Nick Bennett received a Master’s degree in Physics from the University of Warwick in 2004. Later in the same year he began his PhD in Engineering at the University of Surrey. Following this, in 2007 Nick joined Newcastle University as a Postdoctoral Researcher, continuing work on the processing and metrology of state-of-the-art electronic materials and devices. In 2009 he accepted a research position at Dublin City University, initially in a Postdoctoral Researcher role, before assuming a Lecturing position and leading two Science Foundation Ireland projects – the first developing a novel metrology method for electronic/photovoltaic devices, and the second on silicon thermoelectric materials. Between 2013 and early 2019, Nick was a Lecturer at Heriot-Watt University where he built a group, which – in its prime – consisted of 7 PhD/Postdoctoral Researchers. He led projects sponsored by the EPSRC, the Royal Society, the Energy Technology Partnership, the Energy Academy, and the Oil and Gas Innovation Centre, as well as completing research contracts/consultancy for numerous industry partners, including the European Space Agency and Mitsubishi. Nick’s teaching has covered a range of engineering subjects, including – most recently – project-based learning modules in Engineering Design and Manufacture for undergraduates and courses related to Energy for postgraduates, including fulfilling the role of Programme Director for Heriot-Watt’s MSc in Renewable Energy Engineering. Nick’s teaching is supported by a PGCert in Academic Practice and Fellowship of the Higher Education Academy. Nick joined UTS as a Senior Lecturer in early 2019. Here his core focus continues to be on the design, processing and metrology of materials and devices for energy conversion and energy storage applications.
Kishore Kumar, D, Hsu, MH, Ivaturi, A, Chen, B, Bennett, N & Upadhyaya, HM 2019, 'Optimizing room temperature binder free TiO 2 paste for high efficiency flexible polymer dye sensitized solar cells', Flexible and Printed Electronics, vol. 4, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 IOP Publishing Ltd. Binder free TiO 2 paste is prepared using tert-butyl alcohol in dilute acidic conditions at room temperature for flexible polymer dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The present paper reports the detailed studies carried out to elucidate the importance of stirring times during the paste preparation on the final device performance. The maximum conversion efficiency of 4.2% was obtained for flexible DSSCs fabricated on tin doped indium oxide/polyethylene naphthalate substrates using TiO 2 paste prepared with an optimum stirring time of 8 h. The effect of optimum stirring times on the device characteristics has been understood in terms of the detailed morphology and surface area measurements.
Acosta, E, Smirnov, V, Szabo, PSB, Buckman, J & Bennett, NS 2019, 'Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor in p-Type Hydrogenated Nano-crystalline Silicon Thin Films by Varying Carrier Concentration', JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 2085-2094.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Schleppi, J, Gibbons, J, Groetsch, A, Buckman, J, Cowley, A & Bennett, N 2019, 'Manufacture of glass and mirrors from lunar regolith simulant', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 3726-3747.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kumar, DK, Swami, SK, Dutta, V, Chen, B, Bennett, N & Upadhyaya, HM 2019, 'Scalable screen-printing manufacturing process for graphene oxide platinum free alternative counter electrodes in efficient dye sensitized solar cells', FlatChem, vol. 15.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier B.V. The graphene oxide paste (GO) was prepared by mixing α-terpineol and ethyl cellulose, and GO films was prepared by screen printing on fluorine doped Tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates to validate as an alternative counter electrode material to platinum in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The graphene oxide films were characterised by X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and the catalytic properties of films were being investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical Impedance measurements. The DSSC fabricated by coupling TiO 2 films soaked in N719 dye with GO as counter electrode exhibited photoconversion efficiency of 5.58% under standard one Sun illumination, whereas platinum based device showed photoconversion efficiency of 7.57%. The present study suggests that graphene oxide counter electrodes can be considered as a promising alternative to platinum, with further optimisation, which clearly has advantages in terms of its abundance and low cost processing towards industrial prospects.
Kumar, DK, Suazo-Davila, D, Garcia-Torres, D, Cook, NP, Ivaturi, A, Hsu, M-H, Marti, AA, Cabrera, CR, Chen, B, Bennett, N & Upadhyaya, HM 2019, 'Low-temperature titania-graphene quantum dots paste for flexible dye-sensitised solar cell applications', ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA, vol. 305, pp. 278-284.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Acosta, E, Wight, NM, Smirnov, V, Buckman, J & Bennett, NS 2018, 'Hydrogenated Nano-/Micro-Crystalline Silicon Thin-Films for Thermoelectrics', Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 3077-3084.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. Thermoelectric technology has not yet been able to reach full-scale market penetration partly because most commercial materials employed are scarce/costly, environmentally unfriendly and in addition provide low conversion efficiency. The necessity to tackle some of these hurdles leads us to investigate the suitability of n-type hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si: H) in the fabrication of thermoelectric devices, produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), which is a mature process of proven scalability. This study reports an approach to optimise the thermoelectric power factor (PF) by varying the dopant concentration by means of post-annealing without impacting film morphology, at least for temperatures below 550°C. Results show an improvement in PF of more than 80%, which is driven by a noticeable increase of carrier mobility and Seebeck coefficient in spite of a reduction in carrier concentration. A PF of 2.08 × 10−4 W/mK2 at room temperature is reported for n-type films of 1 μm thickness, which is in line with the best values reported in recent literature for similar structures.
Wight, NM, Acosta, E, Vijayaraghavan, RK, McNally, PJ, Smirnov, V & Bennett, NS 2017, 'A universal method for thermal conductivity measurements on micro-/nano-films with and without substrates using micro-Raman spectroscopy', Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 3, pp. 95-101.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 The ability to measure intrinsic thermal conductivity via a non-contact, non-destructive process is extremely attractive. Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated to enable effective non-contact thermometry with further work providing a non-destructive estimation of values for thermal conductivity on suitable materials. However significant limitations remain for nano- and micro-films. Materials that do not meet dimensional requirements for thickness or that are in-situ on a substrate or supporting structure present significant challenges using existing approaches. For such samples, representative measurements must be obtained using alternative methods that can compromise samples and/or require relative complexity in experimental design and analysis. Here an analytical model is shown allowing thermal conductivity to be measured free of such limitations via a straightforward approach using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Results are then obtained experimentally and values compared with those obtained using a complimentary technique demonstrating an improved accuracy over existing micro-Raman approaches. Furthermore, this model enables the effect of any substrate or supporting structure on measured values to be quantified and estimations for thermal conductivity of the sample itself to then be calculated where an influence is determined. Current estimations determining the threshold of substrate influence are shown to be insufficient and the importance of obtaining values of thermal conductivity for samples themselves under such conditions is demonstrated.
Bennett, NS 2017, 'Thermoelectric performance in n-type bulk silicon: The influence of dopant concentration and dopant species', PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, vol. 214, no. 7.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Arutyunov, N, Bennett, N, Wight, N, Krause-Rehberg, R, Emtsev, V, Abrosimov, N & Kozlovski, V 2016, 'Positron probing of disordered regions in neutron-irradiated silicon', PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, vol. 253, no. 11, pp. 2175-2179.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bennett, NS, Byrne, D, Cowley, A & Neophytou, N 2016, 'Dislocation loops as a mechanism for thermoelectric power factor enhancement in silicon nano-layers', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 109, no. 17.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mutta, GR, Popuri, SR, Wilson, JIB & Bennett, NS 2016, 'Sol-gel spin coated well adhered MoO3 thin films as an alternative counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells', SOLID STATE SCIENCES, vol. 61, pp. 84-88.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bennett, NS, Wong, CS & McNally, PJ 2016, 'Simultaneous depth-profiling of electrical and elemental properties of ion-implanted arsenic in silicon by combining secondary-ion mass spectrometry with resistivity measurements', REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, vol. 87, no. 7.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mutta, GR, Popuri, SR, Vasundhara, M, Maciejczyk, M, Racu, AV, Banica, R, Robertson, N, Wilson, JIB & Bennett, NS 2016, 'Facile hydrothermal synthesis of economically viable VO2(M1) counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells', MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN, vol. 83, pp. 135-140.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mutta, GR, Popuri, SR, Maciejczyk, M, Robertson, N, Vasundhara, M, Wilson, JIB & Bennett, NS 2016, 'V2O5 as an inexpensive counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells', MATERIALS RESEARCH EXPRESS, vol. 3, no. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Popuri, SR, Pollet, M, Decourt, R, Morrison, FD, Bennett, NS & Bos, JWG 2016, 'Large thermoelectric power factors and impact of texturing on the thermal conductivity in polycrystalline SnSe', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1685-1691.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cowley, A, Ivankovic, A, Wong, CS, Bennett, NS, Danilewsky, AN, Gonzalez, M, Cherman, V, Vandevelde, B, De Wolf, I & McNally, PJ 2016, 'B-Spline X-Ray Diffraction Imaging - Rapid non-destructive measurement of die warpage in ball grid array packages', MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY, vol. 59, pp. 108-116.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Byrne, D, Bennett, N & Cowley, A 2016, 'The role of annealing conditions on the low temperature photoluminescence properties of CuAlO2', JOURNAL OF LUMINESCENCE, vol. 170, pp. 212-218.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cowern, NEB, Simdyankin, S, Goss, JP, Napolitani, E, De Salvador, D, Bruno, E, Mirabella, S, Ahn, C & Bennett, NS 2015, 'Comment on "Diffusion of n-type dopants in germanium" [Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 011301 (2014)]', APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS, vol. 2, no. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bennett, NS, Wight, NM, Popuri, SR & Bos, J-WG 2015, 'Efficient thermoelectric performance in silicon nano-films by vacancy-engineering', NANO ENERGY, vol. 16, pp. 350-356.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wight, NM & Bennett, NS 2015, 'Geothermal energy from abandoned oil and gas wells using water in combination with a closed wellbore', APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING, vol. 89, pp. 908-915.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bennett, NS, Cherkaoui, K, Wong, CS, O'Connor, E, Monaghan, S, Hurley, P, Chauhan, L & McNally, PJ 2014, 'Structural and optical properties of post-annealed atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 thin films on GaAs', THIN SOLID FILMS, vol. 569, pp. 104-112.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Alzanki, T, Bennett, N, Gwilliam, R, Jeynes, C, Bailey, P, Noakes, T & Sealy, B 2014, 'Ion beam analysis for hall scattering factor measurements in antimony implanted bulk and strained silicon', Journal of Engineering Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 122-132.
Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) and Medium Energy Ion Scattering (MEIS) have been used to determine the lattice site occupancy of antimony (Sb) implanted into silicon (Si) and strained silicon (sSi) for ion energies of 2keV to 40keV. After annealing in the range 600-1100°C for various times, Ilall effect measurements were used to provide a measure of the percentage electrical activity. A comparison of the lattice site occupancy with the percentage electrical activity was used to confirm whether the assumption that the Hall scattering factor is equal to unity is valid. Our results demonstrate that for 40keV implants the electrical activation is about 90%. In the case of 2keV implants the electrical activation is lower and in the range 10-80%, depending on the ion fluence and annealing conditions. This reduction in activation for lower energy implants is a result of inactive Sb close to the semiconductor/native-oxide interface, or above concentrations of 4.5×1020cm 3. Tensile strain facilitates the lattice site occupancy and electrical activation of Sb in Si by raising the doping ceiling. For both 40keV and 2keV implants, we have carried out a comparison of RBS/MEIS and Hall effect data to show that for Sb implants into both bulk Si and strained Si the Hall scattering factor is equal to unity within experimental error.
Wong, CS, Bennett, NS, Manessis, D, Danilewsky, A & McNally, PJ 2014, 'Non-destructive laboratory-based X-ray diffraction mapping of warpage in Si die embedded in IC packages', MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, vol. 117, pp. 48-56.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Alzanki, T, Bennett, N, Gwilliam, R, Jeynes, C, Bailey, P, Noakes, T & Sealy, B 2014, 'Ion Beam Analysis for Hall Scattering Factor Measurements in Antimony Implanted Bulk and Strained Silicon', JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 121-132.
Cowern, NEB, Simdyankin, S, Ahn, C, Bennett, NS, Goss, JP, Hartmann, J-M, Pakfar, A, Hamm, S, Valentin, J, Napolitani, E, De Salvador, D, Bruno, E & Mirabella, S 2013, 'Extended Point Defects in Crystalline Materials: Ge and Si', PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, vol. 110, no. 15.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wong, CS, Bennett, NS, Galiana, B, Tejedor, P, Benedicto, M, Molina-Aldareguia, JM & McNally, PJ 2012, 'Structural investigation of MOVPE-grown GaAs on Ge by x-ray techniques', SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 27, no. 11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bennett, NS & Cowern, NEB 2012, 'Doping characterization for germanium-based microelectronics and photovoltaics using the differential Hall technique', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 100, no. 17.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Byun, KY, Fleming, P, Bennett, N, Gity, F, McNally, P, Morris, M, Ferain, I & Colinge, C 2011, 'Comprehensive investigation of Ge-Si bonded interfaces using oxygen radical activation', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 109, no. 12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cowern, NEB, Bennett, NS, Ahn, C, Yoon, JC, Hamm, S, Lerch, W, Kheyrandish, H, Cristiano, F & Pakfar, A 2010, 'Overlayer stress effects on defect formation in Si and Ge', THIN SOLID FILMS, vol. 518, no. 9, pp. 2442-2447.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bennett, NS, Cowern, NEB & Sealy, BJ 2009, 'Model for electron mobility as a function of carrier concentration and strain in heavily doped strained silicon', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 94, no. 25.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ahn, C, Bennett, N, Dunham, ST & Cowern, NEB 2009, 'Stress effects on impurity solubility in crystalline materials: A general model and density-functional calculations for dopants in silicon', PHYSICAL REVIEW B, vol. 79, no. 7.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lai, Y, Bennett, NS, Ahn, C, Cowern, NEB, Cordero, N & Greer, JC 2009, 'Transient activation model for antimony in relaxed and strained silicon', SOLID-STATE ELECTRONICS, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1173-1176.View/Download from: Publisher's site
O'Reilly, L, Horan, K, McNally, PJ, Bennett, NS, Cowern, NEB, Lankinen, A, Sealy, BJ, Gwilliam, RM, Noakes, TCQ & Bailey, P 2008, 'Constraints on micro-Raman strain metrology for highly doped strained Si materials', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 92, no. 23.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bennett, NS, Smith, AJ, Gwilliam, RM, Webb, RP, Sealy, BJ, Cowern, NEB, O'Reilly, L & McNally, PJ 2008, 'Antimony for n-type metal oxide semiconductor ultrashallow junctions in strained Si: A superior dopant to arsenic?', JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 391-395.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bennett, NS, Cowern, NEB, Smith, AJ, Kah, M, Gwilliam, RM, Sealy, BJ, Noakes, TCQ, Bailey, P, Giubertoni, D & Bersani, M 2008, 'Differential Hall characterisation of ultrashallow doping in advanced Si-based materials', MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL SOLID-STATE MATERIALS, vol. 154, pp. 229-233.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Clarysse, T, Bogdanowicz, J, Goossens, J, Moussa, A, Rosseel, E, Vandervorst, W, Petersen, DH, Lin, R, Nielsen, PF, Hansen, O, Merklin, G, Bennett, NS & Cowern, NEB 2008, 'On the analysis of the activation mechanisms of sub-melt laser anneals', MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL SOLID-STATE MATERIALS, vol. 154, pp. 24-30.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bennett, NS, Radamson, HH, Beer, CS, Smith, AJ, Gwilliam, RM, Cowern, NEB & Sealy, BJ 2008, 'Enhanced n-type dopant solubility in tensile-strained Si', THIN SOLID FILMS, vol. 517, no. 1, pp. 331-333.View/Download from: Publisher's site
O'Reilly, L, Bennett, NS, McNally, PJ, Sealy, BJ, Cowern, NEB, Lankinen, A & Tuomi, TO 2008, 'Raman scattering studies of ultrashallow Sb implants in strained Si', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE-MATERIALS IN ELECTRONICS, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 305-309.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Horan, K, Lankinen, A, O'Reilly, L, Bennett, NS, McNally, PJ, Sealy, BJ, Cowern, NEB & Tuomi, TO 2008, 'Structural and electrical characterisation of ion-implanted strained silicon', MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL SOLID-STATE MATERIALS, vol. 154, pp. 118-121.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cowern, NEB, Smith, AJ, Bennett, N, Sealy, BJ, Gwilliam, R, Webb, RP, Colombeau, B, Paul, S, Lerch, W & Pakfar, A 2008, 'Vacancy engineering - An ultra-low thermal budget method for high-concentration 'diffusionless' implantation doping', Materials Science Forum, vol. 573-574, pp. 295-304.
This paper reviews the physics and the potential application of ion-implanted vacancies for high-performance B-doped ultra-shallow junctions. By treatment of silicon films with vacancy-generating implants prior to boron implantation, electrically active boron concentrations approaching 1021cm-3can be achieved by Rapid Thermal Annealing at low temperatures, without the use of preamorphisation. Source/drain (S/D) junctions formed by advanced vacancy engineering implants (VEI) are activated far above solubility. Furthermore, in the case of appropriately engineered thin silicon films, this activation is stable with respect to deactivation and the doping profile is practically diffusionless. Sheet resistance Rsis predicted to stay almost constant with decreasing junction depth Xj, thus potentially outperforming other S/D engineering approaches at the '32 nm node' and beyond.
Wight, NM & Bennett, NS 2016, 'Experimental up-scaling of thermal conductivity reductions in silicon by vacancy-engineering: from the nano-to the micro-scale', Materials Today: Proceedings, European Conference on Thermoelectrics, Elsevier, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 10211-10217.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. A method to reduce the thermal conductivity in Si thin-films by at least an order of magnitude is shown, successfully demonstrating the up-scaling of this technique from Si nano-films. High energy self implantation of Si is used to create a supersaturation of lattice vacancy concentrations that remain following post implant rapid thermal annealing producing a disruption in phonon mode thermal transport. This method demonstrates an approach for micro-harvesting thermoelectric device applications without the difficulties faced for dimensional up-scaling in alternative Si thermoelectric approaches. Challenges surrounding the thermal budget required for post implant dopant activation in p-Type Si are also shown.
© (2016) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. An experimental method is defined that reduces the thermal conductivity in Si films by ~90% compared to control samples, while keeping the thermoelectric power factor almost unchanged. This is done by creating vacancy-rich films via high-energy self-implantation of Si, followed by rapid-thermal annealing. TCAD simulations suggest that this approach is scalable for application in thin-film thermoelectric generators, as an alternative to more expensive and less Earth-abundant materials such as bismuth telluride. This approach to Si thermoelectrics could be straight-forward for scale-up to thin-film device dimensions, something that is a major challenge for other methods used for Si thermal conductivity reduction.
Wong, CS, Ivankovic, A, Cowley, A, Bennett, NS, Danilewsky, AN, Gonzalez, M, Cherman, V, Vandevelde, B, De Wolf, I & McNally, PJ 2014, 'Development of B-spline X-ray Diffraction Imaging Techniques for Die Warpage and Stress Monitoring Inside Fully Encapsulated Packaged Chips', 2014 IEEE 64TH ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE (ECTC), IEEE 64th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), IEEE, Lake Buena Vista, FL, pp. 1517-1522.
Wong, CS, Bennett, N, Allen, D, Danilewsky, A & McNally, P 2012, 'A novel X-ray diffraction technique for analysis of die stress inside fully encapsulated packaged chips', 2012 4th Electronic System-Integration Technology Conference, ESTC 2012.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Manufacturing-induced thermal stress created during the fabrication of packaged integrated circuits can potentially lead to device failure. Therefore, the need to develop metrologies that can be used to effectively measure stress/strain in systems-on-chip or systems-in-package is identified by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). In this study, a novel technique for non-destructive analysis of strain/warpage inside completely encapsulated packaged chips, at room temperature and processed at elevated temperatures up to 115°C, is developed using a laboratory-based X-ray diffraction tool. Maps are produced of the entire silicon die, which reveal warpage via mapping of rocking curve full-widths-at-half-maximum (FWHM) as a function of position across encapsulated packages, using a technique known as 3-dimensional surface modelling. We develop complete Si die maps of the large thermal stresses that are developed during the die attach process due to the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between different materials. These are confirmed by in situ X-ray diffraction annealing experiments, as well as finite element analysis (FEA).
Bennett, NS, Ferain, I, McNally, PJ, Holl, S & Colinge, C 1970, 'Strain Characterization of Directly Bonded Germanium-to-Silicon Substrates', SEMICONDUCTOR WAFER BONDING 12: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND APPLICATIONS, 12th International Symposium on Semiconductor Wafer Bonding - Science, Technology, and Applications, ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, Honolulu, HI, pp. 77-83.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Stopford, J, Henry, A, Manessis, D, Bennett, N, Horan, K, Allen, D, Wittge, J, Boettcher, L, Cowley, A & McNally, PJ 2011, 'Non-Destructive X-Ray Mapping of Strain & Warpage of Die in Packaged Chips', EMPC-2011: 18TH EUROPEAN MICROELECTRONICS & PACKAGING CONFERENCE, 18th European Microelectronics & Packaging Conference (EMPC), IEEE, Brighton, ENGLAND.
Wong, CS, Bennett, NS, McNally, PJ, Galiana, B, Tejedor, P, Benedicto, M, Molina-Aldareguia, JM, Monaghan, S, Hurley, PK & Cherkaoui, K 2010, 'Multi-technique characterisation of MOVPE-grown GaAs on Si', MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, EMRS 2010 Spring Meeting on Post-Si-CMOS Electronic Devices - The Role of Ge and III-V Materials, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Strasbourg, FRANCE, pp. 472-475.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bazizi, EM, Fazzini, PF, Cristiano, F, Pakfar, A, Tavernier, C, Payet, F, Skotnicki, T, Zechner, C, Zographos, N, Matveev, D, Cowern, NEB, Bennett, NS, Ahn, C & Yoon, JC 2010, 'Transfer of physically-based models from process to device simulations: Application to advanced strained Si/SiGe MOSFETs', Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Integrated process and device simulations were used to predict sub-45nm Strained-Si/Si0.8Ge0.2 device performance. Physically-based process models, generalized from Si to strained-Si and SiGe, describe dopant implantation and diffusion, including amorphization, defect interactions and evolution, as well as dopant-defect interactions. The models are used within a unique simulation tool to reproduce the electrical characteristics of Si/SiGe devices. ©2010 IEEE.
Petersen, DH, Hansen, O, Hansen, TM, Boggild, P, Lin, R, Kjaer, D, Nielsen, PF, Clarysse, T, Vandervorst, W, Rosseel, E, Bennett, NS & Cowern, NEB 2010, 'Review of electrical characterization of ultra-shallow junctions with micro four-point probes', JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, A V S AMER INST PHYSICS, pp. C1C27-C1C33.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bennett, NS, Ahn, C, Cowern, NEB & Pichler, P 2009, 'Review of stress effects on dopant solubility in silicon and silicongermanium layers', Solid State Phenomena, pp. 173-180.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We present a review of both theoretical and experimental studies of stress effects on the solubility of dopants in silicon and silicon-germanium materials. Critical errors and limitations in early theory are discussed, and a recent treatment incorporating charge carrier induced lattice strain and correct statistics is presented. Considering all contributing effects, the strain compensation energy is the primary contribution to solubility enhancement in both silicon and silicon-germanium for dopants of technological interest. An exception is the case of low-solubility dopants, where a Fermi level contribution is also found. Explicit calculations for a range of dopant impurities in Si are presented that agree closely with experimental findings for As, Sb and B in strained Si. The theoretical treatment is also applied to account for stress effects in strained SiGe structures, which also show close correlation with recently derived experimental results for B-doped strained SiGe which are presented here for the first time. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.
Rosseel, E, Vandervorst, W, Clarysse, T, Goossens, J, Moussa, A, Lin, R, Petersen, DH, Nielsen, PF, Hansen, O, Bennett, NS & Cowern, NEB 2008, 'Impact of multiple sub-melt laser scans on the activation and diffusion of shallow Boron junctions', 16TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED THERMAL PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTORS - RTP 2008, 16th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors, IEEE, Las Vegas, NV, pp. 135-+.
Pawlak, BJ, Duffy, R, van Dal, M, Voogt, F, Weemaes, R, Roozeboom, F, Zalm, P, Bennett, N & Cowern, N 2008, 'Doping of Sub-50nm SOI Layers', DOPING ENGINEERING FOR FRONT-END PROCESSING, Symposium on Doping Engineering for Front-End Processing held at the 2008 MRS Spring Meeting, MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC, San Francisco, CA, pp. 169-+.
Bennett, NS, Cowern, NEB, Paul, S, Lerch, W, Kheyrandish, H, Smith, AJ, Gwilliam, R & Seal, BJ 2008, 'Vacancy Engineering for Highly Activated 'Diffusionless' Boron Doping in Bulk Silicon', ESSDERC 2008: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 38TH EUROPEAN SOLID-STATE DEVICE RESEARCH CONFERENCE, 38th European Solid-State Device Research Conference, IEEE, Edinburgh, SCOTLAND, pp. 290-+.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bennett, NS, Smith, AJ, Beer, CS, O'Reilly, L, Colombeau, B, Dilliway, GD, Harper, R, McNally, PJ, Gwilliam, R, Cowern, NEB & Sealy, BJ 2006, 'Enhanced antimony activation for ultra-shallow junctions in strained silicon', DOPING ENGINEERING FOR DEVICE FABRICATION, Symposium on Sub Second Rapid Thermal Processing for Device Fabrication held at the 2006 MRS Spring Meeting, MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC, San Francisco, CA, pp. 59-+.
Bennett, NS, O'Reilly, L, Smith, AJ, Gwilliam, RM, McNally, PJ, Cowern, NEB & Sealy, BJ 2006, 'Strain-enhanced activation of Sb ultrashallow junctions', ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY, 16th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, AMER INST PHYSICS, Marseille, FRANCE, pp. 54-+.
Hamilton, JJ, Collart, EJH, Bersani, M, Giubertoni, D, Gennaro, S, Bennett, NS, Cowern, NEB & Kirkby, KJ 2006, 'Optimal preamorphization conditions for the formation of highly activated ultra shallow junctions in Silicon-on-insulator', ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY, 16th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, AMER INST PHYSICS, Marseille, FRANCE, pp. 73-+.
Sealy, BJ, Smith, AJ, Alzanki, T, Bennett, N, Li, L, Jeynes, C, Colombeau, B, Collart, EJH, Emerson, NG, Gwilliam, RM & Cowern, NEB 2006, 'Shallow junctions in silicon via low thermal budget processing', Extended Abstracts of the Sixth International Workshop on Junction Technology, IWJT '06, pp. 10-15.
The paper summarises recent findings concerning the fabrication of ultra-shallow junctions in silicon for future generations of CMOS devices. In particular we concentrate on vacancy engineering to achieve carrier concentrations of 5-6 × 1020cm-3for boron in silicon without diffusion and report for the first time preliminary data for antimony implants into strained silicon in which even higher carrier concentrations were obtained. All of this can be produced at temperatures below 800°C for annealing times of 10 seconds, without the need for spike annealing, fast ramp rates or laser processing. © 2006 IEEE.
Bennett, NS, Smith, AJ, Colombeau, B, Gwilliam, R, Cowern, NEB & Sealy, BJ 2005, 'Differential Hall profiling of ultra-shallow junctions in Si and SOI', MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY, Symposium on Materials Science and Device Issues for Futrue Si-Based Technologies held at the 2005 EMRS Meeting, ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, Strasbourg, FRANCE, pp. 305-309.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Smith, AJ, Colombeau, B, Bennett, N, Gwilliam, R, Cowern, N & Sealy, B 2005, 'Low temperature B activation in SOI using optimised vacancy engineering implants', SEMICONDUCTOR DEFECT ENGINEERING-MATERIALS, SYNTHETIC STRUCTURES AND DEVICES, Symposium on Semiconductor Defect Engineering-Materials, Synthetic Structures and Devices held at the 2005 MRS Spring Meeting, MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC, San Francisco, CA, pp. 321-325.