Centre for Event Management, Leeds, UK, pp. 1-21.
The number of aid organisations, NGOs and Government agencies pursuing the Millennium Development Goals and seeking to improve the everyday needs and social life of disadvantaged communities through sport and events, has been growing over the past decade. Particularly in divided societies, sport-for-development projects have increasingly been staged to contribute to intergroup togetherness, social cohesion and community empowerment. While the analyses of individual sport and event projects highlights their capacity to impact positively on people and groups, they do not provide strategic guidelines, models or frameworks for community empowerment. However, such models are needed to foster practical research in the area of community development that can inform sport and event planning, management and leverage. In an attempt to fill this gap, this paper presents and discusses the Sport-for-Development (S4D) Framework, which can be used to guide the strategic investigation of sport and event projects and their contribution to direct social impacts and lasting social outcomes for (disparate) communities. Finally, this paper suggests different ways in which the S4D Framework could be empirically tested and validated through both qualitative and quantitative research.
Schulenkorf, N & Edwards, DC 2009, 'Social development through sport and events: Strategies for sustaining and leveraging event benefits', Kufstein Congress on Sports & Culture: Sustainable Event Management - Lessons Learnt & Prospects, Kufstein Congress on Sports & Culture, Books on Demand GmbH, Kufstein, pp. 183-198.
There is increasing evidence that community based sport and event programs can be used to achieve positive social development within and among communities in developing countries (Gasser & Levinsen, 2004; Schulenkorf, 2008; Stidder & Haasner, 2007; Sugden, 2006). According to Moscardo (2007), social development consists of three major, interrelated constructs: social capital, social change and community capacity building. The focus of this paper is on investigating how these social development constructs can be advanced through strategic event planning. Two âsport for developmentâ event projects in war-torn Sri Lanka are examined to identify how event planners and managers can maximise and leverage social benefits for direct participants, supporting stakeholders and the wider community.
Thomson, AK, Leopkey, B, Schlenker, K & Schulenkorf, N 2010, 'Sport Event Legacies: Implications for Meaningful Legacy Outcomes', Global Events Congress IV - Events and Festivals Research State of the Art, Global Events Congress, UK Centre for Events Management, Leeds University, Leeds, UK, pp. 1-22.
Within the sport and event management context, legacy has emerged as an important justification for public sector involvement and investment since the late 1980s. Legacy is recognised as the long-term economic, tourism, social, and/or environmental outcomes for a host city from staging events (Gratton & Preuss, 2008; Hiller, 2003; Preuss, 2007). Despite the growing popularity, the concept of legacy has largely evaded any meaningful critique for the planning, implementation and evaluation of sport event outcomes. This paper aims to address this gap in the literature by empirically testing five key considerations of legacy, identified in previous work (Thomson, Schlenker, & Schulenkorf, 2009). The five key considerations include;
Schulenkorf, N, Thomson, AK & Schlenker, K 2009, 'Beyond anecdotes: The development of social capital through inter-community sport events', Sustainable Development and Events - Proceedings of ACEM 5th International Event Management Summit, International Event Management Research Conference, Australian Centre for Event Management, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 435-456.
Sport events are believed to promote dialogue, integration and peaceful understanding among groups, even when other forms of negotiation have not been successful (Croft, 2005; Sugden, 2006). At the same time, sport events are thought to play a role in the construction, reproduction or consolidation of social identities in politically, socially or ethnically divided societies. Better publicised events, such as the Olympics, may demonstrate this social utility of sport, where diverse communities stand and feel together as one. However, the social outcomes from sport events are largely anecdotal. This paper argues that for disparate communities to experience lasting benefits from sport events there is the need to move beyond symbolism and anecdotes. There is a need to examine the active engagement of groups with `others in participatory sport event projects where they experience first hand the impacts of cooperation and diversity
Thomson, AK, Schlenker, K & Schulenkorf, N 2009, 'Event legacies: An Empirical Testing of the Legacy Concept.', Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand (SMAANZ), Gold Coast, Australia.
Thomson, AK, Schlenker, K & Schulenkorf, N 2009, 'The legacy-factor: Towards conceptual clarification in the sport event context', Sustainable Development and Events - Proceedings of ACEM 5th International Event Management Summit, International Event Management Research Conference, Australian Centre for Event Management, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 360-374.
Public policy planners and event organisers are increasingly promoting potential economic, tourism, social, and/or environmental legacies to justify significant investments required to host special events. Within the context of special events, legacy is recognised as the long-term outcomes for a host city from staging an event (Hiller, 2003; Preuss, 2007). The notion of legacy has emerged in the events field surrounding the strategic use of events in achieving outcomes for host cities. However, this is complicated by inconsistent conceptualisations of legacy across academic and industry practice.
Schulenkorf, N 2008, 'A Conceptual Ex Ante Framework for the Strategic Study of Social Utility of Sport Events', BEST EN Think Tank VIII: Sustaining Quality of Life through Tourism, BEST Education Network Think Tank, Best Education Network, Izmir, Turkey, pp. 119-131.
The area of sport event tourism has been growing over the last years, which led to an increasing amount of research that has analysed both the economic and social impacts of sport events. Whereas a substantial amount of ex post assessment frameworks for quantitative event evaluation is available, there is growing demand for process orientated ex ante frameworks that guide the strategic study of social utility of events.
Schulenkorf, N 2005, 'Peace making through events: The impact of international sport events in multicultural Sri Lanka', 3rd International Event Management Research Conference: The Impacts of Events, International Event Management Research Conference, Australian Centre for Event Management, Sydney, Australia, pp. 231-247.
Sri Lanka is a beautiful but divided country with different types of people having individual values and motivations. Since 1983, the island has been confronted with permanent political, cultural and economic crises, rooted in the Tamil Tigers ongoing struggle for an independent state in the Northern parts of Sri Lanka. Although the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) the most violent terrorist organisation in the world and the Sri Lankan Government have come to a first rapprochement, the peace talks are currently stalled.
Siefken, K, Schofield, G & Schulenkorf, N World Health Organization 2012, Formative assessments of healthy workplace initiatives in Tuvalu, Tonga and Kiribati, pp. 1-72, Suva, Fiji.
Between May 2011 and January 2012 primary research work was conducted in the three Pacific islands of Tuvalu, Tonga and Kiribati. Activities included NCD Mini Step screenings; the assessment of physical activity programs; and formative work investigating challenges and opportunities for health development. NCD screenings reveal high NCD risk factors: 68.0% and 70.9% of male and female screened individuals were identified as obese in Tonga, Tuvalu and Kiribati. Clearly, severe co-morbidities prevail. Findings indicate the existence of several physical activity programs in each country. Major challenges include sustainability issues and funding options. On-site practitioners are often highly motivated, though financial support and a lack of appropriate facilities and equipment hinder continuous program improvement. Future recommendations are provided for each country.
Siefken, K, Schofield, G & Schulenkorf, N World Health Organization (Western Pacific Regional Office) 2010, NCD Elimination in Vanuatu, pp. 1-58, Suva, Fiji.
In November 2010 an NCD assessment team carried out community NCD Mini-STEP screenings to evaluate current NCD projects and to initiate NCD community health awareness in Vanuatu. The respective communities have very limited contact to the Western world, thus there is little external influence on their lifestyle and eating patterns. The NCD Mini STEP screening revealed a very healthy population. In fact, these communities are probably much healthier than their urban counterparts in Lougainville and/or Port Vila. Nevertheless, several chronic patients were identified and are strongly recommended to be consistently monitored and be provided with regular medication (blood pressure, diabetes). The NCD team identified strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the existing NCD projects on Aniwa and Aneythium. Overall, these NCD projects are unique, highly innovative and sophisticated. For example, monthly NCD community screenings are well organized and other communities (both urban and rural) are advised to adapt these initiatives. Consistent monitoring and provision of medication to current chronic patients is required. Importantly, the involvement of local highlevel decision makers is likely to contribute to positive and sustainable health development.
World Health Organization; Oceania Football Confederation; Netball Australia; Australian National Rugby League