Naomi is a Research Director at the Institute for Sustainable Futures. Her applied research focuses on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) across the Asia-Pacifc region. She has qualifications in Environmental Law and Geography, and more than 15 years’ experience working in WASH, water resource management and development effectiveness. Recent recognitions include a 2019 Endeavour Research Leadership Award and a 2020 National Council of Women of NSW Australia Day Award.
Since joining ISF in 2006, Naomi has worked in partnership with governments, civil society organisations and research institutes towards sustainable WASH outcomes. Her current areas of research include: WASH-related gender equality impacts; integration between WASH and planetary boundary considerations (the topic of Naomi’s PhD studies); and practical application of the human rights to water and sanitation at local government level.
Can supervise: YES
- Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)
- Gender equality and WASH
- WASH and water resource management
- Resource-oriented/sustainable sanitation
- Local application of human rights to water and sanitation
- Civil society roles in development
- Strengths based approaches
- Mixed-methods research
Water management in cities is a critical issue for the health and sustainability of urban communities. Collecting accurate data is crucial for delivering effective, integrated approaches to urban water planning. With a focus on residential (rather than commercial or industrial) water use, this guide helps water planners to design and implement effective end-use measurement studies. An improved understanding of where and when water is used in homes, assists with long term planning within water utilities and with the evaluation of water saving programs. The guide is structured to lead the reader through the development of study design and objectives; data requirements and technology selection ? including smart meters; and sample size selection within cost and resource constraints. Included with the guide are a selection of case studies, an extensive list of technology providers and a review of existing water end-use studies. This practical guide will interest water industry planners and policy makers as well as research providers and technology specialists. Financial support for the development of this guide from the Smart Water Fund is gratefully acknowledged.
Carrard, N, Neumeyer, H, Pati, BK, Siddique, S, Choden, T, Abraham, T, Gosling, L, Roaf, V, Torreano, JAS & Bruhn, S 2020, 'Designing human rights for duty bearers: Making the human rights to water and sanitation part of everyday practice at the local government level', Water (Switzerland), vol. 12, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020 by the authors. In most countries, local governments bear primary responsibility for ensuring everyone has access to water and sanitation services. For the human rights to water and sanitation to move from recognition to realisation, they need to become part of the everyday practice of local authorities. Yet the potential for the human rights to water and sanitation to practically inform local efforts towards inclusive, sustainable service delivery has received limited attention to date, with human rights discourse more typically focusing on national and international levels or on building the capacity of rights holders to claim their rights from government. There is considerable opportunity to consider how human rights can constructively inform local government efforts to expand and improve services. This Communication article presents a novel approach to making human rights relevant and actionable for local authorities. Developed by a consortium of WASH-focused organisations and informed by design thinking, the Making Rights Real approach combines user-centred materials showing how human rights can inform local action, with a process of constructive engagement between civil society and local government professionals. The Making Rights Real approach has been applied in 12 countries by 37 civil society organisations to date. In this paper, we describe the development and features of the Making Rights Real approach, share initial results from its implementation, and reflect on the potential for the approach to catalyse transformational change towards local realisation of the human rights to water and sanitation.
Carrard, N, Foster, T & Willetts, J 2019, 'Groundwater as a Source of Drinking Water in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: A Multi-Country Review of Current Reliance and Resource Concerns', Water, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1-20.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Groundwater is widely acknowledged to be an important source of drinking water in low-income regions, and it, therefore, plays a critical role in the realization of the human right to water. However, the proportion of households using groundwater compared with other sources is rarely quantified, with national and global datasets more focused on facilities—rather than resources—used. This is a significant gap in knowledge, particularly in light of efforts to expand water services in line with the inclusive and integrated agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals. Understanding the prevalence of groundwater reliance for drinking is critical for those involved in water services planning and management, so they can better monitor and advocate for management of water resources that supports sustainable services for households. This paper contributes data that can be used to strengthen the integration of resource considerations within water service delivery and inform the work of development partners supporting this area. We approach this issue from two perspectives. Firstly, we collate data on the proportion of households using groundwater as their primary drinking water source for 10 Southeast Asian and Pacific nations, finding an average of 62% (range of 17–93% for individual countries) of households in urban areas and 60% (range of 22–95%) of households in rural areas rely on groundwater for drinking. Together, these constitute 79% of the total population across the case study countries. Secondly, we review current and emerging groundwater resource concerns within each country, using a systems thinking approach to assess how groundwater resource issues influence household water services. Findings support the case for governments and development agencies to strengthen engagement with groundwater resource management as foundational for achieving sustainable water services for all.
Carrard, N, Madden, B, Chong, J, Grant, M, Tuyen, PN, Ly, HB, Hue, TTH & Willetts, J 2019, 'Are piped water services reaching poor households? Empirical evidence from rural Viet Nam', WATER RESEARCH, vol. 153, pp. 239-250.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Abeysuriya, K, Willetts, J, Carrard, N & Kome, A 2019, 'City sanitation planning through a political economy lens', Water Alternatives: an interdisciplinary journal on water, politics and development, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 907-929.
While citywide sanitation planning is perceived to be an enabler of coordinated improvements in sanitation services for developing countries, intended outcomes have often been elusive. In order to illustrate how political economy, chosen planning approaches, and ideas about change and development have acted as determinants of outcomes, this paper draws on three case study countries that took qualitatively different approaches to sanitation planning – Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia. The analysis found that the assumptions informing the planning methods were often not valid, which then undermined the potential for successful implementation. Based on the analysis, the paper argues that urban sanitation planning and implementation in developing countries needs to be transformed to reduce the emphasis on comprehensiveness and instead emphasise flexibility, a learning orientation and strategically chosen incentives. This approach demands tighter cycles of planning and action, direct testing of assumptions, and an in-depth understanding of the local- and national-level political economy and the links between them. It requires innovation to be enabled, with funding mechanisms that focus on outcome rather than input. In this way it would be possible to shift away from the typical emphasis on prescriptive procedural planning steps and towards delivery of the much-needed improved sanitation outcomes.
Abeysuriyaa, K, Khawaja, N, Mills, F, Carrard, N, Kome, A & Willetts, J 2018, 'Faecal sludge reuse in birendranagar, nepal: A case study of the world health organisation's multiple barrier approach', Water Practice and Technology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-20.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© IWA Publishing. This case study presents an innovative initiative to facilitate safe reuse of faecal sludge (FS) by introducing the World Health Organisation's multi-barrier approach within a Farmer Field Schools framework for participatory experiential learning. A novel FS treatment process based on fermentation by 'effective organisms' (EM) was piloted to test the feasibility, safety and acceptability of the resulting fertilizer. Fermented FS in agricultural application was found to perform at least as well as other common fertilizers it was compared with, while its lower cost delivered higher profits per cultivated hectare. Participating farmers found it easy to prepare and use, and viewed it favourably overall. EM-based fermentation was, however, found to be insufficient as an FS treatment to render safe reuse, particularly with respect to helminth inactivation. The paper discusses strengthening the treatment barrier, and improving the application of the multi-barrier approach by the systematic consideration of non-treatment barriers using guidance from the WHO's Sanitation Safety Planning Manual. Further research to enable effective monitoring and support systems for maintaining treatment and non-treatment barriers, and for understanding long term impacts of fermented FS application is recommended. In combination, adequately treated fermented FS may be a candidate for scale up necessary for meeting the Sustainable Development Goals.
Carrard, N & Willetts, J 2017, 'Environmentally sustainable WASH? Current discourse, planetary boundaries and future directions', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 209-228.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The significant challenge of achieving safe, reliable and continuous service delivery has been a focus of the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector in recent years, with less attention given to other important sustainability considerations such as environmental sustainability. The agenda set by the Sustainable Development Goals prompts a wider lens, bringing water resource management and ecosystem conservation together with water and sanitation access targets in one integrated goal. As we grapple with our approach to this new agenda, it is timely to reflect on how we, as a sector, engage with environmental sustainability. This paper reviews recent literature at the intersection of WASH and environmental sustainability to identify current themes and future directions. Analysis of academic and non-academic sources was undertaken and then situated with reference to the planetary boundaries framework as a useful lens to ground the socio-ecological systems and processes upon which environmental sustainability depends. Findings point to both opportunities and gaps within current sector thinking, which can drive leadership from knowledge and research institutions towards better integration of access and environmental sustainability imperatives.
Willetts, J, Gero, A, Susamto, AA, Sanjaya, R, Trieu, TD, Murta, J & Carrard, N 2017, 'Sanitation value chains in low density settings in Indonesia and Vietnam: impetus for a rethink to achieve pro-poor outcomes', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 445-454.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study examined the sanitation hardware supply chain in rural, low density settings in Indonesia and Vietnam. Actual costs along the chains were investigated to understand the challenges and opportunities to support affordable sanitation in remote, rural locations. Data were collected from four remote districts in Indonesia and Vietnam through a systematic value-chain analysis comprising 378 interviews across households and supply chain actors and both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Three main findings are presented. Firstly, poor households, often located in remote areas and with lower sanitation access, often experienced higher costs to build durable latrines than households in accessible areas or district capitals. Second, locally sourced materials (sand, bricks or gravel) had a greater influence on price than externally sourced materials (cement, steel and toilet pans), even accounting for cost increases of these materials along the supply chain. Thirdly, transport and labour costs represented considerable proportions of the overall cost to build a toilet. These findings highlighted logistical and financial barriers to poor, remote households in accessing sanitation. Findings can inform strategies to improve the availability and affordability of sanitation products and services, in particular key issues that need to be addressed through government and non-government pro-poor market-based interventions.
Turner, AJ, Mukheibir, P, Mitchell, C, Chong, J, Retamal, M, Murta, J, Carrard, N & Delaney, C 2016, 'Recycled water – lessons from Australia on dealing with risk and uncertainty', Water Practice and Technology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 127-138.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Much can be learned from the numerous water recycling schemes currently in operation in Australia, especially with respect to making investment decisions based on uncertain assumptions. This paper illustrates through a number of case studies, that by considering the contextual and project related risks, a range of business related risks become apparent. Shifts in the contextual landscape and the various players' objectives can occur over the life of a project, often leading to unforeseen risk and uncertainty. Through a thorough consideration of the potential risks presented in this paper, proponents as well as owners and managers might make better recycled water investment decisions, enhancing the benefits and minimizing the costs of water recycling schemes. This paper presents an overview and discussion of seven key factors to consider when planning a recycling scheme.
Grant, ML, Dominish, E, Carrard, N, Bui, L, Ha, H, Nghiem, T & Willetts, J 2016, 'Reducing or increasing inequalities? The role of private water enterprises in rural Viet Nam', Development Bulletin, vol. 77, no. August 2016, pp. 31-36.
Extreme inequalities are recognised as being detrimental to
human rights and economic development (Stiglitz 2012),
and in response, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
has explicitly included addressing inequalities as one
of the 17 Global Goals. In order to reduce inequalities an
integrated approach across multiple dimensions of human
development is required, including access to safe water.
This research investigated stakeholder perceptions of
rural piped water services in Viet Nam to better understand
issues of equality, access and affordability. It asked the
question: can poor households access piped water services
provided by small scale private enterprises in rural Viet
Nam? This question is important because little is known
about whether or not poor households access piped water
services, related issues of affordability of connection fees
and tariffs, and other potential barriers. It is also important
because private enterprises are increasingly providing piped
water services in Viet Nam, supported by incentives from
Government and international donors including some civil
society organisations (CSOs)
Willetts, JR, Asker, S, Carrard, N & Winterford, K 2014, 'The practice of a strengths-based approach to community development in Solomon Islands', Development Studies Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 354-367.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper presents empirical findings from research undertaken in Solomon Islands to examine the use of strengths-based approaches (SBAs) by a group of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). A summary framework was developed to underpin the analysis, drawing on literature in social work, organizational management, community development, and international development fields. The paper employs this framework to reflect on the practice of six NGOs working in partnership in Solomon Islands over 2009–2014. The findings demonstrate alignment between the NGO practice in Solomon Islands and SBA philosophy and practice as described in the literature, particularly in terms of adherence to beliefs about innate community capacity, the need to draw on community resources to create change, and the delicate balance between a strengths focus and repression of problems that might need to be surfaced. The findings diverged from the literature in how NGOs saw their role. Whilst they saw themselves as facilitators rather than experts, they also saw the development process as a partnership between themselves and communities rather than community led. This paper contributes empirical evidence of the characteristics, complexities and limitations of implementing a SBA in Solomon Islands, including reflections on the tension between self-help and advocacy development strategies
Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR, Crawford, J, Rowland, C & Halcrow, G 2014, 'Working from strengths to assess changes in gender equality', Development in Practice, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 991-1006.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper describes an empirical application of a strengths-based approach (SBA) to assess changes in gender equality, and draws out implications for research, evaluation, and wider development practice. We outline what constitutes a strengths-based approach and present a case study where a participatory methodology informed by appreciative inquiry was used to investigate gender outcomes of two water, sanitation, and hygiene-focused development initiatives. We consider the value and limitations of taking an explicitly strengths-based approach to assessing gender outcomes, and also propose that there are important arguments for why SBAs might be usefully applied in addressing (not just assessing) gender equality.
Gero, A, Carrard, N, Murta, J & Willetts, J 2014, 'Private and social enterprise roles in water, sanitation and hygiene for the poor: a systematic review', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 331-342.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Micro, small and medium private and social enterprises are emerging as important players in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector. This paper provides a systematic review of literature on this topic. It assesses the current evidence base in three areas: factors affecting success of enterprise engagement; outcomes for the poor as a result of enterprise engagement; and lastly, how civil society organisations are engaging to support enterprise development. The review revealed significant variation in the level of rigour of available evidence on this topic, and reflected limited availability of highly rigorous studies. Across the literature, similar success factors were reported across the water and sanitation sub-sectors. These included constraints to business viability due to limitations in demand, lack of business and technical skills and financial challenges (e.g., access to credit). Policy, governance and institutional frameworks could either support or constrain businesses depending on the context. While some evidence was reported on the positive outcomes for the poor resulting from enterprise engagement, in general, businesses preferred servicing non-poor customers. Lastly, evidence on civil society organisation engagement was limited, and where reported, consisted dominantly of capacity building support to enterprises rather than a wider variety of roles which might be envisaged.
Carrard, NR, Crawford, J, Halcrow, G, Rowland, C & Willetts, JR 2013, 'A framework for exploring gender equality outcomes from WASH programmes', Waterlines: international journal of water, sanitation and waste, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 315-333.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper aims to assist practitioners and researchers in planning, identifying, and documenting gender outcomes associated with water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programmes by proposing a conceptual framework for classifying gender equality changes. Gender outcomes that have been attributed to WASH initiatives encompass those directly related to improved services as well as outcomes that move into areas of relationships, power, and status. There is a growing body of literature identifying WASH-related gender outcomes; however the types of outcomes described vary considerably and further work is needed to inform a comprehensive picture of WASH and gender links. The framework proposed in this paper is based on a synthesis of outcomes reported in WASH literature to date, empirical research in Fiji and Vanuatu, and insights from gender and development literature. It is hoped that the framework will support practitioners to engage with the inherent complexity of gender inquiry, contributing to sector knowledge about the potential for WASH initiatives to advance gender equality.
Willetts, JR, Paddon, M, Nguyen, DGN, Nguyen, H & Carrard, NR 2013, 'Sustainability assessment of sanitation options in Vietnam: Planning with the future in mind', Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 262-268.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper describes a participatory deliberative planning methodology employed in Can Tho, Vietnam to assess sanitation infrastructure options for a new peri-urban area with an expected population of 278,000 people. The study compared four options across a range of scales from centralised to decentralised treatment systems, and also included an innovative resource recovery option with urine collection and reuse in local agriculture. The study was undertaken in close collaboration with the local water utility, a local university, and several city government departments. In the sustainability assessment process key city stakeholders ranked the four options against criteria in five areas: (i) technical and risk, (ii) social and health, (iii) environmental, (iv) economic and financial, (v) city future. Stakeholders were provided with detailed information about each option, including quantitative data such as costs and energy use, and qualitative data against areas such as social acceptability. The assessment made evident the trade-offs between these five areas, and after their prioritisation, stakeholders agreed on the option that combined centralised treatment for the densely populated area to be inhabited earlier, and decentralised treatment for the remaining area. The methodology provided a robust way for stakeholders to engage in informed decision-making on this important planning issue.
Abeysuriya, K, Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR & Mitchell, CA 2013, 'Decentralised and distributed systems: What will it take to make them a sustainable option for urban sanitation in the 21st Century?', Water21, vol. June, pp. 42-44.
Carrard, NR, Willetts, JR, Mitchell, CA, Paddon, M & Retamal, ML 2011, 'Selecting sanitation solutions for Peri-urban areas: A case study of Can Tho, Vietnam', Water Practice & Technology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1-19.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In peri-urban areas where infrastructure investments have not yet been made, there is a need to determine the most context-appropriate, fit for purpose and sustainable sanitation solutions. Decision makers must identify the optimal system scale (on the spectrum from centralized to community to cluster scale) and assess the long-term costs and socio-economic/environmental impacts associated with different options. Addressing both cost-effectiveness and sustainability are essential to ensure that institutions and communities are able to continue to bear the costs and management burden of infrastructure operation, maintenance and asset replacement. This paper describes an approach to sanitation planning currently being undertaken as a research study in Can Tho City in southern Vietnam, by the Institute for Sustainable Futures and Can Tho University in collaboration with Can Tho Water Supply and Sewerage Company. The aim of the study is to facilitate selection of the most context-appropriate, fit for purpose, cost effective and sustainable sanitation infrastructure solution. As such, the study compares a range of sanitation alternatives including centralized, decentralized (at household or cluster scale) and resource recovery options. This paper provides an overview of the study and considers aspects of the Can Tho and Vietnamese regulatory, development and institutional context that present drivers and challenges for comparison of options and selection of fit for purpose sanitation systems
Hussain, H, Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR & Khan, F 2010, 'Knowledge networks and capacity building in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector in Southeast Asia and the Pacific', Knowledge Management for Development Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 21-36.
The Sanitation and Water Conference held in Melbourne Australia in November 2008 called attention to the need for strengthening of political leadership through evidence-based advocacy in this sector and strengthening capacity commensurate with the scale of the crisis. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) networks are a promising mechanism for both advocacy and building sustainable sector capacity. This paper reports on a research focused on selected WASH networks in this region, elucidating their functions, experiences and effectiveness through an online survey. The work was undertaken collaboratively by WESNet Pakistan, Institute for Sustainable Futures at University of Technology Sydney and International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC) in the Netherlands. The research revealed several country-level networks operational in the Southeast Asia region and a regional network in the Pacific. These networks were engaged in advocacy, sector coordination, knowledge sharing and capacity building, with varying priority depending on the network or region. This paper describes success stories of these networks and their views on the most effective approaches to the work they undertake. It also describes common challenges such as reliance on voluntary contributions of time and expertise and sustainability of financial resources. These networks are playing important and effective roles in the sector and greater recognition of the benefits they provide might ensure that governments and donors support such networks towards ongoing improvements in the WASH knowledge management in the region.
Willetts, J, Halcrow, G, Carrard, N, Rowland, C & Crawford, J 2010, 'Addressing two critical MDGs together: Gender in water, sanitation and hygiene initiatives', Pacific Economic Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 211-221.
Willetts, JR, Halcrow, G, Carrard, NR, Rowland, C & Crawford, J 2010, 'Addressing two critical MDGs together: gender in water, sanitation and hygiene initiatives', Pacific Economic Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 162-176.
Increasing access to water, sanitation and hygiene education and advancing gender equality are critical issues for Pacific island nations. This article proposes that water, sanitation and hygiene issues and gender equality can be constructively addressed together, with the former three providing an entry point for the latter.
Carrard, NR, Pedi, D, Willetts, JR & Powell, B 2009, 'Non-government organisation engagement in the sanitation sector: opportunities to maximise benefits', Water Science And Technology, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 3109-3119.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Non-government organisations (NGOs) have long played a role in delivering sanitation services to communities in Southeast Asia and Pacific countries, particularly in rural areas. In contrast with large scale infrastructure focused initiatives, NGO programs commonly focus on building linkages between technical and social realms. Drawing on the breadth and depth of NGO experiences, there are opportunities for NGOs to play a greater role in the sanitation sector and to work in partnership with other actors including utilities and government agencies to ensure both `hardware and `software components of sanitation are built in to project design and delivery to maximise community benefits and ensure longer term system sustainability. This paper discusses these issues and considers how the contribution of NGOs to the sanitation sector in developing countries might be enhanced. The paper is based on recent research for the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) intended to guide investment in the water and sanitation sectors of Asia and Pacific partner countries, exploring the potential for increased NGO engagement. The paper presents findings of the research concerning NGO roles and approaches, discusses existing NGO activities in the sanitation sector in Vietnam and Timor Leste and identifies strategies for NGOs and for other sector actors including utilities and government agencies to maximise the benefits of NGO engagement in the sanitation sector.
Kohlitz, J, Carrard, N & Foster, T 2019, 'Social-ecological system resilience for WASH' in Neely, K (ed), Systems Thinking and WASH: Tools and Case Studies for a Sustainable Water Supply, Practical Action Publishing, Rugby, Warwickshire, pp. 79-91.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In a rapidly changing world, WASH services are often exposed to a range of unpredictable social, environmental, economic, and physical disturbances that disrupt WASH access. Social-ecological system (SES) resilience thinking can inform WASH service delivery approaches that adapt to changing conditions in order to sustain access for users rather than resist change. In this chapter, we familiarize readers with SES resilience thinking and consider its application to WASH services. We outline three key processes that practitioners can follow to get themselves and other stakeholders into an SES resilience mindset: mapping WASH systems, considering SES resilience principles, and identifying areas for interventions. We provide illustrative examples and resources to assist practitioners in thinking about how SES resilience concepts can be used to plan for WASH services that are flexible and adaptive. We also consider some limitations and pitfalls to SES resilience concepts to encourage readers to take a critical approach.
Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR & Herriman, J 2009, 'Transdisciplinarity: realising its potential to support effective postgraduate sustainability teaching and learning' in Leal Filho, W (ed), Sustainability at Universities - Opportunities, Challenges and Trends, Peter Lang, Germany, pp. 299-312.
This chapter provides a review of transdisciplinary teaching and learning approaches in postgraduate university sustainability courses. The authors present desirable graduate attributes associated with sustainability teaching and learning including problem identification and solving, appreciation of multiple perspectives, skills to manage change processes and capacity for critical reflection. Drawn from a review of literature and practice, the authors propose transdisciplinary approaches such as systemic inquiry, futures thinking and problem-based learning as effective for achieving desirable graduate attributes. In these approaches, the role of the teacher typically shifts to that of facilitator, reflecting an emphasis on self-directed learning and engagement with 'real world' complex problems and often resulting in transformative learning experiences. Transdisciplinary teaching and learning approaches remain the exception rather than the norm in the higher education sector, however are increasing in their prevalence in both Australia and elsewhere, presenting a welcome development to address sustainability challenges.
This research demonstrates the existence of inequitable outcomes in provision of piped water services by both private and other service providers in rural Vietnam. This study is the first of its kind in Vietnam, providing robust scientific evidence on who accesses water services from private enterprises. Qualitative research in 60 communes was followed by a quantitative study in six locations. A policy and regulatory review was also conducted, in addition to an assessment of enterprise motivators, enablers and challenges. The study highlights the need for effective regulatory mechanisms to ensure inclusive water service delivery in rural Vietnam.
Carrard, N, Grant, M, Willetts, JR, Bui Ha, L, Nghiem, T, Thu Ha, N & Tran, N 2016, 'Are poor households connecting? Private water enterprises in rural Viet Nam', WASH Futures International Conference.
Murta, J, Keatman, T, Gosling, L, Carrard, N, Neumeyer, H, Murta, J, Roaf, V & Adam, A 2016, 'Achieving universal and equitable access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for all – practitioner perspectives and perceptions', Rural Water Supply Network forum, Rural Water Supply Network Forum (RWSN), RWSN, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
Willetts, JR, Murta, J, Gero, A, Carrard, N & Harris, D 2015, 'Political economy influences on enterprise engagement in Indonesia, Vietnam and Timor-Leste', https://wedc-knowledge.lboro.ac.uk/search.html?q=collection%3A%22WEDC+C…, Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) International Conference, WEDC Loughborough University, UK, Loughborough University, UK, pp. 1-7.
Mukheibir, P, Turner, AJ, Mitchell, CA, Chong, J, Murta, J, Retamal, ML, Carrard, NR & Delaney, CC 2014, 'Shifts happen: Making better recycled water investment decisions', Sustainability in Public Works Conference 27 29 July 2014, Sustainability in Public Works Conference 27 29 July 2014, IPWEA, Tweed Heads.
ABSTRACT: Recycled water has increasingly been considered as a means to deal with water supply-demand imbalances, treated wastewater disposal and stormwater management. It contributes to the sustainability of urban water systems and the regeneration of the urban landscape. However, recycled water schemes are not mainstream, and are often confronted with numerous challenges. By considering the contextual and project related risks associated with a diverse selection of recycling projects in Australia, a range of business related risks have become apparent. There is now evidence that shifts in both the contextual landscape and the objectives of the various players involved can occur over the life of a project, resulting in risk and uncertainty often not foreseen. Many guidelines on recycling have been produced which focus mainly on technical risk. Drawing on the experiences of a diverse selection of case studies in Australia, this paper contemplates the additional risks and uncertainties, often not initially considered at the inception of a recycling scheme. This paper presents an overview and discussion of six key issues to consider when planning a recycling scheme.
Mitchell, CA, Murta, J, Retamal, M, Turner, A, Carrard, N & Chong, J 2013, 'Recycled water investment decisions: case studies in balancing the costs, benefits, and risks', Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference, pp. 1-8.
Gero, A, Murta, J, Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR & Leong, L 2013, 'Incompatible philosophies or complementary roles? Civil society and business engagement in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector', Development Futures: Alternative pathways to end poverty, Fourth ACFID University Network Conference, University of Technology, Sydney.
Retamal, ML, Nguyen, DGN, Willetts, JR, Mitchell, CA & Carrard, NR 2011, 'Comparing household water end-use data from Vietnam and Australia: Implications for water and wastewater planning', Proceedings from Efficient '11 - 6th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Water, Efficient '11 - 6th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Water. Water Demand Management: Challenges & Opportunities, International Water Association, Dead Sea, Jordan, pp. 1-12.
Retamal, ML, Willetts, JR, Mitchell, CA & Carrard, NR 2011, 'Modelling costs for water and sanitation infrastructure: Comparing sanitation options for Can Tho, Vietnam', Proceedings of the 35th WEDC International Conference, 2011. The Future of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Low-Income Countries: Innovation, adaption and engagement in a changing world, WEDC International Conference, Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC): Loughborough University, Loughborough University, UK, pp. 1-8.
Cost effectiveness analysis is a useful tool for comparing water and sanitation infrastructure options. This method was used to compare a range of sanitation options for the rapidly developing area of South Can Tho in Vietnam. The costs of centralised, semi-centralised and decentralised sewer systems were analysed along with several different treatment and stream separation technologies. The process of estimating and modelling costs can be challenging as considerable data is required, however, by using a variety of cost estimation methods it was possible to undertake a detailed costing assessment to compare very different infrastructure options over their lifetimes and with reference to the service they provide. The results, which detail net present values and levelised costs in addition to a range of financial perspectives can provide a valuable basis for decision making.
Willetts, JR & Carrard, NR 2010, 'Decision making for sustainable infrastructure in the context of rapid urbanisation: A case study of Can Tho, Vietnam', Advancing a sustainable future: strategies for cross-disciplinary practice around the Indian Ocea, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR, Retamal, ML, Mitchell, CA, Nguyen, H, Nguyen, DGN & Paddon, M 2010, 'Cost-effectiveness analysis as a methodology to compare sanitation options in peri-urban Can Tho, Vietnam', Pumps, Pipes and Promises. Costs, Finances and Accountability for Sustainable WASH Services. A collection of papers from the IRC Symposium 2010., IRC WASH Cost Symposium, IRC (International Water and Sanitation Centre), Den Haag, Netherlands, pp. 144-159.
It is challenging to make decisions about sanitation scale and technology choice for urban areas, however costing analyses have an important role to play in assisting determination of the most appropriate systems for a given context. The most appropriate technological system is the one that finds a locally acceptable balance between social (e.g., public health) outcomes, environmental (e.g., pollution, resource use and resource recovery) outcomes, and financial and economic outcomes (i.e. the costs and benefits for individuals, public and private organisations, and local society). There are many costing methods available. This paper describes the use of a cost-effectiveness analysis built on integrated resource planning principles. This method is suited to situations where the overall goal is already clear (in this case, that a wastewater service is required) and the analysis is conducted to identify the least cost solution to reach this goal. This costing method was used in conjunction with a deliberative sustainability assessment process that addressed non-monetary factors. The paper outlines the analytical approach adopted in the cost analysis as well as providing detailed discussion of the many decisions inherent in undertaking such an analysis
Herriman, J, Willetts, JR & Carrard, NR 2009, 'Engaging with sustainability in higher education in Australia', Presentation to the 5th World Congress of Environmental Education, "The Earth, our common home", 5th World Congress of Environmental Education, "The Earth, our common home", Secretariat of the World Environmental Education Congresses, Montreal, Canada, pp. 1-6.
Higher education institutions have an important role to play in shaping societyâs response to ecological challenges and critical sustainability issues. Organizational responses are shaped by many dimensions of the institutional environment including the commitment of academics and managers to environmental issues, student interest and activism and perceptions around market demand for engagement with sustainability. In Australian higher education institutions there has been widespread interest in and movement towards engaging with sustainability as a core issue in teaching and learning, research and facilities management. This paper draws on recent research from the Institute for Sustainable Futures within the University of Technology, Sydney undertaken to inform development of a postgraduate transdisciplinary (TD) sustainability program. Using a case study approach, the paper reviews responses from Australian universities to sustainability education and considers how transdisciplinary approaches can inform environmental education at the tertiary level.
Willetts, JR, Halcrow, G, Carrard, NR, Rowland, C & Crawford, J 2009, 'Two MDG's for the price of one: Gender in Pacific WASH initiatives', MDG Conference 2009. 'Meeting the Millennium Development Goals: Old Problems, New Challenges', La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
Giurco, D, Carrard, NR, Wang, X, Inman, M & Nguyen, M 2008, 'Innovative smart metering technology and its role in end-use measurement', 3rd National Water Efficiency Conference Proceedings, 3rd National Water Efficiency Conference (Water Efficiency 2008), AWA, Surfers Paradise, Australia, p. EFF33.
McGee, CM, Partridge, EY, Carrard, NR & Milne, GR 2008, 'Mainstreaming sustainable housing: policies and programs that work', Proceedings of the 2008 World Sustainable Building Conference, World Sustainable Building Conference, www.sb08melbourne.com, Melbourne, pp. 1-8.
Carrard, NR, Chong, J, Atherton, AM, Mitchell, CA, Bishop, A, Donaldson, P & Wilson, M 2008, 'Costs and Benefits of a Green Village: Demonstrating Lochiel Park's Value', Proceedings of the 2008 World Sustainable Building Conference, World Sustainable Building Conference, www.sb08melbourne.com, Melbourne, pp. 1-8.
Carrard, NR 2005, 'Mainstream or marginal? Transboundary tributaries and the Mekong Agreement', 8th International RiverSymposium - Water and Food Security - Rivers in the Global Context, Brisbane.
Kohlitz, J, Carrard, N & Willetts, J 2019, Support mechanisms to strengthen equality and non-discrimination (EQND) in rural sanitation (Part 2 of 2), Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights, no. 13, Institute for Development Studies.
Abeysuriya, K, Khawaja, N, Mills, F, Carrard, N, Kome, A & Willetts, JR 2017, Applying the WHO's multi-barrier approach to faecal sludge reuse, Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney.
Our aim is to provoke practitioners, policy makers and development agencies to reflect on their approaches to city sanitation planning and the assumptions that underlie them. The document is not intended as a critique, and it does not recommend a particular planning approach. Nor does it add to existing stocks of guidance materials on how to develop sanitation plans (e.g. Sanitation 21, WHO Sanitation Safety Planning Guide 2015, Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation Planning (CLUES), guidance for City Sanitation Strategies (SSK) in Indonesia and City Sanitation Plans (CSPs) in India etc). Rather, our premise is that raising awareness of underlying assumptions in sanitation planning may lead to better targeted approaches to sanitation planning, if and when those assumptions are shown not to match realities.
During 2012-2014, SNV did four country reviews of legal arrangements for urban sanitation and hygiene (Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Indonesia).
Based on this experience, this document was developed to provide guidance on how to undertake a legal scan for urban sanitation.
Over time, the ultimate objective of this work and related activities is that WASH professionals will be able to undertake a high-level assessment of legal arrangements for urban sanitation in order to both:
1. use the frameworks and tools offered by legal and policy arrangements to improve urban sanitation and hygiene outcomes; and
2. advocate for improvements in legal, policy and institutional arrangements to facilitate sustainable sanitation and hygiene outcomes for all.
Carrard, NR & Wangmo, D SNV Netherlands Development Organisation 2012, Legal and institutional arrangements for urban sanitation and hygiene in Bhutan, pp. 1-38.
This review explores the legal and institutional frameworks guiding urban sanitation and hygiene in Bhutan. It was commissioned in April 2012 to inform the Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All in Small Towns (SSH4A in Small Towns) programme being undertaken by SNV Bhutan and the Ministry of Works and Human Settlements (MoWHS). This review is the product of a desktop review and consultations with key informants to assess the policy, legal and institutional arrangements for urban sanitation and hygiene in Bhutan, with a particular focus on situation in smaller urban centres.
Carrard, NR, Paddon, M, Willetts, JR & Moore, DD Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Poverty dimensions of water and sanitation services and climate vulnerability in Can Tho City, pp. 1-42, Sydney.
Carrard, NR Institute for Sustainable Futures 2011, The Civil Society WASH Learning Events and Case Studies, pp. 1-46, Sydney, Australia.
This Learning Paper is about mechanisms and processes for participation and accountability (P&A) in the Solomon Islands (SI) community development sector. The paper draws on experiences of six non- government organisations (NGOs) under the AusAID-funded Solomon Islands NGO Partnership Agreement (SINPA) running from 2009-2014.
Halcrow, G, Rowland, C, Willetts, JR, Crawford, J & Carrard, NR International Women's Development Agency (IWDA) and Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2010, Working effectively with women and men in water, sanitation and hygiene programs: Learnings from research on gender outcomes from rural water, sanitation and hygiene projects in Vanuatu and Fiji, pp. 1-68, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR, Retamal, ML, Nguyen, DGN, Paddon, M, Do, XTD, Nguyen, HTT & Mitchell, CA Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2010, Cost effectiveness and sustainability of sanitation options: A case study of South Can Tho - Technical Report, pp. 1-49, Sydney, Australia.
The Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF), from the University of Technology Sydney, in collaboration with Can Tho University (CTU) and Can Tho Water Supply and Sewerage Company (WSSC) completed a 2-year collaborative research project assessing the wastewater infrastructure options for Can Tho City. The comparison of alternatives was made on the basis of cost-effectiveness and on the relative sustainability of the options, as determined through a participatory stakeholder sustainability assessment process with several government agencies in Can Tho.
Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR, Retamal, ML, Nguyen, DGN, Paddon, M, Do, XTD, Nguyen, HTT & Mitchell, CA Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2010, Selecting sanitation options: A case study of South Can Tho - Technical report, pp. 1-50, Sydney, Australia.
Hussain, H, Willetts, JR & Carrard, NR Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2009, Knowledge networks in the water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector in south east Asia and the Pacific, pp. 1-54, Sydney, Australia.
Giurco, D, Carrard, NR, McFallan, S, Nalbantoglu, M, Inman, M, Thornton, NL & White, S Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2008, Residential end-use measurement guidebook: a guide to study design, sampling and technology, Sydney, Australia.
Herriman, J, Willetts, JR & Carrard, NR Institute for Sustainable Futures 2008, UTS new options: Postgraduate program in Leadership for Sustainability and the Environment. Draft course outline, Sydney.
Willetts, JR, Herriman, J & Carrard, NR Institute for Sustainable Futures 2008, UTS new options: Discussion of market potential. A postgraduate program in Leadership for Sustainability and the Environment, Sydney, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Pedi, D, Carrard, NR, Powell, B & de Lacy, I The International Water Centre (IWC) and the Institute for Sustainable Futures 2008, NGO partnerships and capacity development in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector, pp. 1-111, Australia.
Willetts, JR, Carrard, NR, Abeysuriya, K, Macrellis, A, Mitchell, CA, Johnstone, S & Pinkham, R Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2008, Guidance for establishing successful responsible management entities (RME's): scoping paper, Sydney.
Mitchell, CA, Willetts, JR & Carrard, NR World Vision Australia and WaterAid Australia 2007, Getting the basics right: Water and sanitation in South East Asia and the Pacific, pp. 1-20, Melbourne, Australia.
Paddon, M, Carrard, NR, Herriman, J, Partridge, EY & Willetts, JR Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS and Organizational Capacity Development (OCD) 2007, Developing City Development Strategies (CDS) for Vietnamese cities: a guide to assist city leaders, pp. 1-138, Sydney, Australia.
This Guide explains a methodology to develop City Development Strategies (CDS). It has been developed to assist city leaders in Viet Nam along with the other relevant stakeholders develop a CDS for their city.
Turner, AJ, Hausler, G, Carrard, NR, Kazaglis, A, White, S, Hughes, A & Johnson, T Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS and Cardno (Brisbane) 2007, Review of water supply-demand options for South East Queensland, pp. 1-146, Sydney.
This independent review aims to assess the Queensland Government's proposed strategy for meeting the long-term water supply-demand balance for South East Queensland, of which the Traveston Crossing scheme is a major and controversial component. The review, conducted by a team from the ISF at the UTS and Cardno, concludes that a diverse portfolio of options can ensure supply security for South East Queensland (SEQ) well into the future, certainly to 2050. Such options include: increasing water supply availability (supply-side options); decreasing the demand for water (demand-side options); and meeting water supply needs during deep droughts (drought response options). A number of the elements of such a portfolio are already being implemented as part of the current Queensland Government strategy. With the extension and addition of low unit cost demand-side options and supply-side drought response readiness options, a clear conclusion of this study is that the proposed dam at Traveston Crossing on the Mary River is neither necessary nor desirable as a part of the portfolio for ensuring supply security to 2050. The increase in supply from this proposed dam will not assist in the short-term during the current severe drought in which water (from savings and supply) is needed over the next two to three years. Planned completion of the Traveston Crossing Dam Stage 1 is in 2012. Additional time will be needed for the dam to fill, which could take an additional two years, resulting in the yield from this source only potentially being available in 2014. Neither is the Traveston Crossing scheme needed for supply-demand balance in the longer term with the suite of other more appropriate drought response measures being implemented by the Queensland Government and strategy being proposed as part of this study. The proposed dam at Traveston Crossing on the Mary River represents a high total cost, high unit cost, high risk and high environmental and social impact option.
White, S, Turner, AJ, Kazaglis, A & Carrard, NR Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2007, Response to Queensland Water Commission Report 'Evaluation of ISF / Cardno report: Review of water supply-demand options for South East Queensland', pp. 1-31, Sydney.
In February 2007, the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) and Cardno Australia released a Review of Water Supply-Demand Options for South East Queensland (the Review). The Review was submitted to the Senate Rural & Regional Affairs and Transport (RRAT) Committee Inquiry into Additional Water Supplies for South East Queensland. The key finding of the ISF/Cardno Review is that Traveston Crossing Dam will not be useful to provide water security in the current drought and is unnecessary to ensure water security for South East Queensland after the drought and for decades to come. The suite of supply and demand options â excluding Traveston Dam â which are currently being implemented as part of the South East Queensland Regional Water Supply Strategy (SEQRWSS) sufficient to ensure the supply-demand balance to around 2030. For the period 2030-2050, ISF/Cardno suggest a number of enhanced demand management programs that will maintain the supplydemand balance to 2050. The demand management measures suggested by ISF/Cardno are more cost effective than Traveston Dam (in terms of $ per kilolitre) and perform significantly better than Traveston Dam when assessed on social and environmental criteria including greenhouse impact. In the event that a period of water scarcity worse than the current drought occurs, ISF/Cardno propose that a âreadinessâ strategy be adopted whereby water supply projects with relatively short construction and delivery times are planned and approved but only built if and when absolutely necessary to defer a crisis in water supplies. This strategy avoids investing in infrastructure that may not be needed. This represents a lower cost strategy than building capital works pre-emptively. It is important to note that the water supply projects outlined in the ISF/Cardno Review are suggestions of appropriate âreadinessâ options.
Hirsch, P, Jensen, KM, Boer, BW, Carrard, NR, Fitzgerald, SA & Lyster, R Australian Mekong Resource Centre, School of Geosciences, U. of Sydney in collaboration with Danida 2006, National Interests and Transboundary Water Governance in the Mekong, pp. 1-171, Sydney.
Carrard, NR, Miller, FP, Hirsch, P & Wyatt, A Australian Mekong Resource Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Sydney 2005, Drivers for change in water regulatory systems: Setting the scene for development assistance, pp. 1-16, Sydney.
- SNV Netherlands Development Organisation
- Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
- International Water Management Institute
- Making Rights Real Consortium