Dr. Golzan is an NHMRC dementia fellow with research expertise in ocular imaging techniques, mechanical and structural properties of retinal vessels and modeling dynamic physiological interactions between the eye and the brain. His career is currently focused on pursuing the application of high-speed, high-resolution imaging for the study of the human retinal structural changes in relation to the evolution of ocular and neurological disease processes, specifically Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Dr. Golzan leads the Vision Science lab at UTS where his group is also researching retinal degeneration during AD process and monitoring specific retinal biomarkers that can aid in AD diagnosis. Dr. Golzan has developed a quality track record relative to experience publishing numerous papers as well as disseminating results at more than 15 national and international conferences during his research career.
Within a short space of time, Dr. Golzan has attracted more than $1.5 million for his research activities including the 2013 Alzheimer’s Australia Fellowship ($220k), 2015 ARC-Linkage project grant ($450k) and NHMRC-ARC Dementia Fellowship ($600k).
- Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)
- Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART)
- Alzheimer's Australia
- Brain Foundation
- Recent Awards/Fellowships
- 2016- Endeavour Research Fellowship (Australian Government) – Research fellowship at University of California-San Diego.
2015-Australian Academy of Science, Early Career Travel Awardee.
2014- Alzheimer’s Association International Conference Travel Fellowship.
- 2013- The Kevin Cahill award for the most interesting/innovative research in the field of Vision Sciences, Cooper Medical Research Foundation (with Prof. Graham)
Can supervise: YES
Shariflou, S, Agar, A, Rose, K, Bowd, C & Golzan, SM 2020, 'Objective Quantification of Spontaneous Retinal Venous Pulsations Using a Novel Tablet-Based Ophthalmoscope', TRANSLATIONAL VISION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 9, no. 4.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Georgevsky, D, Gangoda, SVS & Golzan, SM 2019, 'Postural effects on spontaneous retinal venous pulsations in healthy individuals.', Acta Ophthalmologica, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. e839-e843.View/Download from: Publisher's site
PURPOSE:To assess amplitudes of spontaneous retinal venous pulsations (SVP) in three various postures (sitting, supine and lateral decubitus) in healthy individuals. METHODS:Thirty participants (28 ± 8 years, 25 females) were included in the study. Intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure (BP) and SVP's were measured at three different postures using a calibrated Tono-Pen applanation tonometer, a digital sphygmomanometer, and a custom-built handheld video ophthalmoscope, respectively. Retinal venous pulsations (SVP) amplitudes were extracted from the retinal videos using a custom written MATLAB algorithm. Mean arterial pressure (MAP = (systolic + 2diastolic)/3) and mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP = (2/3 MAP)-IOP) were also calculated at each posture. A one-way ANOVA was applied to each parameter to determine any significant difference for the various postural changes. RESULTS:Mean IOP increased (p < 0.0001) and mean SVP decreased (p < 0.0001) from sitting to supine. The mean IOP (mmHg) and SVP (MU; measuring units) in sitting, supine and lateral decubitus were 16.2 ± 2, 19.4 ± 4, 19.8 ± 2 mmHg and 5.8 ± 2, 4.5 ± 2, and 4.7 ± 2 MU, respectively. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and MOPP also decreased significantly from sitting to supine (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and sitting to lateral decubitus (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between IOP, SVP, MAP or MOPP during a postural modification from supine to lateral decubitus. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we showed a significant reduction in SVP amplitudes and a significant increase in IOP from sitting to supine position in a healthy young cohort. This supports the rationale to further study such phenomenon in ocular conditions such as glaucoma to determine whether relative SVP change, for a similar postural change, can reveal early signs of vascular dysfunction.
Georgevsky, D, Retsas, S, Raoufi, N, Shimoni, O & Golzan, SM 2019, 'A longitudinal assessment of retinal function and structure in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.', Translational Neurodegeneration, vol. 8, no. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background:A great body of evidence suggests that there are retinal functional and structural changes that occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether such changes are primary or secondary remains to be elucidated. We studied a range of retinal functional and structural parameters in association with AD- specific pathophysiological markers in the double transgenic APP/PS1 and control mice across age. Methods:Electroretinogram (ERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed in APP/PS1 and wild type (WT) control mice every 3 months from 3 to 12 months of age. For functional assessment, the a- and b-wave of the ERG, amplitude of oscillatory potentials (OP) and the positive scotopic threshold response (pSTR) were quantified at each time point. For structural assessment, the inner and outer retinal thickness was segmented and measured from OCT scans. Episodic memory was evaluated at 6, 9 and 12 months of age using the novel object recognition test. Amyloid beta (Aβ) distribution in the hippocampus and the retina were visualised at 3, 6 and 12 months of age. Inter- and intra- group analysis was performed to study rate of change for each parameter between the two groups. Results:Inter-group analysis revealed a significant difference in b-wave and OPs of APP/PS1 compared to WT controls starting from 3 months (p < 0.001). There was also a significant difference in the amplitude of pSTR between the two groups starting from 6 months (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant difference in the inner retinal thickness, between the two groups, was observed starting from 9 months (p < 0.001). Conclusions:We observed an age-related decline in retinal functional and structural parameters in both APP/PS1 and WT controls, however, inter-group analysis revealed that inner retinal functional and structural decline is exacerbated in APP/PS1 mice, and that retinal functional changes precede structural changes in this strain. Further studies are required to confirm wheth...
Golzan, SM, Goozee, K, Georgevsky, D, Avolio, A, Chatterjee, P, Shen, K, Gupta, V, Chung, R, Savage, G, Orr, C, Martins, R & Graham, SL 2017, 'Retinal vascular and structural changes are associated with amyloid burden in the elderly: ophthalmic biomarkers of preclinical Alzheimer's disease', Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, vol. 9, no. 13.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Shariflou, S, Georgevsky, D, Mansour, H, Rezaeian, M, Hosseini, N, Gupta, V, Braidy, N & Golzan, SM 2017, 'Diagnostic and prognostic potential of retinal biomarkers in early on-set Alzheimer`s disease.', Current Alzheimer Research.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tong, JY, Golzan, SM, Georgevsky, D, Williamson, JP, Graham, SL, Farah, CS & Fraser, CL 2017, 'Quantitative Retinal Vascular Changes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.', American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 182, pp. 72-80.View/Download from: Publisher's site
To examine the relationship between both static and dynamic retinal vascular caliber and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Prospective cross-sectional study.
Adult patients undergoing diagnostic polysomnography studies at a private Australian university teaching hospital were recruited. OSA severity was defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): severe >30, moderate >15–30, mild 5–15, and controls <5. Of 115 patients recruited (73 male; mean age 58 ± 13 years), there were 41 severe, 35 moderate, and 25 mild OSA patients and 14 controls. Static retinal vascular caliber was measured as the average diameter of retinal arterioles (CRAE) and venules (CRVE), and summarized as the arteriovenous ratio (AVR). Dynamic retinal vascular caliber was evaluated as the average pulsation amplitude of retinal arterioles (SRAP) and venules (SRVP). Comparisons across groups were performed using multivariate linear regression analysis. All results were adjusted for age, body mass index, and mean arterial pressure.
Increasing AHI was significantly associated with decreasing AVR (P = .008) and CRAE (P = .016). A significant relationship was demonstrated between increasing AHI and attenuated retinal vascular pulsation amplitude (arterioles P = .028; venules P < .0001).
Increasing OSA severity is independently associated with retinal arteriolar narrowing and attenuated vascular pulsation amplitude. The retinal vasculature is easily imaged, and may be a surrogate biomarker of cerebral and systemic vascular risk in patients with OSA requiring further comprehensive investigation.
Gupta, V, Gupta, VB, Chitranshi, N, Gangoda, S, Vander Wall, R, Abbasi, M, Golzan, M, Dheer, Y, Shah, T, Avolio, A, Chung, R, Martins, R & Graham, SL 2016, 'One protein, multiple pathologies: multifaceted involvement of amyloid β in neurodegenerative disorders of the brain and retina.', Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 73, pp. 4279-4297.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and its aggregates in the ageing central nervous system is regarded synonymous to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Despite unquestionable advances in mechanistic and diagnostic aspects of the disease understanding, the primary cause of Aβ accumulation as well as its in vivo roles remains elusive; nonetheless, the majority of the efforts to address pathological mechanisms for therapeutic development are focused towards moderating Aβ accumulation in the brain. More recently, Aβ deposition has been identified in the eye and is linked with distinct age-related diseases including age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma as well as AD. Awareness of the Aβ accumulation in these markedly different degenerative disorders has led to an increasing body of work exploring overlapping mechanisms, a prospective biomarker role for Aβ and the potential to use retina as a model for brain related neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we present an integrated view of current understanding of the retinal Aβ deposition discussing the accumulation mechanisms, anticipated impacts and outlining ameliorative approaches that can be extrapolated to the retina for potential therapeutic benefits. Further longitudinal investigations in humans and animal models will determine retinal Aβ association as a potential pathognomonic, diagnostic or prognostic biomarker.
Gupta, VK, Chitranshi, N, Gupta, VB, Golzan, SM, Dheer, Y, Vander Wall, R, Georgevsky, D, King, AE, Vicker, JC, Chung, R & Graham, SL 2016, 'Amyloid beta accumulation and inner retinal degenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mouse', Neuroscience Letters, vol. 623, pp. 52-56.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cordina, R, Leaney, J, Golzan, M, Grieve, S, Celermajer, DS & Graham, SL 2015, 'Ophthalmological consequences of cyanotic congenital heart disease: vascular parameters and nerve fibre layer', CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 115-123.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Golzan, SM, Morgan, WH, Georgevsky, D & Graham, SL 2015, 'Correlation of Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness and Spontaneous Retinal Venous Pulsations in Glaucoma and Normal Controls', PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Golzan, SM, Butlin, M, Kouchaki, Z, Gupta, V, Avolio, A & Graham, SL 2014, 'Characterizing dynamic properties of retinal vessels in the rat eye using high speed imaging.', Microvascular Research, vol. 92, pp. 56-61.View/Download from: Publisher's site
PURPOSE: The dynamic properties of retinal vessels including pulse wave propagation and pulsatility index provide new perspective in retinal hemodynamic analysis. In this study we utilize a high speed imaging system to capture these characteristics in the rat eye for the first time. METHODS: Retinal video images of 9 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were captured at a rate of 250 frames per second for 10s with a 50° field of view using a high speed camera (Optronis, Kehl, Germany). Two recordings were taken from each rat at the same sites for repeatability analysis. The electrocardiogram (ECG) was measured simultaneously with retinal images. Arterial retinal pulse wave velocity (rPWV) and arterial/venous pulse amplitude were calculated from recorded images. Arterial measurements were repeated in another normotensive strain of the same age (Sprague-Dawley, n=4). RESULTS: The average WKY rPWV was 11.4 ± 6.1 cm/s. The differences between repeated measures were not significant (-2.8 ± 2.9 cm/s, p=0.2). Sprague-Dawley animals had a similar rPWV (9.8 ± 2.2 cm/s, p=0.61). The average arterial and venous pulse amplitude was 7.1 ± 1.5 μm and 8.2 ± 2.0 μm respectively. There was a positive correlation between rPWV and heart rate in the WKY groups (r(2)=0.32). A positive correlation was also obtained between arterial and venous diameter and their pulse amplitude (r(2)=0.67 and r(2)=0.37 respectively). CONCLUSION: rPWV was associated with heart rate. Higher pulsation amplitude was also correlated with larger vessel diameter. High speed imaging of retinal vessels in the rat eye provides an accurate and robust method to study dynamic characteristics of these vessels and their relationship with ocular and systemic abnormalities.
Gupta, V, You, Y, Li, J, Gupta, V, Golzan, M, Klistorner, A, van den Buuse, M & Graham, S 2014, 'BDNF impairment is associated with age-related changes in the inner retina and exacerbates experimental glaucoma.', BBA - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1842, no. 9, pp. 1567-1578.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulation of its high-affinity receptor TrkB results in activation of pro-survival cell-signalling pathways that can afford neuroprotection to the retina. Reduction in retrograde axonal transport of neurotrophic factors such as BDNF from the brain to the neuronal cell bodies in the retina has been suggested as a critical factor underlying progressive and selective degeneration of ganglion cell layer and optic nerve in glaucoma. We investigated the role of BDNF in preserving inner retinal homeostasis in normal and glaucoma states using BDNF(+/-) mice and compared it with wild type controls. This study demonstrated that BDNF(+/-) animals were more susceptible to functional, morphological and molecular degenerative changes in the inner retina caused by age as well as upon exposure to experimental glaucoma caused by increased intraocular pressure. Glaucoma induced a down regulation of BDNF/TrkB signalling and an increase in levels of neurotoxic amyloid β 1-42 in the optic nerve head which were exacerbated in BDNF(+/-) mice. Similar results were obtained upon analysing the human optic nerve head tissues. Our data highlighted the role of BDNF in maintaining the inner retinal integrity under normal conditions and the detrimental effects of its insufficiency on the retina and optic nerve in glaucoma.
Golzan, SM, Kim, MO, Seddighi, AS, Avolio, A & Graham, SL 2012, 'Non-invasive Estimation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Waveforms by Means of Retinal Venous Pulsatility and Central Aortic Blood Pressure', ANNALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 1940-1948.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mojtaba Golzan, S, Leaney, J, Cordina, R, Avolio, A, Celermajer, DS & Graham, SL 2012, 'Spontaneous retinal venous pulsatility in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease.', Heart and Vessels, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 618-623.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Spontaneous retinal venous pulsations (SRVP) are assessed as a clinical marker for patients with ophthalmic or neurological disorders. The pulsations are influenced by intraocular pressure (IOP), cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp), and retinal venous pressure (RVP). However, little is known about the effect of cyanosis with polycythemia, a common finding in adults with complex congenital heart disease (CHD), on SRVP. This study investigated 11 subjects with long-standing cyanosis secondary to CHD and 11 control subjects to determine if there were measurable differences in resting pulsatility for a given IOP level. Intraocular pressure was measured using Goldman tonometry, and dynamic SRVP was recorded noninvasively using a retinal vessel imaging system. Peak amplitude of SRVP at each cardiac cycle was measured and compared with IOP. Heart rate was also monitored during the tests. Results show that for a similar baseline IOP, SRVP amplitudes are significantly lower in cyanotic patients compared with normal subjects (P < 0.0001). This may be explained by an increased RVP or high CSFp in these patients. Mean venous diameter is also significantly higher in cyanotic patients (P < 0.01), but no significant relationship was found between SRVP or diameter with blood parameters.
Golzan, M, graham, S, leaney, J & avolio, A 2011, 'Dynamic association between intraocular pressure and spontaneous pulsations of retinal veins.', Current Eye Research, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 53-59.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Golzan, SM, Avolio, A & Graham, SL 2011, 'Minimising retinal vessel artefacts in optical coherence tomography images', COMPUTER METHODS AND PROGRAMS IN BIOMEDICINE, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 206-211.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Rezaeian, M, Georgevsky, D, Golzan, SM, Graham, S, Avolio, A & Butlin, M, 'Pressure Dependency of Retinal Arterial Pulse Wave Velocity in the Rat', Artery Research.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Rezaeian, M, Butlin, M, Golzan, SM, Graham, SL & Avolio, AP 2019, 'A novel method for retinal vessel segmentation and diameter measurement using high speed video.', 2019 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, IEEE, Berlin, Germany, pp. 2781-2784.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Studying dynamic characteristics of retinal vessels, as opposed to static measures, may provide additional insight into pathophysiological changes associated with local and systemic abnormalities such as glaucoma and hypertension. Various approaches have been developed to derive static biomarkers from retinal still images, but not many for dynamic analysis of video sequences. This study presents a novel method for the assessment of time-dependent diameter changes in high-speed videos (125 fps) from the rat retina. The proposed method is composed of a vessel segmentation and a diameter measurement module. The specificity and sensitivity of the segmentation method over 25 images were 95.1% and 97.3% respectively. The mean and standard deviation of the diameter measurement errors were -0.147±0.41 pixels over 100 measurements.
Sahar, S, Kathryn, R, Ashish, A & Golzan, M 2018, 'Amplitudes of spontaneous venous pulsations are associated with retinal ganglion cell count estimates in glaucoma', Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Association for research in vision and ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
Shariflou, S, Rose, K, Agar, A & Golzan, M 2018, 'Amplitudes of spontaneous venous pulsations are associated with retinal ganglion cell count estimates in glaucoma', Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
Rezaeian, M, Georgevsky, D, Golzan, SM & Graham, SL 2016, 'High speed in-vivo imaging of retinal hemodynamics in a rodent model of hypertension.', Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, IEEE, Orlando, FL, USA, pp. 3243-3246.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The eye is the only organ through which microcirculation can be visualized non-invasively. This unique feature makes the eye and specifically retinal vasculature an excellent target area to monitor and study micro-vascular damage in systemic diseases. Dynamic (real-time) changes of retinal vessels have been shown to be more specific to the disease in comparison with static measurements. In this study we utilize high speed imaging (i.e. 125 fps) to study and derive dynamic changes of retinal vessels in a rat model of hypertension. A Eulerian video magnification algorithm was used to extract retinal arterial and venous pulse amplitude from five Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and five Wister Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as the control group. Results showed that retinal arterial diameter and pulse amplitude are significantly lower in the SHRs compared with WKYs. Dynamic biomarkers of retinal micro-vasculature may be used as a diagnostic tool for systemic diseases.
Golzan, M, Avolio, A & Graham, S 2012, 'Non-invasive cerebrospinal fluid pressure estimation using multi-layer perceptron neural networks.', Proceedings of the 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, IEEE, San Diego, California USA, pp. 5278-5281.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp) provides vital information in various neurological abnormalities including hydrocephalus, intracranial hypertension and brain tumors. Currently, CSFp is measured invasively through implanted catheters within the brain (ventricles and parenchyma) which is associated with a risk of infection and morbidity. In humans, the cerebrospinal fluid communicates indirectly with the ocular circulation across the lamina cribrosa via the optic nerve subarachnoid space. It has been shown that a relationship between retinal venous pulsation, intraocular pressure (IOP) and CSFp exists with the amplitude of retinal venous pulsation being associated with the trans-laminar pressure gradient (i.e. IOP-CSFp). In this study we use this characteristic to develop a non-invasive approach to estimate CSFp. 15 subjects were included in this study. Dynamic retinal venous diameter changes and IOP were measured and fitted into our model. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were applied to construct a relationship between retinal venous pulsation amplitude, IOP (input) and CSFp (output) and develop an algorithm to estimate CSFp based on these parameters. Results show a mean square error of 2.4 mmHg and 1.27 mmHg for train and test data respectively. There was no significant difference between experimental and ANN estimated CSFp values (p>;0.01).This study suggests measurement of retinal venous pulsatility in conjunction with IOP may provide a novel approach to estimate CSFp non-invasively.
Golzan, M, Avolio, A, Magnussen, J & Graham, S 2012, 'Visualization of orbital flow by means of phase contrast MRI.', Proceedings of the 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, IEEE, San Antonion, USA, pp. 3384-3387.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a high resolution medical imaging technique to image internal anatomical structures. Phase contrast MRI (pcMRI) technique is an add-on specification of MRI devices in order to quantify flow. Although different attempts have been introduced to measure orbital flows, a relationship between different ophthalmic physiological structures including superior ophthalmic vein, ophthalmic artery and optic nerve sheath (containing cerebrospinal fluid) using phase contrast MRI has not been established. In this study we investigate orbital flow in 5 normal subjects using a 3 tesla MRI device. pcMRI technique has been applied to extract flow in the superior ophthalmic vein and optic nerve sheath. Electrocardiogram of each subject was monitored and gated to the MRI in order to extract flow waveforms. Results show multiple peaks when assessing orbital flow waveforms, suggesting possible reflection of flow from back of the eye. These peaks have been characterized and a possible explanation to this phenomenon has been provided. This study enhances understanding of interaction between physiological structures at the retrolaminar portion of the eye which may be responsible for different ophthalmic abnormalities.
Golzan, SM, Graham, SL, Kim, M & Avolio, A 2011, 'A COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS FOR NON-INVASIVE AND CONTINUOUS ESTIMATION OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID PRESSURE', CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY, WILEY-BLACKWELL, pp. 48-48.
Golzan, SM, Graham, S & Avolio, A 2009, 'NON-INVASIVE ASSESSMENT OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID PRESSURE BY MEANS OF SPONTANEOUS RETINAL VENOUS PULSATIONS: A MODELING STUDY', HYPERTENSION, 31st Annual Scientific Meeting of the High-Blood-Pressure-Research-Council-of-Australia, LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, pp. 1498-1498.
Golzan, SM, Graham, SL & Avolio, A 2010, 'Non-invasive Estimation of Intracranial Pressure by Means of Retinal Venous Pulsatility', 26TH SOUTHERN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING CONFERENCE: SBEC 2010, 26th Southern Biomedical Engineering Conference, SBEC 2010, SPRINGER, Univ Maryland, College Park, MD, pp. 81-84.
Golzan, SM, Mikaili, M, Sedighi, A, Avolio, A & Karimi, M 2009, 'Non-invasive Intracranial Pressure Measurement using Transcranial Doppler Sonography and Support Vector Machines', WORLD CONGRESS ON MEDICAL PHYSICS AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL 25, PT 4: IMAGE PROCESSING, BIOSIGNAL PROCESSING, MODELLING AND SIMULATION, BIOMECHANICS, 11th International Congress of the IUPESM/World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, SPRINGER, Munich, GERMANY, pp. 1752-1755.
Golzan, SM, Hakimpour, F & Toolou, A 2008, 'Fetal ECG Extraction Using Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks with Bayesian Approach', 4TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING, 4th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (ECIFMBE), SPRINGER, Antwerp, BELGIUM, pp. 311-317.
Golzan, SM, Hakimpour, F, Mikaili, M & Toolou, A 2008, 'Fetal ECG Extraction Using Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks with Bayesian Approach', 4TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING, 4th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (ECIFMBE), SPRINGER, Antwerp, BELGIUM, pp. 1378-1385.
Pooryaghooti, MH, Golzan, SM, Hakimpour, F & Karimi, M 2008, 'Combining EEG signals and MRI images for brain mapping using interpolation techniques; a comparative study', 4TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING, 4th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (ECIFMBE), SPRINGER, Antwerp, BELGIUM, pp. 414-420.