Dr. Golzan is an NHMRC dementia fellow with research expertise in ocular imaging techniques, mechanical and structural properties of retinal vessels and modeling dynamic physiological interactions between the eye and the brain. His career is currently focused on pursuing the application of high-speed, high-resolution imaging for the study of the human retinal structural changes in relation to the evolution of ocular and neurological disease processes, specifically Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Dr. Golzan leads the Vision Science lab at UTS where his group is also researching retinal degeneration during AD process and monitoring specific retinal biomarkers that can aid in AD diagnosis. Dr. Golzan has developed a quality track record relative to experience publishing numerous papers as well as disseminating results at more than 15 national and international conferences during his research career.
Within a short space of time, Dr. Golzan has attracted more than $1.5 million for his research activities including the 2013 Alzheimer’s Australia Fellowship ($220k), 2015 ARC-Linkage project grant ($450k) and NHMRC-ARC Dementia Fellowship ($600k).
- Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)
- Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART)
- Alzheimer's Australia
- Brain Foundation
- Recent Awards/Fellowships
- 2016- Endeavour Research Fellowship (Australian Government) – Research fellowship at University of California-San Diego.
2015-Australian Academy of Science, Early Career Travel Awardee.
2014- Alzheimer’s Association International Conference Travel Fellowship.
- 2013- The Kevin Cahill award for the most interesting/innovative research in the field of Vision Sciences, Cooper Medical Research Foundation (with Prof. Graham)
Can supervise: YES
Georgevsky, D, Gangoda, SVS & Golzan, SM 2019, 'Postural effects on spontaneous retinal venous pulsations in healthy individuals.', Acta Ophthalmologica.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
PURPOSE:To assess amplitudes of spontaneous retinal venous pulsations (SVP) in three various postures (sitting, supine and lateral decubitus) in healthy individuals. METHODS:Thirty participants (28 ± 8 years, 25 females) were included in the study. Intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure (BP) and SVP's were measured at three different postures using a calibrated Tono-Pen applanation tonometer, a digital sphygmomanometer, and a custom-built handheld video ophthalmoscope, respectively. Retinal venous pulsations (SVP) amplitudes were extracted from the retinal videos using a custom written MATLAB algorithm. Mean arterial pressure (MAP = (systolic + 2diastolic)/3) and mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP = (2/3 MAP)-IOP) were also calculated at each posture. A one-way ANOVA was applied to each parameter to determine any significant difference for the various postural changes. RESULTS:Mean IOP increased (p < 0.0001) and mean SVP decreased (p < 0.0001) from sitting to supine. The mean IOP (mmHg) and SVP (MU; measuring units) in sitting, supine and lateral decubitus were 16.2 ± 2, 19.4 ± 4, 19.8 ± 2 mmHg and 5.8 ± 2, 4.5 ± 2, and 4.7 ± 2 MU, respectively. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and MOPP also decreased significantly from sitting to supine (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and sitting to lateral decubitus (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between IOP, SVP, MAP or MOPP during a postural modification from supine to lateral decubitus. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we showed a significant reduction in SVP amplitudes and a significant increase in IOP from sitting to supine position in a healthy young cohort. This supports the rationale to further study such phenomenon in ocular conditions such as glaucoma to determine whether relative SVP change, for a similar postural change, can reveal early signs of vascular dysfunction.
Golzan, SM, Goozee, K, Georgevsky, D, Avolio, A, Chatterjee, P, Shen, K, Gupta, V, Chung, R, Savage, G, Orr, C, Martins, R & Graham, SL 2017, 'Retinal vascular and structural changes are associated with amyloid burden in the elderly: ophthalmic biomarkers of preclinical Alzheimer's disease', Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, vol. 9, no. 13.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Shariflou, S, Georgevsky, D, Mansour, H, Rezaeian, M, Hosseini, N, Gupta, V, Braidy, N & Golzan, SM 2017, 'Diagnostic and prognostic potential of retinal biomarkers in early on-set Alzheimer`s disease.', Current Alzheimer Research.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Tong, JY, Golzan, SM, Georgevsky, D, Williamson, JP, Graham, SL, Farah, CS & Fraser, CL 2017, 'Quantitative Retinal Vascular Changes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.', American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 182, pp. 72-80.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
To examine the relationship between both static and dynamic retinal vascular caliber and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Prospective cross-sectional study.
Adult patients undergoing diagnostic polysomnography studies at a private Australian university teaching hospital were recruited. OSA severity was defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): severe >30, moderate >15–30, mild 5–15, and controls <5. Of 115 patients recruited (73 male; mean age 58 ± 13 years), there were 41 severe, 35 moderate, and 25 mild OSA patients and 14 controls. Static retinal vascular caliber was measured as the average diameter of retinal arterioles (CRAE) and venules (CRVE), and summarized as the arteriovenous ratio (AVR). Dynamic retinal vascular caliber was evaluated as the average pulsation amplitude of retinal arterioles (SRAP) and venules (SRVP). Comparisons across groups were performed using multivariate linear regression analysis. All results were adjusted for age, body mass index, and mean arterial pressure.
Increasing AHI was significantly associated with decreasing AVR (P = .008) and CRAE (P = .016). A significant relationship was demonstrated between increasing AHI and attenuated retinal vascular pulsation amplitude (arterioles P = .028; venules P < .0001).
Increasing OSA severity is independently associated with retinal arteriolar narrowing and attenuated vascular pulsation amplitude. The retinal vasculature is easily imaged, and may be a surrogate biomarker of cerebral and systemic vascular risk in patients with OSA requiring further comprehensive investigation.
Gupta, V, Gupta, VB, Chitranshi, N, Gangoda, S, Vander Wall, R, Abbasi, M, Golzan, M, Dheer, Y, Shah, T, Avolio, A, Chung, R, Martins, R & Graham, SL 2016, 'One protein, multiple pathologies: multifaceted involvement of amyloid β in neurodegenerative disorders of the brain and retina.', Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 73, pp. 4279-4297.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and its aggregates in the ageing central nervous system is regarded synonymous to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Despite unquestionable advances in mechanistic and diagnostic aspects of the disease understanding, the primary cause of Aβ accumulation as well as its in vivo roles remains elusive; nonetheless, the majority of the efforts to address pathological mechanisms for therapeutic development are focused towards moderating Aβ accumulation in the brain. More recently, Aβ deposition has been identified in the eye and is linked with distinct age-related diseases including age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma as well as AD. Awareness of the Aβ accumulation in these markedly different degenerative disorders has led to an increasing body of work exploring overlapping mechanisms, a prospective biomarker role for Aβ and the potential to use retina as a model for brain related neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we present an integrated view of current understanding of the retinal Aβ deposition discussing the accumulation mechanisms, anticipated impacts and outlining ameliorative approaches that can be extrapolated to the retina for potential therapeutic benefits. Further longitudinal investigations in humans and animal models will determine retinal Aβ association as a potential pathognomonic, diagnostic or prognostic biomarker.
Gupta, VK, Chitranshi, N, Gupta, VB, Golzan, SM, Dheer, Y, Vander Wall, R, Georgevsky, D, King, AE, Vicker, JC, Chung, R & Graham, SL 2016, 'Amyloid beta accumulation and inner retinal degenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mouse', Neuroscience Letters, vol. 623, pp. 52-56.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Golzan, SM, Morgan, WH, Georgevsky, D & Graham, SL 2015, 'Correlation of Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness and Spontaneous Retinal Venous Pulsations in Glaucoma and Normal Controls', PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Cordina, R, Leaney, J, Golzan, M, Grieve, S, Celermajer, DS & Graham, SL 2015, 'Ophthalmological consequences of cyanotic congenital heart disease: vascular parameters and nerve fibre layer.', Clinical & experimental ophthalmology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 115-123.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study investigated the long-term ophthalmological consequences of cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD).Cross-sectional study, tertiary referral setting.Thirteen adults with cyanotic CHD (40 ± 4 years). Age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent aspects of the protocol.Cyanosed subjects had a full ophthalmic examination, visual fields, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography to assess retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), retinal photography and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).RNFL thickness and quantitative analysis of retinal vessels with fractal dimension, branching and central retinal arterial equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venous equivalent (CRVE).No abnormalities of anatomy, motility, intraocular pressure or anterior segments were detected apart from one subject who had bilateral cataracts. Corrected visual acuity was normal in all but one cyanosed subject. Clinical examination revealed dilated retinal vasculature in 12/13 cyanosed subjects and increased tortuosity in 8/13. In the setting of cyanosis, skeletonized retinal arterial and venous beds had higher fractal dimension and increased branching (P ≤ 0.01, n = 11 for all); retinal vessels were dilated (CRAE: 227 vs. 183, n = 11, P < 0.0001; CRVE: 254 vs. 221, n = 11, P = 0.01). Visual fields showed scotomas in two subjects associated with RNFL thinning. No disc oedema was detected. 6/13 subjects' RNFL thickness fell below the normal 95% confidence interval in at least one sector without explanatory cerebral pathology (P < 0.0001, n = 13). Mean RNFL thickness correlated with MRI cerebral white matter volume (R = 0.67, P = 0.035).Cyanosed subjects had vessel dilatation, increased branching and tortuosity. RNFL and visual field thresholds were reduced suggesting impaired neuro-ophthalmological functioning.
Golzan, SM, Butlin, M, Kouchaki, Z, Gupta, V, Avolio, A & Graham, SL 2014, 'Characterizing dynamic properties of retinal vessels in the rat eye using high speed imaging.', Microvascular Research, vol. 92, pp. 56-61.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
PURPOSE: The dynamic properties of retinal vessels including pulse wave propagation and pulsatility index provide new perspective in retinal hemodynamic analysis. In this study we utilize a high speed imaging system to capture these characteristics in the rat eye for the first time. METHODS: Retinal video images of 9 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were captured at a rate of 250 frames per second for 10s with a 50° field of view using a high speed camera (Optronis, Kehl, Germany). Two recordings were taken from each rat at the same sites for repeatability analysis. The electrocardiogram (ECG) was measured simultaneously with retinal images. Arterial retinal pulse wave velocity (rPWV) and arterial/venous pulse amplitude were calculated from recorded images. Arterial measurements were repeated in another normotensive strain of the same age (Sprague-Dawley, n=4). RESULTS: The average WKY rPWV was 11.4 ± 6.1 cm/s. The differences between repeated measures were not significant (-2.8 ± 2.9 cm/s, p=0.2). Sprague-Dawley animals had a similar rPWV (9.8 ± 2.2 cm/s, p=0.61). The average arterial and venous pulse amplitude was 7.1 ± 1.5 μm and 8.2 ± 2.0 μm respectively. There was a positive correlation between rPWV and heart rate in the WKY groups (r(2)=0.32). A positive correlation was also obtained between arterial and venous diameter and their pulse amplitude (r(2)=0.67 and r(2)=0.37 respectively). CONCLUSION: rPWV was associated with heart rate. Higher pulsation amplitude was also correlated with larger vessel diameter. High speed imaging of retinal vessels in the rat eye provides an accurate and robust method to study dynamic characteristics of these vessels and their relationship with ocular and systemic abnormalities.
Gupta, V, You, Y, Li, J, Gupta, V, Golzan, M, Klistorner, A, van den Buuse, M & Graham, S 2014, 'BDNF impairment is associated with age-related changes in the inner retina and exacerbates experimental glaucoma.', BBA - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1842, no. 9, pp. 1567-1578.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulation of its high-affinity receptor TrkB results in activation of pro-survival cell-signalling pathways that can afford neuroprotection to the retina. Reduction in retrograde axonal transport of neurotrophic factors such as BDNF from the brain to the neuronal cell bodies in the retina has been suggested as a critical factor underlying progressive and selective degeneration of ganglion cell layer and optic nerve in glaucoma. We investigated the role of BDNF in preserving inner retinal homeostasis in normal and glaucoma states using BDNF(+/-) mice and compared it with wild type controls. This study demonstrated that BDNF(+/-) animals were more susceptible to functional, morphological and molecular degenerative changes in the inner retina caused by age as well as upon exposure to experimental glaucoma caused by increased intraocular pressure. Glaucoma induced a down regulation of BDNF/TrkB signalling and an increase in levels of neurotoxic amyloid β 1-42 in the optic nerve head which were exacerbated in BDNF(+/-) mice. Similar results were obtained upon analysing the human optic nerve head tissues. Our data highlighted the role of BDNF in maintaining the inner retinal integrity under normal conditions and the detrimental effects of its insufficiency on the retina and optic nerve in glaucoma.
Golzan, SM, Kim, MO, Seddighi, AS, Avolio, A & Graham, SL 2012, 'Non-invasive Estimation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Waveforms by Means of Retinal Venous Pulsatility and Central Aortic Blood Pressure', ANNALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 1940-1948.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Mojtaba Golzan, S, Leaney, J, Cordina, R, Avolio, A, Celermajer, DS & Graham, SL 2012, 'Spontaneous retinal venous pulsatility in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease.', Heart and Vessels, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 618-623.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Spontaneous retinal venous pulsations (SRVP) are assessed as a clinical marker for patients with ophthalmic or neurological disorders. The pulsations are influenced by intraocular pressure (IOP), cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp), and retinal venous pressure (RVP). However, little is known about the effect of cyanosis with polycythemia, a common finding in adults with complex congenital heart disease (CHD), on SRVP. This study investigated 11 subjects with long-standing cyanosis secondary to CHD and 11 control subjects to determine if there were measurable differences in resting pulsatility for a given IOP level. Intraocular pressure was measured using Goldman tonometry, and dynamic SRVP was recorded noninvasively using a retinal vessel imaging system. Peak amplitude of SRVP at each cardiac cycle was measured and compared with IOP. Heart rate was also monitored during the tests. Results show that for a similar baseline IOP, SRVP amplitudes are significantly lower in cyanotic patients compared with normal subjects (P < 0.0001). This may be explained by an increased RVP or high CSFp in these patients. Mean venous diameter is also significantly higher in cyanotic patients (P < 0.01), but no significant relationship was found between SRVP or diameter with blood parameters.
Golzan, SM, Avolio, A & Graham, SL 2011, 'Minimising retinal vessel artefacts in optical coherence tomography images', COMPUTER METHODS AND PROGRAMS IN BIOMEDICINE, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 206-211.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Sahar, S, Kathryn, R, Ashish, A & Golzan, M 2018, 'Amplitudes of spontaneous venous pulsations are associated with retinal ganglion cell count estimates in glaucoma', Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Association for research in vision and ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
Shariflou, S, Rose, K, Agar, A & Golzan, M 2018, 'Amplitudes of spontaneous venous pulsations are associated with retinal ganglion cell count estimates in glaucoma', Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
Rezaeian, M, Georgevsky, D, Golzan, SM & Graham, SL 2016, 'High speed in-vivo imaging of retinal hemodynamics in a rodent model of hypertension.', Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, IEEE, Orlando, FL, USA, pp. 3243-3246.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The eye is the only organ through which microcirculation can be visualized non-invasively. This unique feature makes the eye and specifically retinal vasculature an excellent target area to monitor and study micro-vascular damage in systemic diseases. Dynamic (real-time) changes of retinal vessels have been shown to be more specific to the disease in comparison with static measurements. In this study we utilize high speed imaging (i.e. 125 fps) to study and derive dynamic changes of retinal vessels in a rat model of hypertension. A Eulerian video magnification algorithm was used to extract retinal arterial and venous pulse amplitude from five Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and five Wister Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as the control group. Results showed that retinal arterial diameter and pulse amplitude are significantly lower in the SHRs compared with WKYs. Dynamic biomarkers of retinal micro-vasculature may be used as a diagnostic tool for systemic diseases.
Golzan, M, Avolio, A & Graham, S 2012, 'Non-invasive cerebrospinal fluid pressure estimation using multi-layer perceptron neural networks.', Proceedings of the 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, IEEE, San Diego, California USA, pp. 5278-5281.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp) provides vital information in various neurological abnormalities including hydrocephalus, intracranial hypertension and brain tumors. Currently, CSFp is measured invasively through implanted catheters within the brain (ventricles and parenchyma) which is associated with a risk of infection and morbidity. In humans, the cerebrospinal fluid communicates indirectly with the ocular circulation across the lamina cribrosa via the optic nerve subarachnoid space. It has been shown that a relationship between retinal venous pulsation, intraocular pressure (IOP) and CSFp exists with the amplitude of retinal venous pulsation being associated with the trans-laminar pressure gradient (i.e. IOP-CSFp). In this study we use this characteristic to develop a non-invasive approach to estimate CSFp. 15 subjects were included in this study. Dynamic retinal venous diameter changes and IOP were measured and fitted into our model. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were applied to construct a relationship between retinal venous pulsation amplitude, IOP (input) and CSFp (output) and develop an algorithm to estimate CSFp based on these parameters. Results show a mean square error of 2.4 mmHg and 1.27 mmHg for train and test data respectively. There was no significant difference between experimental and ANN estimated CSFp values (p>;0.01).This study suggests measurement of retinal venous pulsatility in conjunction with IOP may provide a novel approach to estimate CSFp non-invasively.
Golzan, M, Avolio, A, Magnussen, J & Graham, S 2012, 'Visualization of orbital flow by means of phase contrast MRI.', Proceedings of the 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, IEEE, San Antonion, USA, pp. 3384-3387.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a high resolution medical imaging technique to image internal anatomical structures. Phase contrast MRI (pcMRI) technique is an add-on specification of MRI devices in order to quantify flow. Although different attempts have been introduced to measure orbital flows, a relationship between different ophthalmic physiological structures including superior ophthalmic vein, ophthalmic artery and optic nerve sheath (containing cerebrospinal fluid) using phase contrast MRI has not been established. In this study we investigate orbital flow in 5 normal subjects using a 3 tesla MRI device. pcMRI technique has been applied to extract flow in the superior ophthalmic vein and optic nerve sheath. Electrocardiogram of each subject was monitored and gated to the MRI in order to extract flow waveforms. Results show multiple peaks when assessing orbital flow waveforms, suggesting possible reflection of flow from back of the eye. These peaks have been characterized and a possible explanation to this phenomenon has been provided. This study enhances understanding of interaction between physiological structures at the retrolaminar portion of the eye which may be responsible for different ophthalmic abnormalities.
Golzan, SM, Graham, SL, Kim, M & Avolio, A 2011, 'A COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS FOR NON-INVASIVE AND CONTINUOUS ESTIMATION OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID PRESSURE', CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY, WILEY-BLACKWELL, pp. 48-48.
Golzan, SM, Graham, SL & Avolio, A 2010, 'Non-invasive Estimation of Intracranial Pressure by Means of Retinal Venous Pulsatility', 26TH SOUTHERN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING CONFERENCE: SBEC 2010, 26th Southern Biomedical Engineering Conference, SBEC 2010, SPRINGER, Univ Maryland, College Park, MD, pp. 81-84.
Golzan, SM, Graham, S & Avolio, A 2009, 'NON-INVASIVE ASSESSMENT OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID PRESSURE BY MEANS OF SPONTANEOUS RETINAL VENOUS PULSATIONS: A MODELING STUDY', HYPERTENSION, 31st Annual Scientific Meeting of the High-Blood-Pressure-Research-Council-of-Australia, LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, pp. 1498-1498.
Golzan, SM, Hakimpour, F, Mikaili, M & Toolou, A 2008, 'Fetal ECG Extraction Using Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks with Bayesian Approach', 4TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING, 4th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (ECIFMBE), SPRINGER, Antwerp, BELGIUM, pp. 1378-1385.
Golzan, SM, Mikaili, M, Sedighi, A, Avolio, A & Karimi, M 2009, 'Non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement using transcranial doppler sonography and support vector machines', IFMBE Proceedings, pp. 1752-1755.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Current techniques used for intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement are invasive. All require a surgical procedure for placement of a pressure catheter in the central nervous system (CNS) and therefore are associated with risk and morbidity. In this study we propose a noninvasive method for ICP measurement based on signal processing techniques.. In this method a non-linear relationship is used to determine ICP based on two more accessible parameters, namely arterial blood pressure (ABP) and the blood velocity of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) measured using the transcranial doppler (TCD) device. The clinical investigation of the proposed method shows high similarity between the invasively recorded intracranial pressure (ICP) and the predicted ICP using our proposed method under intensive care unit (ICU) conditions. A correlation of r=0.976 was achieved between the predicted ICP and the invasively ICP measurements, which shows a highly sensitive procedure in noninvasive ICP measurement.
Pooryaghooti, MH, Golzan, SM, Hakimpour, F & Karimi, M 2008, 'Combining EEG signals and MRI images for brain mapping using interpolation techniques; A comparative study', IFMBE Proceedings, pp. 414-420.View/Download from: Publisher's site
EEG signals contain several useful information about brain electrical activity, the most important problem of EEG signals is the lack of spatial information and therefore hiding much important information about the signals. The aim of this study is to compare various methods of combining EEG signals and MRI images for visualizing these signals. The software developed for this study contains three dimensional (3D) brain mapping modules. The input to the program is standard clinical individual patient data recorded using digital EEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images were segmented using histogram and 3D images of the MRI were constructed using patches. The electrical brain field was generated from amplitude measurements using three kinds of interpolation, the Spherical Splines, Tri-linear and Hardie algorithm. Finally the interpolated surface was represented on the 3D images of the MRI. Results show that the Spherical Splines make better results compared to other algorithms. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Golzan, SM, Hakimpour, F & Toolou, A 2008, 'Fetal ECG extraction using multi-layer perceptron neural networks with bayesian approach', IFMBE Proceedings, pp. 311-317.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this paper, we investigate the application of neural networks to the problem of extracting fetal ECG from Maternal ECG early in pregnancy. The proposed extractor consists of a segmentation, feature extraction and Classification stage. For the feature extraction stage, coefficients of the Wavelet Transform (WT), real and imaginary parts of the Fast Fourier Transform and raw ECG data recorded from the abdomen of a pregnant woman were all found to be well-suited to FECG classification. Principal Component Analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the features. For the classification stage, Multi-Layer Perceptron neural networks were implemented according to Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Learning formulations. The latter was found to make better use of training data and consequently produced better trained neural networks. Rejection thresholds of 0.9 were applied to the network output as a doubt level in order to ensure that only reliable classification decisions are made. A maximum classifier accuracy of 94.86% was achieved with 23.42% of patterns not being classified. Bayesian moderated outputs could not improve on these classification predictions significantly enough to warrant their added computational Overhead. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.