Akbar, MS, Yu, H & Cang, S 2019, 'Performance Optimization of the IEEE 802.15.4-Based Link Quality Protocols for WBASNs/IoTs in a Hospital Environment Using Fuzzy Logic', IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 5865-5877.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2001-2012 IEEE. The link quality protocols of the IEEE 802.15.4 show low performance in terms of reliability in a hospital environment. To achieve the optimal performance of these protocols, this paper proposes a fuzzy logic-based solution using a detailed empirical reliability assessment. This paper provides a solution through four steps: 1) identifying the suitable IEEE 802.15.4 protocols and validating their suitability for patient monitoring systems through simulation in Castalia 3.2 with the OMNet++ platform; 2) providing a detailed discussion and analysis regarding link quality mechanisms used; 3) creating a real-time test bed to perform the empirical experiments to find the actual link quality estimation for different hospital environments; and 4) proposing a fuzzy logic system (FLS), which maps the results of empirical experiments with the proposed FLS to obtain the optimal results. For empirical experiments, we divide the communication in the hospital into four environmental scenarios, including inside ward, corridor, ward to corridor, and ward to ward. Both mobile and static scenarios are considered with line of sight and non-line of sight. Different link quality threshold values for link quality indicator (LQI) and received signal strength indicator (RSSI) are found for the variety of hospital scenarios. A strong correlation is noticed between LQI and packet reception rate in most of the scenarios, whereas a weak correlation is found between RSSI and packet reception rate. Finally, the results are mapped to our proposed FLS to obtain the optimal performance.
Akbar, M, Yu, H & Cang, S 2017, 'IEEE 802.15.4 Frame Aggregation Enhancement to Provide High Performance in Life-Critical Patient Monitoring Systems', Sensors, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 241-241.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Akbar, MS, Yu, H & Cang, S 2017, 'TMP: Tele-Medicine Protocol for Slotted 802.15.4 With Duty-Cycle Optimization in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks', IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1925-1936.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Akbar, MS, Yu, H & Cang, S 2016, 'Delay, Reliability, and Throughput Based QoS Profile: A MAC Layer Performance Optimization Mechanism for Biomedical Applications in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks', Journal of Sensors, vol. 2016, pp. 1-17.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Recently, increasing demand for remote healthcare monitoring systems poses a specific set of Quality of Services (QoS) requirements to the MAC layer protocols and standards (IEEE 802.15.6, IEEE 802.15.4, etc.) of Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs). They mainly include time bounded services (latency), reliable data transmission, fair channel distribution, and specified data rates. The existing MAC protocols of WBASNs are lack of a specific set of QoS. To address this, the paper proposes a QoS profile named delay, reliability, and throughput (DRT). The QoS values computed through DRT profile provide maximum reliability of data transmission within an acceptable latency and data rates. The DRT is based on the carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) channel access mechanism and considers IEEE 802.15.4 (low-rate WPAN) and IEEE 802.15.6 (WBASN). Further, a detailed performance analysis of different frequency bands is done which are standardized for WBASNs, that is, 420 MHz, 868 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and so forth. Finally, a series of experiments are conducted to produce statistical results for DRT profile with respect to delay, reliability, and packet delivery ratio (PDR). The calculated results are verified through extensive simulations in the CASTALIA 3.2 framework using the OMNET++ network simulator.
Akbar, MS & Gabrys, B 2018, 'Data analytics enhanced data visualization and interrogation with parallel coordinates plots', 26th International Conference on Systems Engineering, ICSEng 2018 - Proceedings, International Conference on Systems Engineering, IEEE, Sydney, Australia, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 IEEE. Parallel coordinates plots (PCPs) suffer from curse of dimensionality when used with larger multidimensional datasets. Curse of dimentionality results in clutter which hides important visual data trends among coordinates. A number of solutions to address this problem have been proposed including filtering, aggregation, and dimension reordering. These solutions, however, have their own limitations with regard to exploring relationships and trends among the coordinates in PCPs. Correlation based coordinates reordering techniques are among the most popular and have been widely used in PCPs to reduce clutter, though based on the conducted experiments, this research has identified some of their limitations. To achieve better visualization with reduced clutter, we have proposed and evaluated dimensions reordering approach based on minimization of the number of crossing pairs. In the last step, k-means clustering is combined with reordered coordinates to highlight key trends and patterns. The conducted comparative analysis have shown that minimum crossings pairs approach performed much better than other applied techniques for coordinates reordering, and when combined with k-means clustering, resulted in better visualization with significantly reduced clutter.
Rais, RNB, Akbar, MS & Aazam, M 2018, 'Fog-Supported Internet of Things (IoTs) Architecture for Remote Patient Monitoring Systems Using Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks', 2018 IEEE 16th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 16th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 4th Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech), 2018 IEEE 16th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 16th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 4th Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech), IEEE, Athens, Greece.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Akbar, MS, Yu, H & Cang, S 2016, 'Implanted medical devices as future of wireless healthcare monitoring: Investigation and performance evaluation using novel numerical modeling', 2016 22nd International Conference on Automation and Computing (ICAC), 2016 22nd International Conference on Automation and Computing (ICAC), IEEE.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Akbar, MS, Yu, H & Cang, S 2015, 'A holistic simulation model for remote patient monitoring systems using Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs)', 2015 9th International Conference on Software, Knowledge, Information Management and Applications (SKIMA), 2015 9th International Conference on Software, Knowledge, Information Management and Applications (SKIMA), IEEE.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Saraj, T, Hanan, A, Akbar, MS, Yousaf, M, Qayyum, A & Tufail, M 2015, 'IPv6 tunneling protocols: Mathematical and testbed setup performance analysis', 2015 Conference on Information Assurance and Cyber Security (CIACS), 2015 Conference on Information Assurance and Cyber Security (CIACS), IEEE.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Akbar, MS, Khaliq, KA, Bin Rais, RN & Qayyum, A 2014, 'Information-Centric Networks: Categorizations, challenges, and classifications', 2014 23rd Wireless and Optical Communication Conference (WOCC), 2014 23rd Wireless and Optical Communication Conference (WOCC), IEEE.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Akbar, MS, Khan, MS, Khaliq, KA, Qayyum, A & Yousaf, M 2014, 'Evaluation of IEEE 802.11n for multimedia application in VANET', Procedia Computer Science, pp. 953-958.View/Download from: Publisher's site
WAVE by IEEE, CALM by ISO and Car-to-Car are the popular VANET architectures. These architectures mainly focus on safety applications. IEEE 802.11p is the IEEE recommended MAC and PHY layer standard for VANET. Different VANET pro-tocol stacks recommend this standard not only for the safety applications but also other applications. In this paper, we focus on Multimedia-based ad-hoc networking and WLAN aspects for VANETs. The use of Multimedia applications is increasing day by day. Applications like Voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, online gaming and file transfer etc. demand time bounded and high throughput services. To fulfill these demands in a vehicular environment, there is a need to evaluate the current IEEE VANET standard for MAC (IEEE 802.11p) to know its limitations for these applications and move towards exploration of a new standard. IEEE 802.11n claims high throughput up to 300Mbps and proved to be more suitable standard for multimedia applications. In this paper, we have evaluated IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 802.11n specifically for multimedia applications in VANET. Simulation results show, IEEE 802.11n comparatively performs better for multimedia applications in urban environment in low BER (bit error rate) as well as high BER as compared to IEEE 802.11p. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.