Can supervise: YES
Bano, M., Zowghi, D., Kearney, M., Schuck, S. & Aubusson, P. 2018, 'Mobile learning for science and mathematics school education: A systematic review of empirical evidence', Computers and Education, vol. 121, pp. 30-58.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The ubiquity, flexibility, ease of access and diverse capabilities of mobile technologies make them valuable and a necessity in current times. However, they are under-utilized assets in mathematics and science school education. This article analyses the high quality empirical evidence on mobile learning in secondary school science and mathematics education. Our study employed a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) using well-accepted and robust guidelines. The SLR resulted in the detailed analysis of 49 studies (60 papers) published during 2003–2016. Content and thematic analyses were used to ascertain pedagogical approaches, methodological designs, foci, and intended and achieved outcomes of the studies. The apps and technologies used in these studies were further classified for domain, type and context of use. The review has highlighted gaps in existing literature on the topic and has provided insights that have implications for future research.
Bano, M, Zowghi, D & da Rimini, F 2017, 'User Satisfaction and System Success: An Empirical Exploration of User Involvement in Software Development', Empirical Software Engineering: an international journal, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 23339-2372.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
For over four decades user involvement has been considered intuitively to lead to user satisfaction, which plays a pivotal role in successful outcome of a software project. The objective of this paper is to explore the notion of user satisfaction within the context of the user involvement and system success relationship. We have conducted a longitudinal case study of a software development project and collected qualitative data by means of interviews, observations and document analysis over a period of 3 years. The analysis of our case study data revealed that user satisfaction significantly contributes to the system success even when schedule and budget goals are not met. The case study data analysis also presented additional factors that contribute to the evolution of user satisfaction throughout the project. Users' satisfaction with their involvement and the resulting system are mutually constituted while the level of user satisfaction evolves throughout the stages of software development process. Effective management strategies and user representation are essential elements of maintaining an acceptable level of user satisfaction throughout software development process.
Bano, M., Zowghi, D. & Rimini, F.D. 2017, 'User satisfaction and system success: an empirical exploration of user involvement in software development.', Empirical Software Engineering, vol. 22, pp. 2339-2372.
Bano, M., Zowghi, D. & Sarkissian, N. 2016, 'Empirical study of communication structures and barriers in geographically distributed teams', IET Software, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 147-153.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Conway's law asserts that communication structures of organisations constrain the design of the products they develop. This law is more explicitly observable in geographically distributed contexts because distributed teams are required to share information across different time zones and barriers. The diverse business processes and functions adopted by individual teams in geographically distributed settings create challenges for effective communication. Since the publication of Conway's law, a significant body of research has emerged in its relation to the communication structures. When it comes to software projects, the explicit observation about Conway's law has produced mixed results. The research reported in this study explores the communication structures and corresponding challenges faced by teams within a large geographically distributed software development organisation. The data was collected from
relevant documents, a questionnaire and interviews with relevant stakeholders. The findings suggest that Conway's
law is observable within the communication structures of globally distributed software development teams. The
authors have identified the barriers and challenges of effective communications in this setting and have investigated
the benefits of utilising an integrated system to overcome these challenges.
Bano, M & Zowghi, D 2015, 'A systematic review on the relationship between user involvement and system success', INFORMATION AND SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 58, pp. 148-169.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bano, M., Zowghi, D., Ikram, N. & Niazi, M. 2014, 'What makes service oriented requirements engineering challenging? A qualitative study', IET SOFTWARE, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 154-160.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bano, M., Ikram, N. & Niazi, M. 2013, 'Requirements Engineering Challenges in Service Oriented Software Engineering: an exploratory online survey', International Journal for Software Engineering (IJSE), vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 21-43.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Service Oriented Software Engineering (SOSE) is an emerging field for developing software using web services. One of the main tasks of a Requirement Engineer in SOSE is matchmaking between requirements and available services. Published literature indicates that Requirements Engineering (RE) in SOSE is facing different challenges. In this study, we report the results of an online survey conducted with practitioners and the researchers working on service oriented projects. The aim is to get an insight about the issues and challenges faced in SOSE during requirements engineering. The results show an interesting pattern of how the researchers and practitioners have differing views on reported challenges. The difference in opinion is mostly because SOSE is a new field and most of its concepts are not fully understood and appreciated by designers and developers, resulting in a poor implementation of the SOSE concepts.
Bano, M. & Zowghi, D. 2017, 'Crowd Vigilante Detecting Sabotage in Crowdsourcing', Requirements Engineering for Internet of Things, 4th Asia Pacific Requirements Engineering Symposium 2017, Springer, Melaka, Malaysia, pp. 114-120.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Crowdsourcing is a complex and sociotechnical problem solving approach for collaboration of geographically distributed volunteer crowd to contribute to the achievement of a common task. One of the major issues faced by crowdsourced projects is the trustworthiness of the crowd. This paper presents a vision to develop a framework with supporting methods and tools for early detection of the malicious acts of sabotage in crowdsourced projects by utilizing and scaling digital forensic techniques. The idea is to utilize the crowd to build the digital evidence of sabotage with systematic collection and analysis of data from the same crowdsourced project where the threat is situated. The proposed framework aims to improve the security of the crowdsourced projects and their outcomes by building confidence about the trustworthiness of the workers.
© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018. Crowdsourcing is a complex and sociotechnical problem solving approach for collaboration of geographically distributed volunteer crowd to contribute to the achievement of a common task. One of the major issues faced by crowdsourced projects is the trustworthiness of the crowd. This paper presents a vision to develop a framework with supporting methods and tools for early detection of the malicious acts of sabotage in crowdsourced projects by utilizing and scaling digital forensic techniques. The idea is to utilize the crowd to build the digital evidence of sabotage with systematic collection and analysis of data from the same crowdsourced project where the threat is situated. The proposed framework aims to improve the security of the crowdsourced projects and their outcomes by building confidence about the trustworthiness of the workers.
Bano, M., Zowghi, D. & da Rimini, F. 2018, 'Power and Politics of User Involvement in Software Development', ACM, 22nd International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering 2018, ACM, Christchurch Newzealand, pp. 157-162.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
[CONTEXT] Involving users in software development is a complex and multi-faceted concept. Empirical research that studies power and politics of user involvement in software development is scarce. [OBJECTIVE] In this paper, we present the results from a case study of a software development project, where organizational politics was explored in context of user involvement in software development. [METHOD] We collected data through 30 interviews with 20 participants, attending workshops, observing project meetings, and analysing projects documents. The qualitative data was rigorously and iteratively analyzed. [RESULTS] The results indicate that the politics was a significant factor used to exert power and influence in decision-making processes. Communication channels were exploited for political purposes. These contributed to the users' dissatisfaction with their involvement thus impacting on the project outcome. [CONCLUSION] Having multiple teams of stakeholders with different levels of power in decision-making, the politics is inevitable and inescapable. Without careful attention, the political aspect of user involvement in software development can contribute to unsuccessful project.
Bano, M., Zowghi, D., Ferrari, A., Spoletini, P. & Donati, B. 2018, 'Learning from Mistakes: An Empirical Study of Elicitation Interviews performed by Novices', IEEE, International Requirements Engineering Conference, Banff, Alberta, Canada.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
[Context] Interviews are the most widely used elici-tation technique in requirements engineering. However, conduct-ing effective requirements elicitation interviews is challenging, due to the combination of technical and soft skills that requirements analysts often acquire after a long period of professional prac-tice. Empirical evidence about training the novices on conducting effective requirements elicitation interviews is scarce. [Objectives] We present a list of most common mistakes that novices make in requirements elicitation interviews. The objective is to assist the educators in teaching interviewing skills to student analysts. [Re-search Method] We conducted an empirical study involving role-playing and authentic assessment with 110 students, teamed up in 28 groups, to conduct interviews with a customer. One researcher made observation notes during the interview while two research-ers reviewed the recordings. We qualitatively analyzed the data to identify the themes and classify the mistakes. [Results and conclu-sion] We identified 34 unique mistakes classified into 7 high level themes. We also give examples of the mistakes made by the novices in each theme, to assist the educationists and trainers. Our re-search design is a novel combination of well-known pedagogical approaches described in sufficient details to make it repeatable for future requirements engineering education and training research.
Spoletini, P., Ferrari, A., Bano, M., Zowghi, D. & Gnesi, S. 2018, 'Interview Review: an Empirical Study on Detecting Ambiguities in Requirements Elicitation Interviews', Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, Springer, Ultrecht, Netherlands, pp. 101-118.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bano, M., Zowghi, D. & Kearney, M. 2017, 'Feature Based Sentiment Analysis for Evaluating the Mobile Pedagogical Affordances of Apps', Tomorrow's Learning: Involving Everyone. Learning with and about Technologies and Computing, IFIP TC 3 World Conference on Computers in Education, Springer, Dublin, Ireland, pp. 281-291.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The launch of millions of apps has made it challenging for teachers
to select the most suitable m-learning app for their teaching purposes. Several evaluation frameworks have been proposed in the research literature to assist teachers in selecting the right apps for their needs. This paper presents an innovative technique for evaluating educational mobile apps by analysing the feedback of past app users through the lens of a mobile pedagogical perspective. We have utilized a sentiment analysis tool to assess the opinions of the app users against the criteria offered by a rigorous mobile learning pedagogical framework. The investigation has provided initial confirmation of the powerful utility of the feature based sentiment analysis technique for evaluating the mobile pedagogical affordances of learning apps.
Buchan, J., Bano, M., Zowghi, D., MacDonell, S. & Schinde, A. 2017, 'Alignment of Stakeholder Expectations about User Involvement in Agile Software Development', Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, ACM, Karlskrona, Sweden, pp. 334-343.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Context: User involvement is generally considered to contributing to user satisfaction and project success and is central to Agile software development. In theory, the expectations about user involvement, such as the PO's, are quite demanding in this Agile way of working. But what are the expectations seen in practice, and are the expectations of user involvement aligned among the development team and users? Any misalignment could contribute to conflict and miscommunication among stakeholders that may result in ineffective user involvement. Objective: Our aim is to compare and contrast the expectations of two stakeholder groups (software development team, and software users) about user involvement in order to understand the expectations and assess their alignment. Method: We have conducted an exploratory case study of expectations about user involvement in an Agile software development. Qualitative data was collected through interviews to design a novel method for the assessing the alignment of expectations about user involvement by applying Repertory Grids (RG). Results: By aggregating the results from the interviews and RGs, varying degrees of expectation alignments were observed between the development team and user representatives. Conclusion: Alignment of expectations can be assessed in practice using the proposed RG instrument and can reveal misalignment between user roles and activities they participate in Agile software development projects. Although we used RG instrument retrospectively in this study, we posit that it could also be applied from the start of a project, or proactively as a diagnostic tool throughout a project to assess and ensure that expectations are aligned.
Bano, M. 2015, 'Addressing the Challenges of Requirements Ambiguity: A Review of Empirical Literature', Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE Fifth International Workshop on Empirical Requirements Engineering (EmpiRE), IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 21-24.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ambiguity in natural language requirements has long been recognized as an inevitable challenge in requirements engineering (RE). Various initiatives have been taken by RE researchers to address the challenges of ambiguity. In this paper the results of a mapping study are presented that focus on the application of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for addressing ambiguity in requirements. Systematic review of the literature resulted in 174 studies on the subject published during 1995 to 2015, and out of these only 28 are empirically evaluated studies that were selected. From of the resulting set of papers, 81% have focused on detecting ambiguity; whereas 4% and 5% are focusing on reducing and removing ambiguity respectively. Addressing syntactic, semantic, and lexical ambiguities has attracted more attention than other types. In spite of all the research efforts, there is a lack of empirical evaluation of NLP tools and techniques for addressing ambiguity in requirements. The results have pointed out some gaps in empirical results and have raised questions the designing of an analytical framework for research in this field.
Bano, M. & Zowghi, D. 2015, 'EVALUATOR: An Automated Tool for Service Selection', Communications in Computer and Information Science, Asia Pacific Symposium, Springer Verlag (Germany), Wuhan, China, pp. 170-184.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The large number of third party services creates a paradox of choice and make service selection challenging for business analysts. The enormous online reviews and feedback by the past users provide a great opportunity to gauge their sentiments towards a particular product or service. The benefits of sentiment analysis have not been fully utilized in third party service selection. In this paper we present a tool that assists the business analysts in making better decisions for service selection by providing qualitative as well as quantitative data regarding the sentiments of the past users of the service. The tool has been applied and evaluated in an observational case study for service selection. The results show that sentiment analysis helps in increasing relevant information for business analysts, assists in making more informed decisions, and allows us to overcome some of the challenges of service selection.
Bano, M., Ferrari, A., Zowghi, D., Gervasi, V. & Gnesi, S. 2015, 'Automated Service Selection Using Natural Language Processing', Communications in Computer and Information Science, Asia Pacific Symposium, Springer Verlag (Germany), Wuhan, China, pp. 3-17.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
With the huge number of services that are available online, requirements analysts face an overload of choice when they have to select the most suitable service that satisfies a set of customer requirements. Both service descriptions and requirements are often expressed in natural language (NL), and natural language processing (NLP) tools that can match requirements and service descriptions, while filtering out irrelevant options, might alleviate the problem of choice overload faced by analysts. In this paper, we propose a NLP approach based on Knowledge Graphs that automates the process of service selection by ranking the service descriptions depending on their NL similarity with the requirements. To evaluate the approach, we have performed an experiment with 28 customer requirements and 91 service descriptions, previously ranked by a human assessor. We selected the top-15 services, which were ranked with the proposed approach, and found 53% similar results with respect to top-15 services of the manual ranking. The same task, performed with the traditional cosine similarity ranking, produces only 13% similar results. The outcomes of our experiment are promising, and new insights have also emerged for further improvement of the proposed technique.
Zowghi, D., da Rimini, F. & Bano, M. 2015, 'Problems and challenges of user involvement in software development: an empirical study', Proceedings of the International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE), International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE), ACM New York, NY, USA ©2015, Nanjing, China.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Context: The benefits of involving users in software development projects have been studied extensively in the last four decades and have been reported to contribute to user satisfaction thus leading to system success. However, the relationship between user involvement and system success, being a multi-faceted and complex concept, has introduced many problems and challenges for the practitioners. Objective: In this paper we present our findings from a case study to give a deeper understanding of the challenges and problems of user involvement during software development. Method: The data in the case study was collected from interviews, observations and project documents. Results: We present our results in four main categories related to users, communicative aspects, managerial considerations, and project issues. It was observed that system success is achievable even when there are problems and challenges in involving users. Conclusion: Understanding the nature of the problems related to user involvement helps the project managers to develop appropriate strategies for increasing the effectiveness of user involvement.
Bano, M. 2014, 'Aligning services and requirements with user feedback', 2014 IEEE 22nd International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014 - Proceedings, IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE, Karlskrona, Sweden.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
For analysts the alignment between the requirements and the available services presents a significant challenge in service oriented paradigm. To address this challenge various technical solutions have already been proposed. Although technical issues play an important role in this selection but organizational and social factors are equally as important in selecting an optimally aligned service for a specific requirement. The users of services are mostly ignored in the alignment process. User feedback analysis has recently gained a lot of research focus, but these benefits have not been fully explored and utilized in service oriented software development. In this paper I present a method for aligning services to requirements that is designed using the Situational Method Engineering approach and it incorporates user feedback about the services. This feedback assists the analysts in extracting required information for making informed decisions while selecting services among available options that satisfies both the user requirements and customer preferences. The method is supported by a proposed tool. The method and the supporting tool will be validated by a controlled experiment and focus group feedback from the practitioners.
Bano, M. & Ikram, N. 2014, 'Addressing the Challenges of Alignment of Requirements and Services: A Vision for User-Centered Method', Proceedings of the Communications in Computer and Information Science, Asia Pacific Requirements Engineering Symposium, Springer Verlag, Auckland, Newzealand.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
One of the major challenges in Service Oriented Requirements Engineering is for business analysts to find services that accurately match the customer requirements. Several attempts have been made to propose different methods and techniques for finding the best suitable service to align with customer requirements. However, these solutions are mainly focusing only on the technical side of the problem and the social side of the challenge of alignment has been largely neglected. In this vision paper, we propose a novel user-centered method of alignment, which involves end-users in the process of analysis and decision process for the selection of the service. The analysis and decision for service selection is based on end-user feedback and customer preferences. The aim is to assist the business analysts in making informed decisions for selecting the optimally best-aligned service among available options.
Bano, M. & Zowghi, D. 2014, 'Users' voice and service selection: An empirical study', 2014 IEEE 4th International Workshop on Empirical Requirements Engineering, EmpiRE 2014 - Proceedings, IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE, Karlskrona, Sweden.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Service Oriented software development saves time by reusing existing services and integrates them to create a new system. But selecting a service that satisfies the requirements of all concerned stakeholders is a challenging task. The situation has been exacerbated within the past few years with huge number of services available that offer similar functionalities where the analysts require additional information for making better decision for service selection. User feedback analysis has recently gained a lot of attention for its potential benefits in various areas of requirements engineering. The aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of feedback provided by the end users of the services, on the decision making process for the service selection. In this paper we present an empirical study that utilizes user feedback analysis for selection of a service among 92 available services with similar functionalities. The results show that in scenarios with significant number of services, it is helpful for analysts to consider additional information to select optimally best matched service to the requirements.
Bano, M., Zowghi, D. & Ikram, N. 2014, 'Systematic reviews in requirements engineering: A tertiary study', Proceeidngs of the 2014 IEEE Fourth International Workshop on Empirical Requirements Engineering (EmpiRE),, IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE, Karlskrona, Sweden, pp. 9-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
There has been an increasing interest in conducting Systematic Literature Reviews (SLR) among Requirements Engineering (RE) researchers in recent years. However, so far there have been no tertiary studies conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of these published SLR in RE. In this paper we present a tertiary study of SLR that focus solely on RE related topics by following the guidelines of Evidence Based Software Engineering. We have conducted both automated search of major online sources and manual search of the RE and SLR related conferences and journals. Our tertiary study has identified 53 distinct systematic reviews published from 2006 to 2014 and reported in 64 publications. We have assessed the resulting SLR for their quality, and coverage of specific RE related topics thus identifying some gaps. We have observed that the quality of SLR in RE has been decreasing over the recent years. There is a strong need to replicate some of these SLR to increase the reliability of their results for future RE research.
Imtiaz, S, Bano, M, Ikram, N & Niazi, MK 2013, 'A tertiary study: Experiences of conducting systematic literature reviews in software engineering', Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, ACM, Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, pp. 177-182.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Context: The use of Systematic Literature Review (SLR) requires expertise and poses many challenges for novice researchers. The experiences of those who have used this research methodology can benefit novice researchers in effectively dealing with these
Bano, M. & Zowghi, D. 2012, 'Service Oriented Requirements Engineering: Practitioner's Perspective', Service-Oriented Computing - ICSOC 2012 Workshops, International Conference on Service Oriented Computing, Springer, Shanghai, China.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Over a decade ago Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) was introduced to provide better alignment between business requirements and IT solutions. During this period a great deal of research interest has emerged from academia and industry alike, to promote this new style of software development. The promise was that SOA based development will improve reusability, agility, platform independence and dynamic discovery, reconfiguration and change management. In spite of all the promises and enhancement in tools and technologies, the service oriented software development continues to face various challenges especially in Requirements Engineering. In this paper we present a qualitative study of Service Oriented Requirements Engineering. Data was collected by conducting interviews with practitioners from IT companies in Sydney, who are experienced in working on SOA based projects. The objective was to explore the issues and challenges faced during requirements analysis in service oriented software development. The results show that Service-Oriented software development has not only inherited existing issues of traditional Requirements Engineering but has also introduced new challenges. The technology has become advanced in SOA but the issues related to the organizational and business aspect of service oriented development need more attention for achieving true benefits of this technology.
Bano, M. & Zowghi, D. 2013, 'User involvement in software development and system success: a systematic literature review', Proceedings of the International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, ACM, Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, pp. 125-130.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In the last four decades involving users in the software development process is claimed to have a positive impact on the success of that software. However, previous reviews on this topic have produced conflicting results. Objectives: Our aim is to present a review on user involvement in software development process and investigate its relationship to software system success. Methods: For our exploration, we performed a Systematic Literature Review using the guidelines provided in the Evidence Based Software Engineering literature. Results: 87 relevant empirical studies were selected and reviewed that investigate various perspectives and concepts of user involvement in software development process during the period of 1980--2012. Among 87 studies reviewed, 59 report that user involvement positively contributes to system success, 7 suggest a negative contribution and 21 are uncertain. Conclusions: Our results show an overall positive impact of user involvement on system success. It also suggests that the relationship between user involvement and system success is neither direct nor simple, and it depends on many different factors and conditions surrounding systems development processes.
Bano, M. & Zowghi, D. 2013, 'Users' Involvement in Requirements Engineering and System Success', Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Workshop on Empirical Requirements Engineering in conjunction with the 21st International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 24-31.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Involving users in software development in general, and in Requirements Engineering (RE) in particular, has been considered for over three decades. It is axiomatically believed to contribute significantly to a successful system. However, not much attention has been paid to ascertain in which phases of software development life cycle involvement or participation of users is most beneficial. In this paper we present an investigation into the concept of users involvement during RE activities and explore its relationship with system success. We have conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) using guidelines of Evidence Based Software Engineering. Our SLR identified 87 empirical studies from the period of 1980 to 2012. Only 13 studies focused specifically on investigating users involvement in RE and 9 of these confirmed benefits of involving users in requirements analysis and 4 remain inconclusive. Effective involvement of users in RE may reduce the need for their more active involvement in the rest of software development. This paper also offers a checklist we have created from the identified factors of all 87 empirical studies that should be utilised for effective users involvement in RE
Bano, M., Imtiaz, S., Ikram, N., Niazi, M. & Usman, M. 2012, 'Causes of requirement change - A systematic literature review', IET Seminar Digest, International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, IEEE, Ciudad Real, Spain, pp. 22-31.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Context: Research shows that one of the main reasons of project failure is changing requirements. The success or failure of software projects largely depends upon how we respond to changing requirements. The knowledge about the causes of requirements change can improve our ability to make better decisions and manage changing requirements effectively. Objective: In this paper we present findings from an empirical study that was aimed at identifying the causes of requirement change and the frequency of these causes in different software development phases. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review and went through all the stages required by the process. Although our search strings yielded a large amount of papers but after careful filtration we were left with only five papers (six studies) which reported empirical knowledge about the causes of requirement change. Results: We have identified different causes and their frequency in software development phases. We have classified the extracted causes of requirements change into two major types i.e., essential and accidental causes. Conclusions: It is surprising to find little empirical evidence on the causes of requirements change as requirements change has been widely quoted as one of the major challenges faced by requirements engineers. With this small number of evidences, it is hard to generalize the research results. There is a need for further empirical research to identify and fully understand the causes of requirement change.
Huma, Z., Bano, M. & Ikram, N. 2012, 'Software Process Improvement: A systematic literature review', 15th International Multitopic Conference (INMIC), 2012, IEEE, Islamabad, Pakistan.View/Download from: Publisher's site
CONTEXT - Software Process Improvement (SPI) initiatives create new and improve existing processes to increase productivity, customer satisfaction, quality of product while reducing cost, and time to market thus maximizing Return on investments. OBJECTIVE - The main focus of this paper is to know about the state of art in SPI and to find out the strength of evidence in empirical work reported within SPI literature. METHOD - Methodology of systematic literature review (SLR) is used. A protocol has been developed and executed. Search strings developed and mentioned in the protocol were applied to the databases to extract relevant papers. A set of papers were identified after reading abstracts of papers extracted after application of search string. A quality criterion was applied on this set to finally select the studies for data extraction. Currently, we are at the data extraction phase of SLR. EXPECTED OUTCOME - The anticipated outcome of this systematic review will be state of art in SPI including widely used tools, models, and techniques; reasons to initiate SPI; SPI challenges/Issues widely reported; the SPI areas which are under more consideration; the SPI areas that lack of attention; frequencies of empirical studies in each of the SPI sub-areas.
Ambreen, T., Ikram, N., Usman, M. & Bano, M. 2011, 'Evidence in Requirements Engineering: A Systematic Literature Review Protocol', Sixth International Conference on Software Engineering Advances (ICSEA 2011) Proceedings, International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, IARIA, Barcelona, Spain.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Requirements Engineering (RE) is recognized as one of the critical phases in software development. RE has its own journals and conferences where lots of work has been published. As the area is maturing, increasingly large numbers of empirically supported studies have been reported in RE. There is a need to synthesize evidence based RE literature. We plan to systematically investigate evidence based RE studies to see and report state of the art in evidence based RE reported research. This paper aims at providing a systematic literature review (SLR) protocol to describe a process for synthesizing the empirically supported work in the area of RE that will eventually present a state of the art of the field. This SLR intends to not only summarize the empirical data regarding RE but will also be helpful for various practitioners in this field to find out areas of RE rich in terms of tools, techniques, frameworks, models and guidelines to aid in their work. It will also facilitate RE researchers to identify knowledge gaps to recognize needs and chances for future research directions in this field.
Bano, M. & Ikram, N. 2011, 'KM-SORE: Knowledge Management for Service Oriented Requirements Engineering', Sixth International Conference on Software Engineering Advances (ICSEA 2011) Proceedings, International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, IARIA, Barcelona, Spain.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Service-oriented Software Engineering is a new style for creating software using reusable services which are available over the web. The biggest challenge in this process is to discover and select the appropriate services that match system requirements. Currently, none of the proposed approach has been accepted by research community as a standard. There is very little empirical work available that addresses requirements engineering in service oriented paradigm. The aim of this study is to propose a framework for requirements engineering in SOSE. The framework is based on a new idea, that integrating Knowledge Management in Service Oriented development would improve requirement engineering phase as it does for traditional software engineering. The framework is developed in the light of the issues and challenges identified by published literature and the feedback of practitioners and researchers working on service oriented projects.
Qureshi, N., Ikram, N., Bano, M. & Usman, M. 2011, 'Empirical Evidence in Software Architecture: A Systematic Literature Review Protocol', Sixth International Conference on Software Engineering Advances (ICSEA 2011) - Proceedings, International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, IARIA, Barcelona, Spain.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Software Architecture (SA) plays important role in software development as it acts as a skeleton and the whole development revolves around it. As the SA as a discipline is maturing, large number of empirically supported studies are being reported in SA. There is a need to systematically aggregate, analyze and synthesize evidence based studies in SA. We plan to systematically investigate evidence-based SA studies to see and report state of the art in evidence based SA reported research. This paper aims at providing a brief description of systematic literature review (SLR) protocol to describe a process for synthesizing the empirically supported work in the area of SA. Protocol for this review has already been developed and its implementation is in progress. Expected outcome of this review will be state-of-the-art of empirical work in the field of software architecture, strength and effectiveness of empirical work, best practices and future research directions.
Bano, M. & Ikram, N. 2010, 'Issues and challenges of Requirement Engineering in Service Oriented Software Development', Proceedings - 5th International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, ICSEA 2010, pp. 64-69.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a shift of paradigm in software development. It can be seen as an evolution of Component Based Software Development (CBSD), with web services used instead of Commercial Off-the-shelf (COTS) software. For the last few years the number of services on the web has increased exponentially. Among available services locating the best service that fulfills the user requirement is a challenging task for researchers. There is still no standard Requirement Engineering (RE) process defined for Service Oriented Software Development (SOSD). The traditional processes and those used for COTS selection cannot be used due to the architectural differences of SOSD with other domains. In this paper we have extracted a list of issues and challenges from literature under considerations by research community for RE process in SOSD. The issues of RE in CBSD are compared with those of SOSD, as CBSD is considered close in nature to SOSD. The results shows that there is a need of standard RE process for SOSD with proper guidance on how to perform different steps with details. © 2010 IEEE.
Bano, M., Ikram, N. & Niazi, M. 2010, 'Thesis proposal on "Requirement engineering process for service oriented software development"', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 84-87.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has become the new reference architecture for distributed computing. For the last few years the number of services on the web has increased exponentially. Among available services locating the best service that fulfills the user requirement is a challenging task for researchers especially when they are emphasizing on the need of automating the process of web service discovery. There is still no standard Requirement Engineering Process defined for service centric systems, as the traditional processes and those used for COTS selection cannot be used due to the architectural differences of service oriented software development to the other domains. The aim of this thesis proposal is to highlight the issues and challenges for service oriented software development paradigms and then to create a framework based on the solutions to the issues and then validating this proposal with the help of experiments. © 2010 ACM.
Jabeen, H., Rehman, M. & Bano, M. 2010, 'Cross domain QoS mapping between WMN and fixed topology for end-to-end QoS guarantee', Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems, pp. 74-80.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wireless Mesh Network is a communication network made up of radio nodes organized in a mesh topology. It is expected that WMN to have the ability to support the new generation of streaming-media applications. We propose a time slot scheduling mechanism to provide endto- end QoS guarantee to real time flows having destination in fixed topology. Our proposed mechanism reserves a time slot for forwarding of real time flows through WMN and also at gateway. Gateway then forwards packets according to specification of real time flows in fixed topology network. This is an efficient technique that increases throughput of real time flows continue for longer period of time. Gateway and final destination receive more real time packets in the same time. When pause time increases and load of best effort traffic increases, throughput of real time packets does not affected so much by more load best effort traffic and thus quality of real time transmission is improved.