I received the M.S. degree from the School of Computer and Systems Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India, in 2009. After receiving the M.S. degree, I worked as a software engineer for a year, New Delhi, India. Afterward, I pursued my Doctoral degree with the Department of Computer Science, National Chiao Tung University (NCTU) and was awarded my Ph.D. degree in 2015. After my Ph.D. degree, I joined as Postdoctoral fellow (PDF) at NCTU. After successful completion of PDF, I joined as a principle engineer (R&D) with Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu, Taiwan and worked till Feb. 2017. I started my academic career as Lecturer with University of Technology Sydney in March 2017 and became a core member of Centre for Artificial Intelligence(CAI). I have made substantial contributions to the field of machine learning and image processing, with 41 research articles (20 published/accepted) in top journals including IEEE Transactions and SCI/SCEI Journals and 21 conference papers.
Serve as an Associate Editor
International Journal of Business Intelligence and Data Mining
International Journal of Intelligent Autonomous Systems
Serve as a reviewer for many International Journals and conferences:
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics: Systems
IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
International Journal of Fuzzy Systems
Neural Computing and Applications
IET Wireless Sensor Systems
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning
Serve as a Program/Session chair/co-chair at conference:
Panel chair at IEEE-Fuzz 2017 for Brain Machine Interface, Naples, Italy
International Advisor Committee, ICACCT 2017, New Delhi, India
Poster session chair at INNS-Big Data 2018, Bali, Indonesia
Program co-chair at AusPDC 2018, Sydney, Australia
Web chiar at IEEE SSCI 2018, Banglore, India
Can supervise: YES
Machine Learning, Computational Intelligence, Deep Learning, Data Analysis, Fuzzy Neural Networks, Brain-computer Interface, Image processing.
Introduction to Data Analytics (31250)
Fundamentals of Data Analytics (32130)
Kaiwartya, O, Abdullah, AH, Cao, Y, Lloret, J, Kumar, S, Shah, RR, Prasad, M & Prakash, S 2018, 'Virtualization in Wireless Sensor Networks: Fault Tolerant Embedding for Internet of Things', IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 571-580.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
IEEE Recently, virtualization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has witnessed significant attention due to the growing service domain for IoT. Related literature on virtualization in WSNs explored resource optimization without considering communication failure in WSNs environments. The failure of a communication link in WSNs impacts many virtual networks running IoT services. In this context, this paper proposes a framework for optimizing fault tolerance in virtualization in WSNs, focusing on heterogeneous networks for service-oriented IoT applications. An optimization problem is formulated considering fault tolerance and communication delay as two conflicting objectives. An adapted non-dominated sorting based genetic algorithm (A-NSGA) is developed to solve the optimization problem. The major components of A-NSGA include chromosome representation, fault tolerance and delay computation, crossover and mutation, and non-dominance based sorting. Analytical and simulation based comparative performance evaluation has been carried out. From the analysis of results, it is evident that the framework effectively optimizes fault tolerance for virtualization in WSNs.
Nanda, P, Puthal, D, Obaidat, MS, Prasad, M, Mohanty, SP & Zomaya, AY 2018, 'Secure and Sustainable Load Balancing of Edge Data Centers in Fog Computing', IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 60-65.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Fog computing is a recent research trend to bring cloud computing services to network edges. EDCs are deployed to decrease the latency and network congestion by processing data streams and user requests in near real time. EDC deployment is distributed in nature and positioned between cloud data centers and data sources. Load balancing is the process of redistributing the work load among EDCs to improve both resource utilization and job response time. Load balancing also avoids a situation where some EDCs are heavily loaded while others are in idle state or doing little data processing. In such scenarios, load balancing between the EDCs plays a vital role for user response and real-time event detection. As the EDCs are deployed in an unattended environment, secure authentication of EDCs is an important issue to address before performing load balancing. This article proposes a novel load balancing technique to authenticate the EDCs and find less loaded EDCs for task allocation. The proposed load balancing technique is more efficient than other existing approaches in finding less loaded EDCs for task allocation. The proposed approach not only improves efficiency of load balancing; it also strengthens the security by authenticating the destination EDCs.
Lenka, RK, Rath, AK, Tan, Z, Sharma, S, Puthal, D, Simha, NVR, Prasad, M, Raja, R & Tripathi, SS 2018, 'Building Scalable Cyber-Physical-Social Networking Infrastructure Using IoT and Low Power Sensors', IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 30162-30173.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2013 IEEE. Wireless sensors are an important component to develop the Internet of Things (IoT) Sensing infrastructure. There are enormous numbers of sensors connected with each other to form a network (well known as wireless sensor networks) to complete the IoT Infrastructure. These deployed wireless sensors are with limited energy and processing capabilities. The IoT infrastructure becomes a key factor to building cyber-physical-social networking infrastructure, where all these sensing devices transmit data toward the cloud data center. Data routing toward cloud data center using such low power sensor is still a challenging task. In order to prolong the lifetime of the IoT sensing infrastructure and building scalable cyber infrastructure, there is the requirement of sensing optimization and energy efficient data routing. Toward addressing these issues of IoT sensing, this paper proposes a novel rendezvous data routing protocol for low-power sensors. The proposed method divides the sensing area into a number of clusters to lessen the energy consumption with data accumulation and aggregation. As a result, there will be less amount of data stream to the network. Another major reason to select cluster-based data routing is to reduce the control overhead. Finally, the simulation of the proposed method is done in the Castalia simulator to observe the performance. It has been concluded that the proposed method is energy efficient and it prolongs the networks lifetime for scalable IoT infrastructure.
El-Sayed, H, Sankar, S, Daraghmi, Y-A, Tiwari, P, Rattagan, E, Mohanty, M, Puthal, D & Prasad, M 2018, 'Accurate Traffic Flow Prediction in Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks in an Intelligent Transport System Using a Supervised Non-Parametric Classifier.', Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 18, no. 6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Heterogeneous vehicular networks (HETVNETs) evolve from vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), which allow vehicles to always be connected so as to obtain safety services within intelligent transportation systems (ITSs). The services and data provided by HETVNETs should be neither interrupted nor delayed. Therefore, Quality of Service (QoS) improvement of HETVNETs is one of the topics attracting the attention of researchers and the manufacturing community. Several methodologies and frameworks have been devised by researchers to address QoS-prediction service issues. In this paper, to improve QoS, we evaluate various traffic characteristics of HETVNETs and propose a new supervised learning model to capture knowledge on all possible traffic patterns. This model is a refinement of support vector machine (SVM) kernels with a radial basis function (RBF). The proposed model produces better results than SVMs, and outperforms other prediction methods used in a traffic context, as it has lower computational complexity and higher prediction accuracy.
Patel, OP, Tiwari, A, Chaudhary, R, Nuthalapati, SV, Bharill, N, Prasad, M, Hussain, FK & Hussain, OK 2018, 'Enhanced quantum-based neural network learning and its application to signature verification', Soft Computing, pp. 1-14.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature In this paper, an enhanced quantum-based neural network learning algorithm (EQNN-S) which constructs a neural network architecture using the quantum computing concept is proposed for signature verification. The quantum computing concept is used to decide the connection weights and threshold of neurons. A boundary threshold parameter is introduced to optimally determine the neuron threshold. This parameter uses min, max function to decide threshold, which assists efficient learning. A manually prepared signature dataset is used to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. To uniquely identify the signature, several novel features are selected such as the number of loops present in the signature, the boundary calculation, the number of vertical and horizontal dense patches, and the angle measurement. A total of 45 features are extracted from each signature. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by rigorous training and testing with these signatures using partitions of 60–40 and 70–30%, and a tenfold cross-validation. To compare the results derived from the proposed quantum neural network, the same dataset is tested on support vector machine, multilayer perceptron, back propagation neural network, and Naive Bayes. The performance of the proposed algorithm is found better when compared with the above methods, and the results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Ming, Y, Pelusi, D, Fang, CN, Prasad, M, Wang, YK, Wu, D & Lin, CT 2018, 'EEG data analysis with stacked differentiable neural computers', Neural Computing and Applications.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018, Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature. Differentiable neural computer (DNC) has demonstrated remarkable capabilities in solving complex problems. In this paper, we propose to stack an enhanced version of differentiable neural computer together to extend its learning capabilities. Firstly, we give an intuitive interpretation of DNC to explain the architectural essence and demonstrate the stacking feasibility by contrasting it with the conventional recurrent neural network. Secondly, the architecture of stacked DNCs is proposed and modified for electroencephalogram (EEG) data analysis. We substitute the original Long Short-Term Memory network controller by a recurrent convolutional network controller and adjust the memory accessing structures for processing EEG topographic data. Thirdly, the practicability of our proposed model is verified by an open-sourced EEG dataset with the highest average accuracy achieved; then after fine-tuning the parameters, we show the minimal mean error obtained on a proprietary EEG dataset. Finally, by analyzing the behavioral characteristics of the trained stacked DNCs model, we highlight the suitableness and potential of utilizing stacked DNCs in EEG signal processing.
Lin, CT, Prasad, M, Chung, CH, Puthal, D, El-Sayed, H, Sankar, S, Wang, YK, Singh, J & Sangaiah, AK 2018, 'IoT-Based Wireless Polysomnography Intelligent System for Sleep Monitoring', IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 405-414.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Polysomnography (PSG) is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The diagnosis of OSA requires an overnight sleep experiment in a laboratory. However, due to limitations in relation to the number of labs and beds available, patients often need to wait a long time before being diagnosed and eventually treated. In addition, the unfamiliar environment and restricted mobility when a patient is being tested with a polysomnogram may disturb their sleep, resulting in an incomplete or corrupted test. Therefore, it is posed that a PSG conducted in the patient's home would be more reliable and convenient. The Internet of Things (IoT) plays a vital role in the e-Health system. In this paper, we implement an IoT-based wireless polysomnography system for sleep monitoring, which utilizes a battery-powered, miniature, wireless, portable, and multipurpose recorder. A Java-based PSG recording program in the personal computer is designed to save several bio-signals and transfer them into the European data format. These PSG records can be used to determine a patient's sleep stages and diagnose OSA. This system is portable, lightweight, and has low power-consumption. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed PSG system, a comparison was made between the standard PSG-Alice 5 Diagnostic Sleep System and the proposed system. Several healthy volunteer patients participated in the PSG experiment and were monitored by both the standard PSG-Alice 5 Diagnostic Sleep System and the proposed system simultaneously, under the supervision of specialists at the Sleep Laboratory in Taipei Veteran General Hospital. A comparison of the results of the time-domain waveform and sleep stage of the two systems shows that the proposed system is reliable and can be applied in practice. The proposed system can facilitate the long-Term tracing and research of personal sleep monitoring at home.
Lin, CT, King, JT, Fan, JW, Appaji, A & Prasad, M 2018, 'The Influence of Acute Stress on Brain Dynamics during Task Switching Activities', IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 3249-3255.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2013 IEEE. Task switching is a common method to investigate executive functions such as working memory and attention. This paper investigates the effect of acute stress on brain activity using task switching. Surprisingly few studies have been conducted in this area. There is behavioral and physiological evidence to indicate that acute stress makes the participants more tense which results in a better performance. In this current study, under stressful conditions, the participants gave quick responses with high accuracy. However, unexpected results were found in relation to salivary cortisol. Furthermore, the electroencephalogram results showed that acute stress was pronounced at the frontal and parietal midline cortex, especially on the theta, alpha, and gamma bands. One possible explanation for these results may be that the participants changed their strategy in relation to executive functions during stressful conditions by paying more attention which resulted in a higher working memory capacity which enhanced performance during the task switching.
El-Sayed, H, Sankar, S, Prasad, M, Puthal, D, Gupta, A, Mohanty, M & Lin, CT 2018, 'Edge of Things: The Big Picture on the Integration of Edge, IoT and the Cloud in a Distributed Computing Environment', IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 1706-1717.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2013 IEEE. A centralized infrastructure system carries out existing data analytics and decision-making processes from our current highly virtualized platform of wireless networks and the Internet of Things (IoT) applications. There is a high possibility that these existing methods will encounter more challenges and issues in relation to network dynamics, resulting in a high overhead in the network response time, leading to latency and traffic. In order to avoid these problems in the network and achieve an optimum level of resource utilization, a new paradigm called edge computing (EC) is proposed to pave the way for the evolution of new age applications and services. With the integration of EC, the processing capabilities are pushed to the edge of network de vices such as smart phones, sensor nodes, wearables, and on-board units, where data analytics and knowledge generation are performed which removes the necessity for a centralized system. Many IoT applications, such as smart cities, the smart grid, smart traffic lights, and smart vehicles, are rapidly upgrading their applications with EC, significantly improving response time as well as conserving network resources. Irrespective of the fact that EC shifts the workload from a centralized cloud to the edge, the analogy between EC and the cloud pertaining to factors such as resource management and computation optimization are still open to research studies. Hence, this paper aims to validate the efficiency and resourcefulness of EC. We extensively survey the edge systems and present a comparative study of cloud computing systems. After analyzing the different network properties in the system, the results show that EC systems perform better than cloud computing systems. Finally, the research challenges in implementing an EC system and future research directions are discussed.
Chou, KP, Prasad, M, Wu, D, Sharma, N, Li, DL, Lin, YF, Blumenstein, M, Lin, WC & Lin, CT 2018, 'Robust Feature-Based Automated Multi-View Human Action Recognition System', IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 15283-15296.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2013 IEEE. Automated human action recognition has the potential to play an important role in public security, for example, in relation to the multiview surveillance videos taken in public places, such as train stations or airports. This paper compares three practical, reliable, and generic systems for multiview video-based human action recognition, namely, the nearest neighbor classifier, Gaussian mixture model classifier, and the nearest mean classifier. To describe the different actions performed in different views, view-invariant features are proposed to address multiview action recognition. These features are obtained by extracting the holistic features from different temporal scales which are modeled as points of interest which represent the global spatial-temporal distribution. Experiments and cross-data testing are conducted on the KTH, WEIZMANN, and MuHAVi datasets. The system does not need to be retrained when scenarios are changed which means the trained database can be applied in a wide variety of environments, such as view angle or background changes. The experiment results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing methods on the KTH and WEIZMANN datasets.
Ding, W, Lin, CT & Prasad, M 2018, 'Hierarchical co-evolutionary clustering tree-based rough feature game equilibrium selection and its application in neonatal cerebral cortex MRI', Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 101, pp. 243-257.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd A wide variety of feature selection methods have been developed as promising solutions to find the classification pattern inside increasing applications. But the exploring efficient, flexible and robust feature selection method to handle the rising big data is still an exciting challenge. This paper presents a novel hierarchical co-evolutionary clustering tree-based rough feature game equilibrium selection algorithm (CTFGES). It aims to select out the high-quality feature subsets, which can enrich the research of feature selection and classification in the heterogeneous big data. Firstly, we construct a flexible hierarchical co-evolutionary clustering tree model to speed up the process of feature selection, which can effectively extract the features from the parent and children branches of four-layer co-evolutionary clustering tree. Secondly, we design a mixed co-evolutionary game equilibrium scheme with adaptive dynamics to guide parent and children branch subtrees to approach the optimal equilibrium regions, and enable their feature sets to converge stably to the Nash equilibrium. So both noisy heterogeneous features and non-identified redundant ones can be further eliminated. Finally, the extensive experiments on various big datasets are conducted to demonstrate the more excellent performance of CTFGES, in terms of accuracy, efficiency and robustness, compared with the representative feature selection algorithms. In addition, the proposed CTFGES algorithm has been successfully applied into the feature segmentation of large-scale neonatal cerebral cortex MRI with varying noise ratios and intensity non-uniformity levels. The results indicate that it can be adaptive to derive from the cortical folding surfaces and achieves the satisfying consistency with medical experts, which will be potential significance for successfully assessing the impact of aberrant brain growth on the neurodevelopment of neonatal cerebrum.
King, JT, Prasad, M, Tsai, T, Ming, YR & Lin, CT 2018, 'Influence of Time Pressure on Inhibitory Brain Control During Emergency Driving', IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems.View/Download from: Publisher's site
IEEE It is believed that failures of people's reaction to emergencies occurred during driving are closely related to the inhibitory mechanism of brain's operations. To investigate the role of this function in emergency driving, two virtual realistic driving conditions based on stop signal task were designed and time limitation was manipulated to increase the stress in one condition. Sixteen subjects with behavioral encephalography recordings were collected and analyzed. By comparing successful and unsuccessful stop trials with event-related spectral perturbation analysis, δ and θ band power increases in frontal and central areas are correlated with driving inhibitory control of the brain. Moreover, β and ɣ band power in frontal and central areas showed more increases upon stress condition. Time pressure in driving could adjust the operation of brain's inhibition control, to benefit the people's reactive ability upon emergency.
Ding, W, Lin, CT, Prasad, M, Cao, Z & Wang, JD 2018, 'A Layered-Coevolution-Based Attribute-Boosted Reduction Using Adaptive Quantum Behavior PSO and Its Consistent Segmentation for Neonates Brain Tissue', IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 26, no. 3.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
IEEE The main challenge of attribute reduction in large data applications is to develop a new algorithm to deal with large, noisy, and uncertain large data linking multiple relevant data sources, structured or unstructured. This paper proposes a new and efficient layered-coevolution-based attribute-boosted reduction algorithm (LCQ-ABR*) using adaptive quantum behavior particle swarm optimization (PSO). First, the quantum rotation angle of an evolutionary particle is updated by a dynamic change of self-adapting step size. Second, a self-adaptive partitioning strategy is employed to group particles into different memeplexes, and the quantum-behavior mechanism with the particles & #x0027; states depicted by the wave function cooperates to achieve superior performance in their respective memeplexes. Third, a new layered co-evolutionary model with multi-agent interaction is constructed to decompose a complex attribute set, and it can self-adapt the attribute sizes among different layers and produce the reasonable decompositions by exploiting any interdependency among multiple relevant attribute subsets. Fourth, the decomposed attribute subsets are evolved to compute the positive region and discernibility matrix by using their best quantum particles, and the global optimal reduction set is induced successfully. Finally, extensive comparative experiments are provided to illustrate that LCQ-ABR* has better feasibility and effectiveness of attribute reduction on large-scale and uncertain dataset problems with complex noise, compared with representative algorithms. Moreover, LCQ-ABR* can be successfully applied in the consistent segmentation for neonatal brain 3D-MRI, and the consistent segmentation results further demonstrate its stronger applicability.
Lin, CT, King, JT, Singh, AK, Prasad, M, Ma, Z, Lin, JW, Machado, AMC, Appaji, A & Gupta, A 2018, 'Voice Navigation Effects on Real-World Lane Change Driving Analysis using an Electroencephalogram', IEEE Access, vol. 6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
OAPA Improving the degree of assistance given by in-car navigation systems is an important issue for the safety of both drivers and passengers. There is a vast body of research that assesses the usability and interfaces of the existing navigation systems but very few investigations study the impact on the brain activity based on navigation-based driving. In this study, a real-world experiment is designed to acquire the electroencephalography (EEG) and in-car information to analyze the dynamic brain activity while the driver is performing the lane-changing task based on the auditory instructions from an in-car navigation system. The results show that auditory cues can influence the speed and increase the frontal EEG delta and beta power which is related to motor preparation and decision making during a lane change. However, there were no significant results on the alpha power. A better lane-change assessment can be obtained using specific vehicle information (lateral acceleration and heading angle) with EEG features for future naturalized driving study.
Abdul Hanan, AH, Yazid Idris, M, Kaiwartya, O, Prasad, M & Ratn Shah, R 2017, 'Real traffic-data based evaluation of vehicular traffic environment and state-of-the-art with future issues in location-centric data dissemination for VANETs', Digital Communications and Networks, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 195-210.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommuniocations Extensive investigation has been performed in location-centric or geocast routing protocols for reliable and efficient dissemination of information in Vehicular Adhoc Networks (VANETs). Various location-centric routing protocols have been suggested in literature for road safety ITS applications considering urban and highway traffic environment. This paper characterizes vehicular environments based on real traffic data and investigates the evolution of location-centric data dissemination. The current study is carried out with three main objectives: (i) to analyze the impact of dynamic traffic environment on the design of data dissemination techniques, (ii) to characterize location-centric data dissemination in terms of functional and qualitative behavior of protocols, properties, and strengths and weaknesses, and (iii) to find some future research directions in information dissemination based on location. Vehicular traffic environments have been classified into three categories based on physical characteristics such as speed, inter-vehicular distance, neighborhood stability, traffic volume, etc. Real traffic data is considered to analyze on-road traffic environments based on the measurement of physical parameters and weather conditions. Design issues are identified in incorporating physical parameters and weather conditions into data dissemination. Functional and qualitative characteristics of location-centric techniques are explored considering urban and highway environments. Comparative analysis of location-centric techniques is carried out for both urban and highway environments individually based on some unique and common characteristics of the environments. Finally, some future research directions are identified in the area based on the detailed investigation of traffic environments and location-centric data dissemination techniques.
Sharma, S, Puthal, D, Tazeen, S, Prasad, M & Zomaya, AY 2017, 'MSGR: A Mode-Switched Grid-Based Sustainable Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks', IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 19864-19875.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2013 IEEE. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of enormous amount of sensor nodes. These sensor nodes sense the changes in physical parameters from the sensing range and forward the information to the sink nodes or the base station. Since sensor nodes are driven with limited power batteries, prolonging the network lifetime is difficult and very expensive, especially for hostile locations. Therefore, routing protocols for WSN must strategically distribute the dissipation of energy, so as to increase the overall lifetime of the system. Current research trends from areas, such as from Internet of Things and fog computing use sensors as the source of data. Therefore, energy-efficient data routing in WSN is still a challenging task for real-Time applications. Hierarchical grid-based routing is an energy-efficient method for routing of data packets. This method divides the sensing area into grids and is advantageous in wireless sensor networks to enhance network lifetime. The network is partitioned into virtual equal-sized grids. The proposed mode-switched grid-based routing protocol for WSN selects one node per grid as the grid head. The routing path to the sink is established using grid heads. Grid heads are switched between active and sleep modes alternately. Therefore, not all grid heads take part in the routing process at the same time. This saves energy in grid heads and improves the network lifetime. The proposed method builds a routing path using each active grid head which leads to the sink. For handling the mobile sink movement, the routing path changes only for some grid head nodes which are nearer to the grid, in which the mobile sink is currently positioned. Data packets generated at any source node are routed directly through the data disseminating grid head nodes on the routing path to the sink.
Kaiwartya, O, Prasad, M, Prakash, S, Samadhiya, D, Abdullah, AH & Rahman, SOA 2017, 'An investigation on biometric internet security', International Journal of Network Security, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 167-176.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Due to the Internet revolution in the last decade, each and every work area of society are directly or indirectly depending on computers, highly integrated computer networks and communication systems, electronic data storage and high transfer based devices, e-commerce, e-security, e-governance, and e-business. The Internet revolution is also emerged as significant challenge due to the threats of hacking systems and individual accounts, malware, fraud and vulnerabilities of system and networks, etc. In this context, this paper explores E-Security in terms of challenges and measurements. Biometric recognition is also investigated as a key e-security solution. E-Security is precisely described to understand the concept and requirements. The major challenges of e-security; namely, threats, attacks, vulnerabilities are presented in detail. Some measurement are identified and discussed for the challenges. Biometric recognition is discussed in detail wit pros and cons of the approach as a key e-security solution. This investigation helps in clear understating of e-security challenges and possible implementation of the identified measurements for the challenges in wide area of network communications.
Prasad, M, Liu, YT, Li, DL, Lin, CT, Shah, RR & Kaiwartya, OP 2017, 'A new mechanism for data visualization with TSK-type preprocessed collaborative fuzzy rule based system', Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 33-46.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Prasad, M, Lin, CT, Li, DL, Hong, CT, Ding, WP & Chang, JY 2017, 'Soft-Boosted Self-Constructing Neural Fuzzy Inference Network', IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 584-588.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2013 IEEE. This correspondence paper proposes an improved version of the self-constructing neural fuzzy inference network (SONFIN), called soft-boosted SONFIN (SB-SONFIN). The design softly boosts the learning process of the SONFIN in order to decrease the error rate and enhance the learning speed. The SB-SONFIN boosts the learning power of the SONFIN by taking into account the numbers of fuzzy rules and initial weights which are two important parameters of the SONFIN, SB-SONFIN advances the learning process by: 1) initializing the weights with the width of the fuzzy sets rather than just with random values and 2) improving the parameter learning rates with the number of learned fuzzy rules. The effectiveness of the proposed soft boosting scheme is validated on several real world and benchmark datasets. The experimental results show that the SB-SONFIN possesses the capability to outperform other known methods on various datasets.
Saxena, A, Prasad, M, Gupta, A, Bharill, N, Patel, OP, Tiwari, A, Er, MJ, Ding, W & Lin, CT 2017, 'A review of clustering techniques and developments', Neurocomputing, vol. 267, pp. 664-681.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. This paper presents a comprehensive study on clustering: exiting methods and developments made at various times. Clustering is defined as an unsupervised learning where the objects are grouped on the basis of some similarity inherent among them. There are different methods for clustering the objects such as hierarchical, partitional, grid, density based and model based. The approaches used in these methods are discussed with their respective states of art and applicability. The measures of similarity as well as the evaluation criteria, which are the central components of clustering, are also presented in the paper. The applications of clustering in some fields like image segmentation, object and character recognition and data mining are highlighted.
This paper, proposes a novel artificial neural network, called self-adjusting feature map (SAM), and develop its unsupervised learning ability with self-adjusting mechanism. The trained network structure of representative connected neurons not only displays the spatial relation of the input data distribution but also quantizes the data well. The SAM can automatically isolate a set of connected neurons, in which, the used number of the sets may indicate the number of clusters. The idea of self-adjusting mechanism is based on combining of mathematical statistics and neurological advantages and retreat of waste. In the training process, for each representative neuron has are three phases, growth, adaptation and decline. The network of representative neurons, first create the necessary neurons according to the local density of the input data in the growth phase. In the adaption phase, it adjusts neighborhood neuron pair's connected/disconnected topology constantly according to the statistics of input feature data. Finally, the unnecessary neurons of the network are merged or remove in the decline phase. In this paper, we exploit the SAM to handle some peculiar cases that cannot be handled easily by classical unsupervised learning networks such as self-organizing map (SOM) network. The remarkable characteristics of the SAM can be seen on various real world cases in the experimental results.
Singh, J, Prasad, M, Prasad, OK, Meng Joo, E, Saxena, AK & Lin, CT 2016, 'A Novel Fuzzy Logic Model for Pseudo-Relevance Feedback-Based Query Expansion', International Journal of Fuzzy Systems, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 980-989.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016, Taiwan Fuzzy Systems Association and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In this paper, a novel fuzzy logic-based expansion approach considering the relevance score produced by different rank aggregation approaches is proposed. It is well known that different rank aggregation approaches yield different relevance scores for each term. The proposed fuzzy logic approach combines different weights of each term by using fuzzy rules to infer the weights of the additional query terms. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves significant improvement over individual expansion, aggregated and other related state-of-the-arts methods.
Kaiwartya, O, Abdullah, AH, Cao, Y, Altameem, A, Prasad, M, Lin, CT & Liu, X 2016, 'Internet of Vehicles: Motivation, Layered Architecture, Network Model, Challenges, and Future Aspects', IEEE Access, vol. 4, pp. 5356-5373.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2013 IEEE. Internet of Things is smartly changing various existing research areas into new themes, including smart health, smart home, smart industry, and smart transport. Relying on the basis of 'smart transport,' Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is evolving as a new theme of research and development from vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). This paper presents a comprehensive framework of IoV with emphasis on layered architecture, protocol stack, network model, challenges, and future aspects. Specifically, following the background on the evolution of VANETs and motivation on IoV an overview of IoV is presented as the heterogeneous vehicular networks. The IoV includes five types of vehicular communications, namely, vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-roadside, vehicle-to-infrastructure of cellular networks, vehicle-to-personal devices, and vehicle-to-sensors. A five layered architecture of IoV is proposed considering functionalities and representations of each layer. A protocol stack for the layered architecture is structured considering management, operational, and security planes. A network model of IoV is proposed based on the three network elements, including cloud, connection, and client. The benefits of the design and development of IoV are highlighted by performing a qualitative comparison between IoV and VANETs. Finally, the challenges ahead for realizing IoV are discussed and future aspects of IoV are envisioned.
Ding, WP, Lin, CT, Prasad, M, Chen, SB & Guan, ZJ 2016, 'Attribute Equilibrium Dominance Reduction Accelerator (DCCAEDR) Based on Distributed Coevolutionary Cloud and Its Application in Medical Records', IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 384-400.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2013 IEEE. Aimed at the tremendous challenge of attribute reduction for big data mining and knowledge discovery, we propose a new attribute equilibrium dominance reduction accelerator (DCCAEDR) based on the distributed coevolutionary cloud model. First, the framework of N-populations distributed coevolutionary MapReduce model is designed to divide the entire population into N subpopulations, sharing the reward of different subpopulations' solutions under a MapReduce cloud mechanism. Because the adaptive balancing between exploration and exploitation can be achieved in a better way, the reduction performance is guaranteed to be the same as those using the whole independent data set. Second, a novel Nash equilibrium dominance strategy of elitists under the N bounded rationality regions is adopted to assist the subpopulations necessary to attain the stable status of Nash equilibrium dominance. This further enhances the accelerator's robustness against complex noise on big data. Third, the approximation parallelism mechanism based on MapReduce is constructed to implement rule reduction by accelerating the computation of attribute equivalence classes. Consequently, the entire attribute reduction set with the equilibrium dominance solution can be achieved. Extensive simulation results have been used to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed DCCAEDR accelerator for attribute reduction on big data. Furthermore, the DCCAEDR is applied to solve attribute reduction for traditional Chinese medical records and to segment cortical surfaces of the neonatal brain 3-D-MRI records, and the DCCAEDR shows the superior competitive results, when compared with the representative algorithms.
Lin, CT, Prasad, M & Saxena, A 2015, 'An Improved Polynomial Neural Network Classifier Using Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm', IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1389-1401.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 IEEE. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to improve the classification performance of a polynomial neural network (PNN). In this approach, the partial descriptions (PDs) are generated at the first layer based on all possible combinations of two features of the training input patterns of a dataset. The set of PDs from the first layer, the set of all input features, and a bias constitute the chromosome of the real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA). A system of equations is solved to determine the values of the real coefficients of each chromosome of the RCGA for the training dataset with the mean classification accuracy (CA) as the fitness value of each chromosome. To adjust these values for unknown testing patterns, the RCGA is iterated in the usual manner using simple selection, crossover, mutation, and elitist selection. The method is tested extensively with the University of California, Irvine benchmark datasets by utilizing tenfold cross validation of each dataset, and the performance is compared with various well-known state-of-the-art techniques. The results obtained from the proposed method in terms of CA are superior and outperform other known methods on various datasets.
Prasad, M, Li, DL, Lin, C, Prakash, S, Singh, J & Joshi, S 2015, 'Designing Mamdani-Type Fuzzy Reasoning for Visualizing Prediction Problems Based on Collaborative Fuzzy Clustering', IAENG International Journal of Computer Science, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 404-411.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In this paper a collaborative fuzzy c-means (CFCM) is used to generate fuzzy rules for fuzzy inference systems to evaluate the time series model. CFCM helps system to integrate two or more different datasets having similar features which are collected at the different environment with the different time period and it integrates these datasets together in order to visualize some common patterns among the datasets. In order to do any mode of integration between datasets, there is a necessity to define the common features between datasets by using some kind of collaborative process and also need to preserve the privacy and security at higher levels. This collaboration process gives a common structure between datasets which helps to define an appropriate number of rules for structural learning and also improve the accuracy of the system modeling
Prasad, M, Lin, YY, Lin, CT, Er, MJ & Prasad, OK 2015, 'A new data-driven neural fuzzy system with collaborative fuzzy clustering mechanism', Neurocomputing, vol. 167, pp. 558-568.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. In this paper, a novel fuzzy rule transfer mechanism for self-constructing neural fuzzy inference networks is being proposed. The features of the proposed method, termed data-driven neural fuzzy system with collaborative fuzzy clustering mechanism (DDNFS-CFCM) are; (1) Fuzzy rules are generated facilely by fuzzy c-means (FCM) and then adapted by the preprocessed collaborative fuzzy clustering (PCFC) technique, and (2) Structure and parameter learning are performed simultaneously without selecting the initial parameters. The DDNFS-CFCM can be applied to deal with big data problems by the virtue of the PCFC technique, which is capable of dealing with immense datasets while preserving the privacy and security of datasets. Initially, the entire dataset is organized into two individual datasets for the PCFC procedure, where each of the dataset is clustered separately. The knowledge of prototype variables (cluster centers) and the matrix of just one halve of the dataset through collaborative technique are deployed. The DDNFS-CFCM is able to achieve consistency in the presence of collective knowledge of the PCFC and boost the system modeling process by parameter learning ability of the self-constructing neural fuzzy inference networks (SONFIN). The proposed method outperforms other existing methods for time series prediction problems.
Li, DL, Prasad, M, Hsu, SC, Hong, CT & Lin, CT 2012, 'Face recognition using nonparametric-weighted Fisherfaces', Eurasip Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, vol. 2012, no. 1.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study presents an appearance-based face recognition scheme called the nonparametric-weighted Fisherfaces (NW-Fisherfaces). Pixels in a facial image are considered as coordinates in a high-dimensional space and are transformed into a face subspace for analysis by using nonparametric-weighted feature extraction (NWFE). According to previous studies of hyperspectral image classification, NWFE is a powerful tool for extracting hyperspectral image features. The Fisherfaces method maximizes the ratio of between-class scatter to that of within-class scatter. In this study, the proposed NW-Fisherfaces weighted the between-class scatter to emphasize the boundary structure of the transformed face subspace and, therefore, enhances the separability for different persons' face. The proposed NW-Fisherfaces was compared with Orthogonal Laplacianfaces, Eigenfaces, Fisherfaces, direct linear discriminant analysis, and null space linear discriminant analysis methods for tests on five facial databases. Experimental results showed that the proposed approach outperforms other feature extraction methods for most databases. © 2012 Li et al.
Badarinath, D, Chaitra, S, Bharill, N, Tanveer, M, Prasad, M, Suma, HN, Abhishek Appaji, M & Vinekar, A 2018, 'Study of Clinical Staging and Classification of Retinal Images for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) Screening', Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 IEEE. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a disease which requires immediate precautionary measures to prevent blindness in the infants, and this condition is prevalent in premature babies in all the underdeveloped, developing, and in the developed countries as well. This paper proposes a tool by which the stage and zones of Retinopathy of Prematurity in infants can be diagnosed easily. This tool takes the input from the Retcam and detects the stage, zone, and gives a rating of 1 to 9 for classifying the severity of the disease in the infants. This is achieved by extracting the optic disc, marking the ridge, and the distance of the optic nerve. This tool can be easily used by nurses and paramedics, unlike the existing technologies which require the guidance of a specialist to come to a conclusion.
Tiwary, M, Sharma, S, Mishra, P, El-Sayed, H, Prasad, M & Puthal, D 2018, 'Building Scalable Mobile Edge Computing by Enhancing Quality of Services', PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2018 13TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INNOVATIONS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IIT), International Conference on Innovations in Information Technology, IEEE, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, pp. 141-146.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zhang, L, Li, J, Huang, T, Ma, Z, Lin, Z & Prasad, M 2018, 'GAN2C: Information Completion GAN with Dual Consistency Constraints', Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 IEEE. This paper proposes an information completion technique, GAN2C, by imposing dual consistency constraints (2C) to a closed loop encoder-decoder architecture based on the generative adversarial nets (GAN). When adopting deep neural networks as function approximators, GAN2C enables highly effective multi-modality image conversion with sparse observation in the target modes. For empirical demonstration and model evaluation, we show that trained deep neural networks in GAN2C can infer colors for grayscale images, as well as estimate rich 3D information of a scene by densely predicting the depths. The results of the experiments show that in both tasks GAN2C as a generic framework has been comparable to or advanced the state-of-the-art performance which are achieved by highly specialized systems. Code is available at https://github.com/AdalinZhang/GAN2C.
Fu, L, Li, J, Zhou, L, Ma, Z, Liu, S, Lin, Z & Prasad, M 2018, 'Utilizing Information from Task-Independent Aspects via GAN-Assisted Knowledge Transfer', Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IEEE, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 IEEE. Observed data often have multiple labels with respect to different aspects. For example, a picture can have one label specifying the contents in terms of the object category such as aeroplane, building, cat, etc. And in the meanwhile have another label describing the image style such as photo-realistic or artistic. The central idea of this work is that any annotation of the data contains precious knowledge and is not to be foregone: An analytic task focusing on one aspect of the data can benefit from the knowledge transferred from the other aspects. We propose a passive knowledge transfer scheme for deep neural network training based on the generative adversarial nets (GANs). The adversarial training scheme encourages the nets to encode data into representations that are both discriminative for the target aspect and invariant with respect to the irrelevant aspects. We show that the scheme mixes the conditional distributions of the encoded data on the irrelevant aspects, by the theory on the link between the GAN framework and the Wasserstein metric in distribution spaces. Moreover, we empirically verified the method by i) classifying images despite influence by geometric transform and ii) recognizing the movements (geometric transform) regardless the image contents.
Ming, Y, Yu-Kai, W, Mukesh, P, Dongrui, W & Chin-Teng, L 2018, 'Sustained Attention Driving Task Analysis based on Recurrent Residual Neural Network using EEG Data', IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Prasad, M, Liu, CL, Li, DL, Jha, C & Lin, CT 2018, 'Multi-view Vehicle Detection based on Part Model with Active Learning', Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 IEEE. Nowadays, most ofthe vehicle detection methods aim to detect only single-view vehicles, and the performance is easily affected by partial occlusion. Therefore, a novel multi-view vehicle detection system is proposed to solve the problem of partial occlusion. The proposed system is divided into two steps: Background filtering and part model. Background filtering step is used to filter out trees, sky and other road background objects. In the part model step, each of the part models is trained by samples collected by using the proposed active learning algorithm. This paper validates the performance of the background filtering method and the part model algorithm in multi-view car detection. The performance of the proposed method outperforms previously proposed methods.
Gupta, D, Borah, P & Prasad, M 2017, 'A fuzzy based Lagrangian twin parametric-margin support vector machine (FLTPMSVM)', 2017 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2017 - Proceedings, IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, IEEE, Honolulu, HI, USA, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. In the spirit of twin parametric-margin support vector machine (TPMSVM) and support vector machine based on fuzzy membership values (FSVM), a new method termed as fuzzy based Lagrangian twin parametric-margin support vector machine (FLTPMSVM) is proposed in this paper to reduce the effect of the outliers. In FLTPMSVM, we assign the weights to each data samples on the basis of fuzzy membership values to reduce the effect of outliers. Also, we consider the square of the 2-norm of slack variables to make the objective function strongly convex and find the solution of the proposed FLTPMSVM by solving simple linearly convergent iterative schemes instead of solving a pair of quadratic programming problems as in case of SVM, TWSVM, FTSVM and TPMSVM. No need of external toolbox is required for FLTPMSVM. The numerical experiments are performed on artificial as well as well known real-world datasets which show that our proposed FLTPMSVM is having better generalization performance and less training cost in comparison to support vector machine, twin support vector machine, fuzzy twin support vector machine and twin parametric-margin support vector machine.
Singh, J, Prasad, M, Daraghmi, YA, Tiwari, P, Yadav, P, Bharill, N, Pratama, M & Saxena, A 2017, 'Fuzzy LogicHybrid model with semantic filtering approach for pseudo relevance feedback-based query expansion', 2017 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2017 - Proceedings, Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, IEEE, Honolulu, HI, USA, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. Individual query expansion term selection methods have been widely investigated in an attempt to improve their performance. Each expansion term selection method has its own weaknesses and strengths. To overcome the weaknesses and utilize the strengths of individual methods, this paper combined multiple term selection methods. In this paper, initially the possibility of improving the overall performance using individual query expansion (QE) term selection methods are explored. Secondly, some well-known rank aggregation approaches are used for combining multiple QE term selection methods. Thirdly, a new fuzzy logic-based QE approach that considers the relevance score produced by different rank aggregation approaches is proposed. The proposed fuzzy logic approach combines different weights of each term using fuzzy rules to infer the weights of the additional query terms. Finally, Word2vec approach is used to filter semantically irrelevant terms obtained after applying the fuzzy logic approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approaches achieve significant improvements over each individual term selection method, aggregated method and related state-of-the-art method.
Chou, KP, Li, DL, Prasad, M, Pratama, M, Su, SY, Lu, H, Lin, CT & Lin, WC 2017, 'Robust Facial Alignment for Face Recognition', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2017 International Conference on Neural Information Processing, Guangzhou, China, pp. 497-504.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017, Springer International Publishing AG. This paper proposes a robust real-time face recognition system that utilizes regression tree based method to locate the facial feature points. The proposed system finds the face region which is suitable to perform the recognition task by geometrically analyses of the facial expression of the target face image. In real-world facial recognition systems, the face is often cropped based on the face detection techniques. The misalignment is inevitably occurred due to facial pose, noise, occlusion, and so on. However misalignment affects the recognition rate due to sensitive nature of the face classifier. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated with four benchmark databases. The experiment results show the robustness of the proposed approach with significant improvement in the facial recognition system on the various size and resolution of given face images.
Cheng, EJ, Prasad, M, Puthal, D, Sharma, N, Prasad, OK, Chin, PH, Lin, CT & Blumenstein, M 2017, 'Deep Learning Based Face Recognition with Sparse Representation Classification', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 665-674.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017, Springer International Publishing AG. Feature extraction is an essential step in solving real-world pattern recognition and classification problems. The accuracy of face recognition highly depends on the extracted features to represent a face. The traditional algorithms uses geometric techniques, comprising feature values including distance and angle between geometric points (eyes corners, mouth extremities, and nostrils). These features are sensitive to the elements such as illumination, variation of poses, various expressions, to mention a few. Recently, deep learning techniques have been very effective for feature extraction, and deep features have considerable tolerance for various conditions and unconstrained environment. This paper proposes a two layer deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for face feature extraction and applied sparse representation for face identification. The sparsity and selectivity of deep features can strengthen sparseness for the solution of sparse representation, which generally improves the recognition rate. The proposed method outperforms other feature extraction and classification methods in terms of recognition accuracy.
Chou, KP, Prasad, M, Li, DL, Bharill, N, Lin, YF, Hussain, F, Lin, CT & Lin, WC 2017, 'Automatic Multi-view Action Recognition with Robust Features', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), International Conference on Neural Information Processing, Springer, Guangzhou, China, pp. 554-563.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017, Springer International Publishing AG. This paper proposes view-invariant features to address multi-view action recognition for different actions performed in different views. The view-invariant features are obtained from clouds of varying temporal scale by extracting holistic features, which are modeled to explicitly take advantage of the global, spatial and temporal distribution of interest points. The proposed view-invariant features are highly discriminative and robust for recognizing actions as the view changes. This paper proposes a mechanism for real world application which can follow the actions of a person in a video based on image sequences and can separate these actions according to given training data. Using the proposed mechanism, the beginning and ending of an action sequence can be labeled automatically without the need for manual setting. It is not necessary in the proposed approach to re-train the system if there are changes in scenario, which means the trained database can be applied in a wide variety of environments. The experiment results show that the proposed approach outperforms existing methods on KTH and WEIZMANN datasets.
Padmanabha A G, A, Appaji M, A, Prasad, M, Lu, H & Joshi, S 2017, 'Classification of diabetic retinopathy using textural features in retinal color fundus image', Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering (ISKE), 2017 12th International Conference on, International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, IEEE, Nanjing, China, pp. 1-5.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Early, diagnosis is essential for diabetic patients
to avoid partial or complete blindness. This work presents
a new analysis method of texture features for
classification of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). The proposed
method masks the blood vessels and optic disk segmented
and directly extracts the textural features from the
remaining retinal region. The proposed method is much
simpler with comparison of the other methods that detect
the defective regions first and then extract the required
features for classification. The Haralick texture measures
calculated are used for classification of DR. The proposed
method is evaluated through a classification of DR using
both Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial
Neural Network (ANN). The results of SVM have a better
accuracy (87.5%) over ANN (79%).The performance of
the proposed method is presented also in terms of
sensitivity and specificity.
Hung, YC, Wang, YK, Prasad, M & Lin, CT 2017, 'Brain dynamic states analysis based on 3D convolutional neural network', Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2017, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, IEEE, Banff, AB, Canada, pp. 222-227.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. Drowsiness driving is one major factor of traffic accident. Monitoring the changes of brain signals provides an effective and direct way for drowsiness detection. One 3D convolutional neural network (3D CNN)-based forecasting system has been proposed to monitor electroencephalography (EEG) signals and predict fatigue level during driving. The limited weight sharing and channel-wise convolution were both applied to extract the significant phenomenon in various frequency bands of brain signals and the spatial information of EEG channel location, respectively. The proposed 3D CNN with limited weight sharing and channel-wise convolution has been demonstrated to predict reaction time (RT) of driving with low root mean square error (RMSE) through the brain dynamics. This proposed approach outperforms with the state-of-the-art algorithms, such as traditional CNN, Neural Network (NN), and support vector regression (SVR). Compared with traditional CNN and Artificial Neural Network, the RMSE of 3D CNN-based RT prediction has been improved 9.5% (RMSE from 0.6322 to 0.5720) and 8% (RMSE from 0.6217 to 0.5720), respectively. We envision that this study might open a new branch between deep learning application in neuro-cognitive analysis and real world application.
Chou, KP, Prasad, M, Puthal, D, Chen, PH, Vishwakarma, DK, Sundarami, S, Lin, CT & Lin, WC 2017, 'Fast Deformable Model for Pedestrian Detection with Haar-like features', 2017 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2017 - Proceedings, IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, IEEE, Honolulu, HI, USA, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. This paper proposes a novel Fast Deformable Model for Pedestrian Detection (FDMPD) to detect the pedestrians efficiently and accurately in the crowded environment. Despite of multiple detection methods available, detection becomes difficult due to variety of human postures and perspectives. The proposed study is divided into two parts. First part trains six Adaboost classifiers with Haar-like feature for different body parts (e.g., head, shoulders, and knees) to build the response feature maps. Second part uses these six response feature maps with full-body model to produce spatial deep features. The combined deep features are used as an input to SVM to judge the existence of pedestrian. As per the experiments conducted on the INRIA person dataset, the proposed FDMPD approach shows greater than 44.75 % improvement compared to other state-of-the-art methods in terms of efficiency and robustness.
Chou, KP, Prasad, M, Gupta, D, Sankar, S, Xu, TW, Sundaram, S, Lin, CT & Lin, WC 2017, 'Block-based feature extraction model for early fire detection', 2017 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2017 - Proceedings, IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI), IEEE, Honolulu, HI, USA, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. Every year the fire disaster always causes a lot of casualties and property damage. Many researchers are involved in the study of related disaster prevention. Early warning systems and stable fire can significantly reduce the damage caused by fire. Many existing image-based early warning systems can perform well in a particular field. In this paper, we propose a general framework that can be applied in most realistic environments. The proposed system is based on a block-based feature extraction method, which analyses local information in separate regions leading to a reduction in computing data. Local features of fire block are extracted from the detailed characteristics of fire objects, which include fire color, fire source immobility, and disorder. Each local feature has high detection rate and filter out different false-positive cases. Global analysis with fire texture and non-moving properties are applied to further reduce false alarm rate. The proposed system is composed of algorithms with low computation. Through a series of experiments, it can be observed that Experimental results show that the proposed system has higher detection rate and low false alarm rate under various environment.
Chou, KP, Li, DL, Prasad, M, Lin, CT & Lin, WC 2017, 'A method to enhance the deep learning in an aerial image', 2017 International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems, ISPACS 2017 - Proceedings, International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems, IEEE, Xiamen, China, pp. 724-728.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. In this paper, we propose a kind of pre-processing method which can be applied to the depth learning method for the characteristics of aerial image. This method combines the color and spatial information to do the quick background filtering. In addition to increase execution speed, but also to reduce the rate of false positives.
Cao, Z, Prasad, M & Lin, CT 2017, 'Estimation of SSVEP-based EEG complexity using inherent fuzzy entropy', IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, IEEE, Naples, Italy.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. This study considers the dynamic changes of complexity feature by fuzzy entropy measurement and repetitive steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) stimulus. Since brain complexity reflects the ability of the brain to adapt to changing situations, we suppose such adaptation is closely related to the habituation, a form of learning in which an organism decreases or increases to respond to a stimulus after repeated presentations. By a wearable electroencephalograph (EEG) with Fpz and Oz electrodes, EEG signals were collected from 20 healthy participants in one resting and five-times 15 Hz SSVEP sessions. Moreover, EEG complexity feature was extracted by multi-scale Inherent Fuzzy Entropy (IFE) algorithm, and relative complexity (RC) was defined the difference between resting and SSVEP. Our results showed the enhanced frontal and occipital RC was accompanied with increased stimulus times. Compared with the 1st SSVEP session, the RC was significantly higher than the 5th SSVEP session at frontal and occipital areas (p < 0.05). It suggested that brain has adapted to changes in stimulus influence, and possibly connected with the habituation. In conclusion, effective evaluation of IFE has a potential EEG signature of complexity in the SSEVP-based experiment.
Prasad, M, Er, MJ, Lin, CT, Prasad, OK, Mohanty, M & Singh, J 2015, 'Novel data knowledge representation with TSK-type preprocessed collaborative fuzzy rule based system', Proceedings - 2015 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2015, pp. 14-21.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 IEEE. A novel data knowledge representation with the combination of structure learning ability of preprocessed collaborative fuzzy clustering and fuzzy expert knowledge of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang type model is presented in this paper. The proposed method divides a huge dataset into two or more subsets of dataset. The subsets of dataset interact with each other through a collaborative mechanism in order to find some similar properties within each-other. The proposed method is useful in dealing with big data issues since it divides a huge dataset into subsets of dataset and finds common features among the subsets. The salient feature of the proposed method is that it uses a small subset of dataset and some common features instead of using the entire dataset and all the features. Before interactions among subsets of the dataset, the proposed method applies a mapping technique for granules of data and centroid of clusters. The proposed method uses information of only halve or less/more than the halve of the data patterns for the training process, and it provides an accurate and robust model, whereas the other existing methods use the entire information of the data patterns. Simulation results show that proposed method performs better than existing methods on some benchmark problems.
Prasad, M, Chou, KP, Saxena, A, Kawrtiya, OP, Li, DL & Lin, CT 2014, 'Collaborative fuzzy rule learning for Mamdani type fuzzy inference system with mapping of cluster centers', IEEE SSCI 2014 - 2014 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence - CICA 2014: 2014 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Control and Automation, Proceedings, IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Control and Automation, IEEE, USA.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014 IEEE. This paper demonstrates a novel model for Mamdani type fuzzy inference system by using the knowledge learning ability of collaborative fuzzy clustering and rule learning capability of FCM. The collaboration process finds consistency between different datasets, these datasets can be generated at various places or same place with diverse environment containing common features space and bring together to find common features within them. For any kind of collaboration or integration of datasets, there is a need of keeping privacy and security at some level. By using collaboration process, it helps fuzzy inference system to define the accurate numbers of rules for structure learning and keeps the performance of system at satisfactory level while preserving the privacy and security of given datasets.
Prasad, M, Siana, L, Li, DL, Lin, CT, Liu, YT & Saxena, A 2014, 'A preprocessed induced partition matrix based collaborative fuzzy clustering for data analysis', 2014 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE), IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, IEEE, Beijing, China, pp. 1553-1558.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2014 IEEE. Preprocessing is generally used for data analysis in the real world datasets that are noisy, incomplete and inconsistent. In this paper, preprocessing is used to refine the inconsistency of the prototype and partition matrices before getting involved in the collaboration process. To date, almost all organizations are trying to establish some collaboration with others in order to enhance the performance of their services. Due to privacy and security issues they cannot share their information and data with each other. Collaborative clustering helps this kind of collaborative process while maintaining the privacy and security of data and can still yield a satisfactory result. Preprocessing helps the collaborative process by using an induced partition matrix generated based on cluster prototypes. The induced partition matrix is calculated from local data by using the cluster prototypes obtained from other data sites. Each member of the collaborating team collects the data and generates information locally by using the fuzzy c-means (FCM) and shares the cluster prototypes to other members. The other members preprocess the centroids before collaboration and use this information to share globally through collaborative fuzzy clustering (CFC) with other data. This process helps system to learn and gather information from other data sets. It is found that preprocessing helps system to provide reliable and satisfactory result, which can be easily visualized through our simulation results in this paper.
Liu, YT, Lin, YY, Wu, SL, Chuang, CH, Prasad, M & Lin, CT 2014, 'EEG-based driving fatigue prediction system using functional-link-based fuzzy neural network', Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, pp. 4109-4113.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014 IEEE. This study presents a fuzzy prediction system for the forecasting and estimation of driving fatigue, which utilizes a functional-link-based fuzzy neural network (FLFNN) to predict the drowsiness (DS) level in car driving task. The cognitive state in car driving task is one of key issue in cognitive neuroscience because fatigue driving usually causes enormous losses nowadays. The damage can be extremely decreased by the assistant of various artificial systems. Many Electroencephalography (EEG)-based interfaces have been widely developed recently due to its convenient measurement and real-time response. However, the improvement of recognition accuracy is still confined to some specific problems (e.g., individual difference). In order to solve this issue, the proposed methodology in this paper utilizes a nonlinear fuzzy neural network structure to increase the adaptability in the real-world environment. Therefore, this study is further to analysis the brain activities in car driving, which is constructed in a simulated three-dimensional virtual-reality (VR) environment. Finally, through the development of brain cognitive model in car driving task, this system can predict the cognitive state effectively before drivers' action and then provide correct feedback to users. This study also compared the result with the-state-of-art systems, including Linear Regression (LR), Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) and Support Vector Regression (SVR). Results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed FLFNN model.
Lin, CT, Prasad, M & Chang, JY 2013, 'Designing Mamdani type fuzzy rule using a collaborative FCM scheme', iFUZZY 2013 - 2013 International Conference on Fuzzy Theory and Its Applications, pp. 279-282.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper presents a new approach for generating fuzzy rules for fuzzy inference system by using collaborative fuzzy c-mean (CFCM). In order to do any mode of integration between datasets, there is a need to define the common feature between datasets by using some kind of collaborative process and also need to preserve the privacy and security at higher levels. This collaboration process gives a common structure between datasets which helps to define an appropriate number of rules for structural learning and also improve the accuracy of the system modeling. This all consideration bring the concept of collaborative fuzzy rule generation process with a quality measuring. © 2013 IEEE.
Prasad, M, Lin, CT, Yang, CT & Saxena, A 2013, 'Vertical collaborative fuzzy C-means for multiple EEG data sets', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Applications, Springer, Busan, South Korea, pp. 246-257.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Vertical Collaborative Fuzzy C-Means (VC-FCM) is a clustering method that performs clustering on a data set of having some set of patterns with the collaboration of some knowledge which is obtained from other data set having the same number of features but different set of patterns. Uncertain relationship lies in data between the data sets as well as within a dataset. Practically data of the same group of objects are usually stored in different datasets; in each data set, the data dimensions are not necessarily the same and unreal data may exist. Fuzzy clustering of a single data set would bring about less reliable results. And these data sets cannot be integrated for some reasons. An interesting application of vertical clustering occurs when dealing with huge data sets. Instead of clustering them in a single pass, we split them into individual data sets, cluster each of them separately, and reconcile the results through the collaborative exchange of prototypes. Vertical collaborative fuzzy C-Means is a useful tool for dealing collaborative clustering problems where a feature space is described in different pattern-sets. In this paper we use collaborative fuzzy clustering, first we cluster each data set individually and then optimize in accordance with the dependency of these datasets is adopted so as to improve the quality of fuzzy clustering of a single data set with the help of other data sets, taking personal privacy and security of data into consideration. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
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Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Chile
National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
University of Auckland, New Zealand
Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand
Indian Institute of Technology Indore, India
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India