My main research interests are about learning, agency and positive change in the context of early childhood adversity, and emerency practices in healthcare. I am also involved in projects working with teachers and teacher educators in Nepal and Bhutan, collaboratively developing low- and no-cost approaches to teaching that engage students in mathematics and science. I've long had an interest in learning, whether in community settings, workplaces, universities, or schools.
One of my current projects has led to a fundraising effort to co-design a public awareness campaign about tube-feeding in childhood. Please visit our fundraising page for more information!
My recent ARC project 'Creating Better Futures' resulted in a website for professionals to use to improve the impact of their work in partnership with families. One of my ongoing projects (SuCCEED) has involved working with parents and clinicians to develop a unique, new website to help parents of children with complex feeding difficulties.
I am an Extraodinary Professor at the University of Stellenbosch, Department of Curriculum Studies.
Australian Council of Graduate Research Award for Excellence in Graduate Research Leadership - Special Commendation, 2017 & 2019
UTS Individual Teaching Award, 2015
UTS Vice Chancellor's Awards for Research Excellence: Winner in Researcher Development (including Supervision) Award, 2014
UTS Vice Chancellor's Awards for Research Excellence: Highly Commended in Researcher Development (including Supervision) Award, 2013
Asia-Pacific Regional Coordinator, and member of Executive Commitee of International Society for Cultural-historical Activity Research
Co-editor of Studies in Continuing Education.
Can supervise: YES
I am interested in how positive change happens. I approach this from an educational perspective that means I investigate how change is made possible through learning and the development of agency. Agency is the means by which people bring sought-after futures closer - not accepting the status quo as given, but transcending it to make a better reality happen. I explore these questions in relation to families with young children affected by adversity, and in emergency health professional practices.
I work with Vygotskian / cultural-historical activity theory, and practice theories, and am increasingly interested in taking an activist and action-oriented approach, going beyond description and being a passive bystander to the world - instead using research to join in daily strivings and struggles. In this spirit, the research I do is not just about adapting to how things are, but about making new things posible.
Details of some current and recent projects are below.
Supporting children with complex feeding difficulties (SuCCEED)
$165,000 funding from diverse sources including: Maridulu Budyari Gumal / Sydney Partnership for Health, Education, Research and Enterprise (SPHERE) Early Life Determinants of Health Clinical Academic Group; UWS Business School; UTS Social Impact Grant.
This study will investigate needs of those providing care to children with feeding difficulties, and will co-produce and test new educational resources to meet those needs. Partners include St George Hospital, Sydney Children’s Hospital, UNSW, WSU.
Research-informed education resources for Nepalese parents experiencing difficulty with child feeding project
$19,968 South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Multicultural Health Grants Program
The aim is to improve the health and wellbeing of Nepalese families in SESLHD with a specific focus on child feeding. Feeding has implications for children’s wellbeing, development and parents’ mental health. Objectives: (1) Develop new, culturally-relevant resources in Nepali, designed with and reviewed by Nepalese families in partnership with clinicians, researchers and cultural workers, to better support Nepalese parents in relation to: non-assertive, age-appropriate feeding practices in healthy children, and feeding children with complex health problems. (2) Build capacity by developing new resources for practitioners to help them meet the specific needs of Nepalese service users in relation to child feeding.
Creating better futures for children through effective parent education (Jan 2015 – Dec 2017)
$371,000 ARC Discovery Early Career Researcher Award
By helping parents in disadvantaged families to cope with adversity, parent education services can mitigate risks, build resilience in families, and change children’s prospects for the future. This project will identify the most effective ways that parent educators can create lasting positive impacts for families. It will also find out what needs to change to make these best practices more widespread and cost effective, including learning from study of low-cost community-based services.
Nick teaches within the Master of Education (Learning and Leadership) course, including subjects such as Research Practices, Research Design, and Professional Learning and Practice.
Nick also teaches Higher Degrees by Research (HDR) students, in areas of methodology, research design, and advanced qualitative data analysis. In addition Nick offers workshops on peer review, scholarly practices, writing abstracts, supervision etc.
This book explores important questions about the relationship between professional practice and learning, and implications of this for how we understand professional expertise. Focusing on work accomplished through partnerships between practitioners and parents with young children, the book explores how connectedness in action is a fluid, evolving accomplishment, with four essential dimensions: times, spaces, bodies, and things. Within a broader sociomaterial perspective, the analysis draws on practice theory and philosophy, bringing different schools of thought into productive contact, including the work of Schatzki, Gherardi, and recent developments in cultural historical activity theory. The book takes a bold view, suggesting practices and learning are entwined but distinctive phenomena. A clear and novel framework is developed, based on this idea. The argument goes further by demonstrating how new, coproductive relationships between professionals and clients can intensify the pedagogic nature of professional work, and showing how professionals can support others' learning when the knowledge they are working with, and sense of what is to be learned, are uncertain, incomplete, and fragile.
This uniquely in-depth book offers a blow-by-blow account of the sometimes problematic dynamics of conducting collaborative fieldwork in ethnography. Tracing the interplay between co-researchers at various points of contact in both professional and personal relations, the analysis draws out the asymmetries which can develop among team members nominally working towards the same ends. It details the often complex dialogues that evolve in an attempt to navigate conflicting interests, such as team members resistances to particular methodological `recipes or research protocols. The authors show that such debates can create an open forum to negotiate new practices. A key element of this publication is that it goes beyond an analysis of more traditional power relations in research teams comprising members at different academic pay grades. As well as drawing attention to gender-related dynamics in research collaborations, the authors use themselves as an exemplar to demonstrate how differences in age, experience, knowledge, professional skills and background can be exploited to generate positive outcomes constituting much more than the apparent sum of their parts. In doing so, the authors reveal the delightful, surprising and yet challenging aspects of research collaboration that are often absent from the qualitative literature.
Hopwood, N 2012, Geography in Secondary Schools: Researching Pupils' Classroom Experiences, 1, Continuum International Publishing Group, London / New York.
This book tells a story about six pupils, how they experience geography lessons, and their ideas about geography as a school subject. I refer to the ways in which pupils reflected on their classroom experiences and talked about geography in terms of their subject conceptions.
This paper presents findings from research about pupils experiences of environmental education in UK secondary schools. The study focused on six pupils aged 13- to 14-years-old and nearing the end of their compulsory geography education. Geography provided a relevant a curricular context for exploring pupils experiences of environmental education as it is one of the main subject areas dealing with environmental issues and education for sustainable development in the UK. Classroom observation and interviews offered insights into the way the six pupils interpreted a range of classroom experiences. This paper elucidates the personal ideas and agendas that children may bring to their environmental learning experiences, and demonstrates how lessons that were not intended to be environmental in focus may nonetheless be interpreted as such by pupils.
Hopwood, N & Jensen, K 2020, 'Shadow organizing and imitation: new foci for research', Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print, no. ahead-of-print.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Shadow organizing refers to the emergence of parallel arrangements that sit alongside and imitate mainstream or conventional ways of organizing. It can be a response to challenges that require new ways of working without abandoning what is valuable about conventional arrangements. However, the processes through which shadow organizing is accomplished are not well understood; there is a need to go beyond traditional notions of mimicry and metaphor. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
This paper demonstrates how a Tardean approach to imitation can address this gap. It deploys imitation as an explanatory concept, based on contemporary readings of Tarde, as well as understandings of organizing as an unfolding process. Child and Family Centres in Tasmania (Australia), are used as an example of shadow organizing, delivering integrated health and education services in an emerging parallel arrangement.
The analysis highlights an imitation dynamic which is far from straightforward mimicry. Rather, it comprises repetition and generation of difference. This dynamic is conceptualized in Tardean fashion as three patterns: the imitation of ideas before expression; the selective nature of imitation; and insertion of the old alongside the new.
The paper moves beyond metaphors of shadow organizing, and understandings of shadow organizing as mimicry. Conceptualizing imitation in an alternative way, it contributes fresh insights into how shadow organizing is accomplished. This enriches and expands the conceptual apparatus for researchers wishing to understand the betwixt and between of shadow organizing.
Hopwood, N, Blomberg, M, Dahlberg, J & Dahlgren, MA 2020, 'Three Principles Informing Simulation-Based Continuing Education to Promote Effective Interprofessional Collaboration: Reorganizing, Reframing, and Recontextualizing', JOURNAL OF CONTINUING EDUCATION IN THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 81-88.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hopwood, N & Mäkitalo, Å 2019, 'Learning and expertise in support for parents of children at risk: a cultural-historical analysis of partnership practices', Oxford Review of Education, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 587-604.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Relationships young children have with caring adults are important in mitigating the effects of adversity in early childhood. Facilitating parents' learning is central to support that helps parents cope with difficult circumstances. Within this, a focus on parent–child relationships is crucial. This presents significant challenges to professionals, who must use their expertise effectively without leaving parents feeling judged and that their knowledge does not count. Professional–client partnership has been proposed as a means to tackle these issues, but remains inadequately conceptualised in terms of connections between professional expertise and parents' learning. Home visits by nurses in Sydney were analysed, drawing on cultural-historical concepts that trace dialectic relations between expertise, practice, and parents' learning. Partnership was accomplished through six practices: making observations, specific modes of questioning, reinterpreting, reframing, orienting to the future, and offering metacommentary. These are discussed in terms of recontextualisation, working in a space of reasons, and practices of categorising. This novel conceptualisation reveals how professionals can use their expertise to address parent–child relationships.
Relational aspects of professional practice demand increasing attention in research on work and learning. However, little is known about how knowledge is enacted in practices where different people work together. Working in partnership with clients surfaces a number of epistemic demands, responses to which are poorly understood. This paper analyses two cases of nurses working with parents in support services for families with young children. The questions asked are: What epistemic practices are enacted when professionals work in partnership with clients? How do they generate distinct modes of partnership work? Findings show how professionals' and clients' knowledge is mobilised and made actionable through practices of diagnostic reasoning, recontextualising, testing and contesting knowledge claims. A distinction is presented between partnership that unfolds as strengthening the client from a professional epistemic perspective, and that which validates and augments the client's own epistemic contribution. This reveals how knowledge is made to matter and becomes a basis for action in the course of working with others, and informs a new analytical distillation highlighting key epistemic aspects of professional-client partnership.
© The Author(s) 2019. How do professionals at different locations within a firm collaborate to provide services across borders? This article addresses how knowledge-intensive service provisions are coordinated across borders, time zones and expertise. Empirical material from two engineering firms providing services to a global customer base are analysed, comprising over 100 interviews and over 20 days of observation. Concepts from practice theory are used, locating questions of knowledge in the realm of practical action. Findings describe how transnational services are enacted through prefigured and emergent practices. The problem of coordinating transnational practices is considered as a matter of balanced acting between these contrasting forms of work. This is explored in terms of the forms of knowledge that are in play – nuancing practical understanding into specific notions of know-how, know-what, know-who, know-why and know-where/when. Connecting this array of knowledge forms with balanced acting between prefigured and emergent practices extends theorizations of transnational knowledge-intensive firms, and casts new light on how the widespread problem of coordination can be addressed.
Hopwood, N, Clerke, C & Nguyen, A 2018, 'A pedagogical framework for facilitating parents' learning in nurse-parent partnership.', Nursing Inquiry, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Nursing work increasingly demands forms of expertise that complement specialist knowledge. In child and family nursing, this need arises when nurses work in partnership with parents of young children at risk. Partnership means working with parents in respectful, negotiated and empowering ways. Existing partnership literature emphasises communicative and relational skills, but this paper focuses on nurses' capacities to facilitate parents' learning. Referring to data from home visiting, day-stay and specialist toddler clinic services in Sydney, a pedagogical framework is presented. Analysis shows how nurses notice aspects of children, parents and parent-child interactions as a catalyst for building on parents' strengths, enhancing guided chance or challenging unhelpful constructs. Prior research shows the latter can be a sticking point in partnership, but this paper reveals diverse ways in which challenges are folded into learning process that position parents as agents of positive change. Noticing is dependent on embodied and communicative expertise, conceptualised in terms of sensory and reported channels. The framework offers a new view of partnership as mind-expanding for the parent and specifies the nurse's role in facilitating this process.
Lindh Falk, A, Hult, H, Hammar, M, Hopwood, N & Abrandt Dahlgren, M 2018, 'Nursing assistants matters-An ethnographic study of knowledge sharing in interprofessional practice.', Nursing inquiry, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. e12216-e12216.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Interprofessional collaboration involves some kind of knowledge sharing, which is essential and will be important in the future in regard to the opportunities and challenges in practices for delivering safe and effective health care. Nursing assistants are seldom mentioned as a group of health care workers that contribute to interprofessional collaboration in health care practice. The aim of this ethnographic study was to explore how the nursing assistants' knowledge can be shared in a team on a spinal cord injury rehabilitation ward. Using a sociomaterial perspective on practice, we captured different aspects of interprofessional collaboration in health care. The findings reveal how knowledge was shared between professionals, depending on different kinds of practice architecture. These specific cultural-discursive, material-economic, and social-political arrangements enabled possibilities through which nursing assistants' knowledge informed other practices, and others' knowledge informed the practice of nursing assistants. By studying what health care professionals actually do and say in practice, we found that the nursing assistants could make a valuable contribution of knowledge to the team.
Srivastava, P & Hopwood, N 2018, 'Reflection/Commentary on a Past Article: "A Practical Iterative Framework for Qualitative Data Analysis": http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/160940690900800107', International Journal of Qualitative Methods, vol. 17, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This submission is a reflection by Srivastava and Hopwood on their earlier article, A Practical Iterative Framework for Qualitative Data Analysis, originally published in International Journal of Qualitative Methods in 2009, and selected for the journal's special anniversary issue, "Top 20 in 20." They discuss how they have applied the framework in their various studies since then, Srivastava, primarily in field-based international research in education and global development, and Hopwood, in education and health. Based on a brief analysis of the paper's citations, they identify its impact to have been: in a wide variety of fields crossing disciplinary boundaries, studies situated in a range of domestic and international contexts, studies analyzing data from intersectional perspectives and conducted with marginalized participant groups, referred to in methodological textbooks and publications, and used by researchers of all levels of experience, independently or in teams. They end by identifying what they consider to be key emerging topics associated with qualitative data analysis, Hopwood, on nonrepresentational and posthumanist perspectives and the implications of "postcoding," and Srivastava on considering the agency of less privileged, marginalized, or vulnerable participants in data collection and analysis.
Hopwood, N & Edwards, A 2017, 'How common knowledge is constructed and why it matters in collaboration between professionals and clients', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, vol. 83, pp. 107-119.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hopwood, N & Gottschalk, B 2017, 'Double stimulation "in the wild": Services for families with children at-risk', Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, vol. 13, pp. 23-37.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The concept of double stimulation provides a framework for understanding the promotion of volitional action. In this article the concept is applied "in the wild", to analyse professional practice in parenting services for parents with young children at risk. We answer questions about (i) how concepts of double stimulation account for features of professional–parent interactions and what new insights are offered by this, and (ii) how double stimulation in the wild relates to the processes specified in a recently articulated model of double stimulation, and wider concepts of expansive learning. Examples of interactions between a professional (nurse) and a new mother illustrate how an absence of auxiliary stimuli may trap parents in conflicted situations. We found that in promoting double stimulation, professionals work simultaneously in two dialectically related fields: getting the parent to act using new auxiliary stimuli and getting them to think differently about the object. Such work may unfold in non-linear and discontinuous fashion and places complex demands on professionals.
Lindh Falk, A, Hopwood, N & Abrandt Dahlgren, M 2017, 'Unfolding Practices: A Sociomaterial View of Interprofessional Collaboration in Health Care', Professions and Professionalism, vol. 7, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Knowledge sharing is an essential part of interprofessional practice and will be even more important in the future in regard to the opportunities and challenges in practices for delivering safe and effective healthcare. The aim of this ethnographic study was to explore how professional knowledge can be shared in an interprofessional team at a spinal cord injury rehabilitation unit. A sociomaterial perspective on practice was used to analyse the data, and by theorizing upon this, we captured different aspects of interprofessional collaboration in health care. The findings illuminate how knowledge emerges and is shared between professionals, and how it passes along as chain of actions between professionals, in various ways. The findings offer a novel perspective on how interprofessional collaboration as a practice, involving ongoing learning, unfolds. This reveals the mechanisms by which different forms of expertise are mobilized between professions as health care work.
Reich, A, Rooney, D & Hopwood, N 2017, 'Sociomaterial perspectives on work and learning: sites of emergent learning', Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 29, no. 7-8, pp. 566-576.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: This paper aims to introduce, explain and illustrate the concept of "sites of emergent learning" (SEL), which pinpoints particular instances of learning in everyday practice. This concept is located within contemporary practice-oriented and sociomaterial approaches to understanding workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: This conceptual development has been resourced by a secondary analysis of data from three workplace learning studies. These were: an ethnographic study of a residential parenting service; a case study of learning among engineers working on a railway construction site; and a case study of a multicultural unit that aims to enhance health services for a diverse community. All were based in the Sydney metropolitan area. The secondary analysis was undertaken by identifying regular practices within each setting where professionals discuss past and future work. These were then subjected to theoretical scrutiny, identifying common and distinctive features. Findings: SEL were identified within the handover, site-walks and catch-up meeting practices. They arise through and are constituted in relationships between social practices and the materialities of work. SEL involve negotiating, exploring and questioning practice and knowledge associated with it; they are instances within work practices in which work is done about how work gets done, developing new understandings of the past to reshape visions for the future. Alongside these commonalities, each site of emergent learning displayed distinctive features shaped by the particularities of the practices and materialities of each site. Originality/value: This concept is presented as a valuable tool to assist researchers of workplace learning. It elucidates particular learning-intensive features of practice, extending sociomaterial conceptualisations of professional and workplace learning.
Clerke, T, Hopwood, N, Chavasse, F, Fowler, C, Lee, S & Rogers, J 2017, 'Using professional expertise in partnership with families: a new model of capacity- building', Journal of Child and Family Health, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 74-84.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The first five years of parenting are critical to children's development. Parents are known to respond best to interventions with a partnership-based approach, yet child and family health nurses (CFHNs) report some tension between employing their expertise and maintaining a partnership relationship. This article identifies ways in which CFHNs skilfully use their professional expertise, underpinned by helping qualities and interpersonal skills, to assist families build confidence and capacity, and thus buffer against threats to parent and child well-being. It reports on an Australian ethnographic study of services for families with young children. Fifty-two interactions were observed between CFHNs and families in day-stay and home visiting services in Sydney. A new model is presented, based on four partnership activities and the fluid movement between them, to show how CFHNs use their expertise to identify strengths and foster resilience in families in the longer term, without undermining the principles of partnership.
Abrandt Dahlgren, M, Fenwick, T & Hopwood, N 2016, 'Theorising simulation in higher education: difficulty for learners as an emergent phenomenon', Teaching in Higher Education, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 613-627.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Despite the widespread interest in using and researching simulation in higher education, little discussion has yet to address a key pedagogical concern: difficulty. A 'sociomaterial' view of learning, explained in this paper, goes beyond cognitive considerations to highlight dimensions of material, situational, representational and relational difficulty confronted by students in experiential learning activities such as simulation. In this paper we explore these dimensions of difficulty through three contrasting scenarios of simulation education. The scenarios are drawn from studies conducted in three international contexts: Australia, Sweden and the UK, which illustrate diverse approaches to simulation and associated differences in the forms of difficulty being produced. For educators using simulation, the key implications are the importance of noting and understanding (1) the effects on students of interaction among multiple forms of difficulty; (2) the emergent and unpredictable nature of difficulty; and (3) the need to teach students strategies for managing emergent difficulty.
© 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. This chapter sets the agenda for the book. It poses a series questions that come out of contemporary sociomaterial and practice-based approaches to understanding professional practice and learning. Theoretical foundations are laid, including a preliminary explanation of the four dimensions of times, spaces, bodies and things. Justifications for their exploration in separate chapters are provided, acknowledging the slippage across dimensions. The primary arguments presented in greater detail, and substantiated empirically in later chapters, are outlined here. The setting for the empirical work through which theoretical ideas are put to use and developed through the rest of the book is introduced: a residential parenting service in Sydney, Australia. The chapter outlines the structure of the book, and concludes with a brief consideration of the role of critique in it. The account developed through the book constitutes a critical intervention in the fields of workplace learning, and studies of professional practice, while revealing features of learning and practice that help us understand how professionals cope with challenging work, establish effective partnerships with service users, and make a positive difference in the world.
Hopwood, N & Clerke, T 2016, 'Professional pedagogies of parenting that build resilience through partnership with families at-risk: a cultural-historical approach', Pedagogy, Culture and Society, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 599-615.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 Pedagogy, Culture & SocietyThe importance of pedagogic practices in addressing major social problems is increasingly acknowledged. This is especially so in areas of work not traditionally understood in pedagogic terms, such as services for vulnerable families with young children. Policy mandates for change in relationships between professionals and clients have challenged conventional notions of professional expertise, intensifying and expanding the pedagogic dimension of such work. This paper examines professional–parent interactions, adopting a cultural-historical approach focused on mediation, everyday and scientific concepts, and the space of reasons. Analysis reveals four distinct activities: locating and orienting change, creating new meaning for change, change through joint live action, and planning for change. Each involves different objects and ways in which professional expertise is brought to bear in pedagogic work. It is argued resilience-building works by helping parents learn to interpret and act in their worlds differently, using cultural tools from professional expertise made available through pedagogic work. The paper provides new insights into the importance of professional expertise in these practices at a time when this is in question.
Hopwood, N, Edwards, A & Day, C 2016, 'Partnership practice as collaborative knowledge work: overcoming common dilemmas through an augmented view of professional expertise', Journal of Children's Services: research informing policy and practice, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 111-123.View/Download from: Publisher's site
– The purpose of this paper is to shed new light on how partnership practices that build resilience in families work. Two broad questions are explored: first, what are the forms of expertise required in practices that effectively build resilience through partnership?; and second, how can some of the challenges practitioners experience when working in partnership be addressed?
– A theoretical approach is taken, framing partnership as collaborative knowledge work between practitioners and clients. Concepts of relational expertise, common knowledge and relational agency are explored as means to understand the forms of expertise involved in partnership. An empirical example is provided from practices guided by The Family Partnership Model, an approach that has been widely implemented.
– These concepts help to address three key challenges experienced by practitioners: client readiness for change, maintaining focus and purpose and using specialist expertise in partnership. This approach elucidates features of partnership practice that distinguish it from expert-led models, while highlighting diverse forms of expertise in play.
– The framework presented in this paper is distinctive and can be used to identify how practitioners can avoid common dilemmas, even in challenging circumstances with vulnerable families where practitioner-client relationships may be perceived as fragile. It counters the idea that partnership work dilutes professional expertise. Instead, an enriched and augmented view of professional expertise is presented.
Hopwood, N, Rooney, D, Boud, D & Kelly, M 2016, 'Simulation in Higher Education: A sociomaterial view', EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AND THEORY, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 165-178.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hopwood, N, Sherab, K, Kumar Rai, B & Lhendup, K 2016, 'Using a cultural-historical approach to promote Gross National Happiness (GNH) in Bhutan: prospects for research and practice', Bhutan Journal of Research and Development, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 51-61.
This paper discusses how cultural-historical theory can be used to promote GNH in Bhutan. Cultural- historical approaches stem from the work of Lev Vygotsky into early childhood development. Although GNH and cultural-historical theory have different historical origins, there are valuable points of intersection that point to useful areas of research and highlight relevant issues in development practice. Key to this are Vygotskian ideas that learning and development arise through dialectic interactions between individuals and society, people and practice. The framework of GNH can be understood as a cultural tool that enables people to work on problems and issues that are important to Bhutan. From a Vygotskian point of view, when GNH mediates people's activity, it also has an effect back on those people, thus addressing the individual and collective dimensions simultaneously.
Kelly, M, Hopwood, N, Rooney, D & Boud, D 2016, 'Enhancing students' learning through simulation: dealing with diverse, large cohorts', Clinical Simulation in Nursing, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 171-176.View/Download from: Publisher's site
As the field of health care simulation matures, new questions about appropriate pedagogy are emerging which present challenges to research and practices. This has implications for how we investigate and deliver effective simulations, how we conceive effectiveness, and how we make decisions about investment in simulation infrastructure. In this article, we explore two linked challenges that speak to these wider concerns: student diversity and large cohorts. We frame these within contemporary simulation practices and offer recommendations for research and practice that will account for students' varying cultural expectations about learning and clinical practice in the Australian context.
Hopwood, N 2015, 'Understanding partnership practice in primary health as pedagogic work: what can Vygotsky's theory of learning offer?', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PRIMARY HEALTH, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 9-13.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper situates the geography PhD within the broader context of doctoral education. It addresses questions relating to the PhD as preparation for future academic work. Theoretical and practical ideas are woven through a discussion of the work of the Centre for Excellence in Preparing for Academic Practice, at the University of Oxford, UK. The Centre initiated wide-ranging reforms and has had lasting impacts, with a philosophy of remaining sensitive to disciplinary context. The paper argues that cultural historical activity theory is a useful lens for understanding challenges in contemporary doctoral education, and responses to them. Key concepts are outlined, and a worked example provided, drawing from the Centre's work. Connections are made with relevant initiatives specific to geography. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Rooney, DL, Hopwood, N, Boud, D & Kelly, M 2015, 'The Role of Simulation in Pedagogies of Higher Education for the Health Professions: Through a Practice-Based Lens', Vocations and Learning.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The preparation of future professionals for practice is a key focus of higher education institutions. Among a range of approaches is the use of simulation peda- gogies. While simulation is often justified as a direct bridge between higher education and professional practice, this paper questions this easy assumption. It develops a conceptually driven argument to cast new light on simulation and its unarticulated potential in professional formation. The argument unfolds in, and is illustrated via, three accounts of a simulation event in an Australian undergraduate nursing program. This begins with a familiar approach, moves to one that problematizes this through a focus on disruption, culminating in a third that draws on socio-material theorisations. Here, simulation is conceived as emergent, challenging stable notions of fidelity, common in simulation literature. New possibilities of simulation in the production of agile practitioners and learners in practice are surfaced. This paper extends and enriches thinking by providing distinctive new ways of understanding simulation and the relationship it affords between education and professional practice, and by illuminating the untapped potential of simulation for producing agile practitioners.
Fletcher, R, Dowse, E, Hall, P, Hopwood, N, Bennett, E & Erickson, J 2014, 'Identifying depressed fathers during a home visit: why and how.', Australian Journal of Child and Family Health Nursing, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 5-9.
The knowledge and expertise required for child and family health nursing practice has continued to evolve as a consequence of research-based interventions and policy changes affecting families. The benefits of sustained home visiting on family health and wellbeing are now accepted and Australian trials have demonstrated improvements in maternal–infant attachment and mothers' relationship with their child. At the level of clinical practice, best practice approaches for nurses visiting new mothers have moved away from delivering specific clinical procedures to focusing on the particular needs and circumstances of the parent and family, emphasising psychological support and health promotion in partnership and collaboration with parents. A particular focus on detecting postnatal maternal depression has arisen due to the development of the National Perinatal Depression Initiative. Child and family health nurses now regularly screen mothers using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Recent evidence of the impact of fathers' depression on children and mothers has drawn attention to fathers' mental health in the
perinatal period. Fathers' postnatal depression has been shown to impact on children's development at similar levels to mothers' and while children are most affected by two depressed parents, the effect of fathers' depression is independent of mood disorder in the mother. Nurses making home visits have an opportunity to engage with fathers and many do so when the father is available. In this paper we present the evidence and rationale for assessing fathers' depression or anxiety at the postnatal home visit.
Gregory, LR, Hopwood, N & Boud, DJ 2014, 'Interprofessional learning at work: what spatial theory can tell us about workplace learning in an acute care ward', Journal of Interprofessional Care, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 200-205.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Abstract: Professional work is often heralded as undergoing radical transformation. This paper focuses on partnership between health professionals and families as a specific instance of changes aimed at delivering shared responsibility and joint knowledge work. An ethnographic study of a residential child and family health services provides the empirical basis for a detailed examination of what is signed, by whom, and with what effects. I show how signing and signatures provide fertile starting points for sociomaterial analysis, a rich empirical reference point for what Nicolini calls zooming in on particular instances, and zooming out to understand their connections to other practices. Schatzki's practice theory is used as a theoret- ical basis, drawing also on Kemmis' notions of practice architectures and ecologies of practices to elaborate such connections. I trace how acts of signing and signatures as artefacts are produced through and reflect partnership, indeed pointing to significant changes in professional work. However I also show that wider ecologies of practices present architectures that challenge diffuse accountability and shared epistemic work.
© Emerald Group Publishing. Purpose – This conceptual paper aims to argue that times, spaces, bodies and things constitute four essential dimensions of workplace learning. It examines how practices relate or hang together, taking Gherardi's texture of practices or connectedness in action as the foundation for making visible essential but often overlooked dimensions of workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach – This framework is located within and adds to contemporary sociomaterial- or practice-based approaches, in which learning is understood as an emergent requirement and product of ongoing practice that cannot be specified in advance. Findings – The four dimensions are essential in two senses: they are the constitutive essence of textures of practices: what they are made of and they are non-optional; it is not possible to conceive a texture of practices without all of these dimensions present. Although the conceptual terrains to which they point overlap considerably, they remain useful as analytic points of departure. Each reveals something that is less clear in the others. Research limitations/implications – This innovative framework responds to calls to better understand how practices hang together, and offers a toolkit that reflects the multifaceted nature of practice. It presents a distinctive basis for making sense of connectedness in action, and thus for understanding learning in work. Originality/value – The paper offers a novel conceptual framework, expanding the texture of practices through dimensions of times, spaces, bodies and things, rendering visible aspects that might otherwise be ignored.
Hopwood, N 2013, '8th International Researching Work and Learning (RWL) conference: The visible and invisible in work and learning', Australian Journal of Adult Learning, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 509-512.
Hopwood, N 2013, 'Professional learning in the knowledge society, edited by Karen Jensen, Leif Chr. Lahn and Monika Nerland, Rotterdam/Boston/Taipei, Sense Publishers, 2012, 228 pp.', Journal of Education and Work, vol. Online.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hopwood, N 2013, 'The Routledge doctoral students' companion: getting to grips with research in education and the social sciences/The Routledge doctoral supervisors' companion: supporting effective research in education and the social sciences', Studies in Continuing Education, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 254-256.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lind Falk, A, Hult, H, Hammar, M, Hopwood, N & Abrandt -Dahlgren, M 2013, 'One size fits all? A student ward as a learning practice for interprofessional development', Journal of Interprofessional Care, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 476-481.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Interprofessional training wards (IPTWs), aiming to enhance interprofessional collaboration, have been implemented in medical education and evaluated over the last decade. The Faculty of Health Sciences, Linko ¨ping University has, in collaboration with the local health provider, arranged such training wards since 1996, involving students from the medical, nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy programs. Working together across professional boundaries is seen as a necessity in the future to achieve sustainable and safe healthcare. Therefore, educators need to arrange learning contexts which enhance students interprofes- sional learning. This article shows aspects of how the arrangement of an IPTW can influence the students collaboration and learning. Data from open-ended questions from a questionnaire survey, during autumn term 2010 and spring term 2011 at an IPTW, was analyzed qualitatively using a theoretical framework of practice theory. The theoretical lens gave a picture of how architectures of the IPTW create a clash between the ``expected professional responsibilities and the ``unexpected responsibilities of caring work. Also revealed was how the proximity between students opens up contexts for negotiations and boundary work. The value of using a theoretical framework of professional learning in practice within the frames of healthcare education is discussed.
Hopwood, N, Fowler, CM, Lee, A, Rossiter, C & Bigsby, M 2013, 'Understanding partnership practice in child and family nursing through the concept of practice architectures', Nursing Inquiry, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 199-210.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A significant international development agenda in the practice of nurses supporting families with young children focuses on establishing partnerships between professionals and service users. Qualitative data were generated through interviews and focus groups with 22 nurses from three child and family health service organisations, two in Australia and one in New Zealand. The aim was to explore what is needed in order to sustain partnership in practice, and to investigate how the concept of practice architectures can help understand attempts to enhance partnerships between nurses and families.
Existing research on doctoral education documents levels of satisfaction, the difficulties students face and variations according to demographic variables. Cognitive dimensions of learning are emphasised, and calls to attend to bodies in doctoral education remain largely unheeded. This article draws on theoretical work that rejects Cartesian mind/body opposition, asking `in what ways do doctoral students bodies matter?' Thirty-three students were interviewed, and through analysis four themes identified: being with body, bodies in space, bodily practices and bodily experiences. The bodily dimensions of familiar issues, including race, gender, fatigue, and stress, are highlighted, and connections made between bodies and doctoral writing, thinking, age and the spaces in which students live and work. The themes provide new ways of understanding what it means to be and learn as a doctoral student. Taking bodies into account offers a fuller picture of how doctoral work is accomplished and the tolls this exerts on students.
Fowler, CM, Rossiter, C, Bigsby, M, Hopwood, N, Lee, A & Dunston, R 2012, 'Working in partnership with parents: the experience and challenge of practice innovation in child and family health nursing', Journal of Clinical Nursing, vol. 21, no. 21-22, pp. 3306-3314.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Aims and objectives. This study investigated what Family Partnership Model practice means in the day-to-day practice of child and family health nurses working with parents. Background. The Family Partnership Model has been widely implemented in child and family health services in Australia and New Zealand, with limited understanding of the implications for nursing practice. Design. A qualitative interpretive study design was used. Method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 nurse participants, who had completed the Family Partnership Model training programme. Subsequent focus groups enabled these participants to validate the themes identified in the initial analysis and to confirm that the nurses concurred with the issues raised. Thematic content analysis produced rich descriptions and explanation of nurses' experiences and perspectives. Results. Four themes emerged from the analysis: experience of changing practices, exploring with parents, challenging unhelpful constructions and a commitment to examining practice. Conclusion. Overall, the participants embraced the use of the Family Partnership Model, providing examples of change and increasing confidence in their approach to working with parents. Relevance to clinical practice. This study demonstrates that the effective utilisation of the Family Partnership Model in nursing practice is a more complex and dynamic process than simply embracing the model. There are significant challenges to be negotiated when implementing new ways of working with parents, particularly questioning existing dominant forms of practice for nurses, managers and wider health organisations, and their clients. This paper also raises issues about sustaining practice innovation, which extends beyond the best intent of individual nurses, requiring receptive organisational conditions and leadership.
Mbuh, RN 2012, 'Introduction', ASIAN WOMEN, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 3-7.
Solem, M, Hopwood, N & Schlemper, M 2011, 'Experiencing graduate school: a comparative analysis of students in geography programs', The Professional Geographer, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 1-17.
This article focuses on the role of departmental culture and academic climate in shaping the experiences of masters and doctoral students in geography. Structured logging of experiences at nine geography graduate programs over six months reveals the types of support provided to graduate students; how students cope with emotional, academic, and financial challenges; and ways students become integrated (or not) in department communities. Analysis of log data considers variation by subgroups (gender, citizenship, program type, full or part-time status, race, and ethnicity). For all students, the findings indicate the importance of unplanned, spontaneous, and other informal events, as well as relationships of a more formal nature with advisors and faculty in the department and beyond. Students also noted the importance of having access to resources, professional development opportunities, and support from peers as factors affecting their sense of progress and belonging in a department community.
Rossiter, C, Fowler, CM, Hopwood, N, Lee, A & Dunston, R 2011, 'Working in partnership with vulnerable families: the experience of child and family health practitioners', Australian Journal of Primary Health, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 378-383.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Abstract.Family circumstances in infancy are persistent and powerful determinants of childrenâs physical and mental health, influencing inequalities that trace from childhood through to adulthood. While the social factors that perpetuate patterns of inequality are more complex than can be addressed through single interventions, child and family health (CFH) services represent crucial sites where trajectories of inequality can be disrupted. In particular, approaches that foster opportunities for practitionerâparent engagement that challenge traditional hierarchical health care practice, such as the Family Partnership Model (FPM), are recommended as ways of addressing disadvantage. Little is known about how practitioners implement models of working in partnership with families and, consequently, there is a gap in understanding how best to develop and sustain these new CFH practices. This paper reports a research project that investigated the experiences of 25 health professionals working within a FPM framework with vulnerable families. Through discussion of four key themes â redefining expertise, changing practices, establishing new relationships with parents and the complexities of partnership practice â the paper offers first-hand accounts of reframing practices that recognise the needs, skills and expertise of parents and thus contribute to empowerment of families.
Existing literature suggests that doctoral students' learning and experience are significantly influenced by their relationships with a wide range of people within and beyond academic settings. However, there has been little theoretical work focused on these issues, and questions of agency in doctoral study are in need of further attention. This paper draws on sociocultural theory in the analysis of interviews conducted with 33 doctoral students across four UK research-intensive universities. It focuses on agency and frames others as mediating studentsâ experiences whether as embodied or represented in material, or imaginary form.
This article considers how and what doctoral students learn through teaching, student journal editing and academic career mentoring. It provides a grounded account of doctoral experience as a counter-narrative to prevailing policy discourses that focus on products and overlook the doctorate as a personal and social learning experience. Sociocultural theory is used to emphasise forms of agency and relationships between learning, practice and studentsâ intentions. Students are presented as agentic in their purposeful engagement in particular activities, and in their response to challenges they encounter in those activities. Learning is described as embedded in particular practice contexts, culturally mediated and rooted in social interaction.
Hopwood, N 2010, 'Doctoral students as journal editors: non-formal learning through academic work', Higher Education Research and Development, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 319-331.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Much attention has been paid to formal pedagogic elements of the doctorate supervision and other structured institutional provisions but we know less about the role played by non-formal practices in doctoral students learning. This paper explores the experiences of eight doctoral students involved in editing student-run journals. Editorship and reviewing manuscripts are presented as part of academic service important yet overlooked aspects of academic work, which may be opaque to doctoral students. The analysis draws on concepts relating to workplace learning to understand what these student editors learned and how they learned it. It also pays explicit attention to learners prior learning and experiences and the role these played in their editorial work.
Hopwood, N & Stocks, C 2010, 'Bringing the backstage into the light? Thoughts on shadowy academic practices', International Journal for Academic Development, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 89-91.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hopwood, N 2009, 'UK high school pupils' conceptions of geography: research findings and methodological implications', International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 185-197.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper explores substantive and methodological issues in relation to pupils conceptions of geography. It draws on an in-depth qualitative study with 13-14-year-old pupils from three secondary schools. Selected pupils were interviewed numerous times about their geography classroom experiences and ideas about the subject in general. A detailed analysis revealed that these pupils ideas are multifaceted in nature, often representing loose collections of context-dependent ideas rather than coherent or unified views. Substantive findings are discussed with specific reference to the themes of space and place. The paper argues in favour of research approaches that accommodate the complex nature of pupils subject conceptions, and locate learners ideas about particular concepts in the context of the wider range of ideas and opinions they have about the subjects they study. Suggestions for future research are offered.
McAlpine, L, Jazvc-Martek, M & Hopwood, N 2009, 'Doctoral student experience: activities and difficulties influencing identity development', International Journal for Researcher Development, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 97-112.
This paper explores variation in the events or activities Education doctoral students describe as contributing to their feeling of being an academic or belonging to an academic community as well as difficulties they experience. The results (drawing principally on students in a Canadian research-intensive university though with some in a UK university) demonstrate a rich variation in multiple formative activities that are experienced as contributing to a developing identity as an academic, with many lying outside formal and semi-formal aspects of the doctorate. Yet, at the same time students report tensions in the very sorts of activities they often find significant and positive in the development of their identity. We see this analysis as offering much-needed insights into the formative role of cumulative day-to-day activities in the development of academic identity.
Srivastava, P & Hopwood, N 2009, 'A Practical Iterative Framework for Qualitative Data Analysis', International Journal of Qualitative Methods, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 76-84.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The role of iteration in qualitative data analysis, not as a repetitive mechanical task but as a reflexive process, is key to sparking insight and developing meaning. In this paper the authors presents a simple framework for qualitative data analysis comprising three iterative questions. The authors developed it to analyze qualitative data and to engage with the process of continuous meaning-making and progressive focusing inherent to analysis processes. They briefly present the framework and locate it within a more general discussion on analytic reflexivity. They then highlight its usefulness, particularly for newer researchers, by showing practical applications of the framework in two very different studies.
Geography as a school subject is highly infused with values and controversial issues. Much attention has been paid to the role of the (geography) teacher in dealing with values education, but the continued lack of pupil-focused empirical work hampers conceptual, practical and policy development. Drawing on evidence from pupil-focused research, it is argued that greater attention must be paid to three issues: (i) pupils may interpret classroom experiences in relation to unannounced or hidden values and controversies; (ii) pupils may position or locate themselves in relation to controversial issues in a variety of ways; and (iii) as a result, pupils engagement with values in the geography classroom may be highly individualised and complex, reflecting (i) and (ii) in combination. The challenge is to attend to learners perspectives, and these three issues are presented as possible starting points for future research agendas.
Hopwood, N & Stocks, C 2008, 'Teaching development for doctoral students: what can we learn from activity theory?', International Journal for Academic Development, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 187-198.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper explores issues relating to programmes for doctoral students wishing to gain experience of, and develop skills in, teaching. The focus is on Developing Learning and Teaching a new provision at the University of Oxford. The purpose is to exemplify how activity theory can be used to situate particular programmes and individual experiences in a wider systemic setting. The authors explain the concepts of the activity system, and use these to identify systemic tensions (analysing university-wide survey data), then to assess whether the provision has addressed these tensions (analysing data from interviews with participants).
This paper presents findings from research about pupils' experiences of environmental education in UK secondary schools. The study focused on six pupils aged 13- to 14-years-old and nearing the end of their compulsory geography education. Geography provided a relevant a curricular context for exploring pupils' experiences of environmental education as it is one of the main subject areas dealing with environmental issues and education for sustainable development in the UK. Classroom observation and interviews offered insights into the way the six pupils interpreted a range of classroom experiences. This paper elucidates the personal ideas and agendas that children may bring to their environmental learning experiences, and demonstrates how lessons that were not intended to be environmental in focus may nonetheless be interpreted as such by pupils. © 2007, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Hopwood, N, Courtley-Green, C & Chambers, T 2005, 'Year 9 students' conceptions of geography', Teaching Geography, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 91-93.
Hopwood, N 2004, 'Pupil's conceptions of geography: Towards an improved undestanding', International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 348-361.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper explores both substantive and methodological issues relating to research investigating Year 9 (age 13-14) pupils' conceptions of geography in one English comprehensive school. Posters, a questionnaire and interviews were used to generate a variety of forms of data. Findings indicated that the pupils saw geography as about the world, people and ways of life, countries, and world problems, and as a dynamic subject in which multiple points of view were considered. Map work, life skills, understanding other people's perspectives and geographical knowledge were the main skills associated with the subject. Values entered pupils' ideas in various ways, relating to respecting other people's points of view, and nurturing attitudes of respect for cultures or the environment. The paper concludes that these pupils' conceptions of geography may be better understood through individual pupil profiles that reflect the links between their ideas. © 2004 N. Hopwood.
Hopwood, N 2020, 'Transforming trajectories for disadvantaged young children: lessons from Tasmania's Child and Family Centres' in Harnessing the transformative power of education, Leiden: Brill, The Netherlands, pp. 265-281.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The early years influence children's learning, wellbeing and health and continue to do so into adulthood. As a result, they constitute an effective target for intervention seeking to transform the trajectories of children affected by disadvantage. The complex, multi-faceted nature of disadvantage makes it a 'wicked problem' – one that defies simple solutions delivered through isolated initiatives or organisations. As a result, the need for integrated and place-based approaches across education, health and other domains is recognised. Tasmania's Child and Family Centres exemplify such initiatives. Interviews were conducted with parents, volunteers and staff in three Centres, each located in communities affected by high levels of disadvantage. Analysis draws on cultural-historical theory to explore transformation resulting from expanding ways of making sense of the world and acting in it – i.e. learning. Evidence of significant change was found across three planes: children's engagement in activities such as play; family practices, especially in interaction with children; and the communities in which children grow up. Integration and the place-based nature of the Child and Family Centres were found to be important in accomplishing these changes. However, these in themselves are not sufficient to address the wickedness of poor outcomes for disadvantaged children. Activities, practices and communities are shaped by, and shape one another, in dialectic relationships. Re-directing children's trajectories in the early years benefits from approaches that work across each of these planes, and foster mutually enabling connections between them. The Child and Family Centres are achieving precisely this.
Dieckmann, P, Johnson, E & Hopwood, N 2019, 'Bodies in Simulation' in Interprofessional simulation in health care: Materiality, embodiment, interaction, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 175-195.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Recent theorisations of practice have suggested that a focus on the role of the body in professional practices, in simulated or naturalistic settings, might enable educators and learners to draw attention to other dimensions of knowledge, which are not easily accessible through cognitive perspectives. Recognising the role of the body in knowledge production in practice goes beyond a focus on the individual practitioner, in the clarification how the performance of a practice is constituted by the relational nature of material arrangements and professional bodies. This chapter re-visits dimensions of simulation from a specific focus of realism and embodiment and discusses the clinical impression of the manikin as multiple bodies being simulated—through doings and sayings bound together with materiality.
Hopwood, N 2019, 'Motives and demands in parenting young children: A cultural-historical account of productive entanglement in early intervention services' in Cultural-historical approaches to studying learning and development: Societal, institutional and personal perspectives, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 101-116-101-116.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Parent–child interactions significantly influence children's development. Focusing on parenting practices is therefore a crucial means to disrupt trajectories characterised by risk or disadvantage. Hedegaard's approach to understanding children's development looks at the interplay between society, institution and person, foregrounding motives and demands in practice. Her associated valuable set of analytical resources can be used to go beyond previous cultural-historical accounts of expertise in partnership-based early intervention services. This chapter proposes the notion of partnership as a productive entanglement between institutional practices of the family and those of early intervention. Such entanglement is constituted in an emergent and expansive pedagogic practices of noticing, attaching significance and attributing agency. This offers a new way to conceptualise relational work between professions and families.
Hopwood, N & Clerke, T 2019, 'Common knowledge between mothers and children in problematic transitions: How professionals make children's motives available as a resource' in Support for children, young people and their carers in difficult transitions: working in the zone of social concern, Bloomsbury, London, pp. 43-66.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Nick Hopwood Teena Clerke Children's learning and development are interconnected with why and how they take part in practices in institutions (Hedegaard, 2008; Hedegaard and Edwards, 2014; Hedegaard, Edwards and Fleer, 2012) . The family is one such institution, comprising everyday settings that can be studied to understand the social situation of children's development (Hedegaard, Fleer, Bang and Hvid, 2008) . Our interest is in how professionals help parents construct a social situation of development with the child. We examine three cases where transitions in the everyday practices of a family became a zone of concern and help was sought from professionals. This help was provided in institutional settings of a day-stay clinic, a parent education course and a toddler clinic. The potential of cultural-historical concepts in understanding interventions that straddle home and professional early intervention institutions is not yet fully realized.
Hopwood, N, Ahn, SE, Rimpiläinen, S, Dahlberg, J, Nyström, S & Johnson, E 2019, 'Doing Interprofessional Simulation' in Interprofessional simulation in health care: Materiality, embodiment, interaction., Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 91-113.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. This chapter illustrate how the social and material arrangements for interprofessional simulation produces different conditions for learning. The first section focuses on the emerging medical knowing, affective knowing and communicative knowing in the socio-material arrangements of three locations involved in the simulation, i.e. the simulation room, the observation room and the reflection room, during the course of events in the scenario. The second section focuses on emerging rhythms of collaboration. Different ways of relating to the manikin as a technical, medical and human body, and the relevance of these findings for simulation pedagogy are described.
Hopwood, N 2018, 'Practice, Theory and Doctoral Education Research' in Bitzer, E, Frick, L, Fourie-Malherbe, M & Pyhalto, K (eds), Spaces, Journeys and New Horizons for PostGraduate Supervision, Sun Press.
Hopwood, N 2017, 'Agency, learning and knowledge work: epistemic dilemmas in professional practices' in Goller, M & Paloniemi, S (eds), Agency at work: an agentic perspective on professional learning and development., Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 121-140.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The nature of professional work is changing. In particular, relationships between professionals and the people work are being reforged in more complex formations. Partnership approaches to services for families with young children are among the historically new work practices that are part of a broader shift towards coproduction. Working in partnership with parents places a particular set of demands on practitioners, including engaging in distinctive forms of relational work and developing new kinds of expertise. Less well understood is what such changes mean in terms of the ways professionals in such settings need to develop and exercise agency as a regular, but nonroutine, part of their work. This chapter draws on an ethnographic study of a parent education service in Sydney (Australia), casting light on agentic responses to a series of epistemic dilemmas that professionals encounter in practice. Adopting a cultural-historical approach, it works with concepts of the object, activity, motive, and practice in dialectic relation with one another. Analysis focuses on handover between professionals as an artefact of practice in which professionals do knowledge work, inflecting 'Where to?' questions with agentic and epistemic considerations of 'How do we get there?' The account provided here enriches cultural-historical understandings of agency in the context of professional work, offering an expanded description of responses to epistemic dilemmas in practice.
Hopwood, N 2017, 'Expertise, learning, and agency in partnership practices in services for families with young children' in Edwards, A (ed), Working Relationally in and across Practices: A Cultural-Historical Approach to Collaboration, Cambridge University Press, UK, pp. 25-42.View/Download from: Publisher's site
I argue these effects can be accomplished through professional work in
services for families with young children, if they unfold through effective
partnerships between parents and professionals. This chapter is based on a
premise that in such partnerships, the pedagogic nature of professional
work is intensified (Fowler & Lee, 2007; Fowler et al., 2012; Hopwood,
2014b, 2014c, 2015a, 2015b, 2016; Hopwood et al., 2013b; Lee et al., 2012;
Rossiter et al., 2011). This is not a pedagogy inducting parents into expert
communities. It is based on reciprocal learning, where what is learned
cannot be specified at the outset, and where the expertise of both professionals
and parents is brought to bear.
Hopwood, N 2017, 'Practice architectures of simulation pedagogy: From fidelity to transformation' in Mahon, K, Francisco, S & Kemmis, S (eds), Exploring Education and Professional Practice Through the Lens of Practice Architectures, Springer Press, Dordrecht, pp. 63-81.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this chapter, I put the theory of practice architectures to work in re-imagining simulation pedagogy in university-based professional education. I locate simulation within a broader landscape of links between higher education and the professions, before outlining key features of existing research on simulation in health professional education. This links to the empirical context underpinning the chapter: an observational study of simulation classes in an undergraduate nursing degree. I take up calls to enrich the theoretical basis for simulation pedagogy, and to shake off an attachment to the notion of 'fidelity'. Weaving practice architecture theory with Baudrillard's concepts of hyperreality and simulacra, I analyse three moments from observed simulation classes. I show how these are constituted as productive pedagogic moments, not through a logic of mirroring stable realities of practice, but through much more fluid play between real and imagined worlds. This provides a basis from which to pinpoint the transformative potential of simulation, avoiding the traps of conservatism that accompany a view that is too closely tied to a fixed, stable reality referent. This involves a shift from simulation (re)creating practice architectures and practices based on an 'as if' logic, to simulation based on a 'what if' notion, where cultural-discursive, material-economic, and socio-political arrangements of both real and imagined practices come together, interwoven with those of responsive, emergent pedagogy.
Hopwood, N 2017, 'Practice Architectures of Simulation Pedagogy: From Fidelity to Transformation' in Exploring Education and Professional Practice, Springer Singapore, pp. 63-81.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hopwood, N 2017, 'Practice, the body and pedagogy: attuning as a basis for pedagogies of the unknown' in Grootenboer, P, Edwards-Groves, C & Choy, S (eds), Practice Theory Perspectives on Pedagogy and Education Praxis, Diversity and Contestation, Springer, Singapore, pp. 87-106.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. This chapter continues the exploration of four essential dimensions of professional practices and learning, now focusing on bodies. Concepts from Chap. 3 are brought into entangled relations with ethnographic data, enriching a Gherardian notion of connectedness in action by focusing on the body work involved in producing, maintain, repairing, restoring and modifying textures of practice. Drawing on Schatzki, Grosz and others, the body is not seen as a fixed or stable entity, but rather one that is both done (performed) and doing (performing). The chapter joins a growing literature that redresses both the absence of bodies in accounts of professional work, and rejects Cartesian mind/body dualism: body work is presented as a knowing endeavour. The discussed picks where Chap. 5 left off, by exploring body geometries in the everyday practices of the Residential Unit of Karitane. The focus then shifts to embodied practices of attuning to sounds and other bodies, as well as through assemblages of senses. The body work of partnership is highlighted through attention to the face, voice, posture and movement. Professional bodies in practice transgress the boundaries of the skin. Notions of cyborgs form the focus of the final section and take us into the material territory of Chap. 8. The chapter shows how bodies and body work are crucial to the accomplishment of the ends of professional practice—in this case building resilience in families through partnership, and facilitating parents' learning.
© 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. This chapter pulls together the various arguments and insights presented through this book. It both zooms in on details relating to the Residential Unit of Karitane in Carramar, Sydney, and zooms out to consider wider implications in terms of professional practices and learning more generally. It begins by revisiting the four essential dimensions of times, spaces, bodies and things. These are then taken forward in a brief summary of the distinctive view of professional learning in practice presented in Part III. This articulates a view of practice and learning as entangled, but analytically separable. Emergence is then highlighted, before the functions and epistemologies of professional learning in partnership-based practices are revisited. This section highlights connecting and textural work, and sensitising and epistemic work. The final arguments to be revisited focus on the intensified pedagogic nature of practice based on partnership between professionals and service users. This is framed in terms of journeys into the unknown, and the need for distinctive concepts of pedagogy is explained. Concepts of nanopedagogies and pedagogic continuity are presented within this context. The chapter wraps up with reflections on the key questions posed in Chap. 1, and on theory and future directions for research on professional practice and learning.
© 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. This chapter outlines the ethnographic basis for the book, and develops particular arguments linking ethnographic approaches with practice-based and sociomaterial perspectives. Details of the fieldwork undertaken at Karitane are then provided, framing the account in practice theoretical terms by describing fieldwork practices and the site of research. Issues of participation, observation and intimate outsidership are then discussed. The ethnographic approach taken in this study is located within a contested methodological terrain, and links are made to Baradian notions of diffraction, before questions relating to the role of theory in ethnography are considered. Relationships with other ethnographies in similar health settings are explored, before a final section that accounts for the ethnographic work underpinning this book as both a solo and joint endeavour.
© 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. This chapter concludes the exploration of four essential dimensions of professional practices and learning, now focusing on thing. Concepts from Chap. 3 are brought into entangled relations with ethnographic data, enriching a Gherardian notion of connectedness in action by zooming in and out on a range of material features of the Unit. Things are not viewed as static entities with stable, internally fixed properties, but are rather seen in relational terms, full of movement and entangled with emergent forms of knowing. The discussion refers back to previous chapters in Part II, beginning with a spatialised approach and then exploring materialities of organising and stability, and finishing with another look at bodies. The chapter shows how materiality and material work are crucial to the accomplishment of the ends of professional practice—in this case building resilience in families through partnership, and facilitating parents' learning.
© 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. This chapter describes the professional practices under examination throughout the book, and the site at which the empirical work took place. The role that services for children and families play in addressing major social problems linked to disadvantage and inequality is explained. Relevant features of contemporary public policy in Australia are presented to illustrate local inflections of international agendas around services for children and families, rehearsing the idea of partnership, which is taken up in more detailed at the end of this chapter. The focus then shifts directly on the Unit itself, describing the professionals who work there, and the families they support. Evidence demonstrating the difference a stay on the Unit can make to families is then outlined. The description of the Unit as the site of research continues with discussions of its spatial and temporal characteristics. The next section introduces the idea of partnership within the context of global (health) service reform, and provides details of the Family Partnership Model, the approach adopted by Karitane and many other services globally. The chapter concludes by linking partnership to questions of pedagogy and professional learning in practice.
© 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. This chapter takes up the ideas presented in Part II—times, spaces, bodies, and things as essential dimensions of professional practice and learning. The focus here is specifically on how professionals learning about, from and with the people they are there to help (in this case, families with young children), and each other. The chapter begins by laying out a distinctive conceptualisation of professional learning in practice. This sees learning and practice as entangled, but asymmetrically related. The idea of learning as involving the production, maintenance, restoration, repair and modification of textures is presented. These concepts are then entangled with empirical data, furthering the conceptualisation of attuning (introduced in Part II), and showing how learning performs crucial connecting and sensitising functions, through textural and epistemic work. A focus on handover practices reveals details of these ideas, and also provides a platform to explore professional learning in practice as choreographed to varying degrees. The whole chapter is framed in terms of the intensification of learning imperatives associated with partnership-based approaches to professional practice. The need to learn as a part of practice, and the need to act amid conditions of uncertain, incomplete and ambiguous knowledge is also highlighted. The chapter shows how a sociomaterial approach, combined with the novel framework presented here, offers valuable insights into challenges associated with contemporary professional practice.
© 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. This chapter explores the idea that partnership-based practices intensify the pedagogic nature of work that may not be traditionally seen as such. It brings a four-dimensional view of professional practices into contact with the arguments about professional learning presented in Chap. 9. It entangles these with basic Vygotskian concepts of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding. Focusing on the pedagogic work of supporting families who stay on the Residential Unit enables different features of professional practices, learning and expertise to be highlighted. Continuing the thread from the previous chapter, this pedagogic work is characterized by uncertainty and ambiguity, conceptualized here in terms of pedagogies of the unknown. The chapter begins by exploring forms of scaffolding and professional expertise learning in practice associated with them. It then presents a new concept of nanopedagogies. Nanopedagogies are transformative encounters founded upon professionals attuning to families. The significance of what is noticed is made available to parents, and then their role as the driving force in bringing about positive change is highlighted. These three steps of noticing, significance and attribution form a basic framework for reinterpreting the past in order to change possibilities for the future, and they are in evidence in multiple forms and contexts across the Unit. The chapter concludes by exploring pedagogic continuity—key ideas that are widespread, helping professionals act in conditions of uncertainty, and providing some stable basis for pedagogies of the unknown.
© 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. This chapter provides a detailed overview of contemporary sociomaterial and practice-based approaches, focusing in particular on their implications for conceiving workplace learning. It lays the theoretical foundations for the analysis and arguments developed in Parts II and III. It sets out an ontological position, and key concepts that are not so much applied in the subsequent empirical work, but tangled up in it (including in the approach to ethnographic fieldwork. These foundations are set in a broader context, namely sociomaterial approaches. The way in which contemporary theorists are 'rethinking the thing' is highlighted, based on performative, diffractive and non-representational ontologies. The 'practice turn' is located within these wider, diverse, traditions, and Schatzki's practice theory is presented as an overarching framework for this book. Next, research on workplace learning is considered, highlighting the metaphor of emergence and its links to concepts of knowledge. Here Gherardi and others' practice-based studies are significant, emphasising knowing in practice and aesthetics. The chapter then shifts gear introducing the key arguments that are developed in the remainder of the book. Times, spaces, bodies and things are introduced as four essential dimensions of professional practice and learning, and then a distinctive view of professional learning in an asymmetrical and non-reversible relationship with practice is presented. Learning and practice are viewed as entangled, but analytically distinguishable, and criteria for specifying this distinction are presented.
© 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. This chapter continues the exploration of four essential dimensions of professional practices and learning, focusing now on spaces. Concepts from Chap. 3 are entangled with ethnographic data. It draws on Schatzki's practice theory and Thrift's non-representational approach in order to enrich Gherardi's notion of connectedness in action through the concept of spatial texture. The chapter is in two main parts. The first dwells in particular spaces, and traces their movement and multiplicity through the different practices associated with them. The Residential Unit itself, the playroom, the nurses' station and family homes are all explored, the latter in terms of a haunting relationship with the spaces of the Unit. The second part follows practices through different spaces, distinguishing between those that are public, those that are secret, and those that move between the two. This spatial approach is never free of questions of times, bodies and things, but elucidates features of professional practices and learning that are otherwise less visible. The chapter shows how spaces and spatial work are crucial to the accomplishment of the ends of professional practice—in this case building resilience in families through partnership, and facilitating parents' learning.
© 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. This chapter focuses on one of four essential dimensions of professional practices and learning: times. Concepts from Chap. 3 are entangled with ethnographic data, viewing times as multiple and enacted into being through practices and material arrangements. It begins by examining how professional practices on the Residential Unit of Karitane produce a kind of objective time—time that is used up, and anchored to clocks. It then follows Gherardian and Schatzkian ideas of going 'inside' practices to explore times of activity. Here, past, present and future occur together reflecting what people are acting from and what they are acting towards. The multiplicity of time is then brought into focus, exploring questions of children's age, development, and learning, before dwelling in the playroom to tease out its complex temporalities. Rhythms are then highlighted, making links with the purpose of professional work, and bodies as metronomes. Finally, organisational routines are outlined. Through these different concepts, the chapter traces how professionals become intimate outsiders in family life, and establish partnerships through fluid temporal connectedness in action (textures). The chapter shows how times and rhythmic work are crucial to the accomplishment of the ends of professional practice—in this case building resilience in families through partnership, and facilitating parents' learning.
© 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. This chapter introduces the key questions around which the Body/Practice book is framed. How the body matters in practice, its significance for understanding and researching professional practice, learning and education, and the implications of an approach that centres the body are all raised as central matters of concern. These questions are located within broader traditions of social and philosophical enquiry, and related to a somatic turn that has been embraced across a range of disciplines. The chapter then turns more explicitly to questions of (professional) practice, situating a focus on the body within key developments in practice theory. This leads to an engagement with methodological issues, and links to the notion of philosophical-empirical enquiry as a distinctive research stance that seeks to marry conceptual sophistication with empirical rigour within a broader practice-focused research agenda. This stance is discussed in relation to varied (meta-)traditions of practice-theory scholarship, including those described as neo-Aristotelian, post-Cartesian, and American Pragmatist. The chapter concludes with a brief account of the genesis of Body/Practice as a volume, and an outline of each of the remaining chapters.
Green, B & Hopwood, N 2015, 'The Body in Professional Practice, Learning and Education: A Question of Corporeality' in Professional and Practice-based Learning, Springer International Publishing, pp. 15-33.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Green, B & Hopwood, N 2015, 'The body in professional practice, learning and education: a question of corporeality?' in Green, B & Hopwood, N (eds), The body in professional practice, learning and education: body/practice, Springer, London, pp. 15-33.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hopwood, N 2015, 'Relational geometries of the body: doing ethnographic fieldwork' in Green, B & Hopwood, N (eds), The body in professional practice, learning and education: body/practice, Springer, London, pp. 53-69.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hopwood, N 2014, 'The fabric of practices: times, spaces, bodies, things' in McLean, L, Stafford, L & Weeks, M (eds), Exploring bodies in time and space, Inter-Disciplinary Press, Oxfordshire, pp. 137-146.
Here I connect the themes of space, time, the body, and things with an ethnographic study of professional practices and pedagogy. The study joins an emerging body of work that aims to produce different accounts of professional practice, eschewing dominant discourses based on problematic assumptions of linear time that is used up, space as a container for practice, practice and learning as mindful but bodyless, and materiality as either irrelevant or passive. The study was conducted in a child and family health service in Sydney, Australia. The Residential Unit of Karitane takes up to ten families for five days each week, offering intensive support for parents experiencing significant difficulties with their children's sleeping, feeding or behaviour. Four themes of times, spaces, bodies, and things are discussed, drawing on Theodore Schatzkis practice theory and philosophy, but also making connections to wider sociomaterial theorisations of time, space and the body. While these themes resist analytic separation, they are offered as distinctive points of departure, each highlighting something different about practices, pedagogy and learning. Nonetheless the porous conceptual boundaries between temporality, spatiality, embodiment and materiality are addressed and illustrated. The result is an account of practices, and their pedagogic effects, which differs radically from conventional approaches.
Hopwood, N, Abrandt Dahlgren, M & Siwe, K 2014, 'Developing professional responsibility in medicine: a sociomaterial curriculum' in Fenwick, T & Nerland, M (eds), Reconceptualising professional learning: sociomaterial knowledges, practices, and responsibilities., Routledge, London, pp. 171-183.
Hopwood, N 2013, 'Ethnographic fieldwork as embodied material practice: reflections from theory and the field' in Denzin, NK (ed), 40th Anniversary of Studies in Symbolic Interaction, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, UK, pp. 227-245.
To mark 40 volumes of Studies in Symbolic Interaction, this volume includes a special introduction from Series Editor, Norman K. Denzin.
Lundholm, C, Hopwood, N & Rickinson, M 2013, 'Environmental learning: insights from research into the student experience' in Stevenson, RB, Brody, M, Dillon, J & Wals, AEJ (eds), International Handbook of Research on Environmental Education, Routledge, London, New York, pp. 243-252.
Hopwood, N 2011, 'Young People's Conceptions of Geography and Education' in Butt, G (ed), Geography, Education and the Future, Continuum International Publishing Group, London, UK, pp. 30-43.
Hopwood, N, Alexander, P, Harris-Huemmert, S, McAlpine, L & Wagstaff, S 2011, 'The hidden realities of life as a doctoral student' in Kumar, V & Lee, A (eds), Doctoral education in international context: connecting local, regional and global perspectives, Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia, pp. 212-231.
This chapter is based on original funded research into doctoral students' learning and work practices. It underwent a peer review process (evidence of reviewer comments can be provided).
Hopwood, N 2007, 'Researcher roles in a school-based ethnography' in Walford, G (ed), Studies in educational ethnography. volume 12: methodological developments in ethnography, Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 51-68.
Hopwood, N, Boud, DJ, Lee, A, Abrandt Dahlgren, M & Kiley, M 2010, 'A different kind of doctoral education: a discussion panel for rethinking the doctoral curriculum', Quality in Postgraduate Research: Educating Researchers for the 21st Century, Quality in Postgraduate Research, The Centre for Educational Development and Academic Methods, Adelaide, pp. 83-91.
Hopwood, N & Sutherland, K 2009, 'Relationships and agency in doctoral and early career academic experience', Proceedings of the 32nd HERDSA Annual Conference: The Student Experience, Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia Annual Conference, Higher Education Research & Development Society of Australasia, Darwin, Australia, pp. 210-218.
Research on doctoral and early career academic experience has emphasised relationships within departmental communities, although a limited number of studies suggests the importance of interactions with a wide range of individuals. In this paper we consider new empirical evidence, and theorise experience in terms of relational agency. We show how knowing how to know whom to ask for help can be a significant means for individuals to influence their own experience. Given that doctoral students are in many ways undertaking academic work, and many undertake doctoral study with academic careers in mind, our discussion explores parallels between the doctoral student and early career academic experience, finding strong resonances across the two. We argue that relational agency is indeed important, but that it is often accompanied by knowing how to know when the locus of agency resides in oneself.
Rossiter, C, Hopwood, N, Dunston, R, Fowler, CM, Bigsby, M & Lee, A Centre for Research in Learning and Change, FASS, UTS 2011, Sustaining Practice Innovation in Child and Family Health: report to partners, pp. 1-38, Sydney.
The publication reports on the findings of a UTS Partnership Grant-funded project, a collaboration between the Centre for Learning & Change FASS and FNMH, Tresillian Family Care Centres, Kaleidoscope Hunter Children's Health Network and the Royal New Zealand Plunket Society. The study explored the implementation of the Family Partnership Model (FPM, Davis, Day and Bidmead 2002) in three child and family health nursing services in Australia and New Zealand. The FPM is an internationally-recognised exemplar of co-productive partnership practice, and has been adopted by all Australian states as the preferred model for providing universal child health services. Unlike previous studies of the FPM that assess its impact on individuals and families, this case study used in-depth qualitative methods to investigate the complex process in which nurses learn about a new way of working with families and how they incorporate new insights into their practice. They study also considers how innovative models of service delivery are implemented within health systems and how they are sustained over time.
My current research involves collaboration with:
University of New South Wales
Western Sydney University
St George Hospital
Sydney Children's Hospital
Tresillian Family Care Centres
Northern Sydney Local Health District
Tasmanian Child and Family Centres
South Australia Women and Children's Hospital
Centre for Parent & Child Support (Kings College London, UK)
Royal University of Bhutan
Sunrise Education Foundation
Australian Himalayan Foundation
I have close, ongoing research relationships with:
University of Oxford (UK)
University of Linkoping (Sweden)
University of Oslo (Norway)
University of Stirling and ProPEL Network (UK)
University of Stellenbosch (South Africa)